☆Exc Antique Vintage Silver Plated Pierced Stamped Repousse Lamp Shade Lampshade

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Seller: telemosaic (2,524) 100%, Location: Canton, Massachusetts, Ships to: US & many other countries, Item: 233220096789 ☆EXCELLENT ANTIQUE VINTAGE SILVER PLATED PIERCED STAMPED REPOUSSE LAMP SHADE LAMPSHADE☆ *Vintage Silver Plated Pierced Repousse Lampshade *Good vintage condition *Unique design! *Band of piercing near top and additional band of piercing around the base; repousse in the middle! *Approximately 5” tall; 2” in diameter at the top; 6 and 3/4” in diameter at the base *Four circular openings on top *Please see our photographs! SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT Repoussé and chasing From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search For the 2011 British short movie, see Chased (film), For the 2016 Korean movie, see Chasing (film), For the 2014 song by G, Hayes, see Chasing (song), The Great Dish, or Great Plate of Bacchus, from the Roman Mildenhall Treasure Gold mask from Colombia, at the Museo del Oro, Possibly from the Calima culture (100-500 CE) Tutankhamum's mummy mask Gold; Egypt, Repoussé [ʁəpuse] (listen) or repoussage [ʁəpusaʒ] (listen) refer to a metalworking technique in which a malleable metal is shaped by hammering from the reverse side to create a design in low relief, Chasing, chased work, or embossing refer to a similar technique, in which the piece is hammered on the front side, sinking the metal, The two techniques are often used in conjunction, Many metals can be used for chasing and repoussé work, including gold, silver, copper, and alloys such as steel, bronze, and pewter, These techniques are very ancient and have been extensively used all over the world, as they require only the simplest tools and materials, and yet allow great diversity of expression, They are also relatively economical, since there is no loss or waste of metal, which mostly retains its original size and thickness, Toolmarks are often intentionally left visible in the result, A few among many famous examples of repoussé and chasing are the prehistoric Gundestrup cauldron, the mask on the mummy of Tutankhamun, the body-fitting armours of the Bronze Age, the copper ornaments made by the Native Americans in the Southeastern US, and the Statue of Liberty in New York, Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 2,1 European Prehistory and Bronze Age 2,2 Ancient Egypt 2,3 Classical antiquity 2,4 India 2,5 Pre-Columbian America 2,6 Modern works 3 Methods 3,1 Annealing 3,2 Pitch backing 3,3 Lining 3,4 Repoussé and chasing 3,5 Hot forming 4 Tools 5 Gallery 5,1 Face masks 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links Etymology[edit] The word repoussé is French and means "pushed up", ultimately from Latin pulsare, which means "to push", Repoussage is the noun to refer to the technique, with repoussé being an adjective referring to a piece to which the technique has been applied (e,g, "repoussé work", "repoussé piece"), Chasing comes from the French word, chasser meaning to drive out, or to chase around which is what the artists are doing as they "chase" the forms on their metal in order to create their final design, History[edit] The techniques of repoussé and chasing date from Antiquity and have been used widely with gold and silver for fine detailed work and with copper, tin, and bronze for larger sculptures, Gilt copper repoussé from Tibet, 16th century European Prehistory and Bronze Age[edit] During the 3rd millennium BC, in the Middle East, a variety of semi-mass production methods were introduced to avoid repetitive free-hand work, With the simplest technique, sheet gold could be pressed into designs carved in intaglio in stone, bone, metal or even materials such as jet, The gold could be worked into the designs with wood tools or, more commonly, by hammering a wax or lead "force" over it, The alternative to pressing gold sheet into a die is to work it over a design in cameo relief, Here the detail would be greater on the back of the final design, so some final chasing from the front was often carried out to sharpen the detail, The use of patterned punches dates back to the first half of the 2nd millennium BC, if not far earlier, The simplest patterned punches were produced by loops or scrolls of wire, The Gundestrup cauldron (a product of