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AD300 Ancient Roman Anatolia (Turkey) Ring Size 7½ + 19thC Antique 1½ct Jade Gem

CAD 438.89 Buy It Now 7d, CAD 23.93 Shipping, 30-Day Returns

Seller: ancientgifts (4,181) 99.3%, Location: Lummi Island, Washington, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 122179566510 TRANSLATE Arabic Chinese French German Greek Indonesian Italian Hindi Japanese Korean Swedish Portuguese Russian Spanish Your browser does not support JavaScript. To view this page, enable JavaScript if it is disabled or upgrade your browser. Click here to see 1,000 archaeology/ancient history books and 2,000 ancient artifacts, antique gemstones, antique jewelry! Very Elegant Size 7 1/2 Genuine Ancient Roman Bronze Ring 300 A.D. CLASSIFICATION: Ancient Roman Bronze Ring. Antique Handcrafted Nineteenth Century Burmese Jade Semi-Precious Gemstone. ATTRIBUTION: Eastern Roman Empire (Provincial Asia, Western Anatolia – present-day Turkey), Third or Fourth Century A.D. SIZE/MEASUREMENTS: Fits ring size 7 1/2 (U.S.). Diameter: 22mm * 18 1/2mm (outer dimensions excluding gemstone); 19mm * 17 1/2mm (inner diameter). Bezel: 17mm (breadth) * 11 1/2mm (height), * 1 1/2mm (thickness) excluding gemstone. Gemstone: 8 1/2mm (breadth) * 6mm (height) * 3mm (thickness). 1.41 carats (approximate weight). Tapered Width Band: 10 1/2mm (at bezel) * 8 1/2mm (at sides) * 3mm (at back). Weight: 6.11 grams (without gemstone). CONDITION: Excellent! Completely intact, moderately light wear consistent with occasional usage in the ancient world, moderately light porosity (surface pitting caused by contact with earth while buried). Professionally conserved. DETAIL: Here's a nicely styled Roman bronze ring of a simple “solitaire” design, with a raised, six-sided platform bezel, of a bold size and character, which originally held a gemstone. The ring was not actually recovered with the gemstone intact, however usually this style of bronze ring was set either with a glass gemstone (glass was quite costly) or with some form of quartz crystal; i.e. clear quartz, orange quartz (“carnelian”), or purple quartz (“amethyst”). The ring is of heavy and durable one-piece construction, much like a contemporary ring. The more archaic rings produced by Roman artisans were characteristically made in two pieces; an incomplete ring (a “shank”) with a separately crafted bezel which was brazed to the shank in order to assemble the ring. The Romans had a number of different adhesives they used, some of the most common being resin and bitumen. However one characteristic that they all had in common is that sooner or later, they tended to fail. Consequentially ancient “gemstone” rings are typically unearthed without the gemstone. True to form, this particular ring was not recovered with the gemstone intact, so we mounted a large, natural, antique, handcrafted jade semi-precious gemstone. Jade was extremely valuable in ancient China, there are records of an entire city being traded for a carved ornamental jade piece. Jade jewelry can be found in the tombs of Ancient China's emperors dating back to the 4th millennium B.C. Many classical scholars believe that some jade reached Rome from China, Burma and India via the “silk route”. However during the twentieth century archaeologists determined that most of the jade in the classical world of the Mediterranean had sources reaching back even into the Neolithic, and came principally from Egypt, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and Italy. Rather than use bitumen pitch or tree resin, we mounted the gemstone using jeweler’s epoxy. The gemstone is quite secure, but if you at time in the future wished to remove it, this could easily be accomplished using some thinner or nail polish remover. The gemstone was produced in nineteenth century Burma, and was handcrafted into this polished cabochon gemstone by a nineteenth century Russian artisan near Yekaterinburg, Russia, home of one of Russia’s most famous gemstone and jewelry production centers, famous for producing the elaborate jewelry of Czarist Russia. It’s a very beautiful gemstone, and seemed an appropriate choice. Though the gemstone is not as old as the ring, given the fact that many cultures of the classical Mediterranean world (including the Romans and Greeks) made use of jade in their jewelry, and that the gemstone in itself is historically significant, it seemed an appropriate gemstone to enhance this ring’s beauty, a choice which preserves historical continuity. Fate has been kind, and the ring has been preserved in wonderful condition. Of course the ring does evidence some (very mild) all-over wear, in fact, so little wear that you could almost call the condition of the ring “pristine”. However the fact that the ring does evidence some wear should not be a source for disappointment. You must keep in mind that the ring was produced by an artisan and sold to a patron or consumer with the idea that the ring would be enjoyed and worn by the purchaser. And without any regard to twenty-first century posterity, that