1887 Royal Mint Solid Silver Florin Old Antique Coin Victorian Queen Victoria UK

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Seller: notinashyway (16,854) 99.7%, Location: Look at my other Items, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 401785639134 1887 Florin Coin Sold Silver *** OVER 250 Years Old *** Made by the Royal Mint in London One Hundred and Thirty Two Year old English Florin Coin Queen Victoria Florin Features Country United Kingdom Type Standard circulation coin Years 1887-1892 Value 1 Florin = 2 Shillings (0.1 LSD) Metal Silver (.925) Weight 11.31 g Diameter 29.5 mm Shape Round Orientation Medal alignment ↑↑ Demonetized 30-06-1993 References KM# 762, Sp# 3925 Obverse Crowned and veiled Jubilee bust of Queen Victoria left, legend around. Lettering: VICTORIA DEI GRATIA Translation: Victoria by the Grace of God Engraver: Joseph Edgar Boehm Reverse Crowned cruciform shields of England, Scotland and Ireland, sceptres with national flower emblems in angles, divided date above. Lettering: BRITT: REG: 18 87 FID: DEF: Translation: Queen of the Britains Defender of the Faith Engraver: Leonard Charles Wyon Comments The standard weight of these coins was 4/11 troy ounce (174.5 grains).Solid 0.925 Silver In Good Condition for its age Would make an Excellent Lucky Charm or Collectible Keepsake Souvenir I will have a lot of Old Coins on Ebay so CLICK HERE TO VISIT MY SHOP Bid with Confidence - Check My 100% Positive Feedback from over 14,000 Satisfied Customers I have over 5 years of Ebay Selling Experience - So Why Not Treat Yourself? I have got married recently and need to raise funds to meet the costs also we are planning to move into a house together I always combined postage on multiple items so why not > Check out my other items! I Always Leave instant Feedback Automatically on Receiving payment All Payment Methods in All Major Currencies Accepted. All Items Sent out within 24 hours of Receiving Payment. Overseas Bidders Please Note Surface Mail Delivery Times > Western Europe takes up to 2 weeks, Eastern Europe up to 5 weeks, North America up to 6 weeks, South America, Africa and Asia up to 8 weeks and Australasia up to 12 weeks For that Interesting Conversational Piece, A Birthday Present, Christmas Gift, A Comical Item to Cheer Someone Up or That Unique Perfect Gift for the Person Who has Everything....You Know Where to Look for a Bargain! Please Take a Moment Click Here to Check Out My Other items *** Please Do Not Click Here *** Click Here to Add me to Your List of Favourite Sellers If You Have any Questions Please Message me thru ebay and I Will Reply ASAP Thanks for Looking and Best of Luck with the Bidding!! The Countries I Send to Include Afghanistan * Albania * Algeria * American Samoa (US) * Andorra * Angola * Anguilla (GB) * Antigua and Barbuda * Argentina * Armenia * Aruba (NL) * Australia * Austria * Azerbaijan * Bahamas * Bahrain * Bangladesh * Barbados * Belarus * Belgium * Belize * Benin * Bermuda (GB) * Bhutan * Bolivia * Bonaire (NL) * Bosnia and Herzegovina * Botswana * Bouvet Island (NO) * Brazil * British Indian Ocean Territory (GB) * British Virgin Islands (GB) * Brunei * Bulgaria * Burkina Faso * Burundi * Cambodia * Cameroon * Canada * Cape Verde * Cayman Islands (GB) * Central African Republic * Chad * Chile * China * Christmas Island (AU) * Cocos Islands (AU) * Colombia * Comoros * Congo * Democratic Republic of the Congo * Cook Islands (NZ) * Coral Sea Islands Territory (AU) * Costa Rica * Croatia * Cuba * Curaçao (NL) * Cyprus * Czech Republic * Denmark * Djibouti * Dominica * Dominican Republic * East Timor * Ecuador * Egypt * El Salvador * Equatorial Guinea * Eritrea * Estonia * Ethiopia * Falkland Islands (GB) * Faroe Islands (DK) * Fiji Islands * Finland * France * French Guiana (FR) * French Polynesia (FR) * French Southern Lands (FR) * Gabon * Gambia * Georgia * Germany * Ghana * Gibraltar (GB) * Greece * Greenland (DK) * Grenada * Guadeloupe (FR) * Guam (US) * Guatemala * Guernsey (GB) * Guinea * Guinea-Bissau * Guyana * Haiti * Heard and McDonald Islands (AU) * Honduras * Hong Kong (CN) * Hungary * Iceland * India * Indonesia * Iran * Iraq * Ireland * Isle of Man (GB) * Israel * Italy * Ivory Coast * Jamaica * Jan Mayen (NO) * Japan * Jersey (GB) * Jordan * Kazakhstan * Kenya * Kiribati * Kosovo * Kuwait * Kyrgyzstan * Laos * Latvia * Lebanon * Lesotho * Liberia * Libya * Liechtenstein * Lithuania * Luxembourg * Macau (CN) * Macedonia * Madagascar * Malawi * Malaysia * Maldives * Mali * Malta * Marshall Islands * Martinique (FR) * Mauritania * Mauritius * Mayotte (FR) * Mexico * Micronesia * Moldova * Monaco * Mongolia * Montenegro * Montserrat (GB) * Morocco * Mozambique * Myanmar * Namibia * Nauru * Navassa (US) * Nepal * Netherlands * New Caledonia (FR) * New Zealand * Nicaragua * Niger * Nigeria * Niue (NZ) * Norfolk Island (AU) * North Korea * Northern Cyprus * Northern Mariana Islands (US) * Norway * Oman * Pakistan * Palau * Palestinian Authority * Panama * Papua New Guinea * Paraguay * Peru * Philippines * Pitcairn Island (GB) * Poland * Portugal * Puerto Rico (US) * Qatar * Reunion (FR) * Romania * Russia * Rwanda * Saba (NL) * Saint Barthelemy (FR) * Saint Helena (GB) * Saint Kitts and Nevis * Saint Lucia * Saint Martin (FR) * Saint Pierre and Miquelon (FR) * Saint Vincent and the Grenadines * Samoa * San Marino * Sao Tome and Principe * Saudi Arabia * Senegal * Serbia * Seychelles * Sierra Leone * Singapore * Sint Eustatius (NL) * Sint Maarten (NL) * Slovakia * Slovenia * Solomon Islands * Somalia * South Africa * South Georgia (GB) * South Korea * South Sudan * Spain * Sri Lanka * Sudan * Suriname * Svalbard (NO) * Swaziland * Sweden * Switzerland * Syria * Taiwan * Tajikistan * Tanzania * Thailand * Togo * Tokelau (NZ) * Tonga * Trinidad and Tobago * Tunisia * Turkey * Turkmenistan * Turks and Caicos Islands (GB) * Tuvalu * U.S. Minor Pacific Islands (US) * U.S. Virgin Islands (US) * Uganda * Ukraine * United Arab Emirates * United Kingdom * United States * Uruguay * Uzbekistan * Vanuatu * Vatican City * Venezuela * Vietnam * Wallis and Futuna (FR) * Yemen * Zambia * Zimbabw The British florin, or two shilling coin, was issued from 1849 until 1967, with a final issue for collectors dated 1970. Valued at one tenth of a pound (24 old pence), it was the last coin circulating immediately prior to decimalisation to be demonetised, in 1993, having for a quarter of a century circulated alongside the ten pence piece, identical in specifications and value. The florin was introduced as part of an experiment in decimalisation that went no further at that time. The original florins, dated 1849, attracted controversy for omitting a reference to God from Queen Victoria's titles; that type is accordingly known as the "Godless florin", and was in 1851 succeeded by the "Gothic florin", for its design and style of lettering. Throughout most of its existence, the florin bore some variation of either the shields of the United Kingdom, or the emblems of its constituent nations on the reverse, a tradition broken between 1902 and 1910, when the coin featured a windswept figure of a standing