Seller: palatina (5,046) 100%, Location: Heidelberg, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 361839870289 NORTHERN EUROPEAN STONE AGE ARTIFACTS BY PALATINA AUTHENTICITY GUARANTEED Description 4 fragments of adzes / axes and decorated sherds of the Central European Early Neolithic Linear Pottery Culture, dating 5600/5500-4900 bc. The Linear Pottery culture or (German) Linearbandkeramik (abbr. LBK), Bandkeramik, Linear Band Pottery culture, Linear (Band) Ware culture, Linear Ceramics culture, Danubian I culture of V. Gordon Childe, Early Danubian culture or Incised Ware Group is a major archaeological horizon of the European Neolithic (stone age), flourishing ca. 5500—4500 BC. The heaviest concentrations are on the middle Danube, the upper and middle Elbe, and the upper and middle Rhine. The LBK represents the advent of agriculture into this part of the world. The LBK at maximum extent ranged from about the line of the Seine—Oise (Paris Basin) eastward to the line of the Vistula and upper Dniester, and southward to the line of the upper Danube down to the big bend. An extension ran through the Western Bug river valley, leaped to the valley of the Dniester, and swerved southward from the middle Dniester to the lower Danube in eastern Romania, east of the Carpathians. Danube lands near Vienna, by Johann Christian Brand, ca. 1760The LBK did not begin with this range and only reached it toward the end of its time. It began in regions of densest occupation on the middle Danube (Bohemia, Moravia, Hungary) and spread over about 1500 km along the rivers in 360 years. The rate of expansion was therefore about 4 km per year, which can hardly be called an invasion or a wave and does not offer much support to theories of population replacement. A model of gradual colonization is perhaps most apt. The LBK was concentrated somewhat inland from the coastal areas; i.e., it is not evidenced in Denmark or the northern coastal strips of Germany and Poland, or the coast of the Black Sea in Romania. The northern coastal regions remained occupied by Mesolithic cultures exploiting the then fabulously rich Atlantic salmon runs. There are lighter concentrations of LBK in the low countries, such as at Elsloo, and at the mouths of the Oder and Vistula. Evidently, the Neolithics and Mesolithics were not excluding each other; in fact, some use the concepts of "permeable border" or "mosaic" to describe the northern interface between the two. The term, Linear Band Ware, is a mnemonic of the pottery's decorative technique. The "Band Ware" or Bandkeramik part of it began as an innovation of the German archaeologist, Friedrich Klopfleisch (1831-1898), in his work, published in 1882. The Corded Ware culture, alternately characterized as the Battle Axe culture or Single Grave culture is an enormous European archaeological horizon that begins in the late Neolithic (stone age), flourished through the copper age and finally culminates in the early bronze age, developing in various areas from 2900 BC to ca. 2350 BC. With the Yamna culture, it represents the introduction of metal into Northern Europe, and the earliest expansion of the Indo-European family of languages. It receives its name Corded Ware from its characteristic pottery, Single Grave from its burial custom, and Battle Axe from its characteristic grave offering to males, a stone battle axe (which was by this time an inefficient weapon but a traditional status symbol). In the west, the distribution boundary reaches Netherland, West Germany and parts of Switzerland. In the North the Corded Ware is found in Southern Scandinavia, the countries around the Baltic and the eastern North Sea. It’s southern distribution ranges from Switzerland to the Czech Republic and includes the upper portions of the streams that flow into the Black Sea. The somewhat later Beaker culture was contemporaneous. It is succeeded by a number of bronze age cultures, among them the Unetice culture (Central Europe), ca 2300 BC, and by the Nordic Bronze Age, a culture of Scandinavia and northernmost Germany - Poland, ca 1800 BC. Considering its immense, continental expanse, it clearly represents a fusion of earlier archaeological cultures of varying degrees of relatedness, probably led by intrusive elements from the east and south. It does not represent a single monolithic entity, but rather a diffusion of technological and cultural innovations. The fact that the Globular Amphora culture similtaneously overlies much of the same area as of the Corded Ware culture proves this. Different peoples, living in close proximity to each other at the same time really did leave different archaeological remains. There are very few settlements, but it has been shown that agriculture was practiced, a continuation from the Funnelbeaker culture era, and that some domestic animals were kept. The majority, however, seemed to have followed a fully-or semi-nomadic pastoral way of life. Wheeled vehicles (presumptively drawn by cattle) are evidenced. The horse, perhaps-to-probably domesticated, is represented. Inhumation was characteristically done one metre deep, without any marks, in a flexed position; males lay on their right side, females on the left, with the faces of both oriented to the south. Originally, there was probably a wooden construction, since the graves are often positioned in a line. Many are also marked with small tumuli. Grave goods for men typically included a stone battle-axe. The approximately contemporary Beaker culture had similar burial traditions, and together they covered most of Western and Central Europe. While broadly related to the Corded Ware culture, the origins of the Bell-Beaker folk are considerably more obscure, and represent one of the mysteries of European pre-history. The prototypal Corded Ware culture, German Schnurkeramikkultur, is found in Central Europe, mainly Germany and Poland, and refers to the characteric pottery of the era: wet clay was decoratively incised with cordage, i.e., string. It is known mostly from its burials, and both sexes received the characteristic cord-decorated pottery. Whether made of flax or hemp, they had rope. Provenance is an old collection. More details will follow the artifacts. I guarantee absolutely for the authenticity of these wonderful Middle European artifacts. Please view also my other auctions with relics from the European Prehistory.