☆Ralph Lauren Sewing Pattern Women's Vogue 1909 Pulliver Top+Long Flared Skirt!☆

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Seller: telemosaic (2,576) 100%, Location: Canton, Massachusetts, Ships to: US & many other countries, Item: 233232678067 ☆RALPH LAUREN SEWING PATTERN WOMEN'S VOGUE 1909 PULLOVER TOP+LONG FLARED SKIRT☆ Vogue 1909 Ralph Lauren Pullover Top & Long Flared Skirt Pattern Uncut Choose Sz Vogue 1909 Ralph Lauren American Designer sewing pattern to make a long, flared skirt and camisole or two other styles of pullover tops. Choose size from drop-down menu. All patterns are uncut with factory folds. OOP pattern copyright 1987. See last photo for a size chart with measurements. Misses' Top & Skirt: A, B: Loose-fitting, pullover top has neckline variations and cap or short sleeves. C: close-fitting, pullover top has bias shoulder straps, back slit with button/loop and narrow hem. Flared skirt, above ankle, has waistband, side front and side back seams, side pockets and pocket opening. Envelopes have creasing and storage wear. Contents are not affected. No Vogue labels are included. This sale is for a sewing pattern to make a garment, not for the garment itself. SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT Ralph LaurenFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to navigationJump to searchFor the company, see Ralph Lauren Corporation,Ralph LaurenRalph Lauren 2013,jpgRalph Lauren in 2013BornRalph LifshitzOctober 14, 1939 (age 79)The Bronx, New York, U,S,ResidenceManhattan, New York, U,S,NationalityAmericanAlma materBaruch CollegeOccupationExecutive Chairman, Ralph Lauren CorporationNet worthUS$6,9 billion (2019)[1]Board member ofRalph Lauren CorporationClub MonacoSpouse(s)Ricky Lauren (m, 1964)Children3, including Dylan and David LaurenWe ask you, humbly, to help, Hi, reader in the U,S,, it seems you use Wikipedia a lot; that's great! It's a little awkward to ask, but this Wednesday we need your help, If you have already donated, we sincerely thank you, We’re not salespeople, but we depend on donations averaging $16,36, and fewer than 1% of readers give, If you donate just $2,75, the price of your coffee this Wednesday, Wikipedia could keep thriving, Thank you,Please select a payment method MAYBE LATER CLOSE Ralph Lauren, KBE (né Lifshitz; born October 14, 1939) is an American fashion designer, philanthropist, and business executive, best known for the Ralph Lauren Corporation, a global multibillion-dollar enterprise, He has also become well known for his collection of rare automobiles, some of which have been displayed in museum exhibits, Lauren stepped down as CEO of the company in September 2015 but remains executive chairman and chief creative officer,[2] As of 2018, Forbes estimates his wealth at $7,2 billion, which makes Ralph Lauren the 91st richest person in America,[3] Contents1Early life2Career2,1Early career2,2Polo2,3Fragrance2,4Later 20th century2,5Later years3Personal life3,1Family3,2Automobile collection3,3Philanthropy3,4Politics4Awards and honors5See also6Further reading7References8External linksEarly lifeRalph Lauren was born in The Bronx, New York City,[4][5] to Ashkenazi Jewish immigrants,[6][7][8][9] Frieda (Cutler) and Frank Lifshitz, an artist and house painter,[10][11] from Pinsk, Belarus,[12][13] He is the youngest of four siblings[14][15]—two brothers and one sister, Lauren attended day school followed by the Manhattan Talmudical Academy, before eventually graduating from DeWitt Clinton High School in 1957,[16][17] He went to Baruch College, at the City University of New York (CUNY) where he studied business, although he dropped out after two years, CareerEarly careerFrom 1962 to 1964 he served in the United States Army and left to work briefly for Brooks Brothers as a sales assistant before becoming a salesman for a tie company,[18] The Ralph Lauren Corporation st*rted in 1967 with men's ties, At 28 years old, Lauren worked for the tie manufacturer Beau Brummell, where he convinced the company's president to let him st*rt his own line,[19] PoloMain article: Ralph Lauren CorporationDrawing on his interests in sports, Ralph Lauren named his first full line of menswear 'Polo' in 1968, He worked out of a single "drawer" from a showroom in the Empire State Building and made deliveries to stores himself,[20] By 1969, the Manhattan department store Bloomingdale's sold Lauren's men line exclusively, It was the first time that Bloomingdale's had given a designer their own in-store boutique, The Polo Ralph Lauren flagship store occupying the Gertrude Rhinelander Waldo House on Madison Avenue in New York CityIn 1971, Ralph Lauren Corporation launched a line of tailored shirts for women, which introduced the Polo player emblem to the world for the first time, appearing on the shirt's cuff, The first full women's collection was launched the following year, 1971 also marked the opening of Ralph Lauren's store on Rodeo Drive in Beverly Hills, California, This is the first freestanding store for an American designer,[21] In 1972 the Ralph Lauren Corporation introduced a signature cotton mesh Polo shirt in various colors, Featuring the polo player logo at the chest, the shirt became emblematic of the preppy look—one of Ralph Lauren's signature styles, The tagline for the ad campaign was: "Every team has its color – Polo has seventeen,"[22] In 1974 he outfitted the male cast of The Great Gatsby in costumes from his Polo line – a 1920s-style series of men's suits and sweaters, except for the pink suit which Lauren designed especially for Robert Redford's Jay Gatsby, In 1977, Diane Keaton and Woody Allen wore Lauren's clothes throughout their Oscar-winning film, Annie Hall,[23] FragranceThe first Ralph Lauren fragrances, produced by Warner-Lauren, Ltd, were launched at Bloomingdale's in March 1978, Lauren, a fragrance for women, on March 12 and Polo, cologne for men, on March 26, This was the first time that a designer has introduced two fragrances – one for men and one for women – simultaneously, The company entered the European market, and went international, in 1981 with the opening of the first freestanding store for an American designer on New Bond Street in the West End of London, England, Later 20th century A Polo Ralph Lauren store on the Magnificent Mile in ChicagoRalph Lauren opened his first flagship in the Rhinelander mansion, on Madison Avenue and 72nd Street in New York City in 1986, Lauren re-created the building's original opulence with a young design consultant named Naomi Leff, with whom he had previously worked on Ralph Lauren Home,[24] The Polo Sport line was introduced in 1992 followed by over ten additional lines and acquired brands, including Ralph Lauren Purple Label in 1995 and Lauren Ralph Lauren in 1996, On June 12, 1997, the company became a publicly traded company on the New York Stock Exchange,[25] The 98-seat restaurant, RL, opened in March 1999 in Chicago in a newly constructed building adjacent to the largest Ralph Lauren store at the corner of Chicago and Michigan Avenues, It was followed by the opening of two additional restaurants – Ralph's at 173 Boulevard Saint Germain Paris flagship store in 2010 and The Polo Bar at Polo's flagship in New York in 2015,[26] Later yearsThe company launched its official web site, and online shop in 2000 as polo,com by RL Media (a cooperation between Ralph Lauren and NBC), In 2007, Ralph Lauren Corporation acquired the NBC share of RL Media and the web site was relaunched as ralphlauren,com, In 2008, Ralph Lauren Corporation launched a brand called American Living, exclusively for JCPenney, It was the largest cross-category brand launch in the history of Ralph Lauren and JCPenney, On September 29, 2015, it was announced that Stefan Larsson would replace the company's founder, Ralph Lauren, as CEO in November, Lauren will stay on as executive chairman and chief creative officer,[27][28] Ralph Lauren has been featured on over 100 global magazines covers including Architectural Digest, GQ, Forbes, Town & Country, TIME and Vogue, Ralph Lauren celebrated the 50th Anniversary of his brand in a large scale fashion show in at Bethesda Terrace in Central Park on September 8, 2018, st*r-studded attendance included Oprah Winfrey, Hillary Clinton, Kanye West, and Hollywood elites such as Robert DeNiro and Jessica Chastain,[29] Personal lifeFamilyOn December 20, 1964, he married Ricky Ann Low-Beer in New York City, Ricky is the daughter of Margaret Vytouch, and Rudolph Low-Beer, The two met six months earlier, in a doctor's office where Ricky was working as a receptionist and on alternate days teaching dance,[30] She is the author of The Hamptons: Food, Family and History,[31] They have three children, Andrew Lauren (b, 1969) is a film producer and actor,[32] David Lauren (b, 1971) is Executive Vice President of Global Advertising, Marketing, and Communications at Ralph Lauren Corporation, In September 2011, David married Lauren Bush, the granddaughter of former U,S, President George H, W, Bush,[33] Lauren and David have two children and live in Manhattan,[34] Dylan Lauren (b, 1974), owner of Dylan's Candy Bar in New York City, was married in June 2011 to hedge fund manager Paul Arrouet,[35] Dylan and Paul welcomed twins on April 13 via surrogate in New York City,[36] In April 1987, Ralph Lauren underwent surgery to remove a benign brain tumor and made a full recovery,[37] Lauren owns a 17,000-acre cattle ranch in Ridgway, Colorado [38] and a 17,000 sq foot manor built in 1919 in Bedford, New York, [39] Automobile collection Ralph Lauren with his Porsche GT3 RS (2010)Ralph Lauren is well known as a collector of automobiles,[40] with about 100 automobiles, some being extremely rare, He owns a 1962 Ferrari 250 GTO, two Ferrari TRs, three 1996 McLaren F1's (one of them an ultra-rare McLaren F1 LM), a Mercedes-Benz 300 SL Gullwing, a 1929 Bentley 4½ Litre (Blower Bentley"), one Bugatti Type 57SC Atlantic, a 1937 Bugatti Type 57SC Gangloff, a Porsche 911 GT3 RS, a Bugatti Veyron, a 1930 Mercedes-Benz SSK "Count Trossi" (aka "The Black Prince"), a 1938 Alfa Romeo 8C 2900B Mille Miglia,[41] and a rare Lamborghini Reventón Roadster, His cars have won "Best in Show" at the prestigious Pebble Beach Concours d'Elegance twice, his 1938 Bugatti Type 57SC Atlantic won in 1990 and his 1930 Mercedes-Benz SSK "Count Trossi" roadster won in 1993, In 2005 his collection was displayed at Boston's Museum of Fine Arts,[42] Seventeen cars from his collection were exhibited at the Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris in 2011,[43] In 2017, Lauren's now $350 million car collection took center stage during New York Fashion Week,[44] PhilanthropyLauren