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AD300 Roman Pannonia (Hungary) Bronze Ring Sz9¼ Antique 19thC 8ct Carnelian Gem

CAD 398.69 Buy It Now 21d, CAD 27.90 Shipping, 30-Day Returns

Seller: ancientgifts (4,184) 99.3%, Location: Lummi Island, Washington, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 381792725298 TRANSLATE Arabic Chinese French German Greek Indonesian Italian Hindi Japanese Korean Swedish Portuguese Russian Spanish Your browser does not support JavaScript. To view this page, enable JavaScript if it is disabled or upgrade your browser. Click here to see 1,000 archaeology/ancient history books and 2,000 ancient artifacts, antique gemstones, antique jewelry! Very Elegant Size 9 1/4 Genuine Ancient Roman Bronze Ring 300 A.D. CLASSIFICATION: Ancient Roman Bronze Ring. Antique Handcrafted Nineteenth Century Orange Carnelian Semi-Precious Gemstone. ATTRIBUTION: Eastern Roman Empire (Provincial Pannonia – present-day Hungary), Third or Fourth Century A.D. SIZE/MEASUREMENTS: Fits ring size 9 1/4 (U.S.). Diameter: 22mm * 21mm (outer dimensions excluding gemstone); 20mm * 19mm (inner diameter). Bezel: 16mm (breadth) * 12mm (height), excluding gemstone. Gemstone: 18mm (breadth) * 13mm (height) * 4mm (thickness). 8.15 carats (approximate weight). Tapered Width Band: 13mm (at bezel) * 2 1/2mm (at sides) * 2mm (at back). Weight: 3.65 grams (without gemstone). CONDITION: Excellent! Completely intact, moderate to moderately-heavy wear consistent with frequent usage, modest porosity (surface pitting caused by contact with earth while buried). Professionally conserved. DETAIL: A nicely styled Roman bronze ring of a simple “solitaire” design, with a raised, six-sided platform bezel, of a bold size and character, which originally held a gemstone. The ring was not actually recovered with the gemstone intact, however usually this style of bronze ring was set either with a glass gemstone (glass was quite costly) or with some form of quartz crystal; i.e. clear quartz, orange quartz (“carnelian”), or purple quartz (“amethyst”). The ring is of heavy and durable one-piece construction, much like a contemporary ring. The more archaic rings produced by Roman artisans were characteristically made in two pieces; an incomplete ring (a “shank”) with a separately crafted bezel which was brazed to the shank in order to assemble the ring. It is quite likely that the ring was worn most of a lifetime, as it would take most of a life time to wear down the raised platform bezel to the extent evidenced. In fact the extent of the wear is significant enough that it suggests that the ring might have been worn during the lifetime of more than one owner. Perhaps it was a family heirloom handed down between generations. The ring was not recovered with the original gemstone it was created with. However clearly it once held a gemstone, and the empty cavity seemed to invite the remounting of a gemstone. So we mounted a large, natural, antique, handcrafted orange quartz carnelian semi-precious gemstone using jeweler’s epoxy. The gemstone is quite secure, but if you at time in the future wished to remove it, this could easily be accomplished using some thinner or nail polish remover. We reset the ring with an orange carnelian so as to preserve a sense of continuity. Carnelian is an orange-colored form of quartz which was enormously popular with the Romans, Greeks, Egyptians, Phoenicians, Sumerians, etc. Orange carnelian, blue lapis lazuli, and green turquoise were the “big three” gemstones of antiquity. This particular gemstone was mined in India, source for much of the ancient world’s carnelian, and was handcrafted by a Russian artisan into this beautiful eight (plus) carat gemstone in nineteenth century Yekaterinburg, Russia, home of one of Russia’s most famous gemstone and jewelry production centers, famous for producing the elaborate jewelry of Czarist Russia. The gemstone is not particularly valuable, but it is very beautiful and compliments the ring nicely. Fate has been kind, and the ring has been preserved in wonderful condition. Of course the ring does evidence some fairly substantial all-over wear. However this should not be a source for disappointment. You must keep in mind that the ring was produced by an artisan and sold to a patron or consumer with the idea that the ring would be enjoyed and worn by the purchaser. And without any regard to twenty-first century posterity, that precisely what happened! The original Roman owner of this ring