precisely what happened! The original Roman owner of this ring wore it, enjoyed it, and probably never could have in his most delusional moment ever dreamed that a thousand years into the future their ring would still exist. It should likewise come as no surprise that also detectable are the telltale signs that the ring spent thousands of years in the soil. Porosity is fine surface pitting (oxidation, corrosion) caused by extended burial in caustic soil. Many small ancient metal artifacts such as this are extensively disfigured and suffer substantial degradation as a consequence of the ordeal of being buried for millennia. It is not at all unusual to find metal artifacts decomposed to the point where they are not much more substantial than discolored patterns in the soil. Actually most smaller ancient artifacts such as this are so badly oxidized that oftentimes all that is left is a green (bronze) or red (iron) stain in the soil, or an artifact which crumbles in your hand. However this specimen is not so heavily afflicted, and certainly has not been disfigured. To the casual admirer, it simply looks like an ancient ring, nicely surfaced, no immediately discernible blemishes. You have to look very closely to detect the telltale signs indicating the ring was buried for millennia. No denying, there is oxidation, as if you examine the ring in a jeweler’s loupe, or if you examine these photo enlargements closely, you can clearly see the evidence of porosity (corrosion, fine surface pitting) in a few spots along both sides of the band. However the extent is very mild, and only in a very few isolated spots. This ring spent almost 2,000 years buried, yet by good fortune there is only a very modest degree of porosity evidenced. It happened to come to rest in very gentle soil conditions. Consequentially, the integrity of the artifact remains undiminished, and despite the moderately light porosity, the ring remains quite handsome, and entirely wearable. The ring is almost modern and quite distinctive in appearance, a classic and timeless design. The ring has a very nice medium brown color with golden undertones, very characteristic of ancient bronze and very attractive. The Romans were of course very fond of ornate personal jewelry including bracelets worn both on the forearm and upper arm, brooches, pendants, hair pins, earrings intricate fibulae and belt buckles, and of course, rings. This is an exceptional piece of Roman jewelry, a very handsome artifact, and eminently wearable. Aside from being significant to the history of ancient jewelry, it is also an evocative relic of one of the world’s greatest civilizations and than ancient world’s most significant military machine; the glory and light which was known as the “Roman Empire”. ANCIENT ROMAN HISTORY: One of the greatest civilizations of recorded history was the ancient Roman Empire. The Roman civilization, in relative terms the greatest military power in the history of the world, was founded in the 8th century (B.C.) on seven hills alongside Italy’s Tiber River. By the 4th Century (B.C.) the Romans were the dominant power on the Italian Peninsula, having defeated the Etruscans, Celts, Latins, and Greek Italian colonies. In the 3rd Century (B.C.) the Romans conquered Sicily, and in the following century defeated Carthage, and controlled Greece. Throughout the remainder of the 2nd Century (B.C.) the Roman Empire continued its gradual conquest of the Hellenistic (Greek Colonial) World by conquering Syria and Macedonia; and finally came to control Egypt and much of the Near East and Levant (Holy Land) in the 1st Century (B.C.). The pinnacle of Roman power was achieved in the 1st Century (A.D.) as Rome conquered much of Britain and Western Europe. At its peak, the Roman Empire stretched from Britain in the West, throughout most of Western, Central, and Eastern Europe, and into Asia Minor. For a brief time, the era of “Pax Romana”, a time of peace and consolidation reigned. Civilian emperors were the rule, and the culture flourished with a great deal of liberty enjoyed by the average Roman Citizen. However within 200 years the Roman Empire was in a state of steady decay, attacked by Germans, Goths, and Persians. The decline was temporarily halted by third century Emperor Diocletian. In the 4th Century (A.D.) the Roman Empire was split between East and West. The Great Emperor Constantine again managed to temporarily arrest the decay of the Empire, but within a hundred years after his death the Persians captured Mesopotamia, Vandals infiltrated Gaul and Spain, and the Goths even sacked Rome itself. Most historians date the end of the Western Roman Empire to 476 (A.D.) when Emperor Romulus Augustus was deposed. However the Eastern Roman Empire (The Byzantine Empire) survived until the fall of Constantinople in 1453 A.D. In the ancient world valuables such as coins and jewelry were commonly buried for safekeeping, and inevitably the owners would succumb to one of the many perils of the ancient world. Oftentimes the survivors of these individuals did not know where the