stated in May 2014, "I hate when people call me philanthropic because I see it as more coming from the heart",[45] In 1989 Lauren co-founded the Nina Hyde Center for Breast Cancer Research at Georgetown University Hospital in Washington D,C, in memory of the late Post fashion correspondent,[46] He served as chairman and created the name and symbol for Fashion Targets Breast Cancer, a charitable initiative of the CFDA that founded in 1994 that marshals the goodwill and services of the fashion industry to raise public awareness and funds for breast cancer internationally,[47] In 2000 the Ralph Lauren Corporation launched its Volunteer Program, which energizes employees and creates meaningful connections with the communities in which they work,[48] On Friday, September 15, Ralph Lauren Corporation launched the Pink Pony Campaign, a national initiative to reduce disparities in cancer care by raising awareness as well as enhancing prevention, screening, and treatment in poor and underserved communities,[49] The Polo Ralph Lauren Foundation established the American Heroes Fund following the September 11th attacks to allow Polo's 10,000 employees worldwide, as well as their customers, the opportunity to participate in the relief effort,[50] In 2003, Ralph Lauren supported the establishment the Ralph Lauren Center for Cancer Care and Prevention in Harlem, The Center is a collaboration between Ralph Lauren, Memorial Sloan-Kettering, and North General Hospital in Harlem, New York City,[51] The Polo Fashion School was established in 2004, in which Company executives work with inner-city youth to offer insights into the fashion business,[52] Established in 2006, the Polo Jeans G,I,V,E, (Get Involved, Volunteer, Exceed) campaign was created to inspire and encourage community service through volunteerism by supporting the efforts of dedicated volunteers and their causes,[53] The st*r-Spangled Banner, the original 1813 flag that inspired Francis Scott Key to write the United States National Anthem, was preserved by a $10 million contribution to Save America's Treasures from Polo Ralph Lauren in 1998, The flag was then unveiled on Wednesday, November 19, 2008, in a new gallery at the Smithsonian National Museum of American History, in Washington, D,C,[54] Ralph Lauren Corporation announced in July 2013 its commitment to restore the elite École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, one of the most influential art schools in France,[55] In 2014, the Ralph Lauren Corporation partnered with the Royal Marsden, the largest and most comprehensive cancer center in Europe, to develop a world-class breast cancer research facility,[56] They opened the Royal Marsden Ralph Lauren Center for Breast Cancer Research in 2016,[57] PoliticsLauren is a regular donor to the Democratic Party,[58] Awards and honorsYearAward & Honor1970A jury of men's fashion editors select Lauren to receive the Coty Award for the highest creativity of the year in men's fashion design,[59]1973Ralph Lauren wins his second Coty Award for menswear, It is the first time a menswear designer has been a two-time Coty winner,[60]1974Ralph Lauren wins his first Coty "Winnie" Award for womenswear,[61]1975Ralph Lauren wins the American Fashion Award, (Council of Fashion Designers of America)[62]1976Ralph Lauren enters the Coty Hall of Fame for Menswear, and also wins his second Coty Award for Womenswear, the first time a designer has won awards for both menswear and womenswear in the same year,1977Ralph Lauren receives the Coty Hall of Fame award for womenswear,[63]1979Ralph Lauren receives his first special citation at the 1979 Coty Awards for his direct influence in establishing American fashion on a worldwide basis,[64]1981At the first Council of Fashion Designers of America award ceremony, Ralph Lauren wins his first CFDA Fashion Award,[65]1985Ralph Lauren receives the Menswear Association of America's Designer Achievement Award,[66]1987At the CFDA Awards, Ralph Lauren is awarded 1986 "Retailer of the Year" for transforming the cinematic feel of his clothing into a physical environment,[67]1988Pratt Institute awards Ralph Lauren with an honorary Doctorate of Fine Arts,[68]1989Ralph Lauren receives The American Academy of Achievement's Golden Plate Award in 1989 for fashion and design, The Awards are presented annually by the Academy of Achievement to approximately 25 recipients, chosen for their exceptional accomplishments in the sciences, professions, business, industry, arts, literature, sports, entertainment, and public service,[69]1992Ralph Lauren receives the first-ever CFDA Lifetime Achievement award—an honor created specifically for him and presented with heartfelt recognition by Audrey Hepburn,[70]1995Ralph Lauren receives the CFDA award for Womenswear Designer of the Year,[71]1996Ralph Lauren is honored with the Nina Hyde Center for Breast Cancer Research's first Humanitarian Award, which is presented to Lauren by Princess Diana,[72]1996Receives an Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters from Brandeis University for his commitment to arts and education, and for his prominent role in the fight against breast cancer,[73]1996Ralph Lauren receives the CFDA award for Menswear Designer of the Year,[59]1997Ralph Lauren wins CFDA's Award for Humanitarian Leadership in recognition of his commitment to fighting breast cancer,[74]2000In celebration of his contribution to American style, Ralph Lauren is among the first designers inducted into the Fashion Walk of Fame in the center of New York City's Fashion District,(Garment District, Manhattan)[75]2003Ralph Lauren Corporation receives a Restore America Heroes award from The National Trust for Historic Preservation,[76]2007Ralph Lauren wins the American Fashion Legend Award, presented by Oprah Winfrey on June 4 at the CFDA Awards, held at the New York Public Library,[77]2009Ralph Lauren wins the CFDA's newly created "Popular Vote Award", The award is given to the designer who receives the most votes cast online by the public,[78]2010Mayor Michael Bloomberg presents Ralph Lauren with a key to the city of New York,[79]2010In a private ceremony at the Élysée Palace, Ralph Lauren receives the prestigious Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur from Nicolas Sarkozy, President of the Republic of France, in recognition of his contributions as a designer, business leader, and philanthropist,[80]2012Ralph Lauren tops the list for the global apparel industry category for the first time in Fortune magazine's "World's Most Admired Compani" 2012," [81]2014The Company's "The Dog Walk Campaign" won the Clio Image Award in the category for Partnerships and & Sponsorships, while the Omotesando RRL Store in Tokyo, Japan wins for the category of Architectural Design,[82]2014The Smithsonian presented Ralph Lauren with the James Smithson Bicentennial Medal, The medal recognizes Lauren's lifetime contributions to American entrepreneurship, artistry, and creativity as well as acknowledging the critical leadership role Lauren played in helping preserve the st*r-Spangled Banner as part of "Save America's Treasures" initiative established by Hillary Clinton when she served as First Lady,[83]2016Ralph Lauren and Leonardo DiCaprio were honored at the 50th Anniversary Riverkeeper Fishermen's Ball at Chelsea Piers in New York City,[84]2016Ralph Lauren received Women's Wear Daily's inaugural John B, Fairchild Honor,[85]2018Appointed an Honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire (KBE),[86][87] On 20 June 2019, in a private ceremony at Buckingham Palace he received the award from Prince Charles,[88]See alsoList of swimwear brandsFurther readingGross, Michael, Genuine Authentic: The Real Life of Ralph Lauren, Harper, New York 2003,Trachtenberg, Jeffrey A, Ralph Lauren: The Man behind the Mystique, Little, Brown and Company New York 1981,McDowell, Colin, Ralph Lauren: The Man, The Vision, The Style, Rizzoli, New York 2002,References "Ralph Lauren", Milligan, Lauren, "Ralph Lauren Steps Down As CEO", "Ralph Lauren", Forbes, August 2016, Retrieved August 9, 2016, "Ralph Lauren steps down as CEO of his fashion firm", CNBC, September 29, 2015, Retrieved May 4, 2018, Steven T, Katz (October 11, 2010), Why Is America Different?: American Jewry on its 350th Anniversary, University Press of America, pp, 237–, ISBN 978-0-7618-4770-0, Retrieved November 12, 2012, Fury, Alexander (September 30, 2015), "Ralph Lauren's rise from rag-trader to American royalty", The Independent, Retrieved May 4, 2018, Saner, Emine (October 2, 2015), "'It's not about fabric, it's about dreams': how Ralph Lauren created an empire", The Guardian, Retrieved May 4, 2018, "Ralph Lauren upset by biography", CNN, March 21, 2003, Retrieved May 4, 2018, Croffey, Amy (September 26, 2016), "Ralph Lauren is writing an autobiography for 50th anniversary of fashion empire", The Sydney Morning Herald, Retrieved May 4, 2018, Luecke, Andrew D, (October 14, 2014), "How Ralph Lauren Sold The American Dream", Esquire, Retrieved May 4, 2018, Gross (2004), p, 28 Menkes, Suzy (May 14, 2007), "Ralph Lauren returns to his Russian roots", International Herald Tribune, Retrieved May 1, 2011, "Ralph Lauren Fast Facts", CNN, Green, David B, (October 14, 2015), "Ralph Lauren Is Born, Will Build an Empire Based on Cary Grant Fantasy", Haaretz, Retrieved May 4, 2018, "From rags to riches: The story of Ralph Lauren", HELLO FASHION, November 6, 2012, Retrieved October 3, 2017, "Selling a Dream of Elegance and the Good Life", Time, September 1, 1986, Retrieved September 15, 2009, "At DeWitt Clinton High School in the Bronx, Lauren attended business classes but paid little attention to studies, His adolescent idols were British and American style setters: the Duke of Windsor, for example, and Katharine Hepburn," "DeWitt Clinton High School, Bronx, New York", Retrieved July 30, 2007, "Oprah Interviews Ralph Lauren", Oprah,com, Retrieved May 1, 2011, "Ralph Lauren Greatest Moments", Vanity Fair, Retrieved October 24, 2016, Winfrey, Oprah, Oct, 2002: Oprah Magazine December 12, 2012, Oprah Interviews Ralph Lauren "INSIDE RALPH LAUREN'S NEWLY RENOVATED RODEO DRIVE FLAGSHIP", Hollywood Reporter, September 29, 2016, Retrieved November 17, 2016, "50 Things You Didn't Know About Ralph Lauren", Complex Magazine, Retrieved October 24, 2016, "The Great Gatsby", Ralph Lauren, Archived from the original on October 24, 2016, Retrieved October 24, 2016, "Mansion Backstory to Ralph Lauren NYC Men's Flagship Store", The Huffington Post, Retrieved October 24, 2016, "Ralph Lauren Hopes to Raise $600 Million by Going Public", The New York Times, April 9, 1997, Retrieved November 17, 2016, "Ralph Lauren opens Polo Bar