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Ancient Roman Thracia (Bulgaria Serbia) Engraved Marquise Shape Ring AD350 Sz 8

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Seller: ancientgifts (4,186) 99.3%, Location: Lummi Island, Washington, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 122138720827 TRANSLATE Arabic Chinese French German Greek Indonesian Italian Hindi Japanese Korean Swedish Portuguese Russian Spanish Your browser does not support JavaScript. To view this page, enable JavaScript if it is disabled or upgrade your browser. Click here to see 1,000 archaeology/ancient history books and 2,000 ancient artifacts, antique gemstones, antique jewelry! Size 8 1/2 Genuine Ancient Engraved Marquise/Diamond-Shaped Roman Bronze Ring Fourth Century A.D. CLASSIFICATION: Ancient Roman Bronze Ring with Engraved Marquise (Diamond) Shaped Bezel. ATTRIBUTION: Eastern Roman Empire (Thracia), Fourth Century A.D. SIZE/MEASUREMENTS: Fits ring size 8 1/2 (U.S.). Bezel: 17mm (length) * 10mm (height). Tapered Width Band: 4mm (at bezel) * 2mm (at back). Diameter: 21mm (outer diameter); 19mm (inner diameter). Weight: 2.40 grams. CONDITION: Exceptionally nice! Completely intact, moderate heavy wear consistent with extended (ancient) usage. Very little porosity (surface pitting caused by contact with earth while buried). Professionally conserved. DETAIL: Here's an exceptionally well preserved bronze ring circa fourth century A.D. The ring shows a lot of wear, but the state of preservation is remarkable. As you can clearly see, the ring possesses a very elegant marquise or diamond shaped bezel accented with notches where the bezel joins the bands. The surface of the bezel bears a fascinating engraved geometric design, almost abstract in character. The design has been worn down to the point where it is very faint, and difficult to image. Nonetheless the engraved design can still be discerned, especially when the ring is held at an angle where the light plays over the design. It is quite unusual, and really intriguing. The engraved bezel is worn down to such an extent that one can't help but believe that this ring was worn for multiple lifetimes - handed down from generation to generation. Despite the wear, the ring is in marvelous condition. It was built of generous and substantial proportions, so remains intact, integrity unimpaired. Though it is unfortunate that one cannot be certain what the engraved design one was intended to portray beyond a merely a pleasing geometric design (in itself quite popular in the later years of Imperial Rome), one must nonetheless understand that the ring was produced with the intent that some ancient citizen of the Roman Empire wear and enjoy the ring. And that they certainly did! The ring was produced using the more modern technique of producing both bands and bezel in one integral piece, the same way virtually all modern bands are produced. The more archaic style, which was still in use even for centuries beyond the production of this ring, was to produce the bezel and band separately and then join them. Inasmuch as this ring was produced in a single piece, it has a modern and stylish appearance despite the fact it is sixteen or seventeen centuries in age. It is the dark, rich tone characteristic of ancient bronze, the metal surfaces glowing and still with good polish. This is an exceptional piece of Roman jewelry, a very handsome artifact, eminently wearable, and even under a jeweler's loop or magnifying glass, there is little discernable degradation due to corrosion, oxidation, porosity - you have to look very closely to see any of the telltale signs indicating the ring was buried for millennia. Most small artifacts such as this suffer extensive degradation from porosity, which is fine surface pitting caused by prolonged burial in caustic soil. This ring spent over 1,700 years buried, yet by good fortune there is very little porosity evidenced. It happened to come to rest in very gentle soil conditions. So the surface condition of the metal is simply remarkable. The ring is quite bold and handsome, and although it shows some wear, it is entirely intact, ruggedly constructed, and could be and enjoyed without risk to the artifact. The Romans were of course very fond of jewelry, oftentimes wearing a ring on each finger - and sometimes even on both the second and third joint of each finger. They also had a fondness for many other forms of personal jewelry including bracelets worn both on the forearm and upper arm, belt buckles, chains, pendants, earrings, hair pins, and brooches. This ring could easily be worn and enjoyed on a daily basis, an authentic "souvenir" of the Roman Empire. Almost two thousand years after it was originally produced, it could still bring its next owner many decades of wearing enjoyment. ANCIENT ROMAN HISTORY: One of the greatest civilizations of recorded history was the ancient Roman Empire. The Roman civilization, in relative