† 19Th Bronze Monstrance Pax Dnjc + Bvm + Holy Family Reliquary Wax Seal Italy †

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Seller: Top-Rated Seller lagaleriedelalpe (644) 100%, Location: Huez, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 253298080596 † CHURCH LITURGICAL CHISELLED BRONZE PAX / KISS of PEACEPERIOD : 1800's MULTI RELIQUARY 4 RELICS (1ST CLASS)DNJC / BVM / ST ANNE / ST JOSEPHVATICAN WAX SEALED from ITALY † FRENCH ANTIQUESVisitez ma Boutique eBay : La Galerie de l Alpe Ex Cunis D.N.I.C. / HOLY CRIB of Our Lord Jesus Christ.DOMINI NOSTRI JESU CHRISTI.Ex Velo V.M. / HOLY VEIL of Virgin Mary.BLESSED VIRGIN MARY.S. Annae Mater / ST ANNE Mother.GRANDPARENTS / CANADA PATRON.S. Iosephi Sp./ ST JOSEPH Husband.CATHOLIC CHURCH / CANADA PATRON. DIMENSIONS:260 mm X 110 mm X 60 mm GALLERY PICTURES FREE SHIPPING WORLD WIDE FREE SHIPPING WORLD WIDE OTHERS RELIQUARIES OTHERS B.M.V OTHERS D.N.J.C. Pax (liturgical object) Ivory pax with Crucifixion, Germany or France, 15th centuryNorthern Italy, c. 1480, Glass, paint, gilt, copper, metal foil, 10.16 cm highPax including a plaquette by Valerio Belli, 1520sThe pax was an object used in the Middle Ages and Renaissance for the Kiss of Peace in the Catholic Mass. Direct kissing among the celebrants and congregation was replaced by each in turn kissing the pax, which was carried around to those present. The form of the pax was variable but normally included a flat surface to be kissed. Often the pax was held out with a long handle attached, and it seems to have been given a wipe with a cloth between each person. Some paxes are very elaborate and expensive objects, and most survivals fall into this class, but the great majority were probably very simple wood or brass pieces. It was usual to include an image, usually of or including the Virgin Mary or Jesus Christ.[1]The pax began to replace actual kisses in the 13th century, apparently because of a range of concerns over the sexual, social and medical implications of actual kissing. It is first documented in England, and the 17th-century historian of the Mass, Cardinal Giovanni Bona, associated the introduction with the Franciscan Order. The person holding the pax said "Pax tecum" and received the response "Et cum spiritu tuo" ("Peace to you", "And with your spirit"). The pax gradually fell out of general use, though the Catholic Encyclopedia in 1911 said it was still practised when "prelates and princes" were involved, but "not to others except in rare cases established by custom".[2]In the 20th century the physical kiss, now more often a handshake, was revived in the Mass.Names[edit]Pax was the Latin name, with osculatorium and instrumentum pacis as alternatives. Pax was also used in English, in which they were also called a pax board and pax-brede, or "paxbrede". Another Latin term was pacificale, still sometimes used in Italian and German.[3] In art history the modern term "pax tablet" may be used, especially by church historians, where art historians mostly favour "pax".[4] "Osculatory" is used in some 19th-century sources,[5] and some claim that this refers to a pendant form, worn round the neck by the priest. This does not appear in most modern scholarship, though given a one-line entry by Oxford Art Online.[6] Translators unfamiliar with the concept may introduce still further names into English. Kusstafel ("kiss-board") is one of the German names.History[edit]The Kiss of Peace was included in the Mass of the Western Church from the 2nd century at least, and the Eastern Church had its equivalent. The kiss was only supposed to be exchanged between members of the same sex, but numerous references to inter-sex kissing show that this continued to be a possibility.[7] An exception to this was the Nuptial Mass for weddings, where the priest kissed the bridegroom, who then kissed the bride.[8] Other exceptions were masses in the days before Easter, when the association with the treacherous kiss of Judas might be too strong, and the Kiss of Peace was omitted entirely.[9]The pax board, as a substitute for the Kiss of Peace, is first mentioned in 1248 in the statutes of the Archbishop of York, and seems to have been an English invention, perhaps restricted to England until the next century. The statutes of a synod of the Diocese of Exeter in 1287, and an inventory of Saint Paul's Cathedral in London of 1297 provide the next mentions. By 1328 the post-mortem inventory of the possessions of Queen Clementia of Hungary, widow of King Louis X of France, included "ung portepais d'argent" ("a silver pax").