restaurant in New York", The Telegraph, January 9, 2015, Retrieved November 17, 2016, "Ralph Lauren steps down as CEO of his fashion firm", CNBC, Retrieved September 30, 2015, "How Ralph Lauren styled the American dream", Money Week, 9 October 2015, Archived from the original on August 29, 2018, "Ralph Lauren's 50th Anniversary Show Was Eye-Popping, Then Came the Clothes", Retrieved October 3, 2018, "Yes, But Is It Kosher For Passover? Ralph Lauren's Daughter Dylan Readying Candy Bar For Easter", Jewish Business News, April 2, 2015, Retrieved May 10, 2015, Ricky Lee (June 17, 2012), "Ricky Lauren, wife of designer Ralph Lauren, reveals beloved family recipes in 'The Hamptons'", New York Daily News, Retrieved December 17, 2016, New York Observer: "Andrew Lauren, Son of Ralph, Worships Redford, Beatty, Welles" By Irina Aleksander April 30, 2008 Christopher Ross (September 30, 2015), "A Day in the Life of David Lauren", The Wall Street Journal, News Corp, Retrieved May 9, 2016, Logan, Elizabeth, "Lauren Bush Lauren Welcomes Son Max Two Days After Loss of Grandmother Barbara Bush", W Magazine, Retrieved October 3, 2018, "Dylan Lauren and Paul Arrouet", The New York Times, June 10, 2011, Retrieved September 27, 2016, "Dylan Lauren Introduces Twins Cooper Blue and Kingsley Rainbow", PEOPLE,com, Retrieved October 3, 2018, "''New York Times'' report on Ralph Lauren's brain tumor surgery", New York Times, April 16, 1987, Retrieved May 1, 2011, How to Throw an All-American Cookout Like Ralph Lauren, Bon Appetit, Retrieved November 13, 2016, https://www,architecturaldigest,com/story/ralph-lauren-bedford-new-york-home-article Wired magazine, Ralph Lauren collection "BADASS D,A,D, GARAGE OWNED BY RALPH LAUREN", unfinishedman, Retrieved August 19, 2016, "Speed, Style, and Beauty: Cars from the Ralph Lauren Collection", Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, March 6, 2005, Archived from the original on June 15, 2010, Retrieved April 7, 2010, "Forthcoming Events", lesartsdecoratifs,fr, Archived from the original on September 29, 2011, Retrieved May 1, 2011, Constantine, Chris, "Ralph Lauren's $350 Million Car Collection Takes Center Stage at New York Fashion Week", The Drive, Retrieved September 27, 2017, Royce-Greensill, Sarah (May 13, 2014), "Ralph Lauren partners with The Royal Marsden", Telegraph, Retrieved April 12, 2016, "Whatever Happened To … Nina Hyde?", The Washington Post, January 17, 2010, Retrieved November 8, 2016, "Ralph Lauren's breast cancer campaign turns 20 years old", The Telegraph, Retrieved November 8, 2016, "Ralph Lauren Volunteer Program", Ralph Lauren, Archived from the original on October 24, 2016, Retrieved October 3, 2016, "Ralph Lauren's Pink Pony Fund Initiative Launches", The Fashion Times, Archived from the original on October 8, 2014, Retrieved October 3, 2016, "Ralph Lauren Timeline", The Fashion Capital, Archived from the original on October 5, 2016, Retrieved October 3, 2016, "Cancer Center to Be Establishes in Harlem", The New York Times, Retrieved October 3, 2016, "Polo Fashion School", Ralph Lauren, Archived from the original on October 5, 2016, Retrieved October 3, 2016, "Ralph Lauren Insulates Habitat for Humanity Homes", The Tree Hugger, Retrieved October 3, 2016, "Smithsonian's st*r-Spangled Banner to Undergo Three-Year Conservation", American History, Retrieved October 3, 2016, "Ralph Lauren Restores the Amphitheater of the École des Beaux-Arts", Vogue, Retrieved October 3, 2016, "The Ralph Lauren Centre for Breast Cancer Research", The NHS, Retrieved October 3, 2016, "Ralph Lauren opens £4 million new breast cancer centre, inspired by his friendship with Princess Diana", The Telegraph, May 17, 2016, Retrieved October 8, 2016, "Ralph Lauren Biography - Money, Politics, Biography of Ralph Lauren, Campaign Contributions", www,campaignmoney,com, "Ralph Lauren Fast Facts", CNN, October 6, 2016, Retrieved November 16, 2016, "Ralph Lauren Joins Coty's Fashion Hall of Fame", New York Times, June 10, 1977, Retrieved November 16, 2016, "American Fashion Designers Honored In a Theatrical Evening of Coty Awards", The New York Times, September 30, 1977, Retrieved November 16, 2016, "A brief history" (PDF), Stanford University, Retrieved November 16, 2016, "Fashion Legend – Ralph Lauren", Niche Magazine, Retrieved November 16, 2016, "Fashion View", The New York Times, September 23, 1979, Retrieved November 16, 2016, "RALPH LAUREN WINS MOST POPULAR AMERICAN DESIGNER AT COUNCIL OF FASHION DESIGNERS OF AMERICA AWARDS CEREMONY", Ralph Lauren, Retrieved November 16, 2016, "RALPH LAUREN", CFDA, Retrieved November 16, 2016, "Ralph Lauren", Fashion Designer Encyclopedia, Retrieved November 16, 2016, "Honorary Degrees Previously Awarded" (PDF), Pratt Institute, Retrieved November 16, 2016, "THE GOLDEN PLATE AWARDEES", American Academy of Achievement, Archived from the original on November 9, 2016, Retrieved November 16, 2016, "RALPH LAUREN TIMELINE", Fashion Capital, Archived from the original on October 5, 2016, Retrieved November 16, 2016, "Ralph Lauren", Britannica, Retrieved November 16, 2016,[permanent dead link] "Royal Appointment: Prince William Opens the Ralph Lauren Centre for Breast Cancer Research in London", WWD, May 17, 2016, Retrieved November 16, 2016, "HONORARY DEGREE RECIPIENTS", Brandeis University, Retrieved November 16, 2016, "Ralph Lauren", Encyclopedia, Retrieved November 16, 2016, "POSTINGS: Sidewalk Plaques for 8 Fashion Designers; A Walk of Fame On Seventh Ave", New York Times, November 21, 1999, Retrieved November 16, 2016, "Valerie Cunningham Accepts Hero Award", Seacoast NH, Retrieved November 16, 2016, "IT'S A CFDA TIE!", Vogue, June 5, 2007, Retrieved November 16, 2016, "2009 CFDA Fashion Awards Presented in New York", PR Newswire, June 16, 2009, Archived from the original on November 18, 2016, Retrieved November 16, 2016, "Ralph Lauren's New Accessory", Wall Street Journal, October 16, 2010, Retrieved November 16, 2016, "Ralph Lauren honoured with the Chevalier de la Legion d'honneur", The Telegraph, April 15, 2010, Retrieved November 16, 2016, "WORLD'S MOST ADMIRED COMPANIES 2012", Fortune Magazine, Retrieved November 16, 2016, "THE CLIO IMAGE AWARDS", Haute Headline, May 13, 2014, Archived from the original on November 17, 2016, Retrieved November 16, 2016, "Hillary Clinton Awards Ralph Lauren for Helping the 200-Year-Old st*r-Spangled Banner See Another 200 Years", Smithsonian Magazine, June 17, 2014, Archived from the original on June 22, 2014, Retrieved November 16, 2016, "Riverkeeper Fishermen's Ball honoring Leonardo DiCaprio and Ralph Lauren", Riverkeep,org, Retrieved November 16, 2016, "Ralph Lauren to Receive Inaugural John B, Fairchild Honor", WWD, July 11, 2016, Retrieved November 16, 2016, "2017 Honorary Awards" (PDF), Government Digital Service (U,K,), Weaver, Hilary (14 November 2018), "Ralph Lauren Is the Queen's Newest Knight", Vanity Fair, "Ralph Lauren awarded honorary knighthood for services to fashion", The Guardian,External linksWikimedia Commons has media related to Ralph Lauren,Ralph Lauren websiteRalph Lauren on IMDbRalph Lauren Center for Cancer Care and PreventionProfile of Ralph Lauren at Men's VogueRalph Lauren Auto Collection at worldcarfans,comRalph Lauren Classic Automobile Collection at WiredvteDesigner labelsvteGeoffrey Beene Lifetime Achievement Award at the CFDA Fashion AwardsvteAmerican sportswearAuthority control Edit this at WikidataBIBSYS: 4041065 BNF: cb15605579r (data) GND: 118875116 ISNI: 0000 0001 2101 4725 LCCN: n88065195 NDL: 00620978 NKC: xx0064899 NTA: 074769162 SUDOC: 115463003 ULAN: 500229300 VIAF: 54470621 WorldCat Identities (via VIAF): 54470621Categories: 1939 birthsLiving peopleAmerican fashion designersAmerican billionairesBusinesspeople from New York CityAmerican chief executives of fashion industry companiesCancer survivorsAmerican car collectorsBaruch College alumniDeWitt Clinton High School alumniJewish American philanthropistsAshkenazi JewsLauren familyUnited States Army soldiersJewish fashion designersChevaliers of the Légion d'honneurHonorary Knights Commander of the Order of the British EmpireAmerican people of Belarusian-Jewish descentAmerican people of Polish-Jewish descentPeople from Katonah, New YorkMenswear designersPeople from Ridgway, ColoradoPhilanthropists from New York (state)----SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT FASHIONashionFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to navigationJump to searchFor other uses, see Fashion (disambiguation), Model in a modern gown reflecting the current fashion trend at a Haute couture fashion show, Paris, 2011We ask you, humbly, to help, Hi, reader in the U,S,, it seems you use Wikipedia a lot; that's great! It's a little awkward to ask, but this Wednesday we need your help, If you have already donated, we sincerely thank you, We’re not salespeople, but we depend on donations averaging $16,36, and fewer than 1% of readers give, If you donate just $2,75, the price of your coffee this Wednesday, Wikipedia could keep thriving, Thank you,Please select a payment method MAYBE LATER CLOSE Fashion is a popular aesthetic expression in a certain time and context, especially in clothing, footwear, lifestyle, accessories, makeup, hairstyle and body proportions,[1] Whereas, a trend often connotes a very specific aesthetic expression, and often lasting shorter than a season, fashion is a distinctive and industry-supported expression traditionally tied to the fashion season and collections,[2] Style is an expression that lasts over many seasons, and is often connected to cultural movements and social markers, symbols, class and culture (ex, Baroque, Rococo, etc), According to sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, fashion connotes “the latest fashion, the latest difference,”[3] Even though they are often used together, the term fashion differs from clothes and costume, where the first describes the material and technical garment, whereas the second has been relegated to special senses like fancy-dress or masquerade wear, Fashion instead describes the social and temporal system that "activates" dress as a social signifier in a certain time and context, Philosopher Georgio Agamben connects fashion to the current intensity of the qualitative moment, to the temporal aspect the Greek called kairos, whereas clothes belong to the quantitative, to what the Greek called chronos,[4] Exclusive brands aspire for the label haute couture, but the term is technically limited to members of the Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture in Paris,[2] With increasing mass-production of consumer commodities at cheaper prices, and with global reach, sustainability