Britannia. In 1911, following the accession of George V, the florin regained the shields and sceptres design it had in the late Victorian Era, and kept that motif until 1937, when the national emblems were placed on it. The florin retained such a theme for the remainder of its run, though a new design was used from 1953, following the accession of Elizabeth II. In 1968, prior to decimalisation, the Royal Mint began striking the ten pence piece. The old two shilling piece remained in circulation until the ten pence piece was made smaller, and earlier coins, including the florin, were demonetised. United Kingdom Value 1⁄10 pound sterling Mass 11.31 g Diameter (1849) 28.0 mm (1851–1886) 30.0 mm (1887–1892) 29.5 mm (1893–1970) 28.5 mm Edge Milled Composition (1849–1919) 92.5% Ag (1920–1946) 50% Ag (1947–1970) Cupronickel Years of minting 1849–1970 Design Profile of the monarch (Elizabeth II design shown) Designer Mary Gillick Design date 1953 (portrait) 1954 ("BRITT OMN" removed) Reverse British florin 1967 reverse.png Design Various (floral design shown) Designer Edgar Fuller and Cecil Thomas Design date 1953 The drive for decimalisation of the currency in Britain dates as far back as 1682. Although nothing was done regarding early proposals, the adoption of a decimal currency in the United States, France and other nations in the late 18th and early 19th centuries renewed the call, and commissions in 1841 and 1843 called for its adoption.[1] In 1847, a motion was introduced in Parliament by Sir John Bowring calling for the introduction of a decimal currency and the striking of coins of one-tenth and one-hundredth of a pound. Bowring obtained surprisingly strong support for his motion,[2] and the Russell government promised that a coin valued at one-tenth of a pound (two shillings) would be produced to test public opinion, with consideration in future to be given to the introduction of other decimal coins.[3] There was much discussion about what the coin should be called—centum, decade, and dime being among the suggestions[4]—before florin was eventually settled upon, not because of the old English coin of that name, but because the Netherlands had a florin, or gulden, of about that size and value.[5] Victorian issues (1849–1901) Both sides of a silver coin, with a crowned woman on one side and shields on the other The 1849 "godless florin" The first florins were struck in 1849. They were in the Gothic style, and featured a portrait of Queen Victoria as a very young woman,[6] with the crowned cruciform shields of the United Kingdom shown on the reverse, and the nations' emblems in the angles. The new florin closely resembles the Gothic crown of 1847;[5][7] the obverse for both was designed by the Chief Engraver of the Royal Mint, William Wyon, while the reverse of both was designed by William Dyce.[4] Unlike the crown's Gothic script, the 1849 florin has Roman lettering.[8] The 1849 florin, issued in silver, weighed 11.3 grams and had a diameter of 28 millimetres.[4] The new coin made clear its value with the inscription ONE FLORIN ONE TENTH OF A POUND on the reverse.[9] To aid in the decimal experiment, the half crown (two shillings and sixpence, or one-eighth of a pound), near to the florin in size and value, was not issued between 1850 and 1874, when it was struck again at the request of the banks, and surveys found that both coins played useful parts in commerce. Each would continue to be struck, and would circulate together, until decimalisation.[9][10] These first coins were probably a shock to the public, as for the first time in nearly 200 years a British coin featured a portrait of the monarch wearing a crown. Even more of a shock, including (allegedly) to Queen Victoria herself, was the inscription on the obverse, VICTORIA REGINA 1849,[a] omitting the usual D G for Dei Gratia (By the Grace of God) from the coin's inscription.[4] This resulted in it being known as the "Godless florin". Further controversy was caused by the omission of the usual abbreviation F D for Fidei Defensor (Defender of the Faith): the Master of the Mint, Richard Lalor Sheil, an Irishman and a Roman Catholic, was suspected by some of plotting to overthrow the Protestant regime. The inscription had in fact been suggested by Albert, Prince Consort, Victoria's husband. Sheil stated in the House of Commons that the inscription had been a mistake, and the florin was redesigned for its next issue in 1851.[6] The revised florin's diameter was increased to 30 millimetres (the weight was unchanged), and all the lettering on the coin was in Gothic script, resulting in it being known as the Gothic florin. The coin was by the same designers; its date was rendered in Roman numerals. The bust of Victoria and the heraldry on the reverse were largely unchanged. The Latin inscription on the obverse read VICTORIA D G BRITT REG F D[b] with the date, while the reverse read ONE FLORIN ONE TENTH OF A POUND. Despite a Royal Commission, the drive for decimalisation soon died out; there was only lukewarm support for an 1855 motion in the Commons applauding the issuance of the florin and seeking further decimal coins.[11] The Gothic Florin was produced each year until 1887, excepting 1861 and 1882.[12] From 1864 until 1879, many florins were struck with die numbers on the obverse (found to the right of Victoria's brooch,[13] possibly part of a Mint investigation into how long it took coinage dies to wear out.[14] Beginning with some 1867 issues, BRIT on the obverse was rendered BRITT, following the Latin practice in abbreviations of doubling a final consonant for a plural. Thus, Victoria's title changed from "Queen of Britain" to "Queen of the Britains", including the colonies and other territories.[9] In 1887, as part of a coinage redesign for Victoria's Golden Jubilee, a new obverse design, showing the queen as an older woman, debuted on the gold and silver coinage. This was dubbed the "Jubilee Head" and was by Sir Joseph Boehm. The various flora were removed from the florin's reverse and were replaced by sceptres between the shields with a Garter Star in the centre.[15] The Jubilee Head quickly proved unpopular, due in part to the crown worn by the Queen, which was deemed ridiculously small.[16] The Jubilee florin shared its reverse with the short-lived double florin, which Gertrude Rawlings in 1898 described as "radiating kitchen pokers and tea trays".[17] The reverse design was created and engraved by Leonard Charles Wyon (who also engraved the obverse), though it was probably influenced by the gold coinage of Charles II designed by John Roettier.[4] The diameter was reduced to 29.5 millimetres. All the inscriptions were in Latin letters and Arabic numerals. The inscription on the obverse read VICTORIA DEI GRATIA, while the reverse read FID DEF BRITT REG,[c] with no indication of the value. The Jubilee florin was struck each year between 1887 and 1892.[18] A silver coin, with three shields on it 1899 florin designed by Sir Edward Poynter Given the unpopularity of the Jubilee bust, a committee was set up in February 1891 to recommend new designs. An obverse designed by Thomas Brock was selected, and the committee also recommended some new reverses.