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NEW Dead Sea Scrolls Jewish Qumran Messiah Before Jesus Executed by Romans 4BC

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Seller: ancientgifts (4,186) 99.3%, Location: Lummi Island, Washington, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 381791876442 TRANSLATE Arabic Chinese French German Greek Indonesian Italian Hindi Japanese Korean Swedish Portuguese Russian Spanish Your browser does not support JavaScript. To view this page, enable JavaScript if it is disabled or upgrade your browser. Click here to see 1,000 archaeology/ancient history books and 2,000 ancient artifacts, antique gemstones, antique jewelry! The Messiah Before Jesus: The Suffering Servant of the Dead Sea Scrolls by Israel Knohl, Translated by David Maisel. NOTE: We have 75,000 books in our library, almost 10,000 different titles. Odds are we have other copies of this same title in varying conditions, some less expensive, some better condition. We might also have different editions as well (some paperback, some hardcover, oftentimes international editions). If you don’t see what you want, please contact us and ask. We’re happy to send you a summary of the differing conditions and prices we may have for the same title. DESCRIPTION: Hardback with Dust Jacket: 145 pages. Publisher: University of California Press; (2000). In a work that challenges notions that have dominated New Testament scholarship for more than a hundred years, Israel Knohl gives startling evidence for a messianic precursor to Jesus who is described as the "Suffering Servant" in recently published fragments of the Dead Sea Scrolls. “The Messiah before Jesus” clarifies many formerly incomprehensible aspects of Jesus' life and confirms the story in the New Testament about his messianic awareness. The book shows that, around the time of Jesus' birth, there came into being a conception of "catastrophic" messiah-nism in which the suffering, humiliation, and death of the messiah were regarded as an integral part of the redemptive process. Scholars have long argued that Jesus could not have foreseen his suffering, death, and resurrection because the concept of a slain savior who rises from the dead was alien to the Judaism of his time. But, on the basis of hymns found at Qumran among the Dead Sea Scrolls, Knohl argues that, one generation before Jesus, a messianic leader arose in the Qumran sect who was regarded by his followers as ushering in an era of redemption and forgiveness. This messianic leader was killed by Roman soldiers in the course of a revolt that broke out in Jerusalem in 4 B.C. The Romans forbade his body to be buried and after the third day his disciples believed that he was resurrected and rose to heaven. This formed the basis for Jesus' messianic consciousness, Knohl argues; it was because of this model that Jesus anticipated he would suffer, die, and be resurrected after three days. Knohl takes his fascinating inquiry one step further by suggesting that this messiah was a figure known to us from historical sources of the period. This identification may shed new light on the mystery of the "Paraclete" in the Gospel of John. A path-breaking study, “The Messiah before Jesus” will reshape our understanding of Christianity and its relationship to Judaism. CONDITION: NEW. Unblemished except VERY slight shelfwear to dustjacket. Pages are pristine; clean, crisp, unmarked, unmutilated, tightly bound, unambiguously unread. Condition is entirely consistent with a new book from an open-shelf bookstore environment such as Barnes & Noble. Satisfaction unconditionally guaranteed. In stock, ready to ship. No disappointments, no excuses. PROMPT SHIPPING! HEAVILY PADDED, DAMAGE-FREE PACKAGING! PLEASE SEE IMAGES BELOW FOR SAMPLE PAGES FROM INSIDE OF BOOK. PLEASE SEE PUBLISHER, PROFESSIONAL, AND READER REVIEWS BELOW. PUBLISHER REVIEW: REVIEW: Israel Knohl teaches at the Bible department of the Hebrew University, Jerusalem. He taught as a visiting Professor at Berkeley, Stanford, and Chicago. He is the author of “The Sanctuary of Silence”, which won the Z. Shkop Award for Biblical Studies. PROFESSIONAL REVIEWS: REVIEW: Knohl's chief claim is "Jesus was the heir and successor of the Messiah of Qumran." The latter is described in two hymns in fragments of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and Knohl argues that he was a certain Menachem, a friend and supporter of Herod who was removed from his position of leadership in the Jewish community when he made his messianic aspirations public after Herod's death. Knohl includes the hymns in an appendix, along with discussion of the influence of the Messiah of Qumran on Jesus' messianic consciousness and the influence of the Roman vision of redemption in Virgil's Fourth Eclogue on the Messiah of Qumran. Readers who share Knohl's questioning attitude about "the Jewish context of Jesus' messianic career" will find the brief, accessible book fascinating and informative, as will readers