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Seller: Top-Rated Seller lagaleriedelalpe (614) 100%, Location: Huez, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 253699969622 † DNJC + BVM + JOHN the BAPTIST + JOSEPH... BRONZE MULTI RELIQUARY 4 RELICs 1st CLASS † WAX SEALED from ITALY - 18TH century. MORE FRENCH ANTIQUES VISIT My STORE !!!Visitez ma Boutique eBay : La Galerie de l Alpe Ex P..???. DN. JESUS-CHRIST.De Domo BV.BLESSED VIRGIN MARY.S. Joan Bapt.JOHN the BAPTIST.S. Joseph Sp.ST JOSEPH HUSBAND. DIMENSIONS:40 mm X 30 mm X 6 mm GALLERY PICTURES FREE SHIPPING WORLD WIDE Jesus JesusChrist Pantocrator mosaic in Byzantine style, from the Cefalù Cathedral, Sicily, c. 1130Bornc. 4 BC[a] Judea, Roman Empire[5]Diedc. AD 30/33[b] (aged 33–36) Jerusalem, Judea, Roman EmpireCause of deathCrucifixion[c]Home townNazareth, Galilee[11]Parent(s)MaryJoseph[d]Part of a series onJesus in Christianity[show]Jesus in Islam[show]Background[show]Jesus in history[show]Perspectives on Jesus[show]Jesus in culture[show] Christianity portal Islam portal Book:JesusvteJesus[e] (/ˈdʒiːzəs/ JEE-zuss; c. 4 BC – c. AD 30/33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ,[f] was a Jewish preacher and religious leader who became the central figure of Christianity.[13] Christians believe him to be the Son of God and the awaited Messiah (Christ) prophesied in the Old Testament.[14][15]Virtually all modern scholars of antiquity agree that Jesus existed historically,[g] although the quest for the historical Jesus has produced little agreement on the historical reliability of the Gospels and on how closely the biblical Jesus reflects the historical Jesus.[22][23][24] Jesus was a Galilean Jew[13] who was baptized by John the Baptist and subsequently began his own ministry, preaching his message orally[25] and often being referred to as "rabbi".[26] He was arrested and tried by the Jewish authorities,[27] and was crucified by the order of Pontius Pilate, the Roman prefect.[28] Jesus debated fellow Jews on how to best follow God, performed healings, taught in parables and gathered followers.[28][29] After his death, his followers believed he rose from the dead, and the community they formed eventually became the Christian Church.[30]His birth is celebrated annually on December 25 (or various dates in January for some eastern churches) as a holiday known as Christmas, his crucifixion is honored on Good Friday, and his resurrection is celebrated on Easter. The widely used calendar era "AD", from the Latin anno Domini ("in the year of the Lord"), and the alternative "CE", are based on the approximate birth date of Jesus.[31][32]Christian doctrines include the beliefs that Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit, was born of a virgin named Mary, performed miracles, founded the Church, died by crucifixion as a sacrifice to achieve atonement, rose from the dead, and ascended into Heaven, whence he will return.[33] Most Christians believe Jesus enables humans to be reconciled to God. The Nicene Creed asserts that Jesus will judge the living and the dead[34] either before or after their bodily resurrection,[35][36][37] an event tied to the Second Coming of Jesus in Christian eschatology.[38] The great majority of Christians worship Jesus as the incarnation of God the Son, the second of three persons of a Divine Trinity. A minority of Christian denominations reject Trinitarianism, wholly or partly, as non-scriptural.In Islam, Jesus (commonly transliterated as Isa) is considered one of God's important prophets and the Messiah.[39][40][41] Muslims believe Jesus was a bringer of scripture and was born of a virgin but was not the Son of God. The Quran states that Jesus himself never claimed divinity.[42] To most Muslims, Jesus was not crucified but was physically raised into Heaven by God.Judaism rejects the belief that Jesus was the awaited Messiah, arguing that he did not fulfill Messianic prophecies and asserting that his resurrection is a Christian legend.[43]EtymologyFurther information: Jesus (name), Holy Name of Jesus, Names and titles of Jesus in the New Testament, Names of God in Christianity, Yeshua, and Isa (name)Hebrew, Greek and Latin transcriptions of the name Jesus.A typical Jew in Jesus' time had only one name, sometimes supplemented with the father's name or the individual's hometown.[44] Thus, in the New Testament, Jesus is commonly referred to as "Jesus of Nazareth"[h] (e.g., Mark 10:47).