wore it, enjoyed it, and probably never could have in his most delusional moment ever dreamed that a thousand years into the future their ring would still exist. It should likewise come as no surprise that also detectable are the telltale signs that the ring spent thousands of years in the soil. Porosity is fine surface pitting (oxidation, corrosion) caused by extended burial in caustic soil. Many small ancient metal artifacts such as this are extensively disfigured and suffer substantial degradation as a consequence of the ordeal of being buried for millennia. It is not at all unusual to find metal artifacts decomposed to the point where they are not much more substantial than discolored patterns in the soil. Actually most smaller ancient artifacts such as this are so badly oxidized that oftentimes all that is left is a green (bronze) or red (iron) stain in the soil, or an artifact which crumbles in your hand. However this specimen is not so heavily afflicted, and certainly has not been disfigured. To the casual inspection of the casual admirer, it simply looks like an ancient ring, nicely surfaced, no immediately discernible blemishes. You have to look fairly closely to detect the telltale signs indicating the ring was buried for millennia. No denying, there is oxidation. However the extent is very modest. This ring spent almost 2,000 years buried, yet by good fortune there is only a fairly moderate degree of porosity evidenced. It happened to come to rest in reasonably gentle soil conditions. Consequentially, the integrity of the artifact remains undiminished, and despite the wear, the rings remains quite handsome, and entirely wearable. The ring is almost modern and quite distinctive in appearance, a classic and timeless design. The ring has a very nice medium bronze, almost “golden” tone, unmistakably bronze, but very attractive. The Romans were of course very fond of ornate personal jewelry including bracelets worn both on the forearm and upper arm, brooches, pendants, hair pins, earrings intricate fibulae and belt buckles, and of course, rings. This is an exceptional piece of Roman jewelry, a very handsome artifact, and eminently wearable. Aside from being significant to the history of ancient jewelry, it is also an evocative relic of one of the world’s greatest civilizations and than ancient world’s most significant military machine; the glory and light which was known as the “Roman Empire”. ANCIENT ROMAN HISTORY: One of the greatest civilizations of recorded history was the ancient Roman Empire. The Roman civilization, in relative terms the greatest military power in the history of the world, was founded in the 8th century (B.C.) on seven hills alongside Italy’s Tiber River. By the 4th Century (B.C.) the Romans were the dominant power on the Italian Peninsula, having defeated the Etruscans, Celts, Latins, and Greek Italian colonies. In the 3rd Century (B.C.) the Romans conquered Sicily, and in the following century defeated Carthage, and controlled Greece. Throughout the remainder of the 2nd Century (B.C.) the Roman Empire continued its gradual conquest of the Hellenistic (Greek Colonial) World by conquering Syria and Macedonia; and finally came to control Egypt and much of the Near East and Levant (Holy Land) in the 1st Century (B.C.). The pinnacle of Roman power was achieved in the 1st Century (A.D.) as Rome conquered much of Britain and Western Europe. At its peak, the Roman Empire stretched from Britain in the West, throughout most of Western, Central, and Eastern Europe, and into Asia Minor. For a brief time, the era of “Pax Romana”, a time of peace and consolidation reigned. Civilian emperors were the rule, and the culture flourished with a great deal of liberty enjoyed by the average Roman Citizen. However within 200 years the Roman Empire was in a state of steady decay, attacked by Germans, Goths, and Persians. The decline was temporarily halted by third century Emperor Diocletian. In the 4th Century (A.D.) the Roman Empire was split between East and West. The Great Emperor Constantine again managed to temporarily arrest the decay of the Empire, but within a hundred years after his death the Persians captured Mesopotamia, Vandals infiltrated Gaul and Spain, and the Goths even sacked Rome itself. Most historians date the end of the Western Roman Empire to 476 (A.D.) when Emperor Romulus Augustus was deposed. However the Eastern Roman Empire (The Byzantine Empire) survived until the fall of Constantinople in 1453 A.D. In the