[19] This advisory committee recommended a different bust (also by Brock) be used on the florin to distinguish it from the half crown. The recommendation was not accepted, and the florin used the same "Veiled Head" or "Old Head" obverse that was introduced to the silver and gold coinage in 1893. To better distinguish it from the half crown, the diameter was reduced from 29 to 28.5 mm.[4][10] The obverse was inscribed VICTORIA DEI GRA BRITT REGINA FID DEF IND IMP,[d] together with a new reverse showing three shields separated by a rose, shamrock, and thistle (symbolising England, Scotland and Ireland) under a crown, and the inscription ONE FLORIN TWO SHILLINGS.[20][21] This reverse was created by Sir Edward Poynter, and was issued each year between 1893 and 1901, the year of Victoria's death.[18] Edward VII (1901–1910) Both sides of the florin were redesigned following the accession of Victoria's son, Edward VII, each design being created by the Chief Engraver of the Royal Mint, George William de Saulles. The florin of King Edward VII was minted every year from 1902 to 1910. Its specifications remained at 11.3 grams weight and 28.5 millimetres diameter. The obverse shows the right-facing head of the King, inscribed EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA BRITT OMN REX FD IND IMP,[e], while the other side features what Coincraft's Standard Catalogue of English and UK Coins deems "a most unusual and original reverse".[22] It shows a windswept figure of Britannia standing holding a shield with her left hand and a trident with her right, and inscribed ONE FLORIN TWO SHILLINGS, with the date below.[22] Peter Seaby, in his history of British coinage, described the figure of Britannia as "standing on some mythical ancient ship which could hardly be sea-worthy under her weight", but "a pleasing composition".[23] De Saulles created the new florin in this manner to distinguish the coin from the half crown, as there had been complaints of confusion. He probably based the design on his British trade dollar (1895).[24] The sitter for the design was Susan Hicks-Beach, the daughter of Michael Hicks-Beach, 1st Earl St Aldwyn who had served as Chancellor of the Exchequer and ex officio Master of the Mint.[23] The modern-day Britannia coinage, bullion pieces struck by the Royal Mint for investors and collectors, has a reverse that strongly resembles that of the Edwardian florin.[25] George V (1910–1936) One side of a 1932-dated silver coin, with an arrangement of crowns and sceptres The 1932 florin Florins bearing a left-facing effigy of George V by Sir Bertram Mackennal were minted in each year of the King's reign (1910–1936) except 1910 and 1934.[26] The initial reverse design (1911–1926) was developed internally at the Royal Mint, and is intended to be that of the 1887 double florin, to which the Jubilee florin is very similar.[27] The weight and diameter of the coin were unchanged but, because of rises in the price of silver, the metallic composition was changed in 1920 from 0.925 silver to 50% silver, 40% copper, 10% nickel, then again in 1922 to 50% silver, 50% copper, and again in 1927 to 50% silver, 40% copper, 5% nickel, 5% zinc.[28] The changes in alloy after 1920 were due to the Mint trying to find a silver alloy that would remain attractive as it wore.[29] The inscriptions on the obverse of the original version of the George V florin were GEORGIVS V D G BRITT OMN REX F D IND IMP[f] and on the reverse were ONE FLORIN and the year of striking.[28] The modified florin, dated 1927 to 1936, was designed by George Kruger Gray and did not greatly alter the design of shields and sceptres, but removed the crowns from the shields and placed them on the sceptres. A "G", the King's initial, is at the centre of the design. The obverse inscription became GEORGIVS V DEI GRA BRITT OMN REX[g] and the reverse one was FID DEF IND IMP[h] with the date and denomination ONE FLORIN. The bust of the King on the obverse was slightly modified in 1927.[26] Edward VIII (1936) Throughout 1936, the year in which Edward VIII reigned, coins of all denominations continued to be struck using the designs of George V, pending preparation of the new monarch's coinage. No coins depicting Edward VIII were officially released to circulation. A pattern florin exists for King Edward, which would have been due to receive approval around the time that the King abdicated in December 1936. Although there is a tradition of alternating the direction the monarch faces with each reign, and George V had faced left, Edward believed that side more flattering. Thus, the obverse depicts the left-facing effigy of the King by Thomas Humphrey Paget inscribed EDWARDVS VIII D G BR OMN REX.[i] The reverse, by Kruger Gray, shows a crowned rose flanked by a thistle and shamrock, with E below the thistle and R below the shamrock, and the inscription FID DEF IND IMP[j] and TWO SHILLINGS 1937.[30][31] George VI (1936–1952) King George VI's florin, produced each year between 1937 and 1951, looks very much like the one planned for his brother Edward VIII. Like on the patterns for King Edward, the words ONE FLORIN are omitted; they would remain absent for the coin's remaining existence.[26] The obverse, by Thomas Humphrey Paget, shows the left-facing effigy of the King inscribed GEORGIVS VI D G BR OMN REX. The reverse, by Kruger Gray, depicts a crowned rose with a thistle and shamrock on either side. There is a G below the thistle and R below the shamrock, and the inscription FID DEF IND IMP TWO SHILLINGS date until 1948. From 1949, the coins were struck without the IND IMP, in acknowledgement of India's independence. From 1947, the metal content was changed, as for all British silver circulating coins, to 75% copper, 25% nickel.[32][33] This was due to the need for Britain to return Lend-Lease silver to the United States.[34] The florin's diameter and weight remained unchanged at 11.3 grams and 28.5 millimetres, despite the change of alloy.[32] Elizabeth II (struck 1953–1970) Florins were produced for Queen Elizabeth II each year between 1953 and 1967, with proof coins struck that were dated 1970. The obverse shows the Mary Gillick head of Queen Elizabeth, inscribed ELIZABETH II DEI GRATIA BRITT OMN REGINA[k] (1953 only) or ELIZABETH II DEI GRATIA REGINA[l] (all other years).[35] This change was made to acknowledge the evolving British Commonwealth, which by then contained some republics.[36] The reverse, by Edgar Fuller and Cecil Thomas, depicts a Tudor rose in the centre surrounded by thistles, shamrocks and leeks, with the Latin phrase FID DEF, the denomination and the date.[35] The designs were selected by the Royal Mint Advisory Committee following a public competition.[37] The artists' initials appear either side of the Welsh leek at the bottom of the reverse. When the reverse of the new coin was illustrated in the press, there was no consensus as to which way was up; numismatist H.W.A. Linecar has noted that the second L in SHILLINGS marks the bottom of the coin.