[45] Jesus' neighbors in Nazareth refer to him as "the carpenter, the son of Mary and brother of James and Joses and Judas and Simon" (Mark 6:3),[46] "the carpenter's son" (Matthew 13:55),[47] or "Joseph's son" (Luke 4:22).[48] In John, the disciple Philip refers to him as "Jesus son of Joseph from Nazareth" (John 1:45).[49]The name Jesus is derived from the Latin Iesus, a transliteration of the Greek Ἰησοῦς (Iesous).[50] The Greek form is a rendering of the Hebrew ישוע (Yeshua), a variant of the earlier name יהושע (Yehoshua), in English "Joshua".[51][52][53] The name Yeshua appears to have been in use in Judea at the time of the birth of Jesus.[54] The 1st century works of historian Flavius Josephus, who wrote in Koine Greek, the same language as that of the New Testament,[55] refer to at least twenty different people with the name Jesus (i.e. Ἰησοῦς).[56] The etymology of Jesus' name in the context of the New Testament is generally given as "Yahweh is salvation".[57]Since early Christianity, Christians have commonly referred to Jesus as "Jesus Christ".[58] The word Christ is derived from the Greek Χριστός (Christos),[50][59] which is a translation of the Hebrew משיח (Meshiakh), meaning the "anointed" and usually transliterated into English as "Messiah".[60][61] Christians designate Jesus as Christ because they believe he is the Messiah, whose arrival is prophesied in the Hebrew Bible and Old Testament. In postbiblical usage, Christ became viewed as a name—one part of "Jesus Christ"—but originally it was a title.[62][63] The term "Christian" (meaning a follower of Christ) has been in use since the 1st century.[64]Life and teachings in the New TestamentEvents in theLife of Jesus according to the GospelsEarly life[show]Ministry[show]Passion[show]Resurrection[show]In rest of the NT[show]Portals: Christianity Bible Book:Life of JesusvteMain article: Life of Jesus in the New TestamentSee also: Gospel, Gospel harmony, Historical reliability of the Gospels, and Internal consistency of the New TestamentSee also: New Testament places associated with Jesus and Names and titles of Jesus in the New TestamentA 3rd century Greek papyrus of the Gospel of Luke.Canonical gospelsThe four canonical gospels (Mark, Matthew, Luke, and John) are the only substantial sources for the life and message of Jesus.[65] Other parts of the New Testament, such as the Pauline epistles, written decades before the gospels, also include references to key episodes in his life, such as the Last Supper in 1 Corinthians 11:23.[66][67][68] Acts of the Apostles (Acts 10:37–38 and Acts 19) refers to the early ministry of Jesus and its anticipation by John the Baptist.[69][70] Acts 1:1–11 says more about the Ascension of Jesus (also mentioned in 1 Timothy 3:16) than the canonical gospels do.[71]Some early Christian groups had separate descriptions of the life and teachings of Jesus that are not included in the New Testament. These include the Gospels of Thomas, Peter, and Judas, the Apocryphon of James, and many other apocryphal writings. Most scholars conclude that these are written much later and are less reliable accounts than the canonical gospels.[72][73]The canonical gospels are four accounts, each written by a different author. The authors of the gospels are all anonymous, attributed by tradition to the four evangelists, each with close ties to Jesus:[74] Mark by John Mark, an associate of Peter;[75] Matthew by one of Jesus' disciples;[74] Luke by a companion of Paul mentioned in a few epistles;[74] and John by another of Jesus' disciples,[74] the "beloved disciple".[76]According to the Marcan priority, the first to be written was the Gospel of Mark (written AD 60–75), followed by the Gospel of Matthew (AD 65–85), the Gospel of Luke (AD 65–95), and the Gospel of John (AD 75–100).[77] Furthermore, most scholars agree that the authors of Matthew and Luke used Mark as a source when writing their gospels. Matthew and Luke also share some content not found in Mark. To explain this, many scholars believe that in addition to Mark, another source (commonly called the "Q source") was used by the two authors.[78]Three of them, Matthew, Mark, and Luke, are known as the Synoptic Gospels, from the Greek σύν (syn "together") and ὄψις (opsis "view").[79][80][81] They are similar in content, narrative arrangement, language and paragraph structure.[79][80] Scholars generally agree that it is impossible to find any direct literary relationship between the Synoptic Gospels and the Gospel of John.