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AD 243 Silver Denarius Coin Roman Teenager Emperor Gordian Victory Goddess Nike

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Seller: ancientgifts (4,181) 99.3%, Location: Lummi Island, Washington, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 381756043776 TRANSLATE Arabic Chinese French German Greek Indonesian Italian Hindi Japanese Korean Swedish Portuguese Russian Spanish Your browser does not support JavaScript. To view this page, enable JavaScript if it is disabled or upgrade your browser. Click here to see 1,000 archaeology/ancient history books and 2,000 ancient artifacts, antique gemstones, antique jewelry! Silver Roman Antoninianus (Successor to the “Denarius”) of Emperor Gordian III with the Goddess (of Victory) “Victoria” (“Nike to the Greeks) – 243 A.D. OBVERSE INSCRIPTION: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG. OBVERSE DEPICTION: The bust of Emperor Gordian III, cuirassed, draped, with radiate crown. REVERSE INSCRIPTION: VICTORIA AETERNA. REVERSE DEPICTION: The “Goddess” Victoria; winged; holding palm frond and trophy (spoils of a military victory) in her left hand; her right hand resting on an upright shield which in turn rests upon a bound, seated captive with bowed head. ATTRIBUTION: City of Rome Mint between July and December of 243 A.D. SIZE/MEASUREMENTS: Diameter: 23 millimeters. Weight: 2.95 grams. NOTE: Coin is mounted free of charge into your choice of pendant settings (shown in sterling silver pendant), and includes a sterling silver chain in your choice of 16", 18", or 20" length, (details below or click here). We can reverse coin in mounting if you prefer opposite side showing front. We also have available high quality (solid, not formed) handcrafted genuine Greek leather cord with either sterling silver or bronze/brass fasteners. DETAIL: This is a very handsome silver antoninianus produced in the city of Rome itself some time during the year 238 or 239 A.D. It is in very good condition, only relatively light wear from circulation in ancient Rome. All legends and themes are clear and fairly distinct. It was well struck both front and back, though the reverse strike is just a little bit high off dead center, and the obverse strike a little bit low off dead center, and with respect to both sides, the flan (edge) is somewhat ragged (quite characteristic of the coinage of the era). However the planchet (coin blank) is very generous, even “over sized”, and so nonetheless both the reverse and reverse still capture the entirely of thematic elements and legends. We should clarify that with regard to the thematic elements and legends, we described them as clean and “fairly distinct”. The thematic elements (the depictions of the emperor and goddess) are both quite distinct. The legends, if you will look closely, both reverse and obverse legends, trail off toward the end, the Latin characters becoming somewhat indistinct and of low profile toward their respective ends. If you were to take these two areas of low definition on the front and reverse, and match the areas up, you’d find that they are both in the same area of the coin (back-to-back). So, this one area of the coin possesses legends in lower definition and lower profile. Why? The simply answer is that the hammer strike was not dead on, it was a bit of a glancing blow, off center. As a result while one side of the coin is struck very firmly, that firm strike did not quite extend to the furthest reaches of the coin, at that one particular edge, so the legends in that area are wearker and of lower profile – still readable, but considerably less distinct. Naturally inasmuch as these coins were produced by hand, it is the rule, not the exception, to find them struck off-center, on irregular, undersized planchets (blanks), and consequentially missing portions of the legends and/or themes (depictions). Obviously this coin possesses one of those characteristics of such ancient hand-produced coinage. However this is not so much a defect as simply an interesting though certainly not unique or uncommon feature. Given the generous proportions of the planchet (blank coin) and the well-centered and relatively sharp strike, as well as the fact the absolute entirely of both legends and thematic elements were captured on the coin (which was not the norm), it is without a doubt a superior specimen. The obverse of the coin depicts Roman Emperor Gordian III, draped, cuirassed, and with radiate crown; and the legend “IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG”. “GORDIANVS” refers to the Emperor’s name, of course, Marcus Antonius Gordianus. The “V” is used instead of a “U” as in Roman Latin there was no “U”. The “IMP” preface to his name is an abbreviation for “Imperator”. Imperator was originally a title or acclamation awarded to victorious generals in the field during the Republic Period (before Julius Caesar). Throughout the history of Republican Rome, the title was bestowed upon an especially able general who had won an enormous victory. Traditionally it was the troops in the field that proclaimed a man imperator – the first step in the process of the general applying to the senate for a triumph (a ceremony both civil and religious held in Rome itself to publicly honor the general and to display/parade the glories and trophies of Roman victory). Imperatrix was the title of the wife an Imperator. After Augustus Octavian (Julius Caesar’s successor) had established the hereditary, one-man rule in Rome that we refer to as the Imperial Roman Empire, the title Imperator was restricted to the emperor and members of his immediate family. If a general who was not part of the imperial family was acclaimed by