[10]Early texts of the major work Rationale divinorum officiorum by Guillaume Durand, Bishop of Mende in southern France,[11] which was circulating from 1286, do not mention the pax. But the first vernacular translation, in French from 1382, has an inserted mention of "la paix porter".[12] A synod in Prague in 1355 is the first mention from the Holy Roman Empire; the synod recommended that the pax should be introduced if congregations were reluctant to exchange actual kisses.[13] Other evidence, including surviving paxes, shows it spread at least to Italy, Germany and Spain, and was probably standard in Western European churches by the Reformation.[14]In Protestantism the pax, and all thought of actual kisses was abandoned as useless and undesirable symbolic distractions from faith, although the pax is not singled out for much special disparagement in Protestant polemics. The only exception were the Anabaptists, who instead kissed on meeting both in normal life and at services; this only stiffened the disdain felt by other Protestants.[15]By about 1600 the use of the Kiss of Peace had declined and changed in Catholic practice as well. No longer regarded as a general ceremony of reconciliation, but as one of greeting those deserving honour, it was now restricted to the clergy and the choir, as well as magistrates and male nobility. It was performed at the beginning of High Mass, whereas the pax board had previously been more often associated with the less ceremonial Low Mass. According to the Oratorian liturgical historian Father Pierre Lebrun (1661–1729), the decline in Catholic use was because of the disputes over precedence that it caused.[16]Another factor may have been that kissing the pax had clearly come to act as a substitute for receiving the Eucharist for many of the faithful, avoiding the need for fasting and other prescribed preparations for Holy Communion.[17]In modern Catholicism use of the pax is confined to a few religious orders, such as the Dominicans,[18] and individual churches.Cause of disputes[edit]Rococo pax of 1726, for the Imperial Chapel of the Hofburg Palace in Vienna; by this time paxes were largely out of use in ordinary churchesDesign for a pax by E.W. Pugin (d. 1875), showing its handleAs earlier with the actual kiss, the pax was often the cause of bad feeling and sometimes actual violence because the order in which it was kissed, descending down the religious and social hierarchy, gave rise to disputes over precedence. Geoffrey Chaucer in The Parson's Tale from his Canterbury Tales, wrote:And yet is there a private species of Pride that waits first to be greeted ere he will greet, although he is less worthy than that other is, indeed; and also he expects or desires to sit, or else to go before him in the way, or kiss the pax, or be incensed, or go to the offering before his neighbor, and such similar things, beyond what duty requires, indeed, but that he has his heart and his intent in such a proud desire to be made much of and honored before the people.[19]In The Wife of Bath's Tale Chaucer makes it clear that she was just such a person.[20] Christine de Pisan complained of such behaviour, among women in particular, pointing out that the pax "is for the little people as much as the big ones". She recommended just hanging the pax on the wall of the church "on a nail and let whoever wants to kiss it do so". This was actually recommended by a synod in Seville in 1512, which said the pax should be fixed rather than carried round the church. Thomas More also complained that "men fall at variance for kissing of the pax".[21]The historian Eamon Duffy in his The Stripping of the Altars recounts that:In 1494 the wardens of the parish of All Saints, Stanyng, presented Joanna Dyaca for breaking the paxbrede by throwing it on the ground, "because another woman of the parish had kissed it before her." On All Saints Day 1522 Master John Browne of the parish of Theydon-Garnon in Essex, having kissed the pax-brede at the parish Mass, smashed it over the head of Richard Pond, the holy-water clerk who had tendered it to him, "causing streams of blood to run to the ground." Brown was enraged because the pax had first been offered to Francis Hamden and his wife Margery, despite the fact that the previous Sunday he had warned Pond, "Clerke, if thou here after givest not me the pax first I shall breke it on thy hedd."[22]On the other hand, a "ribald carol" recounting various flirtatious advances made at mass includes the verse:"Jankin at the Agnus bered the pax-brede;He twinkled but said nout, and on my fot he tredeKyrieleison"[23]As art[edit]Paxes with elaborate metalwork framing an image in a medium that would withstand kissing and wiping are the sort that have been most likely to survive. Other objects that might seem to have had another purpose, such as plaquettes, ivory panels or small painted enamel plaques, may have been made for a pax. Equally other objects began life as serving some other purpose, and were turned into paxes.