[82] While the flow of some events (such as Jesus' baptism, transfiguration, crucifixion and interactions with the apostles) are shared among the Synoptic Gospels, incidents such as the transfiguration do not appear in John, which also differs on other matters, such as the Cleansing of the Temple.[83]Jesus in the Synoptic GospelsJesus in the Gospel of JohnBegins with Jesus' baptism or birth to a virgin.[74]Begins with creation, with no birth story.[74]Baptized by John the Baptist.[74]Baptism presupposed but not mentioned.[74]Teaches in parables and aphorisms.[74]Teaches in long, involved discourses.[74]Teaches primarily about the Kingdom of God, little about himself.[74]Teaches primarily and extensively about himself.[74]Speaks up for the poor and oppressed.[74]Says little to nothing about the poor or oppressed.[74]Exorcises demons.[84]Does not exorcise demons.[84]Public ministry lasts one year.[74]Public ministry lasts three years.[74]Cleansing the Temple occurs late.[74]Cleansing the Temple is early.[74]Jesus ushers in a new covenant with a last supper.[74]Jesus washes the disciples' feet.[74]The Synoptics emphasize different aspects of Jesus. In Mark, Jesus is the Son of God whose mighty works demonstrate the presence of God's Kingdom.[75] He is a tireless wonder worker, the servant of both God and man.[85] This short gospel records few of Jesus' words or teachings.[75] The Gospel of Matthew emphasizes that Jesus is the fulfillment of God's will as revealed in the Old Testament, and he is the Lord of the Church.[86] He is the "Son of David", a "king", and the Messiah.[85][14][15] Luke presents Jesus as the divine-human savior who shows compassion to the needy.[87] He is the friend of sinners and outcasts, come to seek and save the lost.[85] This gospel includes Jesus' most beloved parables, such as the Good Samaritan and the Prodigal Son.[87]The prologue to the Gospel of John identifies Jesus as an incarnation of the divine Word (Logos).[88] As the Word, Jesus was eternally present with God, active in all creation, and the source of humanity's moral and spiritual nature.[88] Jesus is not only greater than any past human prophet but greater than any prophet could be. He not only speaks God's Word; he is God's Word.[89] In the Gospel of John, Jesus reveals his divine role publicly. Here he is the Bread of Life, the Light of the World, the True Vine and more.[85]Not everything contained in the New Testament gospels is considered to be historically reliable.[90] Views range from their being inerrant descriptions of the life of Jesus[91] to their providing little historical information about his life beyond the basics.[92][93] According to a broad scholarly consensus, the Synoptic Gospels, and not John, are the most reliable sources of information about Jesus.[94][95][44]One important aspect of the study of the gospels is the literary genre under which they fall. Genre "is a key convention guiding both the composition and the interpretation of writings".[96] Whether the gospel authors set out to write novels, myths, histories, or biographies has a tremendous impact on how they ought to be interpreted. Some recent studies suggest that the genre of the gospels ought to be situated within the realm of ancient biography.[97][98][99] Although not without critics,[100] the position that the gospels are a type of ancient biography is the consensus among scholars today.[101][102]In general, the authors of the New Testament showed little interest in an absolute chronology of Jesus or in synchronizing the episodes of his life with the secular history of the age.[103] As stated in John 21:25, the gospels do not claim to provide an exhaustive list of the events in the life of Jesus.[104] The accounts were primarily written as theological documents in the context of early Christianity, with timelines as a secondary consideration.[105] In this respect, it is noteworthy that the Gospels devote about one third of their text to the last week of the life of Jesus in Jerusalem, referred to as the Passion.[106] Although the gospels do not provide enough details to satisfy the demands of modern historians regarding exact dates, it is possible to draw from them a general picture of the life story of Jesus.