valuables had been buried, and today, thousands of years later (occasionally massive) caches of coins and rings are still commonly uncovered throughout Europe and Asia Minor. Throughout history these treasures have been inadvertently discovered by farmers in their fields, uncovered by erosion, and the target of unsystematic searches by treasure seekers. With the introduction of metal detectors and other modern technologies to Eastern Europe in the past three or four decades, an amazing number of new finds are seeing the light of day thousands of years after they were originally hidden by their past owners. And with the liberalization of post-Soviet Eastern Europe, new sources have opened eager to share in these ancient treasures. JADE HISTORY: The highest quality and rarest form of jade is known as “jadeite”, and is found almost exclusively in Burma, Tibet and southern China (and in small amounts in Japan and Guatemala). Jadeite ranges in color from dark green to nearly white, but can also be found in shades of pink, purple, blue, yellow, orange, red, gray, brown and black. The highest grade of jadeite is known as “imperial jade”, because in ancient China, all imperial jade was owned by the emperor. What differentiates imperial jade from ordinary jadeite is its light to medium “emerald” green color, the homogeneity of its color, and its translucent to transparent character. Nephrite, the more common and less valuable form of jade is found in many parts of the world from California to Siberia. Nephrite is creamier in color and less translucent than Jadeite and possesses an oily luster. Jade was used in ancient times for weapons, utensils, and ornaments, and has always been especially valued by the Chinese and Japanese as the most precious of all stones. Many beautiful hand carved jadeite vases, bowls, tablets, and statues produced in ancient China now reside in museums world-wide. The less valuable form of jade, “nephrite” was widely used by primitive peoples as tools and weapons in the Neolithic, especially in Europe, Mexico, Asia, New Zealand, and North Africa (including ancient Egypt). Both nephrite as well as the more valuable jadeite were worked into implements by Neolithic peoples in many parts of the world, however nephrite was most often used for tools and weapons. The best-known finds are from the lake dwellings of Switzerland, western France, and China. The source for Neolithic jade in Europe remains undiscovered, but it was probably from a deposit in the Alps. Nephrite is very hard and was prized for keeping a sharp edge. One such variety was used by the natives of the South Sea Islands for making hatchets. Jade was mined in China since at least as far back as 6,000 B.C. Records of its use in China as jewelry goes back at least 5,000 years. Jade jewelry can be found in emperor’s tombs dating back to the fourth millennium B.C. Jade bangles date backward at least 4,000 years. Jade was extremely valuable in ancient China, there are records of an entire city being traded for a carved ornamental jade piece. The Chinese have valued this gem more than any other, using it for currency, ceremonial vessels, and marriage bowls. Since at least 2950 B.C., jade has been treasured in China as the imperial gemstone, "yu". The word "yu" is used in Chinese to call something precious, as in English we use the term "golden". Indeed the cost of jade in ancient China exceeded that of gold. In addition to their own sources of jade, from the Kingdom of Khotan, on the southern leg of the Silk Road (present-day Turkestan), yearly tribute payments consisting of the most precious white jade (a creamy white form of nephrite known in China as "mutton fat" jade) were made to the Chinese Imperial court. In the Neolithic the Chinese were carving jade into tools and simple cult objects (amulets). By about 1800 B.C., they began making small carved ornamental plaques with decorative designs of animals. The introduction of iron tools (about 500 B.C.) made more intricate carvings possible, and jade began to be made into a wide variety of utilitarian and luxury objects, such as belt hooks and ornaments, sword and scabbard accoutrements, hollow vessels, and, most importantly, sculpture in the round. The craft of jade carving in China attained maturity toward the close of the Chou dynasty in 255 B.C., with designs of unsurpassed excellence and beauty. The ancient Chinese believed jade to preserve the body after death. One royal tomb contained an entire suit made out of jade, to assure the physical immortality of its owner. Emperors slept upon pillows of jade believing that it preserved vitality and youth. In Chinese mythology the Moon Hare made an elixir of immortality from crushed Jade. So of course jade was ground up and drunken as an “elixir of immortality”, believed to preserve vitality and youth. Even merely eating from Jade dishes was believed to ensure a long and fortunate life. It was also believed that jade could predict the stages of the wearer’s life. If a jade ornament appeared more brilliant and transparent, good fortune lay