has become an urgent issue amongst politicians, brands and consumers,[5] Contents1Clothing fashions2Fashion industry3Fashion trend3,1Political influences3,2Technology influences3,3Social influences3,4Economic influences3,4,1Circular economy3,4,2China's domestic spending3,5Consumers' needs4Media5Public relations and social media6Anthropological perspective7Intellectual property8Political activism9African-Americans in Fashion9,1Modern Day Fashion9,2Early American Fashion9,3Movements using Fashion9,3,1Civil Rights Movement9,3,2Black Panther Party9,4Colorism in Fashion9,4,1Statistics9,4,2Tokenism9,4,3Cultural Appropriation10See also11References12Bibliography13Further reading14External linksClothing fashionsMain article: History of Western fashionEarly Western travelers, traveling whether to India, Persia, Turkey or China, would frequently remark on the absence of change in fashion in those countries, The Japanese shōgun's secretary bragged (not completely accurately) to a Spanish visitor in 1609 that Japanese clothing had not changed in over a thousand years,[6] However, there is considerable evidence in Ming China of rapidly changing fashions in Chinese clothing,[7] Changes in costume often took place at times of economic or social change, as occurred in ancient Rome and the medieval Caliphate, followed by a long period without major changes, In 8th-century Moorish Spain, the musician Ziryab introduced to Córdoba[8][unreliable source][9] sophisticated clothing-styles based on seasonal and daily fashions from his native Baghdad, modified by his own inspiration, Similar changes in fashion occurred in the 11th century in the Middle East following the arrival of the Turks, who introduced clothing styles from Central Asia and the Far East,[10] Additionally, there is a long history of fashion in West Africa,[11] Cloth was used as a form of currency in trade with the Portuguese and Dutch as early as the 16th Century,[11] Locally produced cloth and cheaper European imports were assembled into new styles to accommodate the growing elite class of West Africans and resident gold and slave traders,[11] There was an especially strong tradition of cloth-weaving in Oyo and the areas inhabited by the Igbo people,[11] The beginning in Europe of continual and increasingly rapid change in clothing styles can be fairly reliably dated, Historians, including James Laver and Fernand Braudel, date the st*rt of Western fashion in clothing to the middle of the 14th century,[12][13] though they tend to rely heavily on contemporary imagery[14] and illuminated manuscripts were not common before the fourteenth century,[15] The most dramatic early change in fashion was a sudden drastic shortening and tightening of the male over-garment from calf-length to barely covering the buttocks,[16] sometimes accompanied with stuffing in the chest to make it look bigger, This created the distinctive Western outline of a tailored top worn over leggings or trousers, The pace of change accelerated considerably in the following century, and women and men's fashion, especially in the dressing and adorning of the hair, became equally complex, Art historians are therefore able to use fashion with confidence and precision to date images, often to within five years, particularly in the case of images from the 15th century, Initially, changes in fashion led to a fragmentation across the upper classes of Europe of what had previously been a very similar style of dressing and the subsequent development of distinctive national styles, These national styles remained very different until a counter-movement in the 17th to 18th centuries imposed similar styles once again, mostly originating from Ancien Régime France,[17] Though the rich usually led fashion, the increasing affluence of early modern Europe led to the bourgeoisie and even peasants following trends at a distance, but still uncomfortably close for the elites – a factor that Fernand Braudel regards as one of the main motors of changing fashion,[18] Albrecht Dürer's drawing contrasts a well turned out bourgeoise from Nuremberg (left) with her counterpart from Venice, The Venetian lady's high chopines make her look taller,In the 16th century, national differences were at their most pronounced, Ten 16th century portraits of German or Italian gentlemen may show ten entirely different hats, Albrecht Dürer illustrated the differences in his actual (or composite) contrast of Nuremberg and Venetian fashions at the close of the 15th century (illustration, right), The "Spanish style" of the late 16th century began the move back to synchronicity among upper-class Europeans, and after a struggle in the mid-17th century, French styles decisively took over leadership, a process completed in the 18th century,[19] Though different textile colors and patterns changed from year to year,[20] the cut of a gentleman's coat and the length of his waistcoat, or the pattern to which a lady's dress was cut, changed more slowly, Men's fashions were largely derived from military models, and changes in a European male silhouette were galvanized in theaters of European war where gentleman officers had opportunities to make notes of foreign styles such as the "Steinkirk" cravat or necktie, Marie Antoinette, wife of Louis XVI, was a leader of fashion, Her choices, such as this 1783 white muslin dress called a chemise a la Reine, were highly influential and widely worn,[21]Though there had been distribution of dressed dolls from France since the 16th century and Abraham Bosse had produced engravings of fashion in the 1620s, the pace of change picked up in the 1780s with increased publication of French engravings illustrating the latest Paris styles, By 1800, all Western Europeans were dressing alike (or thought they were); local variation became first a sign of provincial culture and later a badge of the conservative peasant,[22] Although tailors and dressmakers were no doubt responsible for many innovations, and the textile industry certainly led many trends, the history of fashion design is normally understood to date from 1858 when the English-born Charles Frederick Worth opened the first true haute couture house in Paris, The Haute house was the name established by government for the fashion houses that met the standards of industry, These fashion houses have to adhere to standards such as keeping at least twenty employees engaged in making the clothes, showing two collections per year at fashion shows, and presenting a certain number of patterns to costumers,[23] Since then, the idea of the fashion designer as a celebrity in his or her own right has become increasingly dominant,[24] Although aspects of fashion can be feminine or masculine, some trends are androgynous,[25] The idea of unisex dressing originated in the 1960s when designers such as Pierre Cardin and Rudi Gernreich created garments, such as stretch jersey tunics or leggings, meant to be worn by both males and females, The impact of unisex expands more broadly to encompass various themes in fashion including androgyny, mass-market retail, and conceptual clothing,[26] The fashion trends of the 1970s, such as sheepskin jackets, flight jackets, duffel coats, and unstructured clothing influenced men to attend social gatherings without a tuxedo jacket and to accessorize in new ways, Some men's styles blended the sensuality and expressiveness despite the conservative trend, the growing gay-rights movement and an emphasis on youth allowed for a new freedom to experiment with style, fabrics such as wool crepe, which had previously been associated with women's attire was used by designers when creating male clothing,[27] The four major current fashion capitals are acknowledged to be Paris, Milan, New York City, and London, which are all headquarters to the greatest fashion companies and are renowned for their major influence on global fashion, Fashion weeks are held in these cities, where designers exhibit their new clothing collections to audiences, A succession of major designers such as Coco Chanel and Yves Saint-Laurent have kept Paris as the center most watched by the rest of the world, although haute couture is now subsidized by the sale of ready-to-wear collections and perfume using the same branding, Modern Westerners have a wide number of choices available in the selection of their clothes, What a person chooses to wear can reflect his or her personality or interests, When people who have high cultural status st*rt to wear new or different clothes, a fashion trend may st*rt, People who like or respect these people become influenced by their personal style and begin wearing similarly styled clothes, Fashions may vary considerably within a society according to age, social class, generation, occupation, and geography and may also vary over time, If an older person dresses according to the fashion young people use, he or she may look ridiculous in the eyes of both young and older people, The terms fashionista and fashion victim refer to someone who slavishly follows current fashions, One can regard the system of sporting various fashions as a fashion language incorporating various fashion statements using a grammar of fashion, (Compare some of the work of Roland Barthes,) In recent years, Asian fashion has become increasingly significant in local and global markets, Countries such as China, Japan, India, and Pakistan have traditionally had large textile industries, which have often been drawn upon by Western designers, but now Asian clothing styles are also gaining influence based on their own ideas,[28] Fashion industry Male and female fashion models on the runway, Los Angeles Fashion Week, 2008See also: Clothing industry and Fashion showThe notion of global fashion industry is a product of the modern age,[29] Prior to the mid-19th century, most clothing was custom-made, It was handmade for individuals, either as home production or on order from dressmakers and tailors, By the beginning of the 20th century—with the rise of new technologies such as the sewing machine, the rise of global capitalism and the development of the factory system of production, and the proliferation of retail outlets such as department stores—clothing had increasingly come to be mass-produced in standard sizes and sold at fixed prices, Although the fashion industry developed first in Europe and America, as of 2017, it is an international and highly globalized industry, with clothing often designed in one country, manufactured in another, and sold worldwide, For example, an American fashion company might source fabric in China and have the clothes manufactured in Vietnam, finished in Italy, and shipped to a warehouse in the United States for