[90][103][105]John the Baptist John the BaptistJohn the Baptist Preaching in the Wilderness by Anton Raphael Mengs, 1760ProphetBornLate 1st century BC[1] Herodian Judea, the LevantDiedAD 31 – 36[2][3][4][5] Machaerus, Perea, the LevantVenerated inChristianity Islam Bahá'í Faith MandaeismCanonizedPre-CongregationMajor shrineChurch of St John the Baptist, JerusalemTomb of Prophet Yahya, Umayyad Mosque, Damascus, SyriaFeastJune 24 (Nativity), August 29 (Beheading), January 7 (Synaxis, Eastern Orthodox), Thout 2 (Coptic Orthodox Church)AttributesCamel-skin robe, cross, lamb, scroll with words "Ecce Agnus Dei", platter with own head, pouring water from hands or scallop shellPatronagePatron saint of Jordan, Puerto Rico, Knights Hospitaller of Jerusalem, French Canada, Newfoundland, Cesena, Florence, Genoa, Monza, Perth (Scotland), Porto, San Juan, Turin, and many other places.John the Baptist (Ancient Greek: Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής, Ioánnes (h)o baptistés or Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτίζων, Ioánnes (h)o baptízon,[6][7][8][9][10] known as the prophet Yahya in the Quran),[11] also known as John the Baptizer,[12][13][14] was a Jewish itinerant preacher[15] in the early first century AD. John is revered as a major religious figure[16] in Christianity, Islam, the Bahá'í Faith,[17] and Mandaeism. He is called a prophet by all of these traditions, and is honoured as a saint in many Christian traditions.John used baptism as the central symbol or sacrament [18] of his messianic movement. Most scholars agree that John baptized Jesus.[19][20] Scholars generally believe Jesus was a follower or disciple of John[21][22][23] and several New Testament accounts report that some of Jesus' early followers had previously been followers of John.[24] John the Baptist is also mentioned by the Jewish historian Josephus.[25] Some scholars maintain that John was influenced by the semi-ascetic Essenes, who expected an apocalypse and practiced rituals corresponding strongly with baptism,[26] although no direct evidence substantiates this.[27]According to the New Testament, John anticipated a messianic figure greater than himself.[28] Christians commonly refer to John as the precursor or forerunner of Jesus,[29] since John announces Jesus' coming. John is also identified with the prophet Elijah.[30]Gospel narratives[edit]See also: Baptism of Jesus and Beheading of Saint John the BaptistJohn the Baptist is mentioned in all four canonical Gospels and the non-canonical Gospel of the Nazarenes. The Synoptic Gospels (Mark, Matthew, and Luke) describe John baptising Jesus; in the Gospel of John it is implied in John 1:32-34.In Mark[edit]The Preaching of St. John the Baptist by Pieter Bruegel the ElderThe Gospel of Mark introduces John as a fulfilment of a prophecy from the Book of Isaiah (in fact, a conflation of texts from Isaiah, Malachi and Exodus)[31] about a messenger being sent ahead, and a voice crying out in the wilderness. John is described as wearing clothes of camel's hair, living on locusts and wild honey. John proclaims baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sin, and says another will come after him who will not baptize with water, but with the Holy Spirit.Jesus comes to John, and is baptized by him in the river Jordan. The account describes how; as he emerges from the water, the heavens open and the Holy Spirit descends on him 'like a dove'. A voice from heaven then says, "You are my Son, the Beloved; with you I am well pleased." (Mark 1:1-8)Later in the gospel there is an account of John's death. It is introduced by an incident where the Tetrarch Herod Antipas, hearing stories about Jesus, imagines that this is John the Baptist raised from the dead. It then explains that John had rebuked Herod for marrying Herodias, the ex-wife of his brother (named here as Philip). Herodias demands his execution, but Herod, who 'liked to listen' to John, is reluctant to do so because he fears him, knowing he is a 'righteous and holy man'.The account then describes how Herod's daughter Herodias (NRSV; other translations refer to the girl as the daughter of Herodias) dances before Herod, who is pleased and offers her anything she asks for in return. When the girl asks her mother what she should request, she is told to demand the head of John the Baptist. Reluctantly, Herod orders the beheading of John, and his head is delivered to her, at her request, on a plate. John's disciples take the body away and bury it in a tomb.(Mark 6:17–29)There are a number of difficulties with this passage. The Gospel wrongly identifies Antipas as 'King'[32] and the ex-husband of Herodias is named as Philip, but he is known to have been called Herod.