ancient world valuables such as coins and jewelry were commonly buried for safekeeping, and inevitably the owners would succumb to one of the many perils of the ancient world. Oftentimes the survivors of these individuals did not know where the valuables had been buried, and today, thousands of years later (occasionally massive) caches of coins and rings are still commonly uncovered throughout Europe and Asia Minor. Throughout history these treasures have been inadvertently discovered by farmers in their fields, uncovered by erosion, and the target of unsystematic searches by treasure seekers. With the introduction of metal detectors and other modern technologies to Eastern Europe in the past three or four decades, an amazing number of new finds are seeing the light of day thousands of years after they were originally hidden by their past owners. And with the liberalization of post-Soviet Eastern Europe in the 1990’s, significant new sources opened eager to share these ancient treasures. THE HISTORY OF ROMAN PANNONIA: Pannonia was an ancient province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, bordering Noricum and upper Italy to the west, and Dalmatia and upper Moesia to the south. Pannonia occupied lands which are now parts of present-day western Hungary, eastern Austria, northern Croatia, and what was formerly Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia (north-western Serbia, Slovenia, western Slovakia, as well as northern Bosnia and Herzegovina). The name “Pannonia” comes from the Illyrian word for swamp. The first known inhabitants Pannonia were the Pannonii, a group of Indo-European tribes related to the Illyrians. From Roman accounts historians know that from the fourth century BC onward Pannonia was invaded by various Celtic tribes. Little more of the history of Pannonia is known up until their conflict with the Romans when under Octavius Augustus. The Pannonii, who had been allied with the Dalmatians, were subdued by the Romans in 9 BC, and were incorporated into the Roman Province of Illyricum, which extended as far as the Danube. However in AD 6, the Pannonians, allied with the Dalmatians and other Illyrian tribes, engaged in the so-called Great Illyrian Revolt. The rebellion was crushed by by forces of the Roman Emperors Tiberius and Germanicus in AD 9, and the province of Illyricum was dissolved. Illyricum was divided between the new provinces of Pannonia in the north and Dalmatia in the south. With dangerous barbarian tribes (the Quadi and Marcomanni) on the borders, numerous fortresses were built on the bank of the Danube and seven Roman legions were stationed near provincial frontiers. Sometime between the First and Second Dacian Wars (likely between 102 and 107 AD the Emperor Trajan divided Pannonia west and east, into Pannonia Superior (west) and Pannonia Inferior. The two provinces were sometimes collectively referred to by the Romans as “Pannoniae” (“the Pannonias”). Eventually the frontier on the Danube was protected by the establishment of the two colonies Aelia Mursia and Aelia Aquincum by Emperor Hadrian. Emperor Diocletian divided Pannonia into four provinces, and moved a portion (part of present-day Slovenia) out of Pannonia and it was incorporated into Noricum. In 324 AD the Emperor Constantine I extended the borders of Roman Pannonia to the east, annexing the plains of what is now eastern Hungary, northern Serbia and western Romania. In the fourth and fifth century Pannonia was enlarged to include the former provinces of Dalmatia, Noricum Mediterraneum and Noricum Ripensis. While a Roman Province Pannonia was fairly productive, especially after the great forests had been cleared during the reigns of the Roman Emperors Probus and Galerius. Much timber was harvested, as were oats and barley, from which the inhabitants brewed a beer named “sabaea”. Pannonia was also famous for its breed of hunting dogs. Although no mention is made of its mineral wealth by the ancients, and it is believed that mines produced iron and silver. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Pannonia was ceded to the Huns by the Roman Emperor Theodosius II during the middle of the fifth century. After the death of Attila, Pannonia passed into the hands of the Ostrogoths for a century (into the sixth century), and then into the control of the Lombards (from about 530 to 568 AD). The Eastern Roman Empire controlled it for a very short as the Byzantine province of Pannonia, but it was only a small south-eastern part of historical Pannonia. In the late sixth century Pannonia was then invaded by the Avars, then shortly thereafter was controlled by the Slavs, and finally conquered by the Franks. During the eight and ninth century the Slavs controlled what became known as “Lower Pannonia”, the Franks “Upper Pannonia”. CARNELIAN HISTORY: Aside from pearls, which were "discovered" as gemstones by prehistoric man, carnelian, turquoise, and lapis lazuli are the oldest gemstones utilized in the manufacture of jewelry. Carnelian is a translucent form of (chalcedony) quartz, and ranges in color from yellow to a deep red, the color due to the presence of iron oxide. Some of the most ancient examples of jewelry included carnelian. Queen Pu-abi's tomb at Ur in Sumeria dated from the 3rd millennium B.C. In the crypt the upper part of the queen's body was covered with a robe made of gold, silver, lapis lazuli, carnelian, agate, and chalcedony beads. In ancient Egyptian jewelry the use of gold was predominant, and it was generally complemented by the use of three colors of carnelian, as well as turquoise, and lapis lazuli. For example the orange accents in the famous mask of Tutankhamun were provided by carnelian gemstones. The blood red varieties of carnelian gained great popularity in the ancient world, and were widely used to produce engraved gemstones. Intaglio-incised carving was probably first used to produce seals. The art form is believed to have originated in southern Mesopotamia, and was highly developed by the 4th millennium B.C. The source for most carnelian in the early Mediterranean were simply gemstones found on the surface of the Egyptian and Arabian deserts. However by the first millennium B.C., carnelian was coming to the Mediterranean from India. The gemstones would reached the Mediterranean either via the Silk Route (if overland) or if by sea, they would have crossed the Arabian and Red Sea by ship, then overland to Alexandria in Egypt, before being distributed by trade across and around the Mediterranean. The ancient Indians were very fond of carnelian. Long beads in excess of 12cm in length (6 inches) were very popular with the Indus Valley populations (present-day Punjab), specimens having been excavated by archaeologists which date back to before 2,000 B.C. By 1700 B.C. the Minoans (of ancient Crete) had established trade routes from Knossos to Turkey, Cyprus, Egypt, Afghanistan, and Scandinavia. Carnelian was one of their major trade goods, along with amethyst, lapis lazuli, and gold. Even as far away as Japan carnelian has been found in Iron Age burials. In earthquake-prone lands such as Babylon and Greece, carnelian served as a talisman of good luck. An ancient saying went: "no man who wore a carnelian was ever found in a collapsed house or beneath a fallen wall." Carnelian was mentioned a number of times in the ancient Egyptian “Book of the Dead”. A "tet" amulet made of carnelian was placed on a mummy's neck to protect the soul of the departed in the afterlife. The amulet was consecrated by steeping it overnight in flower-water, after which it was empowered by reciting the appropriate spell from the Book of the Dead over it. The ancient Egyptians often referred to carnelian as “the blood of Isis”. According to legend, the goddess Isis shed tears of blood upon the death of her husband, Osiris. The tears turned into carnelian, which she then shaped into a tet amulet. Isis placed the tet around the neck of Osiris to protect her husband as he journeyed to the underworld. In Egyptian mythology Isis was the equivalent of the universal mother-goddess found in virtually all civilizations, and was worshipped as the mother of Ra. Isis was the sister of Osiris (who was also her husband), Nepthys and Seth, the daughter of Nut and Geb and the mother of Horus, the winged Falcon God. Other early Mediterranean cultures as well believed that carnelian would protect the deceased in the journey between this world and the next. Carnelian was also believed an aid to astral travel in ancient Egypt, and Siberian shamans believed likewise. Ancient shamans believed that carnelian boosted all psychic and magical powers, especially intuitive gifts like psychometry, dowsing, clairvoyance, and astral travel. Carnelian was also widely used throughout the ancient Sumerian, Babylonian, Assyrian, Minoan and Phoenician worlds, as well as in ancient Greece, Rome, and Persia for the carving of intaglio gemstones for signet rings and other seals used by dignitaries and