more generally interested in the visions of redemption that emerged out of the rich religious context of Rome in the centuries before Jesus. REVIEW: After ten years, the recently released texts of the Dead Sea Scrolls are still creating waves. In his second book, Knohl (Chair, Bible Department, Hebrew University) challenges liberal and conservative New Testament scholarship. He asserts that "Jesus was the heir and successor of the Messiah of Qumran," whom he identifies as Menahem the Essene. Knohl arrives at his hypothesis through an examination of two purportedly messianic hymns from Qumran, the Oracle of Hystaspes, the Book of Revelation, Josephus, and Talmudic literature, combined with imaginative historical reconstruction. The evidence makes fascinating reading. REVIEW: A mind-bending book! Courageous, responsible scholarly work such as Knohl's deserves attention, and admiration. Three years' research into Jewish messianism during the complex and treacherous Herodian Era has enabled Knohl to make a stunning imaginative leap. Thanks to David Maisel's excellent English translation, we can consider Knohl's thesis that historical sources, including remnants of one of the Dead Sea Scrolls, point to a self-declared Jewish messianic leader one generation before Jesus. This is a very significant, original, and daring book. It illuminates an important era in the history of the Jewish people as well as the background of Christianity, making full use of the new Qumran material. REVIEW: The importance of this thesis for the understanding and interpretation of the historical Jesus is something of which all students of Christian Origins should take careful note. The book places a square challenge before those persuaded by a less apocalyptic/messianc view of the man and his times. I am convinced this book will become a pioneering classic in terms of the slot it fills in the field. REVIEW: This book will turn many heads. Israel Knohl sifts through a vast range of ancient texts in order to weave together a new chapter in the story of Jewish Messianism. Israel Knohl established himself as a first-rate scholar with his first book, “The Sanctuary of Silence”, on a classic problem of Pentateuchal studies. Here he ventures into entirely different territory and displays impressive erudition not only in the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Talmud but also in classical antiquity. His bold and provocative theories are sure to elicit a storm of controversy. Knohl's book is an original piece of research that defies some of the most solid beliefs of our time. REVIEW: A Jewish scholar challenges the received wisdom of contemporary scripture studies by contending that fragments of a Dead Sea scroll contain evidence of a suffering messiah prior to Jesus. This is a work of very high quality. Knohl convincingly points out the historical event of a Messiah who predated the more famous one, Jesus Christ. This is one of the most fascinating findings regarding the history of Jewish Messianism and the understanding of the emergence of Christianity. I am confident that it will mark a new phase in research of ancient Judaism. READER REVIEWS: REVIEW: This book brings to light a little known hymn from the Dead Sea Scrolls which sheds a lot of light on Jesus and his followers. It also stresses the importance of the "Suffering Servant" theme in first century Jewish Messianic beliefs. The "Self Glorification Hymn", probably written by the Qumran Teacher, himself reveals the belief in a mortal, after rejection and martyrdom, achieving a divine or semi-divine status and being exalted to Heaven. This and the books of Enoch blow apart all the modern liberal theories which try to refute the New Testament. The author makes a good argument that Menahem the Essene was the Teacher of Righteousness, although there are other excellent but conflicting arguments. Whether you agree with the author or not, his argument that the "Paraclete" in John's Gospel refers to Jesus as another Menahem is very credible and fascinating. The word Paraclete or comforter can be derived from the name "Menahem" and is also connected with the Messiah in rabbinic literature. Knohl's credential as a Hebrew scholar speaks for itself and I have no reason to doubt these claims. Knohl also claims that a passage concerning two messianic leaders in Revelation 11 refers to Menahem. The book claims that Jesus became acquainted with Menahem's legacy through John the Baptist who was more than likely a member of the Qumran community at one time. Jesus may have started out as a Galilean Hasid who continued John the Baptist's apocalyptic message, but somewhere along the line, perhaps after John's death, he took upon himself the role of the Suffering Servant Messiah to continue and complete what Menahem had started. The fact that Menahem was rejected by the Pharisees may explain Jesus' condemnation of the same. Whether you agree with the author or not, his exposition of the "Self Glorification Hymn" sheds