distribution to retail outlets internationally, The fashion industry has long been one of the largest employers in the United States,[30] and it remains so in the 21st century, However, U,S, employment declined considerably as production increasingly moved overseas, especially to China, Because data on the fashion industry typically are reported for national economies and expressed in terms of the industry's many separate sectors, aggregate figures for world production of textiles and clothing are difficult to obtain, However, by any measure, the clothing industry accounts for a significant share of world economic output,[31] The fashion industry consists of four levels: the production of raw materials, principally fibers and textiles but also leather and fur,the production of fashion goods by designers, manufacturers, contractors, and others,retail salesvarious forms of advertising and promotionThese levels consist of many separate but interdependent sectors, These sectors are Textile Design and Production, Fashion Design and Manufacturing, Fashion Retailing, Marketing and Merchandising, Fashion Shows, and Media and Marketing, Each sector is devoted to the goal of satisfying consumer demand for apparel under conditions that enable participants in the industry to operate at a profit,[32] Fashion trendMain articles: Fashion trend and 2010s in fashionFashion trends are influenced by several factors including cinema, celebrities, climate, creative explorations, political, economical, social and technological, Examining these factors is called a PEST analysis, Fashion forecasters can use this information to help determine growth or decline of a particular trend, Fashion trends change daily, it can not stay unchanged Political influences Advisor to US President and businesswoman Ivanka Trump (right) along with Japanese PM Shinzō Abe wearing Western-style business suits, 2017Not only did political events make a huge impact on fashion trends but also the political figure played a critical role in forecasting the fashion trend, For example, First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy was a fashionable icon of the early 1960s who led formal dressing trend, By wearing a Chanel suit, a structural Givenchy shift dress or a soft color Cassini coat with huge buttons, it created her elegant look and led a delicate trend,[33] Furthermore, political revolution also made much impact on the fashion trend, For example, during the 1960s the economy had become wealthier, divorce rate was increasing and government approved the birth control pill, This revolution inspired younger generation to rebellion, In 1964, the leg-baring miniskirt has become a major fashion trend of the 1960s, Given that fashion designers began to experiment with the shapes of garment, loose sleeveless, micro-minis, flared skirts, and trumpet sleeves, In this case, mini-skirt trend became an icon of the 1960s, Moreover, political movement built an impressive relationship with fashion trend, For instance, during Vietnam war, the youth of America made a movement that affected the whole country, In the 1960s, the fashion trend was full of fluorescent colors, prints patterns, bell-bottom jeans, fringed vests, and skirt became a protest outfit of the 1960s, This trend was called Hippie and it is still affecting current fashion trend,[34] Technology influencesTechnology plays a large role in most aspects of today's society, Technological influences are growing more apparent in the fashion industry, Advances and new developments are shaping and creating current and future trends, Developments such as wearable technology have become an important trend in fashion and will continue with advances such as clothing constructed with solar panels that charge devices and smart fabrics that enhance wearer comfort by changing color or texture based on environmental changes,[35] The fashion industry is seeing how 3D printing technology has influenced designers such as Iris Van Herpen and Kimberly Ovitz, These designers have been heavily experimenting and developing 3D printed couture pieces, As the technology grows, the 3D printers will become more accessible to designers and eventually consumers, which could potentially shape the fashion industry entirely, Internet technology such as online retailers and social media platforms have given way for trends to be identified, marketed and sold immediately,[36] Styles and trends are easily conveyed online to attract the trendsetters, Posts on Instagram or Facebook can easily increase awareness about new trends in fashion, which subsequently may create high demand for specific items or brands,[37] new "buy now button" technology can link these styles with direct sales, Machine vision technology has been developed to track how fashions spread through society, The industry can now see the direct correlation on how fashion shows influence street-chic outfits, The effects can now be quantified and provide valuable feedback to fashion houses, designers and consumers regarding trends,[38] Military technology has played an important role in the fashion industry, The camouflage pattern in clothing was developed to help military personnel be less visible to enemy forces, A trend emerged in the 1960s and camouflage fabric was introduced to street wear, The camouflage fabric trend disappeared and resurfaced several times since then, Camouflage st*rted to appear in high fashion by the 1990s,[39] Designers such as Valentino, Dior and Dolce & Gabbana combined camouflage into their runway and ready-to-wear collections, Social influences Celebrities such as Britney Spears have popularised the concept of wearing underwear as outerwear, Red carpet fashion: Italian actors Gabriel Garko and Laura Torrisi wearing designer formal wear at Venice Film Festival, 2009Fashion relates to social and cultural context of an environment, According to Matika,[40] "Elements of popular culture become fused when a person's trend is associated with a preference for a genre of music…like music, news or literature, fashion has been fused into everyday lives," Fashion is not only seen as pure aesthetic values; fashion is also a medium for performers to create an overall atmosphere and express their opinions altogether through music video, The latest music video ‘Formation’ by Beyoncé, according to Carlos,[41] "The pop st*r pays homage to her Creole root,,,, tracing the roots of the Louisiana cultural nerve center from the post-abolition era to present day, Beyoncé catalogs the evolution of the city's vibrant style and its tumultuous history all at once, Atop a New Orleans police car in a red-and-white Gucci high-collar dress and combat boots, she sits among the ruins of Hurricane Katrina, immediately implanting herself in the biggest national debate on police brutality and race relations in modern day," Runway show is a reflection of fashion trend and a designer's thought, For designer like Vivienne Westwood, runway shows are a platform for her voice on politics and current events, For her AW15 menswear show, according to Water,[42] "where models with severely bruised faces channeled eco-warriors on a mission to save the planet," Another recent example is a staged feminist protest march for Chanel's SS15 show, rioting models chanting words of empowerment with signs like "Feminist but feminine" and "Ladies first," According to Water,[42] "The show tapped into Chanel's long history of championing female independence: founder Coco Chanel was a trailblazer for liberating the female body in the post-WWI era, introducing silhouettes that countered the restrictive corsets then in favour," Economic influencesCircular economyWith increasing environmental awareness, the economic imperative to "Spend now, think later" is getting increasingly scrutinized,[43] Today's consumer tends to be more mindful about consumption, looking for just enough and better, more durable options, People have also become more conscious of the impact their everyday consumption has on the environment and society, and these initiatives are often described as a move towards sustainable fashion, yet critics argue a circular economy based on growth is an oxymoron, or an increasing spiral of consumption, rather than a utopian cradle-to-cradle circular solution, In today's linear economical system, manufacturers extract resources from the earth to make products that will soon be discarded in landfills, on the other hand, under the circular model, the production of goods operates like systems in nature, where the waste and demise of a substance becomes the food and source of growth for something new, Companies such as MUD Jeans, which is based in the Netherlands employs a leasing scheme for jeans, This Dutch company "represents a new consuming philosophy that is about using instead of owning," according to MUD's website, The concept also protects the company from volatile cotton prices, Consumers pay €7,50 a month for a pair of jeans; after a year, they can return the jeans to Mud, trade them for a new pair and st*rt another year-long lease, or keep them, MUD is responsible for any repairs during the lease period,[43] Another ethical fashion company, Patagonia set up the first multi-seller branded store on EBay in order to facilitate secondhand sales; consumers who take the Common Threads pledge can sell in this store and have their gear listed on Patagonia,com's "Used Gear" section,[43] China's domestic spendingConsumption as a share of gross domestic product in China has fallen for six decades, from 76 percent in 1952 to 28 percent in 2011, China plans to reduce tariffs on a number of consumer goods and expand its 72-hour transit visa plan to more cities in an effort to stimulate domestic consumption,[44] The announcement of import tax reductions follows changes in June 2015, when the government cut the tariffs on clothing, cosmetics and various other goods by half, Among the changes — easier tax refunds for overseas shoppers and accelerated openings of more duty-free shops in cities covered by the 72-hour visa scheme, The 72-hour visa was introduced in Beijing and Shanghai in January 2013 and has been extended to 18 Chinese cities,[44] According to reports at the same time, Chinese consumer spending in other countries such as Japan has slowed even though the yen has dropped,[45] There is clearly a trend in the next 5 years that the domestic fashion market will show an increase, Consumers' needs A tourist couple wearing casual clothes at Cumberland Island, 2015 Models posing in corporate office wear,Consumers all have different needs and demands that have to be suited, A person's needs change frequently, An important factor to take