the Celtic culture, made between 150 BCE and 1 AD) had originally)thirteen separate silver panels, with repoussé relief, lining the inside and outside of the vessel, Ancient Egypt[edit] In 1400 BC, the Egyptian Amarna period, resin and mud for repoussé backing was in use, A fine example of Egyptian repoussé is the mummy mask of Tutankhamun, a Pharaoh of the late Eighteenth Dynasty, The majority of the mask was formed using the technique of repoussé from what appears to be a single sheet of gold, The lapis lazuli and other stones were inlaid in chased areas after the height of the form was completed, The ceremonial beard, Nekhbet vulture, and Uraeus were attached separately, Classical antiquity[edit] One of twenty-three silver altar vessels believed to have been found in the Syrian village of Kurin, Silver repoussé, partial gilt,[1] The Walters Art Museum, By Hellenistic times, combined punches and dies were in use, In 400 BC, the Greeks were using Beeswax for filler in repoussé, Classical pieces using repoussage and chasing include the bronze Greek armour plates from the 3rd century BC, The Warren Cup is a Roman silver cup, and the Mildenhall Treasure, the Hoxne Hoard, the Water Newton Treasure and the Berthouville Treasure are examples of hoards of Roman silver found in England and northern France with many pieces using these techniques, India[edit] Repoussé and chasing are commonly used in India to create objects such as water vessels, These vessels are generally made using sheets of copper or silver, Pre-Columbian America[edit] Repoussage and chasing were used by many Pre-Columbian civilizations in the Americas, such as the Chavín culture of Peru (about 900 to 200 BCE), to make ornaments of gold and other metals, During the Hopewell and Mississippian periods of the American Southeast and Midwest goods of repoussé copper were fashioned as ritual regalia and eventually used in prestige burials,[2] Examples have been found with many S,E,C,C, designs such as Bi-lobed arrow motif headdresses and falcon dancer plaques, Although examples have been found in a widely scattered area (Spiro, Oklahoma, Etowah, Georgia, and Moundville, Alabama), most are in what is known as the Braden Style, thought to have originated at the Cahokia Site in Collinsville, Illinois,[3][4] Several copper workshops discovered during excavations of Mound 34 at Cahokia are the only known Mississippian culture copper workshops,[5][6] Modern works[edit] The largest known sculpture created with this technique is the Statue of Liberty, properly Liberté éclairant le monde, ("Liberty Enlightening The World"), in Upper New York Bay, The statue was formed by copper repoussé in sections using wooden structures to shape each piece during the hammering process, Arts and Crafts repousse shield made by Keswick School of Industrial Art, UK, 1895, Repoussè on tin sheet – "Greek horse" by Mexican artist Manolo Vega, 2011 The Statue of Liberty, New York (NY), Methods[edit] Sculptor Maurice Ascalon at work undertaking the finishing chasing of a copper repoussé relief sculpture circa 1939, The process of chasing and repoussé requires a number of steps, Annealing[edit] The metal plate usually should be annealed—that is, heated for some time at a temperature somewhat below its melting point—to make it as malleable as possible, This process may have to repeated several times, as many metals harden and become brittle as they are deformed by the hammering, Pitch backing[edit] The plate then must be fixed on a suitable support, A commonly used technique is to place the metal over a layer of chasers pitch, The pitch is heated until it is soft enough to make good contact with the metal, filling all its nooks and crannies, and then allowed to cool, At room temperature, the pitch must be hard enough to adhere to the metal and hold it in place, but still soft and plastic enough to "give" as the metal is hammered into it, The pitch is often cast as a thick layer over some softer backing material, that can absorb larger deformations, The metal plate will have to be released from the pitch several times, for turning it over and/or for re-anealing, Pitch residues stuck to the plate must be removed with an appropriate solvent, Lining[edit] Once the plate is firmly held by the pitch, front side up, the outine of the desired design is lightly chased ("lined") on it by a special tool (a "liner"), that creates narrow raised lines on the other side, Repoussé and chasing[edit] The metal is turned over, and firmed again over the pitch, with the back side up, The main repoussé work is then performed, using a variety of punches, Once the main repoussé is done, the piece is again released by heating, The cavities on the back side, created by the repoussé work, are filled with melted pitch, Once that filling has hardened, the plate is again turned over and placed on top of a layer of softened pitch, Once the pitch has hardened, the design is then refined by chasing, These procedures can be repeated several times, alternating between repoussé and chasing, Hot forming[edit] Repoussé and chasing can also be done on materials, like steel, that are too hard to be cold-formed by hammering, That is accomplished by heating the piece to a high enough temperature to make it malleable, as in forging, In this case pitch must be dispensed, or replaced by some material (like sand) that can withstand the heat and provide the right kind of "giving" support, Tools[edit] The tools needed for these techniques are [7] A container for the pitch, such as a "pitch tray" for larger plates, or a heavy hemispherical cast iron "pitch bowl" for smaller ones, The bowl can be placed over a sand bag or leather ring, and tilted to whatever angle is most convenient, A heat gun or blow torch to soften the pitch in order to fix the plate, or to release it, A set of "punches", that is, chisels with smooth tips that are used to push the metal: A "liner" has a flattened tip with a slightly curved blunt edge, It is used to chase narrow grooves in the metal, or to repoussé narrow ridges from the back side; both for outlining the work, and to refine edges in the final obect, A "planisher" has a smooth, flat tip meant for pushing out large, flat areas of metal, A "doming" or "dotting" tool has a round or oval tip of small to moderate diameter, and can be used to chase dimples or grooves, or repoussé bumps and ridges, of various widths, A "matting" tool has a pattern cut into the tip, and is used (mainly in chasing) to create textured areas, A "hollow-faced" punch has a raised contour (circular, or with some other shape) with a hollowed-out middle, and is used to stamp that contour, usually on the front face, A lightweight "chasing hammer", to drive the punches, An oxyacetylene torch, blowtorch, or a forge for annealing or hot-working, Other tools are usually handy, such as tweezers or tongs to hold the hot plates, The punches are usually made of steel, especially tool steel—a hard alloy that can keep its shape even after years of use—and are forged and tempered at the tip, They usually have a beveled rear end, to better handle the hammer blows, They can be purchased and used as such, modified by the user to suit the needs of a specific work, or made by the user from bar stock,[8] To make or reform the punches, one needs a saw or other cutting device, as well as a grinder and abrasives to shape and polish the tip, Gallery[edit] Face masks[edit]Princess, Gold; Cheng Kingdom, 1018 CE, "Agamemnon", Gold; Mycenae, ca, 1600 BCE, Woman or goddess, Gundestrup Cauldron, Silver; Celtic, ca, 100 BCE, Man or god, Gundestrup Cauldron, Silver; Celtic, ca, 100 BCE, King Teres I, Gold; Thracia, 431 BCE, Helmet, Gold; Roman, See also[edit] Embossing (manufacturing) – rolling sheet metal through dies to produce a raised or sunk relief design, Metal spinning References[edit] ^ "Chalice with Apostles Venerating the Cross", The Walters Art Museum, ^ Power, Susan (2004), Early Art of the Southeastern Indians-Feathered Serpents and Winged Beings, University of Georgia Press, ISBN 0-8203-2501-5, ^ F, Kent Reilly and James Garber, eds, (2004), Ancient Objects and Sacred Realms, University of Texas Press, ISBN 978-0-292-71347-5, ^ Townsend, Richard F, (2004), Hero, Hawk, and Open Hand, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-10601-7, ^ Pawlaczyk, George (Feb 16, 2010), Copper men: Archaeologists uncover Stone Age copper workshop near Monk's Mound, retrieved 2010-11-08 ^ Kelly, John E,; Kelly, Lucretia S,; Brown, James (2009), Summary of 2008 Field Excavations to Locate the Copper Workshop in the Mound 34 Area (PDF) (Technical report), Central Mississippi Valley Archaeological Research Institute, ^ Oppi Untracht (2011): Jewelry Concepts & Technology, Doubleday; 864 pages, ISBN 