[33] Although the wording clearly implies the girl was the daughter of Herodias, many texts describe her as "Herod's daughter, Herodias". Since these texts are early and significant and the reading is 'difficult', many scholars see this as the original version, corrected in later versions and in Matthew and Luke.[33][34][35] Josephus says that Herodias had a daughter by the name of Salome.Scholars have speculated about the origins of the story. Since it shows signs of having been composed in Aramaic, which Mark apparently did not speak, he is likely to have got it from a Palestinian source.[36] There is a variety of opinions about how much actual historical material it contains, especially given the alleged factual errors.[37] Many scholars have seen the story of John arrested, executed, and buried in a tomb as a conscious foreshadowing of the fate of Jesus.[38]John the Baptist in The Gospel of Mark [show]In Matthew[edit]St. John the Baptist Preaching, c. 1665, by Mattia PretiThe Gospel of Matthew account begins with the same modified quotation from Isaiah,[39] moving the Malachi and Exodus material to later in the text, where it is quoted by Jesus.[40] The description of John is taken directly from Mark ("clothing of camel’s hair with a leather belt around his waist, and his food was locusts and wild honey"), along with the proclamation that one was coming who would baptise with the Holy Spirit "and fire".(Matthew 3:1-12)Unlike Mark, Matthew describes John as critical of Pharisees and Sadducees and as preaching "the kingdom of heaven is at hand" and a "coming judgment".Matthew shortens the account of the beheading of John, and adds two elements: that Herod Antipas wants John dead, and that the death is reported to Jesus by his disciples.[41] Matthew's approach is to shift the focus away from Herod and onto John as a prototype of Jesus. Where Mark has Herod killing John reluctantly and at Herodias' insistence, Matthew describes him as wanting John dead.[42]John the Baptist in the Gospel of Matthew [show]In Luke and Acts[edit]Main article: Nativity of Saint John the BaptistJohn the Baptist (right) with child Jesus, painting by Bartolomé Esteban Perez MurilloThe Gospel of Luke adds an account of John's infancy, introducing him as the miraculous son of Zechariah, an old man, and his wife Elizabeth, who was past the menopause and therefore unable to have children.[43][44]According to this account, the birth of John was foretold by the angel Gabriel to Zechariah, while he was performing his functions as a priest in the temple of Jerusalem. Since he is described as a priest of the course of Abijah and Elizabeth as one of the daughters of Aaron,[45] this would make John a descendant of Aaron on both his father's and mother's side.[46] On the basis of this account, the Catholic as well as the Anglican and Lutheran liturgical calendars placed the feast of the Nativity of John the Baptist on June 24, six months before Christmas.[47]Elizabeth is described as a "relative" of Mary, the mother of Jesus in Luke 1:36. There is no mention of a family relationship between John and Jesus in the other Gospels, and Raymond E. Brown has described it as "of dubious historicity".[48] Géza Vermes has called it "artificial and undoubtedly Luke's creation".[49] The many similarities between the Gospel of Luke story of the birth of John and the Old Testament account of the birth of Samuel suggest that Luke's account of the annunciation and birth of Jesus are modeled on that of Samuel.[50]Post-nativityUnique to the Gospel of Luke, John the Baptist explicitly teaches charity, baptizes tax-collectors, and advises soldiers.The text briefly mentions that John is imprisoned and later beheaded by Herod, but the Gospel of Luke lacks the story of a step-daughter dancing for Herod and requesting John's head.The Book of Acts portrays some disciples of John becoming followers of Jesus Acts 18:24-19:6 a development not reported by the gospels except for the early case of Andrew, Simon Peter's brother John 1:35-42John the Baptist in the Gospel of Luke and Acts [show]In the Gospel of John[edit]The fourth gospel describes the John the Baptist as "a man sent from God" who "was not the light", but "came as a witness, to bear witness to the light, so that through him everyone might believe".[51] John clearly denies being the Christ or Elijah or 'the prophet', instead describing himself as the "voice of one crying in the wilderness".