[38] In accordance with the plan for decimalisation of the currency (120 years after this denomination was first introduced in the initial plan to introduce a decimal currency), from 1968 the ten pence coin was introduced of the same size, weight and metal composition as the florin. Thus, the florin ceased to be struck for circulation after the 1967-dated pieces. The new and the old circulated side by side as florins prior to Decimal Day (15 February 1971) and as ten pence pieces after.[39] Florins (usually dated 1947 or later) remained in circulation after Decimal Day. In 1987, following a study of the currency, the Thatcher government announced its intent to issue a new ten pence piece, reduced in size.[39] A smaller ten pence piece was issued in 1992, after which the old florin was demonetised on 30 June 1993. The florin, the first decimal coin, was the last coin in general circulation just prior to decimalisation to be withdrawn British coinage Decimal 1/2p 1p 2p 5p 10p 20p 50p £1 £2 Pre-decimal Quarter farthing (1/16d) Third farthing (1/12d) Half farthing (1/8d) Farthing (1/4d) Halfpenny (1/2d) Penny (1d) Three halfpence (1 1/2d) Twopence (2d) Threepence (3d) Fourpence (4d) Sixpence (6d) Shilling (1/-) Florin (2/-) Half crown (2/6d) Double florin (4/-) Crown (5/-) Quarter guinea (5/3d) Third guinea (7/-) Half sovereign (10/-) Half guinea (10/6d) Sovereign (£1) Guinea (£1/1s) Double sovereign (£2) Two guineas (£2/2s) Five pounds (£5) Five guineas (£5/5s) Non-circulating Commemorative 25p £5 £20 £50 £100 Maundy money Bullion Britannia Quarter sovereign Half sovereign Sovereign Lunar The Queen's Beasts Landmarks of Britain See also Pound sterling Coins of the pound sterling Banknotes of the pound sterling List of British banknotes and coins List of British currencies Scottish coinage Coins of Ireland List of people on coins of the United Kingdom vte Currencies named guilder, florin or similar Circulating Aruban florin Hungarian forint Netherlands Antillean guilder Polish złoty Obsolete Austro-Hungarian gulden (florin, forint) Baden gulden Bavarian gulden British Guianan guilder Danzig gulden Dutch guilder East African florin Fribourg gulden Lombardo-Venetian florin Luzern Gulden Netherlands Indies gulden Netherlands New Guinean gulden Neuchâtel gulden Schwyz Gulden South German Gulden Surinamese guilder Tuscan florin Württemberg Gulden As a denomination Florin (British coin) Florin (English coin) Florin (Irish coin) Florin (Italian coin) Proposed Caribbean guilder See also Florin sign (ƒ) Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments; publicly, she became a national icon who was identified with strict standards of personal morality. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together, earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe", and spreading haemophilia to several royal families. After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration. Her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Reign 20 June 1837 – 22 January 1901 Coronation 28 June 1838 Predecessor William IV Successor Edward VII Prime Ministers See list Empress of India Reign 1 May 1876 – 22 January 1901 Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877 Successor Edward VII Born 24 May 1819 Kensington Palace, London, England Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81) Osborne House, Isle of Wight Burial 4 February 1901 Frogmore Mausoleum, Windsor Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (m. 1840; died 1861) Issue Detail Victoria, German Empress Edward VII Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Princess Helena Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany Princess Beatrice Full name Alexandrina Victoria House Hanover Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Religion Protestant Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl (1804–1856) and Feodora (1807–1872)—by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte, and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother, George, the Prince Regent.[3] At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: George, the Prince Regent (later George IV); Frederick, the Duke of York; William, the Duke of Clarence (later William IV); and Victoria's father, Edward, the Duke of Kent.[4] The Prince Regent had no surviving children, and the Duke of York had no children; further, both were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further legitimate children. The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters died as infants. The first of these was Princess Charlotte, who was born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820, when Victoria was less than a year old. A week later her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was then third in line to the throne after York and Clarence. Clarence's second daughter was Princess Elizabeth of Clarence who lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821 and, while Elizabeth lived, Victoria was fourth in line.[5] The Duke of York died in 1827. When George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Clarence, as William IV, and Victoria became heir presumptive. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[6] King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[7] Heir presumptive Portrait of Victoria with her spaniel Dash by George Hayter, 1833 Victoria later described her childhood as "rather melancholy".[8] Her mother was extremely protective, and Victoria was raised largely isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, who was rumoured to be the Duchess's lover.[9] The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable (including most of her father's family), and was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them.[10] The Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children.[11] Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, and spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash.[12] Her lessons included French, German, Italian, and Latin,[13] but she spoke only English at home.[14] Victoria's sketch of herself Self-portrait, 1835 In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way.[15] Similar journeys to other parts of England and Wales were taken in 1832, 1833, 1834 and 1835. To the King's annoyance, Victoria was enthusiastically welcomed in each of the stops.[16] William compared the journeys to royal progresses and was concerned that they portrayed Victoria as his rival rather than his heir presumptive.[17] Victoria disliked the trips; the constant round of public appearances made her tired and ill, and there was little time for her to rest.[18] She objected on the grounds of the King's disapproval, but her mother dismissed his complaints as motivated by jealousy and forced Victoria to continue the tours.[19] At Ramsgate in October 1835, Victoria contracted a severe fever, which Conroy initially dismissed as a childish pretence.[20] While Victoria was ill, Conroy and the Duchess unsuccessfully badgered her to make Conroy her private secretary.[21] As a teenager, Victoria resisted persistent attempts by her mother and Conroy to appoint him to her staff.[22] Once queen, she banned him from her presence, but he remained in her mother's household.