ahead. If it became dull, then bad luck was inevitable. In Chinese athletic competitions, ivory was given for third place and gold for second. Jade was reserved solely for the winners, including high officials in the imperial court. For thousands of years, up through the middle of the second millennium, the Chinese only had access to nephrite jade. Occasionally a piece of two of fine Burmese jadeite tantalized ancient China, but for 500 years the actual source of jadeite proved elusive. According to legend sometime in the thirteenth century a Chinese trader traveling through northern Burma picked up a boulder to balance the load on his mule. Much later when it happened to break open, the brown-skinned rock revealed a vivid, “emerald” green jade. The Chinese were captivated by this stone, and sent expeditions to find the source the 13th and 14th centuries, but they were unsuccessful. Although occasional small pieces of green jadeite would appear in China over the next 500 years, their origin remained a mystery until the late 18th century. Finally in the eighteenth century Chinese adventurers discovered the source of the green stone. From that time onwards considerable amounts of jadeite were transported to Beijing and the workshops of China’s foremost jade carvers. Both Japanese and Chinese cultures traditionally associated jade with the five cardinal virtues; charity, modesty, courage, justice, and wisdom. Jade was also popular in other regions of ancient Asia. A temple in Andhra Pradesh, India is home to a 5-foot high sculpture of an especially revered sage that is carved entirely out of jade, the largest sculpture made from a single jade rock in the world. The ancient East Indians called jade the “divine stone” and used it to treat asthma, epilepsy and heartburn. The Emerald Buddha, enshrined in a temple in Bangkok, Thailand’s Grand Palace, said to have been created in 43 B.C., is also actually made of emerald-green jadeite. Jade is found in ancient Korean burials dating back to about 1,000 B.C. The ancient Turks and Mongols considered jade to be the “stone of victory”, and used it to decorate swords and belts. In ancient Egypt, jade was admired as the stone of love, inner peace, harmony and balance. The Aztecs, Mayas, Olmecs, Toltecs, and other Pre-Columbian peoples of Mexico and Central America carved jadeite for use as ornaments, amulets, badges of rank, plaques, figurines, small masks, pendants, and of course tools and weapons. Nearly all of these Meso-American jades are of various shades of green, with emerald green the most highly prized color among the Aztecs. Archaeologists believe that all ancient Meso-American jade came from deposits in Guatemala. Its cost and rarity dictated that its use was confined to the elite elements of society. As was the case with the Chinese, the Aztecs placed a higher value on jade than on gold. Medieval Europe was unfamiliar with jade as a gemstone for jewelry use until the sixteenth century when jade objects were imported from China and, later, Central America. The Portuguese imported jade from their colony at Canton, China. The Portuguese called jade "piedre de ilharga", or stone of the loins, because they believed it to be strong medicine for kidney ailments and to relieve back pain. Jade jewelry was regarded as symbolic of perfection and purity, and was also a favorite of Medieval Alchemists. With contact between Spain and Meso-America established, jade objects brought back to Spain from the New World were called by the Spanish version of this phrase, "piedra de hijada". This became to the French ejade, and then, finally, "jade". With respect to the name "nephrite" jade, the word nephrite comes from the Greek word for kidney, "nephros". The widespread use of jade died out in Meso-America after the Spanish conquest in the 16th century. Whether simply folklore or not, it’s still indicative of the high regard for gold in Meso-America: as Cortez cut his swath through the Aztec empire, pillaging gold, silver and emeralds, Montezuma is said to have remarked to his followers: “Thank god they don’t know about the jade.” Jade remains today, particularly in Asia, a highly valued gemstone used in the manufacture of jewelry. Throughout the history of the ancient world, gemstones were believed capable of curing illness, possessed of valuable metaphysical properties, and to provide protection. Found in Egypt dated 1500 B. C., the "Papyrus Ebers" offered one of most complete therapeutic manuscripts containing prescriptions using gemstones and minerals. Gemstones were not only valued for their medicinal and protective properties, but also for educational and spiritual enhancement. In ancient Asia cultures jade was believed to help one access the spiritual world, and was perceived as a sacred substance. Jade was known as the "dream stone". The ancient Chinese believe that the secret virtue of jade was absorbed into the body. It was also believed to provide self-confidence, to enhance fertility, and to re-energize the love between married couples. Jade was said to contain the