his troops as Imperator, it was tantamount to a declaration of rebellion or civil war against the ruling emperor. Though the title Augustus is probably the closest Latin equivalent to the English word emperor; it was eventually the term Imperator which became the root of the English word “Imperial”. “PIVS FEL” (the “FEL” of which is a bit low definition due to the fact that it is in the area which received a glancing/softer strike) is an abbreviation for “PIVS FELIX”. The title Pius Felix is a combination of two separate terms. Pius is a title used for Roman Emperors to means that they are dutiful toward the pantheon of Roman deities, to the country (patriotic), and (perhaps) to their family. Felix means quite simply fortunate, or lucky. In fact the Romans had several goddesses of good fortune including both Felicitas and Fortuna, both of whom were worshipped in various sanctuaries in Rome. Never hurts to have a leader who is both pious and lucky. The suffix to Gordian’s name, “AVG”, was an abbreviation for Augustus (this too is also in low definition due to the fact that it too is in the area which received a glancing/softer strike). The term “Augustus” is Latin for “majestic” (thus the honorific salutation “your majesty”). However the term “Augustus” in the common vernacular of the Roman Empire became synonymous with the Emperor. The first "Augustus" (and first man counted as a Roman Emperor) was Octavius, Julis Caesar’s nephew and heir. Octavian was given the title of Augustus by the Senate in 27 B.C. Over the next forty years, Caesar Augustus literally set the standard by which subsequent Emperors would be recognized, accumulating various offices and powers and making his own name ("Augustus") identifiable with the consolidation of these powers under a single person. Although the name signified nothing in constitutional theory, it was recognized as representing all the powers that Caesar Augustus eventually accumulated. Caesar Augustus also set the standard by which Roman Emperors were named. The three titles used by the majority of Roman Emperors; “Imperator”, “Caesar”, and “Augustus” were all used personally by Caesar Augustus (he officially styled himself "Imperator Caesar Augustus"). However of the name "Augustus" was unique to the Emperor himself (though the Emperor's mother or wife could bear the name "Augusta"). But others could and did bear the titles "Imperator" and "Caesar". Later usage saw the Emperor adding the additional titles “Pius Felix (“pious and blessed”) and “Invictus” (“unconquered”) in addition to the title “Augustus”). In this usage, by signifying the complete assumption of all Imperial powers, "Augustus" became roughly synonymous with “Emperor” in modern language. As the Roman Empire began splintering, Augustus came to be the title applied to the senior Emperor, while the title “Caesar” came to refer to his “junior” sub-Emperors. The image of Gordian III depicted on this coin shows him wearing a radiate crown. The radiate crown, common on the dupondius and antoninianus coins of Roman origin, is reference to divinity, specifically to the Greco-Roman Sun God Sol (or Helios, to the ancient Greeks, and Apollo to the later Greeks). The ancient Greeks generally portrayed their sun god as radiate crowned – as can be seen depicted on the reverse of many ancient Greek (and ultimately Roman) coins. Eventually the Emperors of Rome borrowed the theme, not only depicting a Crowned God Sol on the reverse of their coins, but as well bestowing these divine attributes upon the obverse depiction of their Emperors. The Emperor is also depicted wearing a cuirass. Roman muscle cuirass armor was considered a sign of a high ranking commander and was worn by Roman Emperors, Praetorian Prefects, Roman Generals, Praetorian Tribunes, and Legionary Legates. Examples of this type of armor can be seen in Roman marble statues and engravings at various museums throughout the world. They were constructed of a leather-trimmed, thin sheet of metal (bronze, silver, or gold) and covered the chest and back. The metal work was generally very elaborate, and in the form of various gods or goddesses, mythological creatures, or the Roman eagle. There has only been one (fragmentary) ancient Roman cuirass ever recovered. The obverse of the coin portrays Roman Emperor Gordian III. Gordian was born in Rome in 225 A.D. His mother was a daughter of the Senator Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus, who eventually became known to historians as the Roman Emperor Gordian I (his mother’s brother, Gordian’s Uncle, was Gordian II). Thus Gordian was linked maternally to preceding Roman royalty. However the identity of his father, though undoubtedly a senator, is today unknown. Gordian’s maternal grandfather, Emperor Gordian I had committed suicide a few months prior upon being informed of the death of his son, Gordian II, both of whom had been involved in the power struggle which followed the murder of Severus Alexander and end of the Severan Dynasty (in 235 A.D.). Subsequently two Senators, Balbinus and Pupienus were elected emperors by the Roman Imperial Senate upon the death of Gordian I and Gordian II, and it was hoped they would prevail in the civil war against the rebellious usurper Maximinus. After the death of Maximinus at the siege of Aquileia, perhaps in early June 238, the Roman army decided that they found neither of the two new emperors to their liking, and the Praetorian Guard murdered both on July 29th, 238 A.D., thereupon proclaiming thirteen-year-old Gordian III emperor. Gordian III was very popular amongst the people and especially the Praetorians, who lifted him up on a shield to be cheered by the jubilant people of Rome. As Gordian was so