[23] By 1836, the Duchess's brother, Leopold, who had been King of the Belgians since 1831, hoped to marry his niece to his nephew, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.[24] Leopold, Victoria's mother, and Albert's father (Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha) were siblings. Leopold arranged for Victoria's mother to invite her Coburg relatives to visit her in May 1836, with the purpose of introducing Victoria to Albert.[25] William IV, however, disapproved of any match with the Coburgs, and instead favoured the suit of Prince Alexander of the Netherlands, second son of the Prince of Orange.[26] Victoria was aware of the various matrimonial plans and critically appraised a parade of eligible princes.[27] According to her diary, she enjoyed Albert's company from the beginning. After the visit she wrote, "[Albert] is extremely handsome; his hair is about the same colour as mine; his eyes are large and blue, and he has a beautiful nose and a very sweet mouth with fine teeth; but the charm of his countenance is his expression, which is most delightful."[28] Alexander, on the other hand, she described as "very plain".[29] Victoria wrote to her uncle Leopold, whom Victoria considered her "best and kindest adviser",[30] to thank him "for the prospect of great happiness you have contributed to give me, in the person of dear Albert ... He possesses every quality that could be desired to render me perfectly happy. He is so sensible, so kind, and so good, and so amiable too. He has besides the most pleasing and delightful exterior and appearance you can possibly see."[31] However at 17, Victoria, though interested in Albert, was not yet ready to marry. The parties did not undertake a formal engagement, but assumed that the match would take place in due time.[32] Early reign See also: Coronation of Queen Victoria Drawing of two men on their knees in front of Victoria Victoria receives the news of her accession from Lord Conyngham (left) and the Archbishop of Canterbury. Engraving after painting by Henry Tanworth Wells, 1887 Victoria turned 18 on 24 May 1837, and a regency was avoided. Less than a month later, on 20 June 1837, William IV died at the age of 71, and Victoria became Queen of the United Kingdom.[33] In her diary she wrote, "I was awoke at 6 o'clock by Mamma, who told me the Archbishop of Canterbury and Lord Conyngham were here and wished to see me. I got out of bed and went into my sitting-room (only in my dressing gown) and alone, and saw them. Lord Conyngham then acquainted me that my poor Uncle, the King, was no more, and had expired at 12 minutes past 2 this morning, and consequently that I am Queen."[34] Official documents prepared on the first day of her reign described her as Alexandrina Victoria, but the first name was withdrawn at her own wish and not used again.[35] Since 1714, Britain had shared a monarch with Hanover in Germany, but under Salic law women were excluded from the Hanoverian succession. While Victoria inherited all the British Dominions, her father's younger brother, her unpopular uncle the Duke of Cumberland, became King of Hanover. He was her heir presumptive while she was childless.[36] Coronation portrait by George Hayter At the time of Victoria's accession, the government was led by the Whig prime minister Lord Melbourne. The Prime Minister at once became a powerful influence on the politically inexperienced Queen, who relied on him for advice.[37] Charles Greville supposed that the widowed and childless Melbourne was "passionately fond of her as he might be of his daughter if he had one", and Victoria probably saw him as a father figure.[38] Her coronation took place on 28 June 1838 at Westminster Abbey. Over 400,000 visitors came to London for the celebrations.[39] She became the first sovereign to take up residence at Buckingham Palace[40] and inherited the revenues of the duchies of Lancaster and Cornwall as well as being granted a civil list allowance of £385,000 per year. Financially prudent, she paid off her father's debts.[41] At the start of her reign Victoria was popular,[42] but her reputation suffered in an 1839 court intrigue when one of her mother's ladies-in-waiting, Lady Flora Hastings, developed an abdominal growth that was widely rumoured to be an out-of-wedlock pregnancy by Sir John Conroy.[43] Victoria believed the rumours.[44] She hated Conroy, and despised "that odious Lady Flora",[45] because she had conspired with Conroy and the Duchess of Kent in the Kensington System.[46] At first, Lady Flora refused to submit to an intimate medical examination, until in mid-February she eventually agreed, and was found to be a virgin.[47] Conroy, the Hastings family, and the opposition Tories organised a press campaign implicating the Queen in the spreading of false rumours about Lady Flora.[48] When Lady Flora died in July, the post-mortem revealed a large tumour on her liver that had distended her abdomen.[49] At public appearances, Victoria was hissed and jeered as "Mrs. Melbourne".[50] In 1839, Melbourne resigned after Radicals and Tories (both of whom Victoria detested) voted against a bill to suspend the constitution of Jamaica. The bill removed political power from plantation owners who were resisting measures associated with the abolition of slavery.[51] The Queen commissioned a Tory, Sir Robert Peel, to form a new ministry. At the time, it was customary for the prime minister to appoint members of the Royal Household, who were usually his political allies and their spouses. Many of the Queen's ladies of the bedchamber were wives of Whigs, and Peel expected to replace them with wives of Tories. In what became known as the bedchamber crisis, Victoria, advised by Melbourne, objected to their removal. Peel refused to govern under the restrictions imposed by the Queen, and consequently resigned his commission, allowing Melbourne to return to office.[52] Marriage See also: Wedding of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Wedding dress of Queen Victoria Painting of a lavish wedding attended by richly dressed people in a magnificent room Marriage of Victoria and Albert, painted by George Hayter Though Victoria was now queen, as an unmarried young woman she was required by social convention to live with her mother, despite their differences over the Kensington System and her mother's continued reliance on Conroy.[53] Her mother was consigned to a remote apartment in Buckingham Palace, and Victoria often refused to see her.[54] When Victoria complained to Melbourne that her mother's close proximity promised "torment for many years", Melbourne sympathised but said it could be avoided by marriage, which Victoria called a "schocking [sic] alternative".[55] Victoria showed interest in Albert's education for the future role he would have to play as her husband, but she resisted attempts to rush her into wedlock.[56] Victoria continued to praise Albert following his second visit in October 1839. Albert and Victoria felt mutual affection and the Queen proposed to him on 15 October 1839, just five days after he had arrived at Windsor.