into consideration when thinking of consumers' needs is the key demographics of the customer, Gender, age, income, and even profession can help a company better understand the needs of their customers,[46] For example, a woman who is pregnant could be looking for diapers, baby strollers, and maternity clothes, Her needs would differ greatly from a woman with children that just went off to college or a teen entering high school, Often consumers need to be told what they want, Fashion companies have to do their research to ensure they know their customers' needs before developing solutions, Steve Jobs said, "You’ve got to st*rt with the customer experience and work backwards to the technology, You cannot st*rt with the technology and try to figure out where you are going to sell it",[47] The best way to understand the consumers' needs and therefore predict fashion trends is through market research, There are two research methods: primary and secondary,[48] Secondary methods are taking other information that has already been collected, for example using a book or an article for research, Primary research is collecting data through surveys, interviews, observation, and/or focus groups, Benefits of primary research is specific information about a fashion brand's consumer is explored, Surveys are helpful tools; questions can be open-ended or closed-ended, A negative factor surveys and interviews present is that the answers can be biased, due to wording in the survey or on face-to-face interactions, Focus groups, about 8 to 12 people, can be beneficial because several points can be addressed in depth, However, there are drawbacks to this tactic, too, With such a small sample size, it is hard to know if the greater public would react the same way as the focus group,[48] Observation can really help a company gain insight on what a consumer truly wants, There is less of a bias because consumers are just performing their daily tasks, not necessarily realizing they are being observed, For example, observing the public by taking street style photos of people, the consumer did not get dressed in the morning knowing that would have their photo taken necessarily, They just wear what they would normally wear, Through observation patterns can be seen, helping trend forecasters know what their target market needs and wants, Knowing the needs of the consumers will increase a fashion companies' sales and profits, Through research and studying the consumers' lives the needs of the customer can be obtained and help fashion brands know what trends the consumers are ready for, Media Latin dancers in their costumes, The woman is wearing backless dress with deep slits on its lower portion, while the man is wearing a shirt with top buttons open,The media plays a significant role when it comes to fashion, For instance, an important part of fashion is fashion journalism, Editorial critique, guidelines, and commentary can be found on television and in magazines, newspapers, fashion websites, social networks, and fashion blogs, In recent years, fashion blogging and YouTube videos have become a major outlet for spreading trends and fashion tips, creating an online culture of sharing one's style on a website or Instagram account, Through these media outlets readers and viewers all over the world can learn about fashion, making it very accessible,[49] At the beginning of the 20th century, fashion magazines began to include photographs of various fashion designs and became even more influential than in the past,[50] In cities throughout the world these magazines were greatly sought after and had a profound effect on public taste in clothing, Talented illustrators drew exquisite fashion plates for the publications which covered the most recent developments in fashion and beauty, Perhaps the most famous of these magazines was La Gazette du Bon Ton, which was founded in 1912 by Lucien Vogel and regularly published until 1925 (with the exception of the war years),[51] A see-through top worn along with pasties by a model at a fashion show in USA, 2017, Such fashion trends get popularised through media,Vogue, founded in the United States in 1892, has been the longest-lasting and most successful of the hundreds of fashion magazines that have come and gone, Increasing affluence after World War II and, most importantly, the advent of cheap color printing in the 1960s, led to a huge boost in its sales and heavy coverage of fashion in mainstream women's magazines, followed by men's magazines in the 1990s, One such example of Vogue's popularity is the younger version, Teen Vogue, which covers clothing and trends that are targeted more toward the "fashionista on a budget", Haute couture designers followed the trend by st*rting ready-to-wear and perfume lines which are heavily advertised in the magazines and now dwarf their original couture businesses, A recent development within fashion print media is the rise of text-based and critical magazines which aim to prove that fashion is not superficial, by creating a dialogue between fashion academia and the industry, Examples of this trend are: Fashion Theory (1997) and Vestoj (2009), Television coverage began in the 1950s with small fashion features, In the 1960s and 1970s, fashion segments on various entertainment shows became more frequent, and by the 1980s, dedicated fashion shows such as Fashion Television st*rted to appear, FashionTV was the pioneer in this undertaking and has since grown to become the leader in both Fashion Television and new media channels, The Fashion Industry is beginning to promote their styles through Bloggers on social media's, Vogue specified Chiara Ferragni as "blogger of the moment" due to the rises of followers through her Fashion Blog, that became popular,[52] A few days after the 2010 Fall Fashion Week in New York City came to a close, The New Islander's Fashion Editor, Genevieve Tax, criticized the fashion industry for running on a seasonal schedule of its own, largely at the expense of real-world consumers, "Because designers release their fall collections in the spring and their spring collections in the fall, fashion magazines such as Vogue always and only look forward to the upcoming season, promoting parkas come September while issuing reviews on shorts in January", she writes, "Savvy shoppers, consequently, have been conditioned to be extremely, perhaps impractically, farsighted with their buying,"[53] The fashion industry has been the subject of numerous films and television shows, including the reality show Project Runway and the drama series Ugly Betty, Specific fashion brands have been featured in film, not only as product placement opportunities, but as bespoke items that have subsequently led to trends in fashion,[54] Videos in general have been very useful in promoting the fashion industry, This is evident not only from television shows directly spotlighting the fashion industry, but also movies, events and music videos which showcase fashion statements as well as promote specific brands through product placements, Public relations and social media A Mexican sports reporter wearing little black dress and knee-high bootsFashion public relations involves being in touch with a company's audiences and creating strong relationships with them, reaching out to media and initiating messages that project positive images of the company,[55] Social media plays an important role in modern-day fashion public relations; enabling practitioners to reach a wide range of consumers through various platforms,[56] Building brand awareness and credibility is a key implication of good public relations, In some cases, great hype is built about new designers' collections before they are released into the market, due to the immense exposure generated by practitioners,[57] Social media, such as blogs, micro blogs, podcasts, photo and video sharing sites have all become increasingly important to fashion public relations,[58] The interactive nature of these platforms allows practitioners to engage and communicate with the public in real time, and tailor their clients' brand or campaign messages to the target audience, With blogging platforms such as Instagram, Tumblr, Wordpress, and other sharing sites, bloggers have emerged as expert fashion commentators, shaping brands and having a great impact on what is ‘on trend’,[59] Women in the fashion public relations industry such as Sweaty Betty PR founder Roxy Jacenko and Oscar de la Renta's PR girl Erika Bearman, have acquired copious followers on their social media sites, by providing a brand identity and a behind the scenes look into the companies they work for, Social media is changing the way practitioners deliver messages,[16] as they are concerned with the media, and also customer relationship building,[60] PR practitioners must provide effective communication among all platforms, in order to engage the fashion public in an industry socially connected via online shopping,[61] Consumers have the ability to share their purchases on their personal social media pages (such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, etc,), and if practitioners deliver the brand message effectively and meet the needs of its public, word-of-mouth publicity will be generated and potentially provide a wide reach for the designer and their products, Anthropological perspectiveAnthropology, the study of culture and human societies, studies fashion by asking why certain styles are deemed socially appropriate and others are not, A certain way is chosen and that becomes the fashion as defined by a certain people as a whole, so if a particular style has a meaning in an already occurring set of beliefs that style will become fashion,[62] According to Ted Polhemus and Lynn Procter, fashion can be described as adornment, of which there are two types: fashion and anti-fashion, Through the capitalization and commoditisation of clothing, accessories, and shoes, etc,, what once constituted anti-fashion becomes part of fashion as the lines between fashion and anti-fashion are blurred,[63] The definition of fashion and anti-fashion is as follows: Anti-fashion is fixed and changes little over time, Anti-fashion is different depending on the cultural or social group one is associated with or where one lives, but within that group or locality the style changes little, Fashion is the exact opposite of anti-fashion, Fashion changes very quickly and is not affiliated with one group or area of the world but is spread out throughout the world wherever people can communicate easily with each other, For example, Queen Elizabeth II's 1953 coronation gown is an example of anti-fashion because it is traditional and does