young, for a while Rome was actually ruled by Rome’s aristocratic families through the Senate. Eventually Gordian appointed the experienced former Pro-Consul Timestheus as Praetorian Prefect, and married his daughter Tranquillina. As chief of the Praetorian guard and father in law of the emperor, Timesitheus quickly became the de facto ruler of the Roman empire. Nonetheless under the “counsel” of Timestheus, Gordian ruled well and became quite popular. The Roman Empire had peace and stability during his reign, which was rare during the Third Century. But the peace was marred by the necessity for Gordian to spend about half of his reign engaged in campaigns against the Persians. In 241 A.D., the Sassanian Persian king Ardashir died, and his son Shapur immediately began making trouble for Rome by invading Syria. Gordian III and his army went to deal with Shapur a year later and won several victories in battle against the ruthless Persian. In fact the Roman military campaigns were so effective that the Persians were compelled to evacuate most of Mesopotamia. However during the campaign Praetorian Prefect Timestheus died of an illness in 243 A.D. (perhaps poisoned). The surviving Praetorian Prefect, C. Julius Priscus, convinced the emperor to appoint his brother M. Julius Philippus (eventually known to history as the Roman Emperor “Philip the Arab”) Praetorian Prefect in Timestheus’s place. Philip was not the loyal friend that Timesthius was. Philip took great pains to make the soldiers dislike Gordian III by bringing about a shortage of supplies and blaming it on Gordian’s inexperience. Despite the desperate offer by Gordian to voluntarily relinquish his throne in favor of Philip, nonetheless Philip inspired the Roman troops to murder Gordian III on February 25, 244 A.D., while campaigning in Mesopotamia. Philip intimidated the Senate into acknowledging him as Augustus, and then appointed his own son, Philip II as Caesar. If you’d like to learn more about Emperor Gordian, there are several articles here, here, and here, which are all excellent starting points. The reverse of the coin features the Roman Goddess “Victoria” (“Nike” to the Greeks), and the legend “VICTORIA AETERNA”, literally meaning “victory forever”. Again, portions of the legend are a little indistinct as they are in that area which received a glancing/softer strike. The reverse depiction of Nike, winged, holding a victory palm frond and a trophy (symbolic of the spoils of war, i.e., perhaps such as the vanquished’s battle standards) in one hand and leaning on a (military) shield which in turn is resting atop a bound captive; is allegorical to a victorious Emperor Gordian, who had recently vanquished the Sassanian/Persian foe. “Nike” to the Greeks, was “Victoria” or “Victory” to the Romans. To the Greeks Nike was the personification of victory. She could run and fly at great speed, and was the constant companion of Athena. Daughter of Pallas and Styx, by whom she was brought to Zeus to assist him in his struggle with the Titans. Thereafter she remained with Zeus on Mount Olympus. Nike was represented as a woman with wings, dressed in a billowing robe, oftentimes with a wreath of victory, a palm frond of similar significance, and/or a scepter or “Hasta Pura”. Victoria was oftentimes shown placing a wreath atop the emperor’s head. Nike was also portrayed on Roman coinage bearing a shield, inscribing a shield, or erecting a trophy. The wreath of laurel leaves is an attribute of the Graeco-Roman God Apollo, and is a symbol of victory. In Roman coinage the emperor is often depicted being crowned with such a wreath by the Goddess of Victory, “Victoria” (known to the Greeks as “Nike”). In Greek Mythology, Apollo declared that wreaths were to be awarded to victors, both in athletic competitions and poetic meets under his care. Thus in ancient Greece laurel wreaths became the prize awarded in athletic, musical, and poetic competitions. For instance by the 6th century B.C., the winners of the ancient Greek Pythian Games (forerunner of the Olympics and held every four years at Delphi) were awarded a wreath of laurel leaves. Ancient Greek coins from at least as far back as the second century B.C. depict laurel wreaths worn by not only Apollo, but also Athena, Saturn, Jupiter, Victory (Nike), and Salus. Eventually the custom of awarding a wreath of laurel leaves was extended from victors of athletic events to the victors of military endeavors. The symbolism was inherited (or mimicked) by the Romans, to whom the bestowal of a laurel wreath became the sign of a victorious general acclaimed by his troops. After defeating Pompey, the Roman Senate not only voted Julius Caesar Imperator for life, but also awarded him the right to wear the laurel wreath in perpetuity. From that point on it is said that Julius Caesar always appeared in public laureate, and all of his coinage depicted Julius Caesar wearing the laurel leaf crown. Thus the laurel leaf crown became associated not only with the victorious general, but became a symbol of the office of Caesar and Imperator. There were other types of wreaths in Graeco-Roman Mythology as well. Dionysus was oftentimes depicted either with a wreath of ivy or with a wreath composed of grape leaves. Zeus was oftentimes depicted with a wreath of oak leaves, and wreathes of roses became associated with Aphrodite. As well, funeral wreaths became a Roman custom, and were often carved into the decorative elements of a sarcophagus. In Roman coinage the palm tree, or a palm frond, served as a symbol of victory. Palm branches were born before a victor on his reception at the gate of a city and used along the parade route of a triumphant general’s (or emperor’s) victory/triumphal