[24] Some still have a metal fitting at the rear, either a handle or a slot for a long wooden handle to fit into (a few of these survive). Glass or rock crystal over an image below allowed the image to be kissed repeatedly but not damaged, and enamel also wore relatively well. Carved shell and mother of pearl are sometimes used. Even with a frame paxes are usually less than a foot high, and the images often 4 to 6 inches high. The inventory of the royal treasure of King Richard II of England lists many paxes among its nearly 1,200 items, including two of plain ungilded silver with red crosses, which Jenny Stratford suggests were for use in Lent. Several record who gave them, or from whom they were seized for offences.[25]As a type of object that was not quite considered of top importance, the compositions in pax images were very often recycled from another medium such as prints or plaquettes. Gilt-copper is more common than gold in the surrounds, and gems were likely to be glass-paste. But this is also partly an accident of survival; many paxes were made purely of a single piece of silver, with the image in relief or engraved, but these have rarely survived. If not melted down by the church for funds they were often confiscated by the civil authorities in the late Ancien Régime and Napoleonic period, when a distinction was often made between essential church plate such as chalices and candlesticks, which the church was allowed to keep, and inessential items such as paxes, by then probably no longer in use, which were confiscated. Still more common were copper alloy (brass or bronze) pieces, which were mass-produced (in medieval terms) in late medieval England, though very few have survived. These were cast in one piece, with the image either in the mould or engraved later, and with very similar designs, suggesting the use of pattern books or other models.[26] Some paxes doubled as reliquaries, such as the Eberbach Pax, though this contained the lowest sort of "contact relic", a medallion blessed by the pope.[27]From inventories and other records we know that churches very often had two or more paxes, distinguishing between the best, for feast-days and probably typically of metal, and "ferial" or everyday ones, probably often in wood. Many churches also had pairs of paxes, one used on each side of the central aisle. A rare medieval wood pax was found under floorboards in a cottage near the church at Sandon, Essex in 1910. Dating to about 1500, it has a painted watercolour on vellum Crucifixion set in a wood frame, once gilded. Only extra space below the image, and traces of a handle fitting on the back, make its purpose clear. Surviving medieval English paxes include only two examples each in silver and wood. New College, Oxford has one of the silver ones, of about 1520, with gilded figures in its Crucifixion, and engraving probably by a foreign goldsmith in London.[28] The Victoria and Albert Museum has an English recusant example in engraved silver from around 1640.[29]English documentary records during the English Reformation, and especially the brief restoration of Catholic practices in the reign of Mary I of England, record a variety of forms of pax, including some in the 1550s that are clearly improvisations replacing the objects confiscated earlier. In one parish a mass-book with a treasure binding was used, at others a small shield with a gentleman's coat of arms on, and an object showing "a nakyd man with the xij sighnes aboute him".[30]Rear of the German 15th-century Eberbach Pax, with handle and engraved saints Unusually fancy North Italian pax, including relics, 1434, Trento Cathedral, 33 cm high Italian, c. 1500 with Christ as the Man of Sorrows, 18 cm high German Late Gothic pax with a relic under glass or crystal, c. 1500 Pax with the Annunciation in shell cameo, gilded silver, copper, enamel. German or Netherlandish shell carving (c. 1500), setting probably Italian(c.1500–1520) Ivory pax with Crucifixion, Netherlandish, 1500-10 Late Gothic pax from Maastricht, the image under crystal or glass 16th-century cast copper pax, Italian Painted Limoges enamel, 1520-40 by Nardon Pénicaud, 8.3 cm high Italian, painted enamel and gilt-copper frame, early 16th century. The main image after a plaquette. 