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Pans Travail Ancient Greek Roman Environmental Problems Air Water Soil Pollution

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Seller: ancientgifts (4,186) 99.3%, Location: Lummi Island, Washington, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 381757431364 TRANSLATE Arabic Chinese French German Greek Indonesian Italian Hindi Japanese Korean Swedish Portuguese Russian Spanish Your browser does not support JavaScript. To view this page, enable JavaScript if it is disabled or upgrade your browser. Click here to see 1,000 archaeology/ancient history books and 2,000 ancient artifacts, antique gemstones, antique jewelry! Pan’s Travail Environmental Problems Of The Ancient Greeks And Romans by J. Donald Hughes. DESCRIPTION: Hardback with Dust Jacket: 277 pages. Publisher: The Johns Hopkins University Press; (1993). Many people express surprise when they are told that environmental problems existed in the ancient world; they are used to thinking of the environment as an exclusively modern concern. But an examination of the evidence shows that the Greeks and Romans not only suffered from some of the same predicaments that plague the present scene, but in many cases they were aware of them and commented on them. In Pan's Travail Hughes examines the environmental history of the classical period and argues that the decline of ancient civilizations resulted in part from exploitation of the natural world. Focusing on Greece and Rome, as well as on areas subject to their influences, Hughes offers a detailed look at the impact of humans and their technologies on the ecology of the Mediterranean basin. He explores the complex relationships of human culture and the environment with topics that include deforestation and overgrazing, soil erosion, depletion of wildlife and natural resources, pollution, and urban problems such as water supply and sewage disposal. He also compares the ancient world's environmental problems to those of other eras and discusses attitudes toward nature expressed in Greek and Latin literature. He also compares the ancient world's environmental problems to those of other eras and discusses attitudes toward nature expressed in Greek and Latin literature. CONDITION: Unblemished, unmarked, pristine in every respect. Satisfaction guaranteed. In stock, ready to ship. PLEASE SEE IMAGES BELOW FOR JACKET DESCRIPTION(S) AND FOR PAGES OF PICTURES FROM INSIDE OF BOOK. PLEASE SEE PUBLISHER, PROFESSIONAL, AND READER REVIEWS BELOW. PUBLISHER REVIEW: REVIEW: This work links the decline of ancient civilizations to exploitation of the natural world. Focusing on Greece and Rome, it examines the impact of humans and their technologies on the ecology of the Mediterranean basin. The environmental problems of the ancient world are compared to those of other eras, and there is a discussion of attitudes towards nature expressed in Greek and Latin literature. PROFESSIONAL REVIEW: REVIEW: Hughes, Professor of History (University of Denver) examines the environmental history of the classical period and argues that the decline of ancient civilizations resulted in part from exploitation of the natural world. Focusing on Greece and Rome, as well as on areas subject to their influences, he offers a detailed look at the impact of humans and their technologies on the ecology of the Mediterranean basin. A book on ancient green issues is something new and Pan's Travails, moreover, is a compelling recital of man's mistreatment of the Mediterranean environment. Inclusive, accessible, and a valuable contribution to our understanding of the ancient environment. READER REVIEW: REVIEW: Pan's Travail by J. Donald Hughes stands as a significant contribution to understanding the relationship between Classical Civilization in the Mediterranean Basin and its contemporary natural environment during the period from 800 BC to 600 A D. Hughes shows that the ancients themselves were aware of the problems in the environment and commented upon them. He explores how human activity led to environmental degradation and the resultant negative effects on the societal and economic underpinnings of Classical Civilization. By emphasizing the treatment of the environment by humans and the technologies involved rather than only the attitudes of the ancients to their environment, and by drawing on a wide array of source material, Hughes provides valuable new insights into ways of approaching Greek and Roman cultures. While those already familiar with Classical Mediterranean civilizations may stand to gain the most from a work of this kind, Hughes has written primarily for a general audience. Chapter One ("Introduction: Ecology in the Greek and Roman Worlds") gives a brief overview of the recent efforts to evaluate classical history in the Mediterranean from an ecological standpoint. In Chapter Two ("The Environment: Life, Land, and Sea in the Mediterranean Region") Hughes defines the Mediterranean Basin as both a biogeographical region and as an ecosystem. In Chapter Three ("Ecological Crises in Earlier Societies") Hughes establishes the importance of tradition in Palaeolithic times as a force that encouraged respect for and conservation of resources; allowing the hunters and gatherers of the Palaeolithic to succeed in maintaining a balance with ecosystems. The increase of human numbers and the change to agriculture and pastoralism in the Neolithic led to more serious problems including soil depletion, desertification, and erosion. Human health degenerated despite the technological advances. The urban cultures that developed in the Fertile Crescent led ultimately to the degradation of the water supply, a decline in agricultural fertility, and the fragmentation of Sumerian civilization. On the other hand Hughes sees Egypt as more successful in integrating urbanization with its dependence on ecologically sound agricultural practice in part because of the regularity of the region's environmental cycles, Egyptian society's sacred view of nature, and the perceived divine character of science and knowledge. Chapter Four ("Concepts of the Natural World") surveys the complex pattern of ideas about and attitudes toward nature among the Greeks and Romans. The causes, technologies, and impact of forest removal are the subjects of Chapter Five ("Deforestation, Overgrazing, and Erosion"). Hughes details the reasons for wood consumption among the ancients, with fuel leading the list by far (up to 90% of total consumption). The building of cities, shipbuilding, and military exploitation, linked closely to political and economic forces, also contributed to deforestation. Overgrazing of previously disturbed forestland was also a significant cause of environmental degradation contributing to flooding, erosion, and silting up of waterways. Chapter Six ("Wildlife Depletion: Hunting, Fishing, and the Arena") demonstrates how wildlife in Greco-Roman times suffered a reduction in numbers (and in some cases extinction) as a result of both habitat alteration and killing for food as well as ritualistic slaughter. The role of machinery in exacerbating ecological degradation is