[52]Upon literary analysis, it is clear that John is the "testifier and confessor par excellence", particularly when compared to figures like Nicodemus.[53]Matthias Grünewald, detail of the Isenheim AltarpieceJesus's baptism is implied but not depicted. Unlike the other gospels, it is John himself who testifies to seeing "the Spirit come down from heaven like a dove and rest on him". John explicitly announces that Jesus is the one "who baptizes with the Holy Spirit" and John even professes a "belief that he is the Son of God" and "the Lamb of God".The Gospel of John reports that Jesus' disciples were baptizing and that a debate broke out between some of the disciples of John and another Jew about purification.[54] In this debate John argued that Jesus "must become greater," while he (John) "must become less"[55] (Latin Vulgate: illum oportet crescere me autem minui).The Gospel of John then points out that Jesus' disciples were baptizing more people than John.[56] Later, the Gospel relates that Jesus regarded John as "a burning and shining lamp, and you were willing to rejoice for a while in his light".[57]John the Baptist in the Gospel of John [show]Comparative analysis[edit]The prophecy of IsaiahAlthough Mark's Gospel implies that the arrival of John the Baptist is the fulfilment of a prophecy from the Book of Isaiah, the words quoted ("I will send my messenger ahead of you, who will prepare your way — a voice of one calling in the wilderness, ‘Prepare the way for the Lord, make straight paths for him.’") are actually a composite of texts from Isaiah, Malachi and the Book of Exodus. (Matthew and Luke drop the first part of the reference.)[31]Baptism of JesusThe gospels differ on the details of the Baptism. In Mark and Luke, Jesus himself sees the heavens open and hears a voice address him personally, saying, "You are my dearly loved son; you bring me great joy". They do not clarify whether others saw and heard these things. Although other incidents where the "voice came out of heaven" are recorded in which, for the sake of the crowds, it was heard audibly, John did say in his witness that he did see the spirit coming down "out of heaven". John 12:28-30, John 1:32In Matthew, the voice from heaven does not address Jesus personally, saying instead "This is my beloved son, in whom I am well pleased."In the Gospel of John, John the Baptist himself sees the spirit descend as a dove, testifying about the experience as evidence of Jesus's status.John's knowledge of JesusJohn's knowledge of Jesus varies across gospels. In the Gospel of Mark, John preaches of a coming leader, but shows no signs of recognizing that Jesus is this leader. In Matthew, however, John immediately recognizes Jesus and John questions his own worthiness to baptize Jesus. In both Matthew and Luke, John later dispatches disciples to question Jesus about his status, asking "Are you he who is to come, or shall we look for another?" In Luke, John is a familial relative of Jesus whose birth was foretold by Gabriel. In the Gospel of John, John the Baptist himself sees the spirit descend like a dove and he explicitly preaches that Jesus is the Son of God.John and ElijahSee also: Matthew 3:4The Gospels vary in their depiction of John's relationship to Elijah. Matthew and Mark describe John's attire in a way reminiscent of the description of Elijah in 2 Kings 1:8, who also wore a garment of hair and a leather belt. In Matthew, Jesus explicitly teaches that John is "Elijah who was to come" (Matt. 11:14 – see also Matt. 17:11–13); many Christian theologians have taken this to mean that John was Elijah's successor. In the Gospel of John, John the Baptist explicitly denies being Elijah.[58] In the annunciation narrative in Luke, an angel appears to Zechariah, John's father, and tells him that John "will turn many of the sons of Israel to the Lord their God," and that he will go forth "in the spirit and power of Elijah (Luke 1:16–17)."In Josephus's Antiquities of the Jews[edit]An account of John the Baptist is found in all extant manuscripts of the Antiquities of the Jews (book 18, chapter 5, 2) by Flavius Josephus (37–100):[59]Now some of the Jews thought that the destruction of Herod's army came from God, and that very justly, as a punishment of what he did against John, that was called the Baptist: for Herod slew him, who was a good man, and commanded the Jews irate, both as to righteousness towards one another, and piety