not change over any period whereas a gown from fashion designer Dior's collection of 1953 is fashion because the style will change every season as Dior comes up with a new gown to replace the old one, In the Dior gown the length, cut, fabric, and embroidery of the gown change from season to season, Anti-fashion is concerned with maintaining the status quo while fashion is concerned with social mobility, Time is expressed in terms of continuity in anti-fashion and as change in fashion, Fashion has changing modes of adornment while anti-fashion has fixed modes of adornment, Indigenous and peasant modes of adornment are an example of anti-fashion, Change in fashion is part of the larger system and is structured to be a deliberate change in style,[64] Today, people in rich countries are linked to people in poor countries through the commoditization and consumption of what is called fashion, People work long hours in one area of the globe to produce things that people in another part of the globe are anxious to consume, An example of this is the chain of production and consumption of Nike shoes, which are produced in Taiwan and then purchased in North America, At the production end, there is nation-building a hard working ideology that leads people to produce and entices people to consume with a vast amount of goods for the offering[clarification needed], Commodities are no longer just utilitarian but are fashionable, be they running shoes or sweat suits,[65] The change from anti-fashion to fashion because of the influence of western consumer-driven civilization can be seen in eastern Indonesia, The ikat textiles of the Ngada area of eastern Indonesia are changing because of modernization and development, Traditionally, in the Ngada area there was no idea similar to that of the Western idea of fashion, but anti-fashion in the form of traditional textiles and ways to adorn oneself were widely popular, Textiles in Indonesia have played many roles for the local people, Textiles defined a person's rank and status; certain textiles indicated being part of the ruling class, People expressed their ethnic identity and social hierarchy through textiles, Because some Indonesians bartered ikat textiles for food, the textiles constituted economic goods, and as some textile design motifs had spiritual religious meanings, textiles were also a way to communicate religious messages,[66] In eastern Indonesia, both the production and use of traditional textiles have been transformed as the production, use and value associated with textiles have changed due to modernization, In the past, women produced the textiles either for home consumption or to trade with others, Today, this has changed as most textiles are not being produced at home, Western goods are considered modern and are valued more than traditional goods, including the sarong, which retain a lingering association with colonialism, Now, sarongs are used only for rituals and ceremonial occasions, whereas western clothes are worn to church or government offices, Civil servants working in urban areas are more likely than peasants to make the distinction between western and traditional clothes, Following Indonesia's independence from the Dutch, people increasingly st*rted buying factory made shirts and sarongs, In textile-producing areas the growing of cotton and production of naturally colored thread became obsolete, Traditional motifs on textiles are no longer considered the property of a certain social class or age group, Wives of government officials are promoting the use of traditional textiles in the form of western garments such as skirts, vests and blouses, This trend is also being followed by the general populace, and whoever can afford to hire a tailor is doing so to stitch traditional ikat textiles into western clothes, Thus, traditional textiles are now fashion goods and are no longer confined to the black, white and brown colour palette but come in array of colours, Traditional textiles are also being used in interior decorations and to make handbags, wallets and other accessories, which are considered fashionable by civil servants and their families, There is also a booming tourist trade in the eastern Indonesian city of Kupang where international as well as domestic tourists are eager to purchase traditionally printed western goods,[67] The use of traditional textiles for fashion is becoming big business in eastern Indonesia, but these traditional textiles are losing their ethnic identity markers and are being used as an item of fashion,[68] Intellectual propertyIn the fashion industry, intellectual property is not enforced as it is within the film industry and music industry, Robert Glariston, an intellectual property expert, mentioned in a fashion seminar held in LA[which?] that "Copyright law regarding clothing is a current hot-button issue in the industry, We often have to draw the line between designers being inspired by a design and those outright stealing it in different places,"[69] To take inspiration from others' designs contributes to the fashion industry's ability to establish clothing trends, For the past few years, WGSN has been a dominant source of fashion news and forecasts in encouraging fashion brands worldwide to be inspired by one another, Enticing consumers to buy clothing by establishing new trends is, some have argued, a key component of the industry's success, Intellectual property rules that interfere with this process of trend-making would, in this view, be counter-productive, On the other hand, it is often argued that the blatant theft of new ideas, unique designs, and design details by larger companies is what often contributes to the failure of many smaller or independent design companies, Since fakes are distinguishable by their poorer quality, there is still a demand for luxury goods, and as only a trademark or logo can be copyrighted, many fashion brands make this one of the most visible aspects of the garment or accessory, In handbags, especially, the designer's brand may be woven into the fabric (or the lining fabric) from which the bag is made, making the brand an intrinsic element of the bag, In 2005, the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) held a conference calling for stricter intellectual property enforcement within the fashion industry to better protect small and medium businesses and promote competitiveness within the textile and clothing industries,[70][71] Political activismThere has been great debate about politics' place in fashion and traditionally, the fashion industry has maintained a rather apolitical stance,[72] Considering the U,S,'s political climate in the surrounding months of the 2016 presidential election, during 2017 fashion weeks in London, Milan, New York, Paris and São Paulo amongst others, many designers took the opportunity to take political stances leveraging their platforms and influence to reach the masses,[73][74] Aiming to “amplify a greater message of unity, inclusion, diversity, and feminism in a fashion space”, Mara Hoffman invited the founders of the Women's March on Washington to open her show which featured modern silhouettes of utilitarian wear, described by critics as “Made for a modern warrior” and “Clothing for those who still have work to do”,[75] Prabal Gurung debuted his collection of T-shirts featuring slogans such as “The Future is Female”, “We Will Not Be Silenced”, and “Nevertheless She Persisted”, with proceeds going to the ACLU, Planned Parenthood, and Gurung's own charity, “Shikshya Foundation Nepal”,[72] Similarly, The Business of Fashion launched the #TiedTogether movement on Social Media, encouraging member of the industry from editors to models, to wear a white bandana advocating for “unity, solidarity, and inclusiveness during fashion week”,[76] Fashion may be used to promote a cause, such as to promote healthy behavior,[77] to raise money for a cancer cure,[78] or to raise money for local charities[79] such as the Juvenile Protective Association[80] or a children's hospice,[81] One fashion cause is trashion, which is using trash to make clothes, jewelry, and other fashion items in order to promote awareness of pollution, There are a number of modern trashion artists such as Marina DeBris, Ann Wizer,[82] and Nancy Judd,[83] African-Americans in FashionAfrican-Americans have used fashion through the years,to express themselves and their ideas,[84] It has grown and developed with time, African-American influencers often have been known to st*rt trends though modern day social media, and even in past years they have been able to reach others with their fashion and style, Modern Day FashionCelebrities like Rihanna, Lupita Nyong'o, Zendaya, and Michelle Obama have been a few of the many fashion idols in the black female community, For men, Pharrell Williams, Kanye West, and Ice Cube have also helped define modern day fashion for black men, Today’s fashion scene is not just clothes, but also hair and makeup, Recent trends have included the embracing of natural hair, traditional clothing worn with modern clothing, or traditional patterns used in modern clothing styles, All of these trends come with the long existing and persevering movement of “Black is Beautiful”, Early American FashionIn the mid to end of the 1900s, African American style changed and developed with the times, Around the 1950s is really when the black community was able to create their own distinct styles, The term “Sunday attire” was coined, communities emphasized "Correct" dress, it was especially important when "stepping out" for social occasions with community members, a habit that continues in the early 2000s,[85] Hair-dos and hairstyles also became a fashion statement, for example the "conk" which is hair that is slightly flattened and waved,[85] Afros also emerged and they were often used to symbolize the rejection of white beauty standards at the time,[86] Around the 1970s is when flashy costumes began to appear and black artists really st*rted to define their presences through fashion, Around this time is also when movements st*rted using fashion as one of their outlets,[86] Movements using FashionCivil Rights MovementBlack activists and supporters used fashion to express their solidarity and support of this civil rights movement, Supporters adorned symbolic clothing, accessories and hairstyles, usually native to Africa, Politics and fashion were fused together during this time and the use of these symbolic fashion statements sent a message to America and the rest of the world that African Americans were proud of their heritage,[86] They aimed to send an even stronger message that black is beautiful and they were not