terms the greatest military power in the history of the world, was founded in the 8th century (B.C.) on seven hills alongside Italy’s Tiber River. By the 4th Century (B.C.) the Romans were the dominant power on the Italian Peninsula, having defeated the Etruscans, Celts, Latins, and Greek Italian colonies. In the 3rd Century (B.C.) the Romans conquered Sicily, and in the following century defeated Carthage, and controlled Greece. Throughout the remainder of the 2nd Century (B.C.) the Roman Empire continued its gradual conquest of the Hellenistic (Greek Colonial) World by conquering Syria and Macedonia; and finally came to control Egypt and much of the Near East and Levant (Holy Land) in the 1st Century (B.C.). The pinnacle of Roman power was achieved in the 1st Century (A.D.) as Rome conquered much of Britain and Western Europe. At its peak, the Roman Empire stretched from Britain in the West, throughout most of Western, Central, and Eastern Europe, and into Asia Minor. For a brief time, the era of “Pax Romana”, a time of peace and consolidation reigned. Civilian emperors were the rule, and the culture flourished with a great deal of liberty enjoyed by the average Roman Citizen. However within 200 years the Roman Empire was in a state of steady decay, attacked by Germans, Goths, and Persians. The decline was temporarily halted by third century Emperor Diocletian. In the 4th Century (A.D.) the Roman Empire was split between East and West. The Great Emperor Constantine again managed to temporarily arrest the decay of the Empire, but within a hundred years after his death the Persians captured Mesopotamia, Vandals infiltrated Gaul and Spain, and the Goths even sacked Rome itself. Most historians date the end of the Western Roman Empire to 476 (A.D.) when Emperor Romulus Augustus was deposed. However the Eastern Roman Empire (The Byzantine Empire) survived until the fall of Constantinople in 1453 A.D. In the ancient world valuables such as coins and jewelry were commonly buried for safekeeping, and inevitably the owners would succumb to one of the many perils of the ancient world. Oftentimes the survivors of these individuals did not know where the valuables had been buried, and today, thousands of years later (occasionally massive) caches of coins and rings are still commonly uncovered throughout Europe and Asia Minor. Throughout history these treasures have been inadvertently discovered by farmers in their fields, uncovered by erosion, and the target of unsystematic searches by treasure seekers. With the introduction of metal detectors and other modern technologies to Eastern Europe in the past three or four decades, an amazing number of new finds are seeing the light of day thousands of years after they were originally hidden by their past owners. And with the liberalization of post-Soviet Eastern Europe, new sources have opened eager to share in these ancient treasures. HISTORY OF THRACE: The indigenous population of ancient Thrace were Indo-Europeans who spoke their own language and whom archaeologists believe originated in the area of the Black Sea around 5,000 B.C. Ancient Greek mythology provides them with a mythical ancestor, named Thrax, son of the war-god Ares, who was said to reside in Thrace. In geographical terms, historically Thrace has generally been bounded by the Balkan Mountains or the Danube on the north, Rhodope Mountains, ancient Macedonia and the Aegean Sea on the south, by the ancient lands of Illyria to the west, and by the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara on the east. Thrace included areas of present day Bulgaria, Northeastern Greece, Eastern Serbia, Macedonia, and northwest Turkey. Divided into separate tribes, the Thracians did not form a lasting political kingdom until the Odrysian and Dacian States were founded in the early fourth century B.C. Like Illyrians, Thracian tribes of the mountainous regions fostered a locally ruled warrior tradition, while the tribes based in the plains were purportedly more peaceable. Ancient Greek and Roman historians agreed that the ancient Thracians, who were of Indo-European stock and language, were superior fighters; only their constant political fragmentation prevented them from overrunning the lands around the northeastern Mediterranean. Although these historians characterized the Thracians as primitive partly because they lived in simple, open villages, the Thracians in fact had a fairly advanced culture that was especially noted for its poetry and music. At its greatest extent Thrace extended beyond the Danube to the north (Ancient Dacia and Pannonia, present day Moldova and Romania) and to Southern Russia and the Ukraine to the East. The Thracians were capable of wielding an army of 150,000, and threatened even regional powerhouse Macedonia until both were conquered by the Persians under Darius the Great. Thereafter their soldiers were valued as mercenaries, particularly by the Macedonians and