9780307784117 ^ Bowie, Hamish (1977), Jewelry Making, Chicago: Henry Regnery Company, p, 36, ISBN 0-8092-8084-1, Further reading[edit] Coatsworth, Elizabeth & Pinder, Michael (2002), Hines, John & Cubitt, Catherine (eds,), The Art of the Anglo-Saxon Goldsmith: Fine Metalwork in Anglo-Saxon England, its Practice and Practitioners, Anglo-Saxon Studies, 2, Woodbridge: The Boydell Press, ISBN 0-85115-883-8, Corwin, Nancy Megan, Chasing & Repoussé, Brynmorgen Press, ISBN 978-1-929565-32-0, Googerty, Thomas Francis (1911), Hand-forging and Wrought-iron Ornamental Work, Popular mechanics Company, p, 134, Maryon, Herbert (1971), "Repoussé Work", Metalwork and Enamelling (5th ed,), New York: Dover, ISBN 0-486-22702-2, External links[edit]Wikimedia Commons has media related to Repoussé, "Chasing" , New International Encyclopedia, 1905, "Repoussé" , Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed,), 1911, show vte Jewellery Authority control LCCN: sh85112933NDL: 00573611 Categories: Art terminologyJewellery makingSculpture techniquesNative American artMetal forming---------- SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT Lampshade From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Lampshades)Jump to navigation Jump to search "Abat-jour" redirects here, For the song Abat-jour, see Romeo (Petula Clark song),This article needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, Find sources: "Lampshade" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (April 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Two modern electric lamps with lampshades, A lampshade is a fixture that covers the lightbulb on a lamp to diffuse the light it emits, Lampshades can be made out of a wide variety of materials like paper, glass, fabric or stone, Usually conical or cylindrical in shape, lampshades can be found on floor, desk, tabletop, or suspended lamps, The term can also apply to the glass hung under many designs of ceiling lamp, Beyond its practical purpose, significant emphasis is also usually given to decorative and aesthetic features, A lamp shade also serves to "shade" human eyes from the direct glare of the light bulbs used to illuminate the lamp, Some lamp shades are also lined with a hard-backed opaque lining [1], often white or gold, to reflect as much light as possible through the top and bottom of the shade while blocking light from emitting through the walls of the shade itself, In other cases, the shade material is deliberately decorative so that upon illumination it may emphasize a display of color and light emitting through the shade surface itself, Contents 1 History 2 Lampshade types 2,1 Shades by shape 2,2 Lampshades by material 2,3 Lampshade fitters 2,4 Consideration of light bulb heat 3 References History[edit] 18th century réverbère An Argand oil lamp in use with a glass shade, 1822 Adjustable tole (painted tin) candleshade in a Russian portrait, ca, 1830s In the late 17th-century in Paris the first public lanterns made their appearance in the centre of the streets, They lit the road during the night, In 1763, the réverbères made their appearance, These were oil lamps with reflectors which were hung above the center of streets, The first public oil lamps in Milan, financed by revenues from a lottery, date from 1785, These were lanterns containing an oil lamp with a number of wicks, A semi-spherical reflector above the flame projected the light downwards, while another reflector, slightly concave and near the flame, served to direct the light latterly, Friedrich Albert Winsor first had the idea of industrializing lighting by producing gas in a factory and distributing it through a pipeline, In the first decades of the 19th century, competing gas companies laid the first gas mains in major cities, But there were fears of explosion and toxicity, The flame fed by the gas coming out of the nozzle was intense, uniform and adjustable, white and brilliant instead of the reddish or orange of oil lamps or candles, The drawbacks of gas lighting were overheating of the air and extremely high oxygen consumption, making it necessary to ventilate the room or isolate the flame by separating the room where the combustion took place from the room being lit, Theatre audiences regularly suffered from headaches and the sulphur and ammonia formed during combustion of the gas ruined furniture, Gas light had to be filtered