concentrated essence of love, to relieve thirst, bring rain, and to protect against lightning. Jade drove off evil beasts, helped warriors, strengthened the wearer, enhanced the immune system, and prolonged life. Jade bangles were of particular significance to the ancient Chinese. It was widely believed in ancient China that a bangle would protect its wearer from disaster by absorbing negative influences. For example, if the wearer were caught in an accident, the bangle would break so that its owner would remain unharmed. Another common belief was that a spot of fine color in a bangle would spread across the entire stone, depending upon the good fortune of the owner. Bangles and rings were often made in pairs, in the belief that good things always come in twos. In addition to its use in the production of jewelry and great works of art, Jade was also used as well for medicinal purposes. It was used to ease pain from the kidneys and groin area, and aided in childbirth. In addition to the association with long-life, jade is also regarded as a "lucky charm", and jade charms are a favorite accessory for gamblers to this day. Even Confucius expounded on the virtues of jade. "Like Intelligence, it is smooth and shining. Like Justice, its edges seem sharp but do not cut. Like Humility, it hangs down toward the ground as a pendant. Like Music, it gives a clear ringing sound. Like Truthfulness, it does not hide its faults, and this only adds to its beauty. Like the Earth, its firmness is born of the mountain and the water." Modern practitioners recommend jade as a talisman for those who are trying to change or redirect their lives. As a “stone of change”, it is believed to empower the wearer to break through deadlocks. Jade is also believed to promote family unity, and still believed to prolong long as well. Wearing a jade talisman is believed to attract wealth and prosperity, and to increases the wearer’s sense of self worth and confidence. Meditating with jade is said to sharpen concentration, increase comprehension, and aid in absorbing and retaining intellectual knowledge. The wearing of a talisman by gardening enthusiasts is said to benefit their plants as well as the wearer. Some believe that jade can helps to control the content of our dreams or their focus. Jade is also thought by some to be a very protective stone, particularly good for protecting children against illness or for protection on long journeys. In present-day Asia jade is believed effective in regulating high blood pressure, and in calming emotional outbursts. It is believed an effective treatment for infertility, heart disease, and various disorders of the eye. Contemporary crystal healers believe that jade protects the kidneys, liver, spleen, heart and thyroid gland. Mystics hold that jade is associated with the elemental power of Dragons, and can be used in magic to attract and communicate with them. They believe that jade can help bring visions of Dragons when scrying (with a crystal ball), and that sleeping with the stone can bring magical dreams and help subconscious, intuitive messages rise to the forefront of the user’s mind. HISTORY OF BRONZE: Bronze is the name given to a wide range of alloys of copper, typically mixed in ancient times with zinc, tin, lead, or arsenic. The discovery of bronze enabled people to create metal objects which were better than previously possible. Tools, weapons, armor, and building materials made of bronze were harder and more durable than their stone and copper predecessors from the “Chalcolithic” (the “Copper Age”), i.e., about 7000-3500 B.C., and the Neolithic (“New Stone Age”), i.e. about 12000 to 7000 B.C.). Of particular practical significance were bronze agricultural implements, tools for cutting stone, and weapons. On the other hand, of particular cultural significance was bronze statuary, particularly that of the Romans and Greeks. The ancient Greeks and Romans had a long history of making statuary in bronze. Literally thousands of images of gods and heroes, victorious athletes, statesmen, and philosophers filled temples and sanctuaries, and stood in the public areas of major cities. In fact, the Statue of Zeus at Olympia and the Colossus of Rhodes are two of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Initially bronze was made out of copper and arsenic. It was only later that tin was used, becoming (except in ancient Egypt) the sole type of bronze in the late 3rd millennium B.C. Tin-alloyed bronze was superior to arsenic-alloyed bronze in that the alloying process itself could more easily be controlled, the alloy was stronger and easier to cast, and unlike arsenic, tin is not toxic. Toxicity was a major factor in the production of arsenic bronze. Repeated exposure to arsenic fumes ultimately led to nerve damage in the limbs. Evidence of the long agony of Bronze Age metalsmiths came down to the ancient Greeks and Romans in the form of legend, as the Greek and Roman gods of metalsmiths, Greek Hephaestus and Roman Vulcan, were both lame. In practice historical bronze alloys are highly variable