[57] They were married on 10 February 1840, in the Chapel Royal of St James's Palace, London. Victoria was love-struck. She spent the evening after their wedding lying down with a headache, but wrote ecstatically in her diary: I NEVER, NEVER spent such an evening!!! MY DEAREST DEAREST DEAR Albert ... his excessive love & affection gave me feelings of heavenly love & happiness I never could have hoped to have felt before! He clasped me in his arms, & we kissed each other again & again! His beauty, his sweetness & gentleness – really how can I ever be thankful enough to have such a Husband! ... to be called by names of tenderness, I have never yet heard used to me before – was bliss beyond belief! Oh! This was the happiest day of my life![58] Albert became an important political adviser as well as the Queen's companion, replacing Lord Melbourne as the dominant influential figure in the first half of her life.[59] Victoria's mother was evicted from the palace, to Ingestre House in Belgrave Square. After the death of Victoria's aunt, Princess Augusta, in 1840, Victoria's mother was given both Clarence and Frogmore Houses.[60] Through Albert's mediation, relations between mother and daughter slowly improved.[61] Contemporary lithograph of Edward Oxford's attempt to assassinate Victoria, 1840 During Victoria's first pregnancy in 1840, in the first few months of the marriage, 18-year-old Edward Oxford attempted to assassinate her while she was riding in a carriage with Prince Albert on her way to visit her mother. Oxford fired twice, but either both bullets missed or, as he later claimed, the guns had no shot.[62] He was tried for high treason, found not guilty on the grounds of insanity, committed to an insane asylum indefinitely, and later sent to live in Australia.[63] In the immediate aftermath of the attack, Victoria's popularity soared, mitigating residual discontent over the Hastings affair and the bedchamber crisis.[64] Her daughter, also named Victoria, was born on 21 November 1840. The Queen hated being pregnant,[65] viewed breast-feeding with disgust,[66] and thought newborn babies were ugly.[67] Nevertheless, over the following seventeen years, she and Albert had a further eight children: Albert Edward (b. 1841), Alice (b. 1843), Alfred (b. 1844), Helena (b. 1846), Louise (b. 1848), Arthur (b. 1850), Leopold (b. 1853) and Beatrice (b. 1857). Victoria's household was largely run by her childhood governess, Baroness Louise Lehzen from Hanover. Lehzen had been a formative influence on Victoria[68] and had supported her against the Kensington System.[69] Albert, however, thought that Lehzen was incompetent and that her mismanagement threatened his daughter's health. After a furious row between Victoria and Albert over the issue, Lehzen was pensioned off in 1842, and Victoria's close relationship with her ended.[70] 1842–1860 Portrait by Franz Xaver Winterhalter, 1843 On 29 May 1842, Victoria was riding in a carriage along The Mall, London, when John Francis aimed a pistol at her, but the gun did not fire. The assailant escaped; however the following day, Victoria drove the same route, though faster and with a greater escort, in a deliberate attempt to provoke Francis to take a second aim and catch him in the act. As expected, Francis shot at her, but he was seized by plainclothes policemen, and convicted of high treason. On 3 July, two days after Francis's death sentence was commuted to transportation for life, John William Bean also tried to fire a pistol at the Queen, but it was loaded only with paper and tobacco and had too little charge.[71] Edward Oxford felt that the attempts were encouraged by his acquittal in 1840. Bean was sentenced to 18 months in jail.[72] In a similar attack in 1849, unemployed Irishman William Hamilton fired a powder-filled pistol at Victoria's carriage as it passed along Constitution Hill, London.[73] In 1850, the Queen did sustain injury when she was assaulted by a possibly insane ex-army officer, Robert Pate. As Victoria was riding in a carriage, Pate struck her with his cane, crushing her bonnet and bruising her forehead. Both Hamilton and Pate were sentenced to seven years' transportation.[74] Melbourne's support in the House of Commons weakened through the early years of Victoria's reign, and in the 1841 general election the Whigs were defeated. Peel became prime minister, and the ladies of the bedchamber most associated with the Whigs were replaced.[75] Victoria cuddling a child next to her Earliest known photograph of Victoria, here with her eldest daughter, c. 1845[76] In 1845, Ireland was hit by a potato blight.[77] In the next four years, over a million Irish people died and another million emigrated in what became known as the Great Famine.[78] In Ireland, Victoria was labelled "The Famine Queen".[79][80] In January 1847 she personally donated £2,000 (equivalent to between £178,000 and £6.5 million in 2016[81]) to the British Relief Association, more than any other individual famine relief donor,[82] and also supported the Maynooth Grant to a Roman Catholic seminary in Ireland, despite Protestant opposition.[83] The story that she donated only £5 in aid to the Irish, and on the same day gave the same amount to Battersea Dogs Home, was a myth generated towards the end of the 19th century.[84] By 1846, Peel's ministry faced a crisis involving the repeal of the Corn Laws. Many Tories—by then known also as Conservatives—were opposed to the repeal, but Peel, some Tories (the "Peelites"), most Whigs and Victoria supported it. Peel resigned in 1846, after the repeal narrowly passed, and was replaced by Lord John Russell.[85] Victoria's British Prime Ministers Year Prime Minister (party) 1835 Viscount Melbourne (Whig) 1841 Sir Robert Peel (Conservative) 1846 Lord John Russell (W) 1852 (Feb) Earl of Derby (C) 1852 (Dec) Earl of Aberdeen (Peelite) 1855 Viscount Palmerston (Liberal) 1858 Earl of Derby (C) 1859 Viscount Palmerston (L) 1865 Earl Russell (L) 1866 Earl of Derby (C) 1868 (Feb) Benjamin Disraeli (C) 1868 (Dec) William Gladstone (L) 1874 Benjamin Disraeli (C) 1880 William Gladstone (L) 1885 Marquess of Salisbury (C) 1886 (Feb) William Gladstone (L) 1886 (Jul) Marquess of Salisbury (C) 1892 William Gladstone (L) 1894 Earl of Rosebery (L) 1895 Marquess of Salisbury (C) See List of Prime Ministers of Queen Victoria for details of her British and Imperial premiers Internationally, Victoria took a keen interest in the improvement of relations between France and Britain.[86] She made and hosted several visits between the British royal family and the House of Orleans, who were related by marriage through the Coburgs. In 1843 and 1845, she and Albert stayed with King Louis Philippe I at château d'Eu in Normandy; she was the first British or English monarch to visit a French monarch since the meeting of Henry VIII of England and Francis I of France on the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520.[87] When Louis Philippe made a reciprocal trip in 1844, he became the first French king to visit a British sovereign.[88] Louis Philippe was deposed in the revolutions of 1848, and fled to exile in England.