ceremony. It could also be used to signify the duration and permanence of the empire, because the palm lives a long time, and on occasion the palm was used to denote joy (hilaritas), abundance, equity, piety, health, felicity, and fecundity as the palm constantly fructifies as long as it lives. The palm was also a numismatic symbol of Phoenicia and Judaea, not only on coins struck by the Romans after the conquest of Judaea, but likewise on much older medals, formerly coined by the Jews themselves. A “hasta pura”, a ceremonial lance (spear, pike) without an iron head, oftentimes with a knob at the end, the forerunner of the standard pilum issued to Roman soldiers. The hasta was derived by the Roman from the Etrurians, who called it a “corim”. By the Sabines it was called a “quiris”, their king called “coritos” as the spear was to them an attribute of royalty. The Hasta was the symbol not only of power, fortitude and valor, but also of majesty and even divinity. It is one of the insignia of the Gods, and of the Emperors and Augustae after their apotheosis, implying that they had become objects of worship. It is generally found in the hands of female divinities, as the war-spear is in those of warriors and heroes. In the coinage of Republican Rome she was often depicted driving a biga. A “biga” was a two-horse (creature) version of the “quadriga”. The quadriga was a chariot drawn by four horses (or in myth four of various other forms of animals), and was used ceremonially for the triumph parade of a general or emperor, in a consular procession, to convey the victor(s) of public games, and also in the funeral procession of an emperor. In mythology it was often used as a conveyance by various deities. A triumph was a ceremonial procession of both civil and religious significance granted by the Senate to an especially able general who had won a significant victory. The triumph parade proceeded through the city of Rome itself to publicly honor the general and to display/parade the glories and trophies of Roman victory, and the general was given the title of “Imperator”. As the empire declined, Nike (or “Victory” or “Victoria”) was oftentimes portrayed in these and other more militaristic characters. Victoria oftentimes appeared in reliefs on the spandrels of triumphal arches, such as the Arches of Augustus, Septimius Severus, and Constantine. Statues of her abounded in Rome, the most famous of which was brought from Tarentum, and which Augustus dedicated in memory of his victory over Marc Antony and Cleopatra at Actium. The Roman Emperor Augustus also had an altar to Victoria installed in the senate building with a statue of Victoria standing with one foot on a globe. Victoria also made frequent appearances on the reverse of Roman coins through the third century. In depictions as Nike in Greek art she was oftentimes depicted carrying a “kithara” (lyre) and “phiale” (cup); alternatively a “thymiaterion” (a ceremonial incense burner) and a flower; or pouring a libation from a phiale or “oinichoe” (jug) over an altar. Occasionally Nike would be depicted carrying a sash draped over her arm. She was also represented in sculpture in connection with the Olympian deities who grant victory; and thus was often portrayed as a small trophy or statue being presented by Zeus or Athena. The Romans borrowed this theme as well, and the Goddess Roma (closely associated with the Greek Goddesses Minerva and Athena) is often depicted holding a statue of Victory. Oftentimes the statue is depicted holding the wand of Mercury (the Greek God Hermes); also known as a “cauduceus”, an allusion to her role as herald of victory. The cauduceus was originally an enchanter’s wand, a symbol of the power that produces wealth and prosperity, and also an emblem of the influence over the living and the dead. But even in early times it was regarded as a herald’s staff and an emblem of peaceful intercourse. It consisted of three shoots, one of which formed the handle, the other two being intertwined at the top in a knot. The place of the latter two intertwined shoots was eventually taken by serpents and was an attribute of Asclepius, the Graeco-Roman God of Medicine. The cult of Victory is dated back to 294 B.C., when the Consul L. Postumius Megellus built a temple to the goddess on the Palatine. The Roman Emperor Augustus had an altar to Victoria installed in the senate building with a statue of Victoria standing with one foot on a globe. The cult of the Goddess Victoria was one of the last Roman (pagan) cults to succumb to Christianity when in 382 A.D. her statue was taken down by Emperor Gratianus. There’s some wonderful ancient Graeco-Roman depictions of Nike/Victoria here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, and here; and if you’d like to learn more about the history of the goddess and her cult, there’s a couple of excellent starting points here and here. Your purchase includes, upon request, mounting of this coin in either pendant style “a” or “d” as shown here. Pendant style “a” is a clear, airtight acrylic capsule designed to afford your ancient coin maximum protection from both impact damage and degradation. It is the most “politically correct” mounting. Style “d” is a sterling silver pendant. Either pendant styles include a sterling silver chain (16", 18", or 20"). Upon request, there are also an almost infinite variety of other pendants which might well suit both you and your ancient coin pendant, and include both sterling silver and solid 14kt gold mountings, including those shown here. As well, upon request, we can also make available a huge variety of chains in lengths from 16 to 30 inches, in metals including sterling silver, 14kt gold fill, and solid 14kt gold. ANCIENT