afraid to embrace their identities,[86] An example would the Kente cloth, it is a brightly colored strip of cloth that is stitched and woven together to create different accessories,[86] This woven cloth of brightly colored strips of fabric became a strong symbolic representation of pride in African identity for African Americans of the 1960’s and later, It was developed into what is called a dashiki, a flowing, loose fitting, tunic style shirt, This cloth became one of the most notorious symbols of this revolution,[87] Black Panther PartyThe Black Panther Party (BPP) was an essential piece of the Black Power movement that allowed members that were involved advocate for the African American race in different subjects like equality and politics, The BPP members wore a very distinctive uniform: a black leather jacket, black pants, light blue shirts, a black beret, an afro, dark sunglasses, and usually a fist in the air,[88] Their image gave off a very militant like feel to it, This notable uniform was established in 1996, but a different uniform was still in place before; just the sunglasses and leather jackets,[88] Each member wore this uniform at events, rallies, and in their day-today life, Very few members changed the essential parts of the outfit, but some added personal touches such as necklaces or other jewelry that was usually were a part of African culture,[87] The Black Panther uniform did succeeded in intimidating enemies and onlookers and clearly sent a message of black pride and power even though the initial intention of this party was to communicate solidarity among the Black Panther Party members,[88] Colorism in FashionSince the 1970’s, fashion models of color, especially black men and women, have experienced an increase in discrimination in the fashion industry, In the years from 1970 to 1990, black designers and models were very successful, but as the 1990’s came to an end, the fashion aesthetic changed and it did not include black models or designers,[89] In today’s fashion, black models, influencers, and designers account for one of the smallest percentages of the industry,[89] There are many theories about this lack of diversity, that it can be attributed to the economic differences usually associated with race and class, or it can reflect the differences in arts schooling given to mostly black populated schools, and also blatant racism, StatisticsA report from New York Fashion (Spring 2015) week found that while 79,69% of models on the runway were white, only 9,75% of models were black, 7,67% were Asian, and 2,12% were Latina, The lack of diversity also accounts for not only designers but models too, out of four hundred and seventy members of The Council of Fashion Designers of America (CFDA) only twelve of the members are black,[90] From the same study on New York Fashion Week, it was shown that only 2,7% of the 260 designers presented were black men, and an even smaller percentage were black female designers,[90] Even the relationship between independent designers and retailers can show the racial gap, only 1% of designers stocked at department stores being people of color, It was also found that in editorial spreads, over eighty percent of models pictured were white and only nine percent were black models, These numbers have stayed stagnant over the past few years,[90] TokenismMany fashion designers have come under fire over the years for what is known as tokenism, Designer or editors will add one or two members on an underrepresented group to help them appear as inclusive and diverse, and to also help them give the illusion that they have equality,[89] This idea of tokenism helps designers avoid accusations of racism, sexism, body shaming, etc,[89] Cultural AppropriationThere are many examples of cultural appropriation in fashion, In many instances, designers can be found using aspects of culture inappropriately, in most cases taking traditional clothing from middle eastern, African, and Hispanic culture and adding it to their runway fashion,[91] Some examples are in a 2018 Gucci runway show, white models wore Sikh headdresses, causing a lot of backlash, Victoria’s secret was also under fire for putting traditional native headdresses on their models during a lingerie runway show, See alsoFashion portalDigital fashionDesigner clothingDress codeFashion faux pasFashion lawFetish fashionFitness fashionHistory of Western fashionIndex of fashion articlesLolita fashionModest fashionPunk fashionRed carpet fashionSuit (clothing)Sustainable fashiontrashionWestern dress codesWomen's beachwear fashionReferences KAISER, SUSAN B, (2019), FASHION AND CULTURAL STUDIES, BLOOMSBURY VISUAL ARTS, ISBN 978-1350109605, OCLC 1057778310, Kawamura, Yuniija, (2005), Fashion-ology : an introduction to fashion studies, Berg, ISBN 978-1859738146, OCLC 796077256, Bourdieu, Pierre (1993), 'Haute couture and haute culture,' in Sociology in Question, Sage, Agamben, Georgio (2009), 'What is an apparatus?' and other essays, 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Intellectual Property in Fashion Industry, WIPO press release, December 2, 2005 INSME announcement Archived 2007-09-29 at the Wayback Machine: WIPO-Italy International Symposium, 30 November – 2 December 2005 "Fashion Week's Anti-Trump Runway Politics", The New Yorker, 21 February 2017, "7 Ways Fashion Joined the Political Conversation in 2017", Fashionista, Retrieved 2018-08-16, "Fashion Gets Political: On and Off the Runway Statements", The Hollywood Reporter, Retrieved 2018-08-16, "Are fashion and politics the perfect fit?", 15 February 2017, "Here's Why You'll See White Bandanas Everywhere During Fashion Month", InStyle,com, "Fashion For A Cause", Times of India, 2013-02-04, Retrieved 2013-02-15, Woodman, Anne (2013-01-26), "Fashion for a cause", Clayton News st*r, Archived from the original on 2013-04-11, Retrieved 2013-02-15, "Fashion for a cause", Chatham Daily News, 2013-02-07, Archived from the original on 2013-05-27, Retrieved 2013-02-15, luc, karie angell (2013-01-16), 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the Black Panther Party, doi:10,1215/9780822388326, ISBN 9780822388326, Cleaver, Kathleen (2014-04-08), Liberation, Imagination and the Black Panther Party, doi:10,4324/9780203950920, ISBN 9780203950920, Newman, Scarlett L, (2017), "Black Models Matter: Challenging the Racism of Aesthetics and the Facade of Inclusion in the Fashion Industry", CUNY Academic Works, Benson, Samii Lashanta Kennedy (2017), "Black Fashion Designers Matter: A qualitative Study exploring the experience of Black female Fashion design entrepreneurs", Iowa State University, Gammage, Marquita Marie (2015-10-16), Representations of Black Women in the Media, doi:10,4324/9781315671550, ISBN 9781315671550,BibliographyBraudel, Fernand Civilization and Capitalism, 15th–18th Centuries, Vol 1: The Structures of Everyday Life," William Collins & Sons, London 1981 ISBN 0-520-08114-5Further readingBreward, Christopher, The culture of fashion: a new history of fashionable dress, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2003, ISBN 978-0-7190-4125-9Cabrera, Ana, and Lesley Miller, "Genio y Figura, La influencia de la cultura española en la moda," Fashion Theory: The Journal of Dress, Body & Culture 13,1 (2009): 103–110Cumming, Valerie: Understanding Fashion History, Costume & Fashion Press, 2004, ISBN 0-89676-253-XHollander, Anne, Seeing through clothes, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993, ISBN 978-0-520-08231-1Hollander, Anne, Sex and suits: the evolution of modern dress, New York: Knopf, 1994, ISBN 978-0-679-43096-4Hollander, Anne, Feeding the eye: essays, New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1999, ISBN 978-0-374-28201-1Hollander, Anne, Fabric of vision: dress and drapery in painting, London: National Gallery, 2002, ISBN 978-0-300-09419-0Kawamura, Yuniya, Fashion-ology: an introduction to Fashion Studies, Oxford and New York: Berg, 2005, ISBN 1-85973-814-1Lipovetsky, Gilles (translated by Catherine Porter), The empire of fashion: dressing modern democracy, Woodstock: Princeton University Press, 2002, ISBN 978-0-691-10262-7McDermott, Kathleen, Style for all: why fashion, invented by kings, now belongs to all of us (An illustrated history), 2010, ISBN 978-0-557-51917-0 — Many hand-drawn color illustrations, extensive annotated bibliography and reading guidePerrot, Philippe (translated by Richard Bienvenu), Fashioning the bourgeoisie: a history of clothing in the nineteenth century, Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994, ISBN 978-0-691-00081-7Steele, Valerie, Paris fashion: a cultural history, (2, ed,, rev, and updated), Oxford: Berg, 1998, ISBN 978-1-85973-973-0Steele, Valerie, Fifty years of fashion: new look to now, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000, ISBN 978-0-300-08738-3Steele, Valerie, Encyclopedia of clothing and fashion, Detroit: Thomson Gale, 2005Davis, F, (1989), Of maids' uniforms and blue jeans: The drama of status ambivalences in clothing and fashion, Qualitative Sociology, 12(4), 337-355,External linksWikimedia Commons has media related to Fashion,Wikiquote has quotations related to: FashionFashion at CurlievteFashion articlesvteHistorical clothingvteClothingvteDesignvteMedia cultureAuthority control Edit this at WikidataBNF: cb119325083 (data) GND: 4039792-0 NARA: 10640826 NDL: 00563001Categories: FashionCultural trendsHistory of clothing . .Terms and phrasesadvertising asked Avenue Banks Barrato Bernstein Bidermann Bloomingdale’s Bronx Brooks Brothers brother Bruce Bruce Weber Buchwald Buffy Birrittella called Calvin Klein Cary Grant Cesarani clothes couldn’t creative services Double RL dressed figure film finally financing find first fit five floor fragrance Friedman girls going Goldberg Goldman Sachs he’d Hellman Helstein Hilfiger Hilton hired jacket jeans Jeffrey Banks Jewish Jews Joseph Abboud kids knew Kreisler later Lenny Lewis license look loved magazine Marvin Traub Meledandri men’s menswear million movie Neiman Marcus never numbers office Peter Strom Polo executive Polo Ralph Lauren Polo’s Poloroid profits rabbi Ralph Lauren Ralph wanted retail Ricky Rivetz Salanter salesman sell shirts sold staffer started Steve Bell suits talk Tasha There’s things thought told wasn’t Weber who’d women’s wear wore yeshiva York Zelnik.. THANKS FOR LOOKING!!!. Track Page Views With Auctiva's FREE Counter Condition: New, Gender: Female, Special Attributes: VOGUE, Country/Region of Manufacture: United States, Vintage (Y/N): OOP pattern copyright 1987, Type: Shirt, Features: MULTIPLE SIZES, Cut/Uncut: Uncut, MPN: 1909, Age Group: Adult, Brand: Ralph Lauren

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