19 cm high Side view of a pax showing the handle Mother of pearl medallion, after a print by Master E.S., c. 1480, mounted in silver as a pax in 17th century Jesus This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. For other uses, see Jesus (disambiguation)."Christ" redirects here. For the Christian theological concept of the Messiah, see Christ (title). For other uses, see Christ (disambiguation).JesusChrist Pantocrator mosaic in Byzantine style, from the Cefalù Cathedral, Sicily, c. 1130Bornc. 4 BC[a] Herodian Tetrarchy, Roman Empire[5]Diedc. AD 30/33[b] (aged 33–36) Jerusalem, Judea, Roman EmpireCause of deathCrucifixion[c]Home townNazareth, Galilee[11]Parent(s)MaryJoseph[d]Part of a series onJesus in Christianity[show]Jesus in Islam[show]Background[show]Jesus in history[show]Perspectives on Jesus[show]Jesus in culture[show] Christianity portal Islam portal Book:JesusvteJesus[e] (/ˈdʒiːzəs/ jee-zuss; c. 4 BC – c. AD 30/33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ,[f] was a Jewish preacher and religious leader who became the central figure of Christianity.[13] Christians believe him to be the Son of God and the awaited Messiah (Christ) prophesied in the Old Testament.[14][15]Virtually all modern scholars of antiquity agree that Jesus existed historically,[g] although the quest for the historical Jesus has produced little agreement on the historical reliability of the Gospels and on how closely the biblical Jesus reflects the historical Jesus.[22][23][24] Jesus was a Galilean Jew[13] who was baptized by John the Baptist and subsequently began his own ministry, preaching his message orally[25] and often being referred to as "rabbi".[26] He was arrested and tried by the Jewish authorities,[27] and was crucified by the order of Pontius Pilate, the Roman prefect.[28] Jesus debated fellow Jews on how to best follow God, performed healings, taught in parables and gathered followers.[28] After his death, his followers believed he rose from the dead, and the community they formed eventually became the Christian Church.[29]His birth is celebrated annually on December 25 (or various dates in January for some eastern churches) as a holiday known as Christmas, his crucifixion is honored on Good Friday, and his resurrection is celebrated on Easter. The widely used calendar era "AD", from the Latin anno Domini ("in the year of our Lord"), and the alternative "CE", are based on the approximate birth date of Jesus.[30][31]Christian doctrines include the beliefs that Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit, was born of a virgin named Mary, performed miracles, founded the Church, died by crucifixion as a sacrifice to achieve atonement, rose from the dead, and ascended into Heaven, whence he will return.[32] Most Christians believe Jesus enables humans to be reconciled to God. The Nicene Creed asserts that Jesus will judge the living and the dead[33]either before or after their bodily resurrection,[34][35][36] an event tied to the Second Coming of Jesus in Christian eschatology.[37] The great majority of Christians worship Jesus as the incarnation of God the Son, the second of three persons of a Divine Trinity. A minority of Christian denominations reject Trinitarianism, wholly or partly, as non-scriptural.In Islam, Jesus (commonly transliterated as Isa) is considered one of God's important prophets and the Messiah.[38][39][40] Muslims believe Jesus was a bringer of scripture and was born of a virgin but was not the Son of God. The Quran states that Jesus himself never claimed divinity.[41] To most Muslims, Jesus was not crucified but was physically raised into Heaven by God.Judaism rejects the belief that Jesus was the awaited Messiah, arguing that he did not fulfill Messianic prophecies and asserting that the resurrection is a Christian legend.[42]EtymologyFurther information: Jesus (name), Holy Name of Jesus, Names and titles of Jesus in the New Testament, Names of God in Christianity, Yeshua, and Isa (name)Hebrew, Greek and Latin transcriptions of the name Jesus.A typical Jew in Jesus' time had only one name, sometimes supplemented with the father's name or the individual's hometown.[43] Thus, in the New Testament, Jesus is commonly referred to as "Jesus of Nazareth"[h] (e.g., Mark 10:47).[44] Jesus' neighbors in Nazareth refer to him as "the carpenter, the son of Mary and brother of James and Joses and Judas and Simon" (Mark 6:3),[45] "the carpenter's son" (Matthew 13:55),[46] or "Joseph's son" (Luke 4:22).[47] In John, the disciple Philip refers to him as "Jesus son of Joseph from Nazareth" (John 1:45).[48]The name Jesus is derived from the Latin Iesus, a transliteration of the Greek Ἰησοῦς (Iesous).[49] The Greek form is a rendering of the Hebrew ישוע (Yeshua), a variant of the earlier name יהושע (Yehoshua), in English "Joshua".