ROMAN HISTORY: One of the greatest civilizations of recorded history was the ancient Roman Empire. The Roman civilization, in relative terms the greatest military power in the history of the world, was founded in the 8th century (B.C.) on seven hills alongside Italy’s Tiber River. By the 4th Century (B.C.) the Romans were the dominant power on the Italian Peninsula, having defeated the Etruscans, Celts, Latins, and Greek Italian colonies. In the 3rd Century (B.C.) the Romans conquered Sicily, and in the following century defeated Carthage, and controlled Greece. Throughout the remainder of the 2nd Century (B.C.) the Roman Empire continued its gradual conquest of the Hellenistic (Greek Colonial) World by conquering Syria and Macedonia; and finally came to control Egypt and much of the Near East and Levant (Holy Land) in the 1st Century (B.C.). The pinnacle of Roman power was achieved in the 1st Century (A.D.) as Rome conquered much of Britain and Western Europe. At its peak, the Roman Empire stretched from Britain in the West, throughout most of Western, Central, and Eastern Europe, and into Asia Minor. For a brief time, the era of “Pax Romana”, a time of peace and consolidation reigned. Civilian emperors were the rule, and the culture flourished with a great deal of liberty enjoyed by the average Roman Citizen. However within 200 years the Roman Empire was in a state of steady decay, attacked by Germans, Goths, and Persians. The decline was temporarily halted by third century Emperor Diocletian. In the 4th Century (A.D.) the Roman Empire was split between East and West. The Great Emperor Constantine again managed to temporarily arrest the decay of the Empire, but within a hundred years after his death the Persians captured Mesopotamia, Vandals infiltrated Gaul and Spain, and the Goths even sacked Rome itself. Most historians date the end of the Western Roman Empire to 476 (A.D.) when Emperor Romulus Augustus was deposed. However the Eastern Roman Empire (The Byzantine Empire) survived until the fall of Constantinople in 1453 A.D. In the ancient world valuables such as coins and jewelry were commonly buried for safekeeping, and inevitably the owners would succumb to one of the many perils of the ancient world. Oftentimes the survivors of these individuals did not know where the valuables had been buried, and today, thousands of years later (occasionally massive) caches of coins and rings are still commonly uncovered throughout Europe and Asia Minor. Throughout history these treasures have been inadvertently discovered by farmers in their fields, uncovered by erosion, and the target of unsystematic searches by treasure seekers. With the introduction of metal detectors and other modern technologies to Eastern Europe in the past three or four decades, an amazing number of new finds are seeing the light of day thousands of years after they were originally hidden by their past owners. And with the liberalization of post-Soviet Eastern Europe, new sources have opened eager to share in these ancient treasures. HISTORY OF COINAGE: Coins came into being during the seventh century B.C. in Lydia and Ionia, part of the Greek world, and were made from a naturally occurring alloy of gold and silver. Each coin blank was heated and struck with a hammer between two engraved dies. Unlike modern coins, they were not uniformly round. Each coin was wonderfully unique. Coinage quickly spread to the island and city states of Western Greece. Alexander the Great (336-323 B.C.) then spread the concept of coinage throughout the lands he conquered. Today ancient coins are archaeological treasures from the past, and on many occasions have provided profound new knowledge to historians. They were buried for safekeeping because of their value and have been slowly uncovered throughout modern history. Oftentimes soldiers the night before battle would bury their coins and jewelry, hoping and believing that they would live long enough to recover them, and to return to their family. Killed in battle, these little treasure hoards remain until today scattered throughout Western and Eastern Europe, even into the Levant and Persia. As well, everyone from merchants to housewives found the safest place to keep their savings was buried in a pot, or in some other secretive location. If they met an unexpected end, the whereabouts of the merchants trade goods or the household's sugar jar money might never be known. Recently a commercial excavation for a new building foundation in London unearthed a Roman mosaic floor. When archaeologists removed the floor, they found 7,000 silver denarii secreted beneath the floor. Even the Roman mints buried their produce. There were over 300 mints in the Roman Empire striking coinage. Hoards of as many as 40,000 coins have been found in a single location near these ancient sites. Ancient coins reflect the artistic, political, religious, and economic themes of their times. The acquisition of ancient coins is a unique opportunity to collect art which has been appreciated throughout the centuries. Coins of the Roman Empire most frequently depicted the Emperor on the front of the coins, and were issued in gold, silver, and bronze. The imperial family was also frequently depicted on the coinage, and, in some cases, coins depicted the progression of an emperor from boyhood through maturity. The reverse side of often served as an important means of political propaganda, frequently extolling the virtues of the emperor or commemorating his victories. Many public works and architectural achievements such as the Coliseum and the Circus Maximus were also depicted. As well, important political events such as alliances between cities were recorded on coinage. Many usurpers to