by opal glass or light fabric shades, Lampshades were no longer used to direct the light but to attenuate it, In 1879, Joseph Swan and Thomas Edison independently developed—combining and perfecting existing elements deriving from the research of Humphry Davy, De Moleyn and Göbel—the incandescent filament electric light bulb, To disguise the intense electric light, lampshades were used, Some were made by Tiffany in colored glass, The great advantage of the electric light bulb was the absence of flame and traces of combustion, thus avoiding all risks of intoxication, explosion or fire, In the beginning, the filament was made of carbonised vegetable fibres, then bamboo fibres and finally metal alloys until, in the early 20th century, the tungsten filament invented in 1904 became established, Lampshade types[edit] Modern lampshades can be classified by shape, by material, by fitter, or by function Shades by shape[edit] Lampshades are classified in four basic shapes: drum, empire, bell or coolie depending on their shape, A drum or cylinder shade typically features vertical sides, sometimes with a very slight incline where the top of the shade is slightly smaller than the bottom, A slightly greater incline produces a "floor" shade which is not far from the "true" drum profile, As the slope of the side of the shade increases, the design moves through the classic empire shade (or variation with straight or bell-curved sides) on towards the more pyramidal-style shape of a coolie shade, [2] Beyond the basics, lampshade shapes also include square, cut-corner, hexagon, gallery, oval, or scalloped shapes, Square, rectangular and oval shades appear to have these shapes when viewed from above or below, This also includes hexagonal shades and cut-corner shades which appear like square or round shades with the "corners cut off" or indented, A shade with a gallery can be of any shape but has a distinct strip around the bottom of the shade, [3] Lampshades by material[edit] Lampshades are made of fabric, parchment, glass, Tiffany glass, paper or plastic, Common fabric materials include silk, linen and cotton, Fabric shades are reinforced by metal frames to give the lampshades their shape, while paper or plastic shades can hold their shape without support, For this reason, paper shades can be more fragile than fabric shades, Darker shades sometimes add a reflective liner such as gold or silver in order to maximize light output, Lampshade fitters[edit] A "fitter" describes how the lampshade connects to the lamp base, The most common lampshade fitter is a Spider fitter, Spider fitters are set on top of a lamp harp, and secured with a finial, The harp is typically seated below the socket and two arms rise up around the light bulb and join at the top, where it provides resting support for the spider fitter itself, The fitter is built into the lamp shade frame itself and sits on top of the harp, Other fitters include clip-on (for either regular bulbs or candelabra bulbs), Uno fitters which are attached to the lamp itself below the light bulb, and notched-bowl fitters which support the use of a glass reflector bowl, [4] Consideration of light bulb heat[edit] A lamp shade's surfaces have varying proximity to the light bulb or light source itself, depending on the size and shape of the shade, With larger shades this is less of a problem, since the shade provides an ample funnel for the movement of air up through the shade, whereby heat from the bulb leaves the top of the shade through the opening, However with smaller shades consideration has to be given to proximity of the shade surface to the bulb, especially in miniature shades used on chandeliers, Here, and especially with shades which have sloped sides, the distance between the surface and the bulb reduces making the risk of overheating a concern, [5] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lampshades,Look up lampshade in Wiktionary, the free dictionary, References[edit] ^ "Hard Back Lining", LampsUSA, Retrieved 9 April 2018, ^ "Lamp shade shapes", Lamps USA, Retrieved 9 April 2018, ^ "Lamp shade glossary of terms", LampsUSA, Retrieved 9 April 2018, ^ "Lamp shade fitters", Lamps USA, Retrieved 9 April 2018, ^ "Consideration of light bulb proximity", LampsUSA, Retrieved 9 April 2018, Categories: Light fixtures THANKS FOR LOOKING!!! 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