Romans. The Thracians were to fall under the cultural influence of the ancient Greeks, though as non-Greek speakers, they were viewed by the Greeks (and subsequently the Romans) as barbarians. The Greeks founded Thracian coastal colonies as early as the sixth century B.C. The the most notable was Byzantium. Others were on the Bosporus, Propontis, and Thracian Chersonese peninsula. On the Aegean were Abdera near the Néstos delta and Aenus near Alexandroúpoli. Farther north on the Black Sea’s Gulf of Burgas, the Milesians founded Apollonia (7th century BC), and the Chalcedonians founded Mesembria (at the end of the 6th century BC). Homer’s Iliad records that the Thracians had agreed to fight on the side of the Mycenaean Greeks in the Trojan War. However according to the account the Thracians did not fulfill this promise, instead allying with the Trojans. In the Odyssey, Odysseus and his men raided Thrace on their way back home from the war. This was to punish them for their "cowardice", as the Odyssey puts it. Many mythical figures, such as the god Dionysus, princess Europa, and the hero Orpheus were borrowed by the Greeks from their Thracian neighbors. The Thracians were described by Roman Historian Herodotus as the second most numerous of peoples, after the Indians, and potentially the most powerful, and he suggested that the extent of the lands they inhabited and controlled would have made them a vast empire, if they were united. Thrace is also mentioned in Ovid's Metamorphoses. Thrace was to fall to the great Persian armies of Darius the Great in the late sixth century B.C., and subsequently to Alexander the Great in the fourth century B.C. Thracian troops then accompanied Alexander the Great when he crossed the Hellespont which abuts Thrace and invaded the Persian Empire. Thereafter Thrace was ruled by the Macedonians until Macedonia was stripped of its territories after its third war with the Romans. After the conclusion of the “Third Macedonian War”, Thrace was ruled directly by Rome as a client state. Thrace became increasing Hellenized after the conquests of Alexander the Great and through Roman times. In fact there were a number notable ancient Greeks who were actually of Thracian origin. These include Democritus (460-370 BC), who was a Greek philosopher and mathematician from Abdera, Thrace. His main contribution to the science of the ancient world was the atomic theory, the belief that all matter is made up of various imperishable indivisible elements which he called atoms. Protagoras was also from from Abdera, Thrace (490–420 BC.). Protagoras was a eminent philosopher, an expert in rhetorics and subjects connected to virtue and political life. Protagoras is regarded by many the ancient world’s first sophist. He is known primarily for his claims that man is the measure of all things, often interpreted as a sort of moral relativism; that he could make the "worse (or weaker) argument appear the better (or stronger)" (“sophism”); and that one could not tell if the gods existed or not (“agnosticism”). Another famous ancient Greek of Thracian origin was Herodicus, a fifth century BC Greek physician who is considered the founder of sports medicine. He is believed to have been one of Hippocrates' tutors. As a Roman Province, Thrace was somewhat smaller in geographical terms (compared to what originally had been “Thracia”) as it had lost some of its northern territory to the Macedonians. In 197 BC Rome had assigned much of Thrace to the kingdom of Pergamum, though the coastal area west of the Maritsa was annexed to the Roman province of Macedonia. In the first century BC Rome became more directly involved in the affairs of the whole region due to the dynastic quarrels among the local Thracian rulers, who had by then become client kings of Rome. The constant squabbling prompted the Emperor Claudius to annex the entire Thracian kingdom in 46 AD. Thrace was subsequently made into a Roman province. The Emperor Trajan and his successor, Hadrian, founded cities in Thrace, notably Sardica (modern Sofia) and Hadrianopolis (modern Edirne). Several Roman Thracians of note included Spartacus, who was a Thracian auxiliary soldier in the Roman army who deserted but was captured and then enslaved by the Romans. Spartacus led a large slave uprising in what is now Italy in 73–71 BC. His army of escaped gladiators and slaves defeated several Roman legions in what is known as the “Third Servile War”. Another famous Roman Thracian was Belisarius, one of the most successful Generals of the Roman Empire. Belisarius was born in the borderlands between Thrace and Illyria. As well, a number of Roman Emperors of the third through fifth centuries were Thracians (Maximinus Thrax, Licinius, Galerius, Aureolus, Leo the Thracian, etc.). All of these emperors gained the through as a culmination of their military careers, arising from the status of a common soldier in one of the Roman legions, ultimately achieving the