in composition, as most metalworkers probably used whatever scrap was to hand. In one instance of ancient bronze from Britain, analysis showed the bronze to contain a mixture of copper, zinc, tin, lead, nickel, iron, antimony, arsenic, and silver. Other advantages of bronze over iron include that bronze better resists corrosion, particularly seawater corrosion; bronze resists metal fatigue better than iron; and bronze is a better heat conductor (and thus is better suited for cooking vessels). However ancient bronze, unless conserved properly, is susceptible to “bronze disease”, wherein hydrochloric or hydrosulfuric acid is formed due to impurities (cuprous chloride or sulfur) found within the ancient bronze. Traditionally archaeology has maintained that the earliest bronze was produced by the Maikop, a proto-Indo-European, proto-Celtic culture of Caucasus prehistory around 3500 B.C. Recent evidence however suggests that the smelting of bronze might be as much as several thousand years older (bronze artifacts dating from about 4500 B.C. have been unearthed in Thailand). Shortly after the emergence of bronze technology in the Caucasus region, bronze technology emerged in ancient Mesopotamia (Sumer), Egypt, the Indus Valley Civilization of Northern India, the Aegean, the Caspian Steppes (Ukraine), the Southern Russia/Central Mongolia Region (the Altai Mountains), the Levant (Eastern Mediterranean), Anatolia (Turkey) and the Iranian Plateau. By the late third millennium B.C. many Western European Bronze Age Cultures had emerged. Some of the more notable were the Celtic cultures of Middle Europe stretching from Hungary to Poland and Germany, including the Urnfield, Lusatian, and (Iron Age Transitional) Hallstatt Cultures. The Shang in ancient China also developed a significant Bronze Age culture, noted for large bronze burial urns. The ancient Chinese were the first to cast bronze (using the “lost wax” technique) about 2200 B.C. Prior to that time all bronze items were forged. Though weapons and utilitarian items were produced in great numbers, the production of bronze in ancient China was especially noteworthy for ornamented ritualistic/religious vessels (urns, wine vessels, water pots, food containers, and musical instruments), many of immense size. Britain’s Bronze Age cultures included the Beaker, Wessex, Deverl, and Rimbury. Copper and tin ores are rarely found together, so the production of bronze has always involved trade. Cornwall was one of the most significant sources of tin not only for Britain, but exported throughout the Mediterranean. Other significant suppliers of tine were the Taurus Mountains of Anatolia (Turkey), as well as Spain. Enormous amounts of copper was produced from the Great Orme mine in North Wales, the island of Cyprus, the European Alps, and from the Sinai Peninsula and other nearby sites in the Levant. Though much of the raw minerals may have come from Britain, Spain, Anatolia, and the Sinai, it was the Aegean world which controlled the trade in bronze. The great seafaring Minoan Empire (about 2700 to 1450 B.C.) appears to have controlled, coordinated, and defended the trade. Tin and charcoal were imported into Cyprus, where locally mined copper was mined and alloyed with the tin from Britain. Indicative of the seafaring trade in the Eastern Mediterranean, a shipwreck from about 1300 B.C. off the Turkish coast revealed a ship carrying a ton of copper ingots, several dozen small tin ingots, new bronze tools, scrap metal, and a blacksmith's forge and tools (along with luxury trade goods from Africa). It appears that the Bronze Age collapsed with the fall of Minoan Empire, to be replaced by a Dark Age and the eventual rise of the Iron Age Myceneans (on mainland Greece). Evidence suggests that the precipitating event might have been the eruption of Thera (Santorini) and the ensuing tsunami, which was only about 40 miles north of Crete, the capital of the Minoan empire. Some archaeologists argue that it was Santorini itself which was the capitol city of the Minoan World. However where Crete or Santorini, it is known that the bread-basket of the Minoan trading empire, the area north of the Black Sea lost population, and thereafter many Minoan colony/client-states lost large populations to extreme famines or pestilence. Inasmuch as the Minoans were the principals of the tin/copper shipping network throughout the Mediterranean, the Bronze Age trade network is believed to have failed. The end of the Bronze Age and the rise of the Iron Age is normally associated with the disturbances created by large population disruptions in the 12th century B.C. The end of the Bronze Age saw the emergence of new technologies and civilizations which included the large-scale production of iron (and limited scale production of steel). Although iron was in many respects much inferior to bronze (and steel was inefficiently produced in very limited quantities), iron had the advantage that it could be produced using local resources during the dark ages that followed the Minoan collapse, and was very inexpensive