towards God, and so to come to baptism; for that the washing [with water] would be acceptable to him, if they made use of it, not in order to the putting away [or the remission] of some sins [only], but for the purification of the body; supposing still that the soul was thoroughly purified beforehand by righteousness. Now when [many] others came in crowds about him, for they were very greatly moved [or pleased] by hearing his words, Herod, who feared lest the great influence John had over the people might put it into his power and inclination to raise a rebellion, (for they seemed ready to do any thing he should advise,) thought it best, by putting him to death, to prevent any mischief he might cause, and not bring himself into difficulties, by sparing a man who might make him repent of it when it would be too late. Accordingly he was sent a prisoner, out of Herod's suspicious temper, to Macherus, the castle I before mentioned, and was there put to death. Now the Jews had an opinion that the destruction of this army was sent as a punishment upon Herod, and a mark of God's displeasure to him.[60]This passage places John's death near the destruction of Herod's army in 36 AD. This stands in contradistinction to the Bible, which dates John's death in 30 AD as Jesus begins his two-year ministry after John dies. Julian Doyle [61] points out that the two events would not be linked if John had died in 30 AD, six years before the destruction of Herod's army. Controversially, this places Jesus' death after Pilate left Judea. The earliest known reference to this passage can be found in the early third century when it is quoted by Origen in Contra Celsum. According to this passage, the execution of John was blamed for a defeat Herod suffered c. 36 AD. Divergences between the passage's presentation and the biblical accounts of John include baptism for those whose souls have already been "purified beforehand by righteousness" is for purification of the body, not general repentance of sin (Mark 1:4).[62] Biblical scholar John Dominic Crossan differentiates between Josephus's account of John and Jesus, saying, "John had a monopoly, but Jesus had a franchise." To get baptized, Crossan writes, you went only to John; to stop the movement one only needed to stop John (therefore his movement ended with his death). Jesus invited all to come and see how he and his companions had already accepted the government of God, entered it and were living it. Such a communal praxis was not just for himself, but could survive without him, unlike John's movement.[63]Relics[edit]See also: Beheading of Saint John the Baptist § RelicsNabi Yahya Mosque, the traditional burial site in Sebastia, near Nablus, the West Bank, the Levant.Matthew 14:12 records that "his disciples came and took away [John's] body and buried it". Theologian Joseph Benson refers to a belief that "it seems that [the body] had been thrown over the prison walls, without burial, probably by order of Herodias.[64]The burial-place of John the Baptist was traditionally said to be at the Nabi Yahya Mosque (Saint John the Baptiste Mosque) in Sebaste in current Palestinian territories, and mention is made of his relics being honored there around the middle of the 4th century. The historians Rufinus and Theodoretus record that the shrine was desecrated under Julian the Apostate around 362, the bones being partly burned. A portion of the rescued relics were carried to Jerusalem, then to Alexandria, where on 27 May 395, they were laid in the basilica newly dedicated to the Forerunner on the former site of the temple of Serapis. The tomb at Sebaste continued, nevertheless, to be visited by pious pilgrims, and Saint Jerome bears witness to miracles being worked there.What became of the head of John the Baptist is difficult to determine. Nicephorus[65] and Symeon Metaphrastes say that Herodias had it buried in the fortress of Machaerus (in accordance with Josephus). Other writers say that it was interred in Herod's palace at Jerusalem; there it was found during the reign of Constantine I, and thence secretly taken to Emesa where it was concealed, the place remaining unknown for years, until it was manifested by revelation in 453. However, the decapitation cloth of Saint John is kept at the Aachen Cathedral. The Coptic Christian Orthodox Church also claim to hold the relics of Saint John the Baptist. These are to be found in a monastery in Lower Egypt between Cairo and Alexandria. It is possible, with permission from the monks, to see the original tomb where the remains were found.Shrine of John the Baptist in the Umayyad Mosque.Several different locations claim to possess the severed head of John the Baptist. The current official place for the Catholic Church is the Shrine of Saint John the Baptiste (Nabi Yahya in Arabic) inside the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus;.