a new light on Jesus' own self understanding and what was recorded about him in the New Testament. REVIEW: A Messiah before Jesus is not a new idea. After all, this is what the main crux of the Dead Sea Scrolls is all about, where we have an Essene Teacher of Righteousness whose life not only parallels that of the life of Jesus, but appears to pre-date the Christian saviour. What is more, the Wisdom of Solomon, found in the Catholic Bible but not in the Protestant, if part and parcel of the Old Testament and not the New, suggests in chapters 2 & 3 that not only was there a Messiah before Jesus, but chapter 3 implies that there were many. The Dead Sea Scrolls in turn, "Manual of Discipline: Rules of the Order," also appears to support this view where it states, and I quote from the Millar Burrows translation: "They shall not depart from any counsel of the law, walking in all the stubbornness of their hearts; but they shall be judged by the first judgments by which the men of the community began to be disciplined, until there shall come a prophet and the Messiahs of Aaron and Israel." What the Manual of Discipline appears to suggest, was that there was not one or two Messiahs, one pre-dating the other, but rather there was a belief in many Messiahs, this being possibly a group, or "Messianic Order." However, on a more positive note regarding "The Messiah Before Jesus," Israel Knohl's view will certainly open up more avenues for thought, discussion and insight into what really was the situation in Palestine during this period in history. REVIEW: Israel Knohl's "The Messiah Before Jesus" is a University of California publication and has a promotional blurb from a number of big-gun scholars on its back cover, including Emanuel Tov, the Editor-in-Chief of the Dead Sea Scrolls Publication Project. It's a good thing, because the thesis of the book has the potential of overturning many assumptions about early Christianity and might be dismissed if proposed by a less respected scholar. The thesis of Knoll's book is that the most recent fragments coming out of the Dead Sea Scrolls project reveal that the Qumran community believed that the Messiah would suffer, be pierced, and rise again on the third day in accordance with the scriptures. This has been the long-anxiety of Orthodox Christians, that the Dead Sea scrolls would prove to undermine the uniqueness of Jesus, or somehow anticipate the central doctrines of Christianity, making them less "special." And Knoll's thesis, and the evidence he supports it with, is compelling and ought to be of grave concern to those who style themselves "Christian apologists”. Knoll believes that the Qumran community not only anticipated an Isaiah 53-style "suffering servant" Messiah, but that the leader of their sect believed that he was that Messiah. Knoll further postulates that this Messiah had in fact acted out his beliefs, was martyred, and that the Qumran community believed that he had been raised from the dead and taken up to heaven. This Messiah, according to Knoll, did this a full generation prior to Jesus. Knoll gathers several lines of persuasive evidence for these assertions. Some of his arguments, however, are circumstantial, but if you buy his stronger lines of evidence, they become possible. Two circumstantial lines of evidence that I found interesting (and that can be looked at directly by anyone with a Bible) come from the books of Revelation and John. In Revelation, for example, there seems to have been retained a memory of not one, but two messianic witnesses who die in Jerusalem and are raised from the dead (Revelation 11:10-12). And the gospel of John seems to have retained (in a distorted form) Jesus' messianic-lineage consciousness. In the gospel of John Jesus tells his disciples that he will send them "another Comforter" after he is gone (John 14:16). The word translated "comforter" in Greek is "paraclete." This is the word used to translate the Hebrew word "menahem." It just so happens that a man named Menahem is the leader of the Qumran sect a generation before Jesus. It is this Menahem (mentioned also in Josephus) who Knohl postulates was the first suffering servant of the Qumran community. Thus John's gospel retains the memory of Jesus telling his disciples that he was a "Menahem" and that he, being in a line of "Menahem" would send "another Menahem" after his death. REVIEW: I read this book right after reading Micheal Wise's 'The First Messiah'. The two books are in conflict in that they use the same Dead Sea Scrolls to construct different messiahs two generations apart. Personally I find Knohl's book more convincing. It also is better integrated into the culture of the time discussing possible influences from Virgil's 4th Eclogue and from the cult of the Prince of Peace and Son of God, Octavian Caesar Augustus. A challenging and heuristic work. Do read it. I always ship books Media Mail in a padded mailer. This book is shipped FOR FREE via USPS INSURED media mail (“book rate”). All