[89] At the height of a revolutionary scare in the United Kingdom in April 1848, Victoria and her family left London for the greater safety of Osborne House,[90] a private estate on the Isle of Wight that they had purchased in 1845 and redeveloped.[91] Demonstrations by Chartists and Irish nationalists failed to attract widespread support, and the scare died down without any major disturbances.[92] Victoria's first visit to Ireland in 1849 was a public relations success, but it had no lasting impact or effect on the growth of Irish nationalism.[93] Russell's ministry, though Whig, was not favoured by the Queen.[94] She found particularly offensive the Foreign Secretary, Lord Palmerston, who often acted without consulting the Cabinet, the Prime Minister, or the Queen.[95] Victoria complained to Russell that Palmerston sent official dispatches to foreign leaders without her knowledge, but Palmerston was retained in office and continued to act on his own initiative, despite her repeated remonstrances. It was only in 1851 that Palmerston was removed after he announced the British government's approval of President Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte's coup in France without consulting the Prime Minister.[96] The following year, President Bonaparte was declared Emperor Napoleon III, by which time Russell's administration had been replaced by a short-lived minority government led by Lord Derby. Photograph of a seated Victoria, dressed in black, holding an infant with her children and Prince Albert standing around her Albert, Victoria and their nine children, 1857. Left to right: Alice, Arthur, Prince Albert, Albert Edward, Leopold, Louise, Queen Victoria with Beatrice, Alfred, Victoria and Helena In 1853, Victoria gave birth to her eighth child, Leopold, with the aid of the new anaesthetic, chloroform. Victoria was so impressed by the relief it gave from the pain of childbirth that she used it again in 1857 at the birth of her ninth and final child, Beatrice, despite opposition from members of the clergy, who considered it against biblical teaching, and members of the medical profession, who thought it dangerous.[97] Victoria may have suffered from postnatal depression after many of her pregnancies.[98] Letters from Albert to Victoria intermittently complain of her loss of self-control. For example, about a month after Leopold's birth Albert complained in a letter to Victoria about her "continuance of hysterics" over a "miserable trifle".[99] In early 1855, the government of Lord Aberdeen, who had replaced Derby, fell amidst recriminations over the poor management of British troops in the Crimean War. Victoria approached both Derby and Russell to form a ministry, but neither had sufficient support, and Victoria was forced to appoint Palmerston as prime minister.[100] Napoleon III, who had been Britain's closest ally since the Crimean War,[98] visited London in April 1855, and from 17 to 28 August the same year Victoria and Albert returned the visit.[101] Napoleon III met the couple at Boulogne and accompanied them to Paris.[102] They visited the Exposition Universelle (a successor to Albert's 1851 brainchild the Great Exhibition) and Napoleon I's tomb at Les Invalides (to which his remains had only been returned in 1840), and were guests of honour at a 1,200-guest ball at the Palace of Versailles.[103] Portrait by Winterhalter, 1859 On 14 January 1858, an Italian refugee from Britain called Felice Orsini attempted to assassinate Napoleon III with a bomb made in England.[104] The ensuing diplomatic crisis destabilised the government, and Palmerston resigned. Derby was reinstated as prime minister.[105] Victoria and Albert attended the opening of a new basin at the French military port of Cherbourg on 5 August 1858, in an attempt by Napoleon III to reassure Britain that his military preparations were directed elsewhere. On her return Victoria wrote to Derby reprimanding him for the poor state of the Royal Navy in comparison to the French one.[106] Derby's ministry did not last long, and in June 1859 Victoria recalled Palmerston to office.[107] Eleven days after Orsini's assassination attempt in France, Victoria's eldest daughter married Prince Frederick William of Prussia in London. They had been betrothed since September 1855, when Princess Victoria was 14 years old; the marriage was delayed by the Queen and Prince Albert until the bride was 17.[108] The Queen and Albert hoped that their daughter and son-in-law would be a liberalising influence in the enlarging Prussian state.[109] Victoria felt "sick at heart" to see her daughter leave England for Germany; "It really makes me shudder", she wrote to Princess Victoria in one of her frequent letters, "when I look round to all your sweet, happy, unconscious sisters, and think I must give them up too – one by one."[110] Almost exactly a year later, Princess Victoria gave birth to the Queen's first grandchild, Wilhelm, who would become the last German Emperor. Widowhood Victoria photographed by J. J. E. Mayall, 1860 In March 1861, Victoria's mother died, with Victoria at her side. Through reading her mother's papers, Victoria discovered that her mother had loved her deeply;[111] she was heart-broken, and blamed Conroy and Lehzen for "wickedly" estranging her from her mother.[112] To relieve his wife during her intense and deep grief,[113] Albert took on most of her duties, despite being ill himself with chronic stomach trouble.[114] In August, Victoria and Albert visited their son, Edward, Prince of Wales, who was attending army manoeuvres near Dublin, and spent a few days holidaying in Killarney. In November, Albert was made aware of gossip that his son had slept with an actress in Ireland.[115] Appalled, Albert travelled to Cambridge, where his son was studying, to confront him.[116] By the beginning of December, Albert was very unwell.[117] He was diagnosed with typhoid fever by William Jenner, and died on 14 December 1861. Victoria was devastated.[118] She blamed her husband's death on worry over the Prince of Wales's philandering. He had been "killed by that dreadful business", she said.[119] She entered a state of mourning and wore black for the remainder of her life. She avoided public appearances, and rarely set foot in London in the following years.[120] Her seclusion earned her the nickname "widow of Windsor".[121] Her weight increased through comfort eating, which further reinforced her aversion to public appearances.[122] Victoria's self-imposed isolation from the public diminished the popularity of the monarchy, and encouraged the growth of the republican movement.[123] She did undertake her official government duties, yet chose to remain secluded in her royal residences—Windsor Castle, Osborne House, and the private estate in Scotland that she and Albert had acquired in 1847, Balmoral Castle. In March 1864 a protester stuck a notice on the railings of Buckingham Palace that announced "these commanding premises to be let or sold in consequence of the late occupant's declining business".