the throne, otherwise unrecorded in history, are known only through their coins. Interestingly, a visually stunning portrayal of the decline of the Roman Empire is reflected in her coinage. The early Roman bronze coins were the size of a half-dollar. Within 100-150 years those had shrunk to the size of a nickel. And within another 100-150 years, to perhaps half the size of a dime. At the height of the Roman Empire there were over 400 mints producing coinage, in locations as diverse as Britain, Africa, and the Near East. The annual produce of these mints is estimated to have been between one and two billion coins. HISTORY OF SILVER: After gold, silver is the metal most widely used in jewelry and the most malleable. The oldest silver artifacts found by archaeologists date from ancient Sumeria about 4,000 B.C. At many points in the ancient world, it was actually more costly than gold, particularly in ancient Egypt. Silver is found in native form (i.e., in nuggets), as an alloy with gold (electrum), and in ores containing sulfur, arsenic, antimony or chlorine. Much of the silver originally found in the ancient world was actually a natural alloy of gold and silver (in nugget form) known as “electrum”. The first large-scale silver mines were in Anatolia (ancient Turkey) and Armenia, where as early as 4,000 B.C. silver was extracted from lead ores by means of a complicated process known as “smelting”. Even then the process was not perfect, as ancient silver does contain trace elements, typically lead, gold, bismuth and other metals, and as much as a third of the silver was left behind in the slag. However measuring the concentrations of the “impurities” in ancient silver can help the forensic jewelry historian in determining the authenticity of classical items. From Turkey and Armenia silver refining technology spread to the rest of Asia Minor and Europe. By about 2,500 B.C. the Babylonians were one of the major refiners of silver. Silver “treasures” recovered by archaeologists from the second and third millenniums demonstrate the high value the ancient Mediterranean and Near East placed upon silver. Some of the richest burials in history uncovered by archaeologists have been from this time frame, that of Queen Puabi of Ur, Sumeria (26th century B.C.); Tutankhamun (14th century B.C.), and the rich Trojan (25th century B.C.) and Mycenaean (18th century B.C.) treasures uncovered by Heinrich Schliemann. The ancient Egyptians believed that the skin of their gods was composed of gold, and their bones were thought to be of silver. When silver was introduced into Egypt, it probably was more valuable than gold (silver was rarer and more valuable than gold in many Mesoamerican cultures as well). In surviving inventories of valuables, items of silver were listed above those of gold during the Old Kingdom. Jewelry made of silver was almost always thinner than gold pieces, as indicated by the bracelets of the 4th Dynasty (about 2,500 B.C.) Queen Hetephere I, in marked contrast to the extravagance of her heavy gold jewelry. A silver treasure excavated by archaeologists and attributable to the reign of Amenemhat II who ruled during the 12th Dynasty (about 1900 B.C.), contained fine silver items which were actually produced in Crete, by the ancient Minoans. When the price of silver finally did fall due to more readily available supplies, for at least another thousand years (through at least the 19th dynasty, about 1,200 B.C.) the price of silver seems to have been fixed at half that of gold. Several royal mummies attributable to about 1,000 B.C. were even entombed in solid silver coffins. Around 1,000 B.C. Greek Athenians began producing silver from the Laurium mines, and would supply much of the ancient Mediterranean world with its silver for almost 1,000 years. This ancient source was eventually supplemented around 800 B.C. (and then eventually supplanted) by the massive silver mines found in Spain by the Phoenicians and their colony (and ultimate successors) the Carthaginians (operated in part by Hannibal’s family). With the defeat of Carthage by Rome, the Romans gained control of these vast deposits, and mined massive amounts of silver from Spain, stripping entire forests regions for timber to fuel smelting operations. In fact, it was not until the Middle Ages that Spain’s silver mines (and her forests) were finally exhausted. Although known during the Copper Age, silver made only rare appearances in jewelry before the classical age. Despite its infrequent use as jewelry however, silver was widely used as coinage due to its softness, brilliant color, and resistance to oxidation. Silver alloyed with gold in the form of “electrum” was coined to produce money around 700 B.C. by the Lydians of present-day Turkey. Having access to silver deposits and being able to mine them played a big role in the classical world. Actual silver coins were first produced in Lydia about 610 B.C., and subsequently in Athens in about 580 B.C. Many historians have argued that it was the possession and exploitation of the Laurium mines by the Athenians that allowed them to become the most powerful city state in Greece. The Athenians were well aware of the significance of the mining operations to the prosperity of their city, as every citizen had shares in the mines. Enough silver was mined and refined at Laurium to finance the expansion of Athens as a trading and naval power. One estimate is that Laurium produced 160 million ounces of silver, worth six billion dollars today (when silver is by comparison relatively cheap and abundant). As the production of silver from the Laurium mines ultimately diminished, Greek silver production shifted to mines in Macedonia. Silver coinage played a significant