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Luristan torque bronze ornamental bracelet for men’s upper arm, 4000-6000 BC

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Seller: ukr10 (703) 100%, Location: Clearwater Beach, Florida, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 172070798548 Luristan torque bronze bracelet for man’s upper arm Diameter: 5 inches – 12.5 cm; Weight: 295 g = 10.4 oz.Condition: covered with thick authentic greenish patina; Provenance: from the collection of MD in Florida. References:Among the similar kinds of jewelry placed in the graves of both periods, bracelets, anklets, rings, neck- laces, pins, we might single out torques for special mention. Of thirty-four Period III burials, seven contained a torque (see note 5); of fifty Period II burials (not counting urns), four contained torques, a drop from about one-fifth to about one-twelfth. Thus, although still used, fewer people wore them-at least to their graves. It seems that men, women, and children wore torques, although the evidence for this is clearer in the earlier burials. Luristan bronzes (rarely "Lorestān", "Lorestāni" etc. in sources in English) are small cast objects decorated with bronze sculptures from the Early Iron Age which have been found in large numbers in Lorestān Province and Kermanshah in west-central Iran.[1] They include a great number of ornaments, tools, weapons, horse-fittings and a smaller number of vessels including situlae,[2] and those found in recorded excavations are generally found in burials.[3] The ethnicity of the people who created them remains unclear,[4] though they may well have been Persian, possibly related to the modern Lur people who have given their name to the area. They probably date to between about 1000 and 650 BC.[5] The bronzes tend to be flat and use openwork, like the related metalwork of Scythian art. They represent the art of a nomadic or transhumant people, for whom all possessions needed to be light and portable, and necessary objects such as weapons, finials (perhaps for tent-poles), horse-harness fittings, pins, cups and small fittings are highly decorated over their small surface area.[6] Representations of animals are common, especially goats or sheep with large horns, and the forms and styles are distinctive and inventive. The "Master of Animals" motif, showing a human positioned between and grasping two confronted animals is common[7] but typically highly stylized.[8] Some female "mistress of animals" are seen.[9] Discovery Luristan bronze objects came to the notice of the world art market from the late 1920s and were excavated in considerable quantities by local people, "wild tribesmen who did not encourage the competition of qualified excavators",[10] and taken through networks of dealers, latterly illegally, to Europe or America, without information about the contexts in which they were found.[11] Previous sporadic examples reaching the West had been assigned to various places, including Armenia and Anatolia.[12] There is strong suspicion that the many thousands of pieces sourced from the art trade include some forgeries.[13] Since 1938 several scientific excavations have been conducted by American, Danish, British, Belgian, and Iranian archaeologists on the cemeteries in areas including the northern Pish Kuh valleys and the southern Pusht Kuh of Lorestān; these are terms for the eastern "front" and western "back" slopes of the Kabīrkūh range of mountains, part of the larger Zagros Mountains, which define the region where the bronzes seem to have been found.[14] How these cemeteries related to contemporary settlements remains unclear.[15] Somewhat curiously, two very characteristic Luristan pieces have been excavated in the Greek world, on Samos and Crete, but none in other parts of Iran or the Near East.[16] Condition: covered with thick authentic greenish patina;, Provenance: Ownership History Available

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