apex of political power within the Roman Empire as Augustus. About 300 AD, Diocletian reorganized the area between the Lower Danube and the Aegean into the Diocese of Thrace. The reforms of Diocletian had reorganized the Roman Empire into smaller provinces. What was once Thracia was subdivided into six small provinces which constituted the Diocese of Thrace. From the third through the seventh century Provincial Thrace was greatly affected by repeated Gothic, Visigothic, and Slavic invasions and immigrations. By the mid fifth century as the Roman Empire began to crumble Thracia fell from the authority of Rome and into the hands of Germanic “barbarian” tribes. With the fall of Rome Thracia turned into a battleground territory for the better part of the next 1,000 years. The successor of the Roman Empire on the Balkans, the Byzantine (or Eastern Roman) Empire retained some control over some portion(s) of Thrace. However Medieval/Byzantine Thrace was small, only the eastern portion of what had been ancient Thrace. Though initially the Byzantines kept control of the region, in the seventh century the Bulgarian state was founded from what had been Roman Moesia, and Byzantium subsequently lost all Thrace north of the Balkan Mountains to the Bulgarians. From the beginning of the ninth century the control of Thrace alternated between the Byzantine Empire and Bulgaria. Byzantium regained much of the regional territory in the late tenth century and retained it for several centuries until near the end of the twelfth century the Bulgarians regained control. Throughout the thirteenth century and into the first half of the fourteenth century the region was constantly changing hands back and forth between the Bulgarians and the Byzantine Empire, except for a brief interlude when in 1265AD the area suffered a Mongol raid from the Golden Horde, led by Nogai Khan. Racked by Byzantine civil wars in the 14th century up until the eventual fall of Byzantium in 1453 AD, Thrace fell piece by piece to the Ottoman Turks, who ruled it for four centuries thereafter. In 1878, Northern Thrace was incorporated into the semi-autonomous Ottoman province of Eastern Rumelia, which united with Bulgaria in 1885. With the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire, the rest of Thrace was divided among Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey. Today Thracian is a geographical term used in Greece, Turkey and Bulgaria. Recently Bulgarian archaeologists have made monumental discoveries of Royal Thracian burials dating back to the fifth through third centuries B.C. in what has become known as the “Thracian Valley of the Kings”. Other archaeological highlights include the ancient city of Abdera as well as the remains of the Roman highway called the Via Egnatia. HISTORY OF BRONZE: Bronze is the name given to a wide range of alloys of copper, typically mixed in ancient times with zinc, tin, lead, or arsenic. The discovery of bronze enabled people to create metal objects which were better than previously possible. Tools, weapons, armor, and building materials made of bronze were harder and more durable than their stone and copper predecessors from the “Chalcolithic” (the “Copper Age”), i.e., about 7000-3500 B.C., and the Neolithic (“New Stone Age”), i.e. about 12000 to 7000 B.C.). Of particular practical significance were bronze agricultural implements, tools for cutting stone, and weapons. On the other hand, of particular cultural significance was bronze statuary, particularly that of the Romans and Greeks. The ancient Greeks and Romans had a long history of making statuary in bronze. Literally thousands of images of gods and heroes, victorious athletes, statesmen, and philosophers filled temples and sanctuaries, and stood in the public areas of major cities. In fact, the Statue of Zeus at Olympia and the Colossus of Rhodes are two of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Initially bronze was made out of copper and arsenic. It was only later that tin was used, becoming (except in ancient Egypt) the sole type of bronze in the late 3rd millennium B.C. Tin-alloyed bronze was superior to arsenic-alloyed bronze in that the alloying process itself could more easily be controlled, the alloy was stronger and easier to cast, and unlike arsenic, tin is not toxic. Toxicity was a major factor in the production of arsenic bronze. Repeated exposure to arsenic fumes ultimately led to nerve damage in the limbs. Evidence of the long agony of Bronze Age metalsmiths came down to the ancient Greeks and Romans in the form of legend, as the Greek and Roman gods of metalsmiths, Greek Hephaestus and Roman Vulcan, were both lame. In practice historical bronze alloys are highly variable in composition, as most metalworkers probably used whatever scrap was to hand. In one instance of ancient bronze from Britain, analysis showed the bronze to contain a mixture of copper, zinc, tin, lead, nickel, iron, antimony, arsenic, and