merchants to authenticate documents with their own unique personal “signature”. Many of the intaglio carnelian rings and signets produced by ancient Roman and Greek craftsmen and still in existence today, have retained their high polish better than many harder stones. A particularly noteworthy collection is housed at The Hermitage in St. Petersburg, Russia. Carnelian was probably the favorite gemstone for Roman artisans as they produced the intaglio gemstones so popular in signet rings. Aside from being quite beautiful, carnelian seals and signets had the practical advantage of not sticking to wax. The ancient Mediterranean cultures, particularly the Romans, recommended carnelian gemstones for those of weak voice or timid on speech. It was also thought to give courage to those who wore the gemstone, and also to provide a positive influence on the reproductive system. As with amber, ancient Romans believed that the darker carnelian represented males and the lighter carnelian, females. In the world of the ancient Mediterranean, carnelian was also believed to be strong protection from the evil eye, referring to the almost universal belief in the ancient world that some evil sorcerers or witches had the ability to transmit evil with just a glance. The ancient Muslims also believed carnelian to protect against the evil eye, as well as bringing happiness to the owner. Carnelian was called “the Mecca stone”. Legend has it that Mohammad's seal was an engraved carnelian set in a silver ring, quite possible since carnelian was often used for signet seals. In ancient Islam carnelian stones were also engraved it with the name of Allah to promote courage in the wearer. In ancient Tibet, it was believed that the seven treasures of material wealth were gold, silver, lapis lazuli, seashell, agate, pearl, and carnelian. Carnelian was used during the Middle Ages to enhance fertility, requiring that it be worn both by the male and female for those couples seeking a child. It was also believed to protect from miscarriage during pregnancy. The Medieval Christian Mystic Saint Hildegard recorded that carnelian was used to relieve headaches and as a child-birthing aid. In the Renaissance era cameos were frequently carved of carnelian in the belief that it would ward off depression and insanity. It was also believed that carnelian set in jewelry would help overcome shyness or social inhibitions. Napoleon is said to have carried a carnelian amulet he found in Egypt, as a talisman, echoing the ancient belief that carnelian would bring victory to the wearer in all contests except love. Like earlier civilizations, medieval Europe believed carnelian to be a powerful healer, using it as a remedy for bleeding wounds. A leading medical treatise of the 17th century said of carnelian, “the powder is good to drink against all infections. Carried about, it makes cheerful minds, expels fear, makes courage, destroys and prevents fascinations and defends the body against all poisons. It stops blood by a peculiar property; and bound to the belly keeps up the birth.” “Carnelian" gets its name from the Latin "cornum" (cornel berry or carnelian cherry). The color of carnelian, which can range from yellow to orange to red and even to brown, is due to the presence of ferric oxide (iron). If the ferric oxides become hydrated, i.e., the stone absorbs moisture, the stone will be more yellow or brown. Conversely, if excess moisture is removed, it will become more red (which explains why it was often heated in the ancient world, even if by laying it out in the sun, so as to enhance the red hues). Carnelian is also fluorescent, showing under ultra violet light either a light blue or yellow-green coloration. Throughout the history of the ancient world, gemstones were believed capable of curing illness, possessed of valuable metaphysical properties, and to provide protection. Found in Egypt dated 1500 B.C., the "Papyrus Ebers" offered one of most complete therapeutic manuscripts containing prescriptions using gemstones and minerals. Gemstones were not only valued for their medicinal and protective properties, but also for educational and spiritual enhancement. In the ancient world carnelian had many medicinal applications, believed useful in the treatment of open wounds, sores, spasms, fever, infections, nose bleeds, arthritis, and even infertility. It was also believed that a carnelian worn about a woman’s neck would relieve cramps. Carnelian was also believed to relieve back pain, arthritis, fight