role in the ancient world. Macedonia’s coinage during the reign of Philip II (359-336 B.C.) circulated widely throughout the Hellenic world. His famous son, Alexander the Great (336-323 B.C.), spread the concept of coinage throughout the lands he conquered. For both Philip II and Alexander silver coins became an essential way of paying their armies and meeting other military expenses. They also used coins to make a realistic portrait of the ruler of the country. The Romans also used silver coins to pay their legions. These coins were used for most daily transactions by administrators and traders throughout the empire. Roman silver coins also served as an important means of political propaganda, extolling the virtues of Rome and her emperors, and continued in the Greek tradition of realistic portraiture. As well, many public works and architectural achievements were also depicted (among them the Coliseum, the Circus Maximus). In addition many important political events were recorded on the coinage. Roman coins depicted the assassination of Julius Caesar, alliances between cities, between emperors, between armies, etc. And many contenders for the throne of Rome are known only through their coinage. Silver was also widely used as ornamental work and in other metal wares. In ancient cultures, especially in Rome, silver was highly prized for the making of plate ware, household utensils, and ornamental work. The stability of Rome’s economy and currency depended primarily on the output of the silver mines in Spain which they had wrested from the Carthaginians. In fact many historians would say that it was the control of the wealth of these silver mines which enabled Rome to conquer most of the Mediterranean world. When in 55 B.C. the Romans invaded Britain they were quick to discover and exploit the lead-silver deposits there as well. Only six years later they had established many mines and Britain became another major source of silver for the Roman Empire. It is estimated that by the second century A.D., 10,000 tons of Roman silver coins were in circulation within the empire. That’s about 3½ billion silver coins (at the height of the empire, there were over 400 mints throughout the empire producing coinage). That’s ten times the total amount of silver available to Medieval Europe and the Islamic world combined as of about 800 A.D. Silver later lost its position of dominance to gold, particularly in the chaos following the fall of Rome. Large-scale mining in Spain petered out, and when large-scale silver mining finally resumed four centuries after the fall of Rome, most of the mining activity was in Central Europe. By the time of the European High Middle Ages, silver once again became the principal material used for metal artwork. Huge quantities of silver from the New World also encouraged eager buyers in Europe, and enabled the Spanish to become major players in the late Medieval and Renaissance periods. Unlike the ores in Europe which required laborious extraction and refining methods to result in pure silver, solid silver was frequently found as placer deposits in stream beds in Spain’s “New World” colonies, reportedly in some instances solid slabs weighing as much as 2,500 pounds. Prior to the discovery of massive silver deposits in the New World, silver had been valued during the Middle Ages at about 10%-15% of the value of gold. In 15th century the price of silver is estimated to have been around $1200 per ounce, based on 2010 dollars. The discovery of massive silver deposits in the New World during the succeeding centuries has caused the price to diminish greatly, falling to only 1-2% of the value of gold. The art of silver work flourished in the Renaissance, finding expression in virtually every imaginable form. Silver was often plated with gold and other decorative materials. Although silver sheets had been used to overlay wood and other metals since ancient Greece, an 18th-century technique of fusing thin silver sheets to copper brought silver goods called Sheffield plate within the reach of most people. At the same time the use of silver in jewelry making had also started gaining popularity in the 17th century. It was often as support in settings for diamonds and other transparent precious stones, in order to encourage the reflection of light. Silver continued to gain in popularity throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, and by the 20th century competed with gold as the principal metal used in the manufacture of jewelry. Silver has the highest thermal and electrical conductivity of any metal, and one of the highest optical reflectivity values. It has a brilliant metallic luster, is very ductile and malleable, only slightly harder than gold, and is easily worked and polished. When used in jewelry, silver is commonly alloyed to include 7.5% copper, known as “sterling silver”, to increase the hardness and reduce the melting temperature. Silver jewelry may be plated with 99.9% pure ‘Fine Silver’ to increase the shine when polished. It may also be plated with rhodium to prevent tarnish. Virtually all gold, with the exception of 24 carat gold, includes silver. Most gold alloys are primarily composed of only gold and silver. Throughout the history of the ancient world, gemstones were believed capable of curing illness, possessed of valuable metaphysical properties, and to provide protection. Found in Egypt dated 1500 B. C., the "Papyrus Ebers" offered one of most complete therapeutic manuscripts containing prescriptions using gemstones and minerals. Gemstones were not only valued for their medicinal and protective properties, but also for educational and spiritual enhancement. Precious minerals were likewise considered to have