silver. Other advantages of bronze over iron include that bronze better resists corrosion, particularly seawater corrosion; bronze resists metal fatigue better than iron; and bronze is a better heat conductor (and thus is better suited for cooking vessels). However ancient bronze, unless conserved properly, is susceptible to “bronze disease”, wherein hydrochloric or hydrosulfuric acid is formed due to impurities (cuprous chloride or sulfur) found within the ancient bronze. Traditionally archaeology has maintained that the earliest bronze was produced by the Maikop, a proto-Indo-European, proto-Celtic culture of Caucasus prehistory around 3500 B.C. Recent evidence however suggests that the smelting of bronze might be as much as several thousand years older (bronze artifacts dating from about 4500 B.C. have been unearthed in Thailand). Shortly after the emergence of bronze technology in the Caucasus region, bronze technology emerged in ancient Mesopotamia (Sumer), Egypt, the Indus Valley Civilization of Northern India, the Aegean, the Caspian Steppes (Ukraine), the Southern Russia/Central Mongolia Region (the Altai Mountains), the Levant (Eastern Mediterranean), Anatolia (Turkey) and the Iranian Plateau. By the late third millennium B.C. many Western European Bronze Age Cultures had emerged. Some of the more notable were the Celtic cultures of Middle Europe stretching from Hungary to Poland and Germany, including the Urnfield, Lusatian, and (Iron Age Transitional) Hallstatt Cultures. The Shang in ancient China also developed a significant Bronze Age culture, noted for large bronze burial urns. The ancient Chinese were the first to cast bronze (using the “lost wax” technique) about 2200 B.C. Prior to that time all bronze items were forged. Though weapons and utilitarian items were produced in great numbers, the production of bronze in ancient China was especially noteworthy for ornamented ritualistic/religious vessels (urns, wine vessels, water pots, food containers, and musical instruments), many of immense size. Britain’s Bronze Age cultures included the Beaker, Wessex, Deverl, and Rimbury. Copper and tin ores are rarely found together, so the production of bronze has always involved trade. Cornwall was one of the most significant sources of tin not only for Britain, but exported throughout the Mediterranean. Other significant suppliers of tine were the Taurus Mountains of Anatolia (Turkey), as well as Spain. Enormous amounts of copper was produced from the Great Orme mine in North Wales, the island of Cyprus, the European Alps, and from the Sinai Peninsula and other nearby sites in the Levant. Though much of the raw minerals may have come from Britain, Spain, Anatolia, and the Sinai, it was the Aegean world which controlled the trade in bronze. The great seafaring Minoan Empire (about 2700 to 1450 B.C.) appears to have controlled, coordinated, and defended the trade. Tin and charcoal were imported into Cyprus, where locally mined copper was mined and alloyed with the tin from Britain. Indicative of the seafaring trade in the Eastern Mediterranean, a shipwreck from about 1300 B.C. off the Turkish coast revealed a ship carrying a ton of copper ingots, several dozen small tin ingots, new bronze tools, scrap metal, and a blacksmith's forge and tools (along with luxury trade goods from Africa). It appears that the Bronze Age collapsed with the fall of Minoan Empire, to be replaced by a Dark Age and the eventual rise of the Iron Age Myceneans (on mainland Greece). Evidence suggests that the precipitating event might have been the eruption of Thera (Santorini) and the ensuing tsunami, which was only about 40 miles north of Crete, the capital of the Minoan empire. Some archaeologists argue that it was Santorini itself which was the capitol city of the Minoan World. However where Crete or Santorini, it is known that the bread-basket of the Minoan trading empire, the area north of the Black Sea lost population, and thereafter many Minoan colony/client-states lost large populations to extreme famines or pestilence. Inasmuch as the Minoans were the principals of the tin/copper shipping network throughout the Mediterranean, the Bronze Age trade network is believed to have failed. The end of the Bronze Age and the rise of the Iron Age is normally associated with the disturbances created by large population disruptions in the 12th century B.C. The end of the Bronze Age saw the emergence of new technologies and civilizations which included the large-scale production of iron (and limited scale production of steel). Although iron was in many respects much inferior to bronze (and steel was inefficiently produced in very limited quantities), iron had the advantage that it could be produced using local resources during the dark ages that followed the Minoan collapse, and was very inexpensive when compared to the cost of producing bronze. Bronze was still a superior metal, resisting both corrosion and metal