[66] The place was visited by Pope John Paul II in 2001 who "paused for a minute's silent meditation at the tomb of St John the Baptist".[67] Previous to that the catholic Church used to believe that it was kept in the San Silvestro in Capite in Rome;[68] and then that it was held by the Knights Templar at Amiens Cathedral in France (brought home by Wallon de Sarton from the Fourth Crusade in Constantinople), at Antioch in Turkey (fate uncertain). Other traditions assume that it was in Residenz Museum in Munich, Germany (official residence of the Wittelsbach rulers of Bavaria from 1385 to 1918).[68] or even the parish church at Tenterden in Kent, where it was preserved up until the Reformation.A Calcutta Armenian kisses the hand of a priest of Saint John the Baptist, ChinsurahThe saint's right hand, with which he baptised Jesus, is claimed to be in the Serbian Orthodox Cetinje monastery in Montenegro; Topkapi Palace in Istanbul;[68] and also in the Romanian skete of the Forerunner on Mount Athos. The saint's left hand is allegedly preserved in the Armenian Apostolic Church of St. John at Chinsurah, West Bengal, where each year on "Chinsurah Day" in January it blesses the Armenians of Calcutta.[69] A crypt and relics said to be John's and mentioned in 11th- and 16th-century manuscripts, were discovered in 1969 during restoration of the Church of St. Macarius at the Monastery of Saint Macarius the Great in Scetes, Egypt;[70]Additional relics are claimed to reside in Gandzasar Monastery's Cathedral of St. John the Baptist, in Nagorno Karabakh.Another obscure claim relates to the town of Halifax in West Yorkshire, United Kingdom, where, as patron saint of the town, the Baptist's head appears on the official coat-of-arms.[71] One legend (among others) bases the etymology of the town's place-name on "halig" (holy) and "fax" (face), claiming that a relic of the head, or face, of John the Baptist once existed in the town.[72] Also, in 2010, bones were discovered in the ruins of a Bulgarian church in the St. John the Forerunner Monastery (4th–17th centuries) on the Black Sea island of St. Ivan and two years later, after DNA and radio carbon testing proved the bones belonged to a Middle Eastern man who lived in the 1st century AD, scientists said that the remains could conceivably have belonged to John the Baptist.[73][74] The remains, found in a reliquarium are presently kept in the Sts. Cyril and Methodius Cathedral in Sozopol.[73][75] Livraison et Expédition (Shipping & Handling)Les pièces seront soigneusement emballées individuellement et protégées avec du film bulle et carton renforcé,Pour les pays autres que la France, envoi en recommandé avec assurance Ad Valorem à hauteur de la valeur de l'objet.All items will be securely packed, individually wrapped with acid-free silk paper, foam, bubble wrap and reinforced cardboard.Shipped from FRANCE with proof of delivery and insured for their value.Any overseas custom taxes and duties are all borne by the buyerNo custom taxes for European CommunityWE SHIP WORLDWIDENotes importantes (Important points)MERCI DE POSEZ TOUTES VOS QUESTION AVANT D’ENCHERIR OU D’ACHETER. A moins que ce soit spécifié autrement dans la description, nos objets en vente sont d’occasion. Par conséquent des traces d’usage existent (aussi infimes soient-elles). 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By bidding/buying, the buyer agrees he has studied the photos, read the description carefully and agrees with our assessment of the items.We describe our items the best we can with pictures reflecting the condition as closely as possible.Other pictures are available on demand.For transaction outside Europe, the buyer must have a confirmed postal address on their Paypal account. Thanks for looking! Condition: Used, Condition: !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! SPECIAL 1st CLASS !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!, Country/Region of Manufacture: Italy, Featured Refinements: Reliquary, Type: Relic

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