medicinal and “magical” properties in the ancient world. In its pure form silver is non toxic, and when mixed with other elements is used in a wide variety of medicines. Silver ions and silver compounds show a toxic effect on some bacteria, viruses, algae and fungi. Silver was widely used before the advent of antibiotics to prevent and treat infections, silver nitrate being the prevalent form. Silver Iodide was used in babies' eyes upon birth to prevent blinding as the result of bacterial contamination. Silver is still widely used in topical gels and impregnated into bandages because of its wide-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The recorded use of silver to prevent infection dates to ancient Greece and Rome. Hippocrates, the ancient (5th century B.C.) Greek "father of medicine" wrote that silver had beneficial healing and anti-disease properties. The ancient Phoenicians stored water, wine, and vinegar in silver bottles to prevent spoiling. These uses were “rediscovered” in the Middle Ages, when silver was used for several purposes; such as to disinfect water and food during storage, and also for the treatment of burns and wounds as a wound dressing. The ingestion of colloidal silver was also believed to help restore the body's “electromagnetic balance” to a state of equilibrium, and it was believed to detoxify the liver and spleen. In the 19th century sailors on long ocean voyages would put silver coins in barrels of water and wine to keep the liquid potable. Silver (and gold) foil is also used through the world as a food decoration. Traditional Indian dishes sometimes include the use of decorative silver foil, and in various cultures silver dragée (silver coated sugar balls) are used to decorate cakes, cookies, and other dessert items. Domestic shipping (insured first class mail) is included in the price shown. Domestic shipping also includes USPS Delivery Confirmation (you might be able to update the status of your shipment on-line at the USPS Web Site). Canadian shipments are an extra $15.99 for Insured Air Mail; International shipments are an extra $19.99 for Air Mail (and generally are NOT tracked; trackable shipments are EXTRA). ADDITIONAL PURCHASES do receive a VERY LARGE discount, typically about $5 per item so as to reward you for the economies of combined shipping/insurance costs. Your purchase will ordinarily be shipped within 48 hours of payment. We package as well as anyone in the business, with lots of protective padding and containers. We do NOT recommend uninsured shipments, and expressly disclaim any responsibility for the loss of an uninsured shipment. Unfortunately the contents of parcels are easily “lost” or misdelivered by postal employees – even in the USA. If you intend to pay via PayPal, please be aware that PayPal Protection Policies REQUIRE insured, trackable shipments, which is INCLUDED in our price. International tracking is at additional cost. We do offer U.S. Postal Service Priority Mail, Registered Mail, and Express Mail for both international and domestic shipments, as well United Parcel Service (UPS) and Federal Express (Fed-Ex). Please ask for a rate quotation. We will accept whatever payment method you are most comfortable with. If upon receipt of the item you are disappointed for any reason whatever, I offer a no questions asked return policy. Send it back, I will give you a complete refund of the purchase price (less our original shipping costs). Most of the items I offer come from the collection of a family friend who was active in the field of Archaeology for over forty years. However many of the items also come from purchases I make in Eastern Europe, India, and from the Levant (Eastern Mediterranean/Near East) from various institutions and dealers. Though I have always had an interest in archaeology, my own academic background was in sociology and cultural anthropology. After my retirement however, I found myself drawn to archaeology as well. Aside from my own personal collection, I have made extensive and frequent additions of my own via purchases on Ebay (of course), as well as many purchases from both dealers and institutions throughout the world – but especially in the Near East and in Eastern Europe. I spend over half of my year out of the United States, and have spent much of my life either in India or Eastern Europe. In fact much of what we generate on Yahoo, Amazon and Ebay goes to support The Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, as well as some other worthy institutions in Europe connected with Anthropology and Archaeology. I acquire some small but interesting collections overseas from time-to-time, and have as well some duplicate items within my own collection which I occasionally decide to part with. Though I have a collection of ancient coins numbering in the tens of thousands, my primary interest is in ancient jewelry. My wife also is an active participant in the “business” of antique and ancient jewelry, and is from Russia. I would be happy to provide you with a certificate/guarantee of authenticity for any item you purchase from me. There is a $2 fee for mailing under separate cover. Whenever I am overseas I have made arrangements for purchases to be shipped out via domestic mail. If I am in the field, you may have to wait for a week or two for a COA to arrive via international air mail. But you can be sure your purchase will arrive properly packaged and promptly – even if I am absent. And when I am in a remote field location with merely a notebook computer, at times I am not able to access my email for a day or two, so be patient, I will always respond to every email. Please see our "ADDITIONAL TERMS OF SALE."

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