when compared to the cost of producing bronze. Bronze was still a superior metal, resisting both corrosion and metal fatigue better than iron. And bronze was still used during the Iron Age, but for many purposes the weaker iron was sufficiently strong to serve in its place. As an example, Roman officers were equipped with bronze swords while foot soldiers had to make do with iron blades. Pliny the Elder, the famous first century Roman historian and naturalist, wrote about the reuse of scrap bronze and copper in Roman foundries, noting that the metals were recast as armor, weapons or articles for personal use, such as bronze mirrors. The melting and recasting foundries were located at the Italian port city of Brindisi. Located on the Adriatic coast, Brindisi was the terminus of the great Appian Way, the Roman road constructed to facilitate trade and military access throughout the Italian part of the Roman Empire. The city was the gateway for Roman penetration into the eastern parts of her empire (Greece, the Eastern Mediterranean, the Black Sea Region, the Danubian Provinces, and eventually Mesopotamia). Domestic shipping (insured first class mail) is included in the price shown. Domestic shipping also includes USPS Delivery Confirmation (you might be able to update the status of your shipment on-line at the USPS Web Site). Canadian shipments are an extra $17.99 for Insured Air Mail; International shipments are an extra $21.99 for Air Mail (and generally are NOT tracked; trackable shipments are EXTRA). ADDITIONAL PURCHASES do receive a VERY LARGE discount, typically about $5 per item so as to reward you for the economies of combined shipping/insurance costs. Your purchase will ordinarily be shipped within 48 hours of payment. We package as well as anyone in the business, with lots of protective padding and containers. We do NOT recommend uninsured shipments, and expressly disclaim any responsibility for the loss of an uninsured shipment. Unfortunately the contents of parcels are easily “lost” or misdelivered by postal employees – even in the USA. If you intend to pay via PayPal, please be aware that PayPal Protection Policies REQUIRE insured, trackable shipments, which is INCLUDED in our price. International tracking is at additional cost. We do offer U.S. Postal Service Priority Mail, Registered Mail, and Express Mail for both international and domestic shipments, as well United Parcel Service (UPS) and Federal Express (Fed-Ex). Please ask for a rate quotation. We will accept whatever payment method you are most comfortable with. If upon receipt of the item you are disappointed for any reason whatever, I offer a no questions asked return policy. Send it back, I will give you a complete refund of the purchase price (less our original shipping costs). Most of the items I offer come from the collection of a family friend who was active in the field of Archaeology for over forty years. However many of the items also come from purchases I make in Eastern Europe, India, and from the Levant (Eastern Mediterranean/Near East) from various institutions and dealers. Though I have always had an interest in archaeology, my own academic background was in sociology and cultural anthropology. After my retirement however, I found myself drawn to archaeology as well. Aside from my own personal collection, I have made extensive and frequent additions of my own via purchases on Ebay (of course), as well as many purchases from both dealers and institutions throughout the world – but especially in the Near East and in Eastern Europe. I spend over half of my year out of the United States, and have spent much of my life either in India or Eastern Europe. In fact much of what we generate on Yahoo, Amazon and Ebay goes to support The Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, as well as some other worthy institutions in Europe connected with Anthropology and Archaeology. I acquire some small but interesting collections overseas from time-to-time, and have as well some duplicate items within my own collection which I occasionally decide to part with. Though I have a collection of ancient coins numbering in the tens of thousands, my primary interest is in ancient jewelry. My wife also is an active participant in the “business” of antique and ancient jewelry, and is from Russia. I would be happy to provide you with a certificate/guarantee of authenticity for any item you purchase from me. There is a $2 fee for mailing under separate cover. Whenever I am overseas I have made arrangements for purchases to be shipped out via domestic mail. If I am in the field, you may have to wait for a week or two for a COA to arrive via international air mail. But you can be sure your purchase will arrive properly packaged and promptly – even if I am absent. And when I am in a remote field location with merely a notebook computer, at times I am not able to access my email for a day or two, so be patient, I will always respond to every email. Please see our "ADDITIONAL TERMS OF SALE."

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