[50][51][52] The name Yeshua appears to have been in use in Judea at the time of the birth of Jesus.[53] The 1st century works of historian Flavius Josephus, who wrote in Koine Greek, the same language as that of the New Testament,[54] refer to at least twenty different people with the name Jesus (i.e. Ἰησοῦς).[55] The etymology of Jesus' name in the context of the New Testament is generally given as "Yahweh is salvation".[56]Since early Christianity, Christians have commonly referred to Jesus as "Jesus Christ".[57] The word Christ is derived from the Greek Χριστός (Christos),[49][58] which is a translation of the Hebrew משיח (Meshiakh), meaning the "anointed" and usually transliterated into English as "Messiah".[59][60] Christians designate Jesus as Christ because they believe he is the Messiah, whose arrival is prophesied in the Hebrew Bible and Old Testament. In postbiblical usage, Christ became viewed as a name—one part of "Jesus Christ"—but originally it was a title.[61][62] The term "Christian" (meaning a follower of Christ) has been in use since the 1st century.[63]Mary, mother of Jesus For the 1999 television film, see Mary, Mother of Jesus (film). For other uses, see Saint Mary (disambiguation), Nuestra Señora (disambiguation), and Virgin Mary (disambiguation).This article is an overview. For specific views, see: Anglican, Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Ecumenical, Islamic, Lutheran, Mormon, and Protestant perspectives.MaryDepicted in stained glass. St. James' Church, Glenbeigh, County Kerry, IrelandBornSeptember 8 (traditional; Nativity of Mary) c. 18 BC[1]Home townTzippori Nazareth GalileeSpouse(s)JosephChildrenJesus (according to Bible) James, Joseph, Juda, Simon, Daughters (according to Helvidius)Parent(s)Joachim and Anne (according to apocryphal gospels)A series of articles onMother of JesusChronologyPresentation of MaryAnnunciationVisitationMarriage JosephVirgin birthNativity Holy FamilyPresentation of Jesus at the TempleFlight into EgyptFinding in the TempleCanaCrucifixionResurrectionPentecostMarian perspectivesCatholicEastern OrthodoxProtestant AnglicanLutheranEcumenical (Christian)IslamicCatholic MariologyMariologyHistory of MariologyPapal teachingsSaintsMarian dogmasImmaculate ConceptionTheotokos (Mother of God)AssumptionPerpetual virginityMary in cultureArtFeast daysHymnsMusicShrinesTitlesvteMary (Greek: Μαρία, translit. María; Aramaic: ܡܪܝܡ , translit. Mariam ; Hebrew: מִרְיָם , translit. Miriam ; Arabic: مريم , translit. Mariam ), also known by various titles, styles and honorifics, was a 1st-century Galilean Jewish[2] woman of Nazareth and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.[3][4]The gospels of Matthew and Luke in the New Testament and the Quran describe Mary as a virgin (Greek: παρθένος, translit. parthénos)[5] and Christians believe that she conceived her son while a virgin by the Holy Spirit. The miraculous birth took place when she was already betrothed to Joseph and was awaiting the concluding rite of marriage, the formal home-taking ceremony.[6] She married Joseph and accompanied him to Bethlehem, where Jesus was born.[7]The Gospel of Luke begins its account of Mary's life with the Annunciation, when the angel Gabriel appeared to her and announced her divine selection to be the mother of Jesus. According to canonical gospel accounts, Mary was present at the crucifixion and is depicted as a member of the early Christian community in Jerusalem. According to the Catholic and Orthodox teaching, at the end of her earthly life her body was assumed directly into Heaven; this is known in the Christian West as the Assumption.[8][9]Mary has been venerated since Early Christianity,[10][11] and is considered by millions to be the most meritorious saint of the religion. She is claimed to have miraculously appeared to believers many times over the centuries. The Eastern and Oriental Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Anglican, and Lutheran churches believe that Mary, as mother of Jesus, is the Mother of God (Greek: Θεοτόκος, translit. Theotokos, lit. 'God-bearer'). There is significant diversity in the Marian beliefs and devotional practices of major Christian traditions. The Roman Catholic Church holds distinctive Marian dogmas, namely her status as the Mother of God, her Immaculate Conception, her perpetual virginity, and her Assumption into heaven.[12] Many Protestants minimize Mary's role within Christianity, based on the argued brevity of biblical references.[13] Mary (Arabic: مريم , translit. Maryām ) also has a revered position in Islam, where one of the longer chapters of the Quran is devoted to her.Saint Anne For the figure of Luke 2, see Anna the Prophetess. For other uses, see Saint Anne (disambiguation).Saint AnneGreek icon of Saint Anne and Mary, by Angelos AkotantosMother of the Virgin, Mystic, Maternal Heroine, Woman of AmramBornc. 