the subject of Chapter Seven ("Industrial Technology and Environmental Damage"). Hughes here emphasizes that many of the admired engineering achievements of the Greeks and Romans also directly or indirectly caused severe and lasting negative effects on the environment. The author details the extractive industries of mining and quarrying, noting how such activities polluted air, soil, and water and left scars on both the land and the workers. Hughes points to the increase in airborne lead pollution from the second century B.C. onward documented from Greenland ice samples. Chapter Eight ("Agricultural Decline") documents the methods and the impact of farming practices on the ecological balance. Urban problems come under scrutiny in Chapter Nine. Hughes examines site selection and city planning (or lack thereof) as important factors in the environmental quality of urban life.The descriptions of urban problems ranging from noise pollution to burial of the dead and rural nostalgia are fascinating reading. Chapter Ten ("Groves and Gardens, Parks and Paradises") examines the issue of the restriction of natural places for religious, aesthetic, or economic purposes. The final chapter ("Environmental Problems as Factors in the Decline of the Greek and Roman Civilizations") serves as a summation of the previous chapters by examining as an integrated whole those circumstances of ecological imbalance that led to the decay of Classical Civilization. Neither climate change nor disease alone can account in any significant way for the widespread deterioration of conditions that led to the end of Classical Civilization, and Hughes emphasizes the cumulative effect of such deterioration on people and resources. Hughes concludes, Greco-Roman civilization failed to reconcile its attitudes and activities with the Mediterranean ecosystem, and ecological deterioration "was the result of the unwise actions of the Greeks and Romans themselves, unwitting as they may have been." Pan's Travail is worthwhile and thought-provoking reading. I always ship books Media Mail in a padded mailer. This book is shipped FOR FREE via USPS INSURED media mail (“book rate”). All domestic shipments and most international shipments will include free USPS Delivery Confirmation (you might be able to update the status of your shipment on-line at the USPS Web Site and free insurance coverage). A small percentage of international shipments may require an additional fee for tracking and/or delivery confirmation. If you are concerned about a little wear and tear to the book in transit, I would suggest a boxed shipment - it is an extra $1.00. Whether via padded mailer or box, we will give discounts for multiple purchases. International orders are welcome, but shipping costs are substantially higher. Most international orders cost an additional $12.99 to $33.99 for an insuredshipment in a heavily padded mailer, and typically includes some form of rudimentary tracking and/or delivery confirmation (though for some countries, this is only available at additional cost). There is also a discount program which can cut postage costs by 50% to 75% if you’re buying about half-a-dozen books or more (5 kilos+). Rates and available services vary a bit from country to country. You can email or message me for a shipping cost quote, but I assure you they are as reasonable as USPS rates allow, and if it turns out the rate is too high for your pocketbook, we will cancel the sale at your request. ADDITIONAL PURCHASES do receive a VERY LARGE discount, typically about $5 per book (for each additional book after the first) so as to reward you for the economies of combined shipping/insurance costs. Your purchase will ordinarily be shipped within 48 hours of payment. We package as well as anyone in the business, with lots of protective padding and containers. All of our shipments are sent via insured mail so as to comply with PayPal requirements. We do NOT recommend uninsured shipments, and expressly disclaim any responsibility for the loss of an uninsured shipment. Unfortunately the contents of parcels are easily “lost” or misdelivered by postal employees – even in the USA. That’s why all of our domestic shipments (and most international) shipments include a USPS delivery confirmation tag; or are trackable or traceable, and all shipments (international and domestic) are insured. We do offer U.S. Postal Service Priority Mail, Registered Mail, and Express Mail for both international and domestic shipments, as well United Parcel Service (UPS) and Federal Express (Fed-Ex). Please ask for a rate quotation. We will accept whatever payment method you are most comfortable with. If upon receipt of the item you are disappointed for any reason whatever, I offer a no questions asked return policy. Send it back, I will give you a complete refund of the purchase price (less our original shipping costs). Most of the items I offer come from the collection of a family friend who was active in the field of Archaeology for over forty years. However many of the items also come from purchases I make in Eastern Europe, India, and from the Levant (Eastern Mediterranean/Near East) from various institutions and dealers. Though I have always had an interest in archaeology, my own academic background was in sociology and cultural anthropology. After my retirement however, I found myself drawn to archaeology as well. Aside from my own personal collection, I have made extensive and frequent additions of my own via purchases on Ebay (of course), as well as many purchases from both dealers and institutions throughout the world - but especially in the Near East and in Eastern Europe. I spend over half of my year out of the United States, and have spent much of my life either in India or Eastern Europe. In fact much of what we generate on Yahoo, Amazon and Ebay goes to support The Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, as well as some other worthy institutions in Europe connected with Anthropology and Archaeology. I acquire some small but interesting collections overseas from time-to-time, and have as well some duplicate items within my own collection which I occasionally decide to part with. Though I have a collection of ancient coins numbering in the tens of thousands, my primary interest is in ancient jewelry. My wife also is an active participant in the "business" of antique and ancient jewelry, and is from Russia. I would be happy to provide you with a certificate/guarantee of authenticity for any item you purchase from me. There is a $2 fee for mailing under separate cover. Whenever I am overseas I have made arrangements for purchases to be shipped out via domestic mail. If I am in the field, you may have to wait for a week or two for a COA to arrive via international air mail. But you can be sure your purchase will arrive properly packaged and promptly - even if I am absent. And when I am in a remote field location with merely a notebook computer, at times I am not able to access my email for a day or two, so be patient, I will always respond to every email. Please see our "ADDITIONAL TERMS OF SALE."

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