infections, as well as to improve circulation to help purify the blood. On the metaphysical plane, it was widely believed in Medieval Europe that a carnelian amulet would protect the home from fire and misfortune. It was also believed helpful in finding the right mate, and to help wearers achieve the perfect balance between creativity and mental processing (left and right hemisphere functions), and thus a useful aid for daydreamers and the absent-minded. Carnelian was also worn to enhance passion, desire, and sexuality. Domestic shipping (insured first class mail) is included in the price shown. Domestic shipping also includes USPS Delivery Confirmation (you might be able to update the status of your shipment on-line at the USPS Web Site). Canadian shipments are an extra $16.99 for Insured Air Mail; International shipments are an extra $20.99 for Air Mail (and generally are NOT tracked; trackable shipments are EXTRA). ADDITIONAL PURCHASES do receive a VERY LARGE discount, typically about $5 per item so as to reward you for the economies of combined shipping/insurance costs. Your purchase will ordinarily be shipped within 48 hours of payment. We package as well as anyone in the business, with lots of protective padding and containers. We do NOT recommend uninsured shipments, and expressly disclaim any responsibility for the loss of an uninsured shipment. Unfortunately the contents of parcels are easily “lost” or misdelivered by postal employees – even in the USA. If you intend to pay via PayPal, please be aware that PayPal Protection Policies REQUIRE insured, trackable shipments, which is why we include insurance and a USPS Delivery Confirmation at no extra charge. We do offer U.S. Postal Service Priority Mail, Registered Mail, and Express Mail for both international and domestic shipments, as well United Parcel Service (UPS) and Federal Express (Fed-Ex). Please ask for a rate quotation. We will accept whatever payment method you are most comfortable with. If upon receipt of the item you are disappointed for any reason whatever, I offer a no questions asked return policy. Send it back, I will give you a complete refund of the purchase price (less our original shipping costs). Most of the items I offer come from the collection of a family friend who was active in the field of Archaeology for over forty years. However many of the items also come from purchases I make in Eastern Europe, India, and from the Levant (Eastern Mediterranean/Near East) from various institutions and dealers. Though I have always had an interest in archaeology, my own academic background was in sociology and cultural anthropology. After my retirement however, I found myself drawn to archaeology as well. Aside from my own personal collection, I have made extensive and frequent additions of my own via purchases on Ebay (of course), as well as many purchases from both dealers and institutions throughout the world – but especially in the Near East and in Eastern Europe. I spend over half of my year out of the United States, and have spent much of my life either in India or Eastern Europe. In fact much of what we generate on Yahoo, Amazon and Ebay goes to support The Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, as well as some other worthy institutions in Europe connected with Anthropology and Archaeology. I acquire some small but interesting collections overseas from time-to-time, and have as well some duplicate items within my own collection which I occasionally decide to part with. Though I have a collection of ancient coins numbering in the tens of thousands, my primary interest is in ancient jewelry. My wife also is an active participant in the “business” of antique and ancient jewelry, and is from Russia. I would be happy to provide you with a certificate/guarantee of authenticity for any item you purchase from me. There is a $2 fee for mailing under separate cover. Whenever I am overseas I have made arrangements for purchases to be shipped out via domestic mail. If I am in the field, you may have to wait for a week or two for a COA to arrive via international air mail. But you can be sure your purchase will arrive properly packaged and promptly – even if I am absent. And when I am in a remote field location with merely a notebook computer, at times I am not able to access my email for a day or two, so be patient, I will always respond to every email. Please see our "ADDITIONAL TERMS OF SALE."

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