1st century BCVenerated inAll Christianity All IslamCanonizedpre-congregationFeastJuly 26th (Western calendar) July 25th (Eastern calendar) November 20th (Coptic calendar)AttributesBook, door, with Mary, Jesus or JoachimPatronageBrittany, Canada, Detroit, carpenters; childless people; equestrians; grandparents; homemakers/housewives; lace makers; lost articles; Fasnia (Tenerife); Mainar; miners; mothers; moving house; old-clothes dealers; poverty; pregnancy; seamstresses; stablemen; sterility; childrenSaint Anne (also known as Ann or Anna) of David's house and line, was the mother of Mary and grandmother of Jesus according to apocryphal Christian and Islamic tradition. Mary's mother is not named in the canonical gospels, nor in the Quran. Anne's name and that of her husband Joachim come only from New Testament apocrypha, of which the Gospel of James (written perhaps around 150) seems to be the earliest that mentions them.Church tradition[edit]The story bears a similarity to that of the birth of Samuel, whose mother Hannah (Hebrew: חַנָּה Ḥannāh "favor, grace"; etymologically the same name as Anne) had also been childless. Although Anne receives little attention in the Latin Church prior to the late 12th century,[1] dedications to Anne in Eastern Christianity occur as early as the 6th century.[2] In the Eastern Orthodox Churches and Eastern Catholic Churches, she is revered as Hannah. In the Eastern Orthodox tradition, Hannah is ascribed the title Forebear of God, and both the Nativity of Mary and the Presentation of Mary are celebrated as two of the twelve Great Feasts of the Orthodox Church. The Dormition of Hannah is also a minor feast in Eastern Christianity. In Protestantism, it is held that Martin Luther chose to enter religious life as a Augustinian monk after crying out to St. Anne.[3][4] Saint Joseph This article is about the husband of Mary. For other saints, see Saint Joseph (disambiguation). For the Joseph of Genesis, see Joseph (patriarch).Saint JosephSaint Joseph with the Infant Jesus by Guido Reni. Oil on canvas (circa 1635)Foster-father/father of Jesus Christ Spouse of the Blessed Virgin Mary Prince and Patron of the Universal ChurchBornBethlehem,[1] c. 90 BC (apocryphal date)[1]DiedNazareth, July 20, AD 18[1] (aged 90, apocryphal date)Venerated inCatholic Church, Anglican Communion, Lutheranism, Methodism, Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox ChurchFeastMarch 19 - Saint Joseph, Husband of Mary (Western Christianity), May 1 - St Joseph the Worker (Roman Catholic Church),The Sunday after the Nativity of the Lord (Eastern Christianity)AttributesCarpenter's square or tools, the infant Jesus, staff with lily blossoms, two turtle doves, rod of spikenard.PatronageCatholic Church, unborn children, fathers, immigrants, workers, employment, traveler, carpenters, realtors, against doubt and hesitation, and of a happy death, Canada, Croatia, Korea, Zapotlan, Vietnam, Mandaue City, Cebu, Philippines, and many others.Part of a series onJosephology of the Catholic ChurchSaint Joseph (c. 1640) by Guido Reni.General articlesSaint JosephHoly FamilySaint Joseph's dreamsSaint Joseph's DayPrayers and devotionsPrayerNovenaChapletScapularCordOrganisationsSisters of St. JosephJosephite FathersOblates of St. JosephPapal documentsRedemptoris CustosQuamquam pluries Catholicism portalvteJoseph (Hebrew: יוֹסֵף , translit. Yosef ; Greek: Ἰωσήφ, translit. Ioséph) is a figure in the Gospels, the husband of Mary, mother of Jesus, and is venerated as Saint Joseph in the Catholic Church, Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox Church, Anglican Communion, Lutheranism[2][3] and Methodism.[4] Christian tradition places Joseph as Jesus' foster father. Some historians state that Joseph was Jesus' father.[5] Some differing views are due to theological interpretations versus historical views.[6]In both Catholic and Protestant traditions, Joseph is regarded as the patron saint of workers and is associated with various feast days. Pope Pius IX declared him to be both the patron and the protector of the Catholic Church, in addition to his patronages of the sick and of a happy death, due to the belief that he died in the presence of Jesus and Mary. In popular piety, Joseph is regarded as a model for fathers and has also become patron of various dioceses and places.Several notable images of Saint Joseph have been granted a Canonical coronation by a Pope. In popular religious iconography he is associated with lilies or a spikenard. With the present-day growth of Mariology, the theological field of Josephology has also grown and since the 1950s centers for studying it have been formed.