domestic shipments and most international shipments will include free USPS Delivery Confirmation (you might be able to update the status of your shipment on-line at the USPS Web Site and free insurance coverage). A small percentage of international shipments may require an additional fee for tracking and/or delivery confirmation. If you are concerned about a little wear and tear to the book in transit, I would suggest a boxed shipment - it is an extra $1.00. Whether via padded mailer or box, we will give discounts for multiple purchases. International orders are welcome, but shipping costs are substantially higher. Most international orders cost an additional $12.99 to $33.99 for an insuredshipment in a heavily padded mailer, and typically includes some form of rudimentary tracking and/or delivery confirmation (though for some countries, this is only available at additional cost). There is also a discount program which can cut postage costs by 50% to 75% if you’re buying about half-a-dozen books or more (5 kilos+). Rates and available services vary a bit from country to country. You can email or message me for a shipping cost quote, but I assure you they are as reasonable as USPS rates allow, and if it turns out the rate is too high for your pocketbook, we will cancel the sale at your request. ADDITIONAL PURCHASES do receive a VERY LARGE discount, typically about $5 per book (for each additional book after the first) so as to reward you for the economies of combined shipping/insurance costs. Your purchase will ordinarily be shipped within 48 hours of payment. We package as well as anyone in the business, with lots of protective padding and containers. All of our shipments are sent via insured mail so as to comply with PayPal requirements. We do NOT recommend uninsured shipments, and expressly disclaim any responsibility for the loss of an uninsured shipment. Unfortunately the contents of parcels are easily “lost” or misdelivered by postal employees – even in the USA. That’s why all of our domestic shipments (and most international) shipments include a USPS delivery confirmation tag; or are trackable or traceable, and all shipments (international and domestic) are insured. We do offer U.S. Postal Service Priority Mail, Registered Mail, and Express Mail for both international and domestic shipments, as well United Parcel Service (UPS) and Federal Express (Fed-Ex). Please ask for a rate quotation. We will accept whatever payment method you are most comfortable with. If upon receipt of the item you are disappointed for any reason whatever, I offer a no questions asked return policy. Send it back, I will give you a complete refund of the purchase price (less our original shipping costs). Most of the items I offer come from the collection of a family friend who was active in the field of Archaeology for over forty years. However many of the items also come from purchases I make in Eastern Europe, India, and from the Levant (Eastern Mediterranean/Near East) from various institutions and dealers. Though I have always had an interest in archaeology, my own academic background was in sociology and cultural anthropology. After my retirement however, I found myself drawn to archaeology as well. Aside from my own personal collection, I have made extensive and frequent additions of my own via purchases on Ebay (of course), as well as many purchases from both dealers and institutions throughout the world – but especially in the Near East and in Eastern Europe. I spend over half of my year out of the United States, and have spent much of my life either in India or Eastern Europe. In fact much of what we generate on Yahoo, Amazon and Ebay goes to support The Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, as well as some other worthy institutions in Europe connected with Anthropology and Archaeology. I acquire some small but interesting collections overseas from time-to-time, and have as well some duplicate items within my own collection which I occasionally decide to part with. Though I have a collection of ancient coins numbering in the tens of thousands, my primary interest is in ancient jewelry. My wife also is an active participant in the "business" of antique and ancient jewelry, and is from Russia. I would be happy to provide you with a certificate/guarantee of authenticity for any item you purchase from me. There is a $2 fee for mailing under separate cover. Whenever I am overseas I have made arrangements for purchases to be shipped out via domestic mail. If I am in the field, you may have to wait for a week or two for a COA to arrive via international air mail. But you can be sure your purchase will arrive properly packaged and promptly - even if I am absent. And when I am in a remote field location with merely a notebook computer, at times I am not able to access my email for a day or two, so be patient, I will always respond to every email. Please see our "ADDITIONAL TERMS OF SALE."

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