fatigue better than iron. And bronze was still used during the Iron Age, but for many purposes the weaker iron was sufficiently strong to serve in its place. As an example, Roman officers were equipped with bronze swords while foot soldiers had to make do with iron blades. Pliny the Elder, the famous first century Roman historian and naturalist, wrote about the reuse of scrap bronze and copper in Roman foundries, noting that the metals were recast as armor, weapons or articles for personal use, such as bronze mirrors. The melting and recasting foundries were located at the Italian port city of Brindisi. Located on the Adriatic coast, Brindisi was the terminus of the great Appian Way, the Roman road constructed to facilitate trade and military access throughout the Italian part of the Roman Empire. The city was the gateway for Roman penetration into the eastern parts of her empire (Greece, the Eastern Mediterranean, the Black Sea Region, the Danubian Provinces, and eventually Mesopotamia). Domestic shipping (insured first class mail) is included in the price shown. Domestic shipping also includes USPS Delivery Confirmation (you might be able to update the status of your shipment on-line at the USPS Web Site). Canadian shipments are an extra $15.99 for Insured Air Mail; International shipments are an extra $19.99 for Air Mail (and generally are NOT tracked; trackable shipments are EXTRA). ADDITIONAL PURCHASES do receive a VERY LARGE discount, typically about $5 per item so as to reward you for the economies of combined shipping/insurance costs. Your purchase will ordinarily be shipped within 48 hours of payment. We package as well as anyone in the business, with lots of protective padding and containers. We do NOT recommend uninsured shipments, and expressly disclaim any responsibility for the loss of an uninsured shipment. Unfortunately the contents of parcels are easily “lost” or misdelivered by postal employees – even in the USA. If you intend to pay via PayPal, please be aware that PayPal Protection Policies REQUIRE insured, trackable shipments, which is INCLUDED in our price. International tracking is at additional cost. We do offer U.S. Postal Service Priority Mail, Registered Mail, and Express Mail for both international and domestic shipments, as well United Parcel Service (UPS) and Federal Express (Fed-Ex). Please ask for a rate quotation. We will accept whatever payment method you are most comfortable with. If upon receipt of the item you are disappointed for any reason whatever, I offer a no questions asked return policy. Send it back, I will give you a complete refund of the purchase price (less our original shipping costs). Most of the items I offer come from the collection of a family friend who was active in the field of Archaeology for over forty years. However many of the items also come from purchases I make in Eastern Europe, India, and from the Levant (Eastern Mediterranean/Near East) from various institutions and dealers. Though I have always had an interest in archaeology, my own academic background was in sociology and cultural anthropology. After my retirement however, I found myself drawn to archaeology as well. Aside from my own personal collection, I have made extensive and frequent additions of my own via purchases on Ebay (of course), as well as many purchases from both dealers and institutions throughout the world - but especially in the Near East and in Eastern Europe. I spend over half of my year out of the United States, and have spent much of my life either in India or Eastern Europe. In fact much of what we generate on Yahoo, Amazon and Ebay goes to support The Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, as well as some other worthy institutions in Europe connected with Anthropology and Archaeology. I acquire some small but interesting collections overseas from time-to-time, and have as well some duplicate items within my own collection which I occasionally decide to part with. Though I have a collection of ancient coins numbering in the tens of thousands, my primary interest is in ancient jewelry. My wife also is an active participant in the "business" of antique and ancient jewelry, and is from Russia. I would be happy to provide you with a certificate/guarantee of authenticity for any item you purchase from me. There is a $2 fee for mailing under separate cover. Whenever I am overseas I have made arrangements for purchases to be shipped out via domestic mail. If I am in the field, you may have to wait for a week or two for a COA to arrive via international air mail. But you can be sure your purchase will arrive properly packaged and promptly - even if I am absent. And when I am in a remote field location with merely a notebook computer, at times I am not able to access my email for a day or two, so be patient, I will always respond to every email. Please see our "ADDITIONAL TERMS OF SALE."

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