[7][8]According to the apocriphal gospels, Joseph was the father of James, Joses, Judas (Jude), Simon, and at least two daughters.St. Joseph with the Infant Jesus by Elisabetta SiraniIn the New Testament[edit]The Pauline epistles make no reference to Jesus' father; nor does the Gospel of Mark.[9] The first appearance of Joseph is in the gospels of Matthew and Luke. Each contains a genealogy of Jesus showing ancestry from king David, but through different sons; Matthew follows the major royal line from Solomon, while Luke traces another line back to Nathan, another son of David and Bathsheba. Consequently, all the names between David and Joseph are different. Some scholars, such as Harry A. Ironside reconcile the genealogies by viewing the Solomonic lineage in Matthew as Joseph's major royal line, and the Nathanic lineage in Luke to be Mary's minor line.[10]The epistles of Paul are generally regarded as the oldest extant Christian writings. These mention Jesus' mother (without naming her), but do not refer to his father. The Book of Mark, the first gospel to be written, with a date about two decades after Paul, also does not mention Jesus' father.[9] Joseph first appears in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke, both dating from around 80-90 AD. The issue of reconciling the two accounts has been the subject of debate.Like the two differing genealogies, the infancy narratives appear only in Matthew and Luke and take different approaches to reconciling the requirement that the Messiah be born in Bethlehem with the tradition that Jesus in fact came from Nazareth. In Matthew, Joseph obeys the direction of an angel to marry Mary. Following the birth of Jesus in Bethlehem, Joseph and family stay in Bethlehem for an unspecified period (perhaps two years)[11] until after the visit of the Three Magi, when Joseph is told by an angel in a dream to take the family to Egypt to escape the massacre of the children of Bethlehem planned by Herod, the ruler of the Roman province of Judea. Once Herod has died, an angel tells Joseph to return, but to avoid Herod's son he takes his wife and the child to Nazareth in Galilee and settles there. Thus in Matthew, the infant Jesus, like Moses, is in peril from a cruel king, like Moses he has a (fore)father named Joseph who goes down to Egypt, like the Old Testament Joseph this Joseph has a father named Jacob, and both Josephs receive important dreams foretelling their future.[12]In Luke, Joseph already lives in Nazareth, and Jesus is born in Bethlehem because Joseph and Mary have to travel there to be counted in a census. Subsequently, Jesus was born there. Luke's account makes no mention of angels and dreams, the Massacre of the Innocents, or of a visit to Egypt.The last time Joseph appears in person in any Gospel is in the story of the Passover visit to the Temple in Jerusalem when Jesus is 12 years old, found only in Luke. No mention is made of him thereafter.[13] The story emphasizes Jesus' awareness of his coming mission: here Jesus speaks to his parents (both of them) of "my father," meaning God, but they fail to understand.(Luke 2:41-51).Christian tradition represents Mary as a widow during the adult ministry of her son. Joseph is not mentioned as being present at the Wedding at Cana at the beginning of Jesus' mission, nor at the Passion at the end. If he had been present at the Crucifixion, he would under Jewish custom have been expected to take charge of Jesus' body, but this role is instead performed by Joseph of Arimathea. Nor would Jesus have entrusted his mother to the care of John the Apostle if her husband had been alive.[1]While none of the Gospels mentions Joseph as present at any event during Jesus' adult ministry, the synoptic Gospels share a scene in which the people of Nazareth, Jesus' hometown, doubt Jesus' status as a prophet because they know his family. In Mark 6:3, they call Jesus "Mary's son" instead of naming his father. In Matthew, the townspeople call Jesus "the carpenter's son," again without naming his father. (Matthew 13:53-55) In Luke 3:23 "And Jesus himself began to be about thirty years of age, being (as was supposed) the son of Joseph, which was [the son] of Heli."(Luke 4:16-30) In Luke the tone is positive, whereas in Mark and Matthew it is disparaging.[14] This incident does not appear at all in John, but in a parallel story the disbelieving neighbors refer to "Jesus the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know" (John 6:41-51). 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