[124] Her uncle Leopold wrote to her advising her to appear in public. She agreed to visit the gardens of the Royal Horticultural Society at Kensington and take a drive through London in an open carriage.[125] Victoria and John Brown at Balmoral, 1863. Photograph by G. W. Wilson. Through the 1860s, Victoria relied increasingly on a manservant from Scotland, John Brown.[126] Slanderous rumours of a romantic connection and even a secret marriage appeared in print, and the Queen was referred to as "Mrs. Brown".[127] The story of their relationship was the subject of the 1997 movie Mrs. Brown. A painting by Sir Edwin Henry Landseer depicting the Queen with Brown was exhibited at the Royal Academy, and Victoria published a book, Leaves from the Journal of Our Life in the Highlands, which featured Brown prominently and in which the Queen praised him highly.[128] Palmerston died in 1865, and after a brief ministry led by Russell, Derby returned to power. In 1866, Victoria attended the State Opening of Parliament for the first time since Albert's death.[129] The following year she supported the passing of the Reform Act 1867 which doubled the electorate by extending the franchise to many urban working men,[130] though she was not in favour of votes for women.[131] Derby resigned in 1868, to be replaced by Benjamin Disraeli, who charmed Victoria. "Everyone likes flattery," he said, "and when you come to royalty you should lay it on with a trowel."[132] With the phrase "we authors, Ma'am", he complimented her.[133] Disraeli's ministry only lasted a matter of months, and at the end of the year his Liberal rival, William Ewart Gladstone, was appointed prime minister. Victoria found Gladstone's demeanour far less appealing; he spoke to her, she is thought to have complained, as though she were "a public meeting rather than a woman".[134] In 1870 republican sentiment in Britain, fed by the Queen's seclusion, was boosted after the establishment of the Third French Republic.[135] A republican rally in Trafalgar Square demanded Victoria's removal, and Radical MPs spoke against her.[136] In August and September 1871, she was seriously ill with an abscess in her arm, which Joseph Lister successfully lanced and treated with his new antiseptic carbolic acid spray.[137] In late November 1871, at the height of the republican movement, the Prince of Wales contracted typhoid fever, the disease that was believed to have killed his father, and Victoria was fearful her son would die.[138] As the tenth anniversary of her husband's death approached, her son's condition grew no better, and Victoria's distress continued.[139] To general rejoicing, he recovered.[140] Mother and son attended a public parade through London and a grand service of thanksgiving in St Paul's Cathedral on 27 February 1872, and republican feeling subsided.[141] On the last day of February 1872, two days after the thanksgiving service, 17-year-old Arthur O'Connor, a great-nephew of Irish MP Feargus O'Connor, waved an unloaded pistol at Victoria's open carriage just after she had arrived at Buckingham Palace. Brown, who was attending the Queen, grabbed him and O'Connor was later sentenced to 12 months' imprisonment,[142] and a birching.[143] As a result of the incident, Victoria's popularity recovered further.[144] Empress of India Wikisource has original text related to this article: Queen Victoria's Proclamation After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the British East India Company, which had ruled much of India, was dissolved, and Britain's possessions and protectorates on the Indian subcontinent were formally incorporated into the British Empire. The Queen had a relatively balanced view of the conflict, and condemned atrocities on both sides.[145] She wrote of "her feelings of horror and regret at the result of this bloody civil war",[146] and insisted, urged on by Albert, that an official proclamation announcing the transfer of power from the company to the state "should breathe feelings of generosity, benevolence and religious toleration".[147] At her behest, a reference threatening the "undermining of native religions and customs" was replaced by a passage guaranteeing religious freedom.[147] Victoria admired Heinrich von Angeli's 1875 portrait of her for its "honesty, total want of flattery, and appreciation of character".[148] In the 1874 general election, Disraeli was returned to power. He passed the Public Worship Regulation Act 1874, which removed Catholic rituals from the Anglican liturgy and which Victoria strongly supported.[149] She preferred short, simple services, and personally considered herself more aligned with the presbyterian Church of Scotland than the episcopal Church of England.[150] Disraeli also pushed the Royal Titles Act 1876 through Parliament, so that Victoria took the title "Empress of India" from 1 May 1876.[151] The new title was proclaimed at the Delhi Durbar of 1 January 1877.[152] On 14 December 1878, the anniversary of Albert's death, Victoria's second daughter Alice, who had married Louis of Hesse, died of diphtheria in Darmstadt. Victoria noted the coincidence of the dates as "almost incredible and most mysterious".[153] In May 1879, she became a great-grandmother (on the birth of Princess Feodora of Saxe-Meiningen) and passed her "poor old 60th birthday". She felt "aged" by "the loss of my beloved child".[154] Between April 1877 and February 1878, she threatened five times to abdicate while pressuring Disraeli to act against Russia during the Russo-Turkish War, but her threats had no impact on the events or their conclusion with the Congress of Berlin.[155] Disraeli's expansionist foreign policy, which Victoria endorsed, led to conflicts such as the Anglo-Zulu War and the Second Anglo-Afghan War. "If we are to maintain our position as a first-rate Power", she wrote, "we must ... be Prepared for attacks and wars, somewhere or other, CONTINUALLY."[156] Victoria saw the expansion of the British Empire as civilising and benign, protecting native peoples from more aggressive powers or cruel rulers: "It is not in our custom to annexe countries", she said, "unless we are obliged & forced to do so."[157] To Victoria's dismay, Disraeli lost the 1880 general election, and Gladstone returned as prime minister.[158] When Disraeli died the following year, she was blinded by "fast falling tears",[159] and erected a memorial tablet "placed by his grateful Sovereign and Friend, Victoria R.I."[160] Later years Victorian farthing, 1884 On 2 March 1882, Roderick Maclean, a disgruntled poet apparently offended by Victoria's refusal to accept one of his poems,[161] shot at the Queen as her carriage left Windsor railway station. Two schoolboys from Eton College struck him with their umbrellas, until he was hustled away by a policeman.[162] Victoria was outraged when he was found not guilty by reason of insanity,[163] but was so pleased by the many expressions of loyalty after the attack that she said it was "worth being shot at—to see how much one is loved".[164] On 17 March 1883, she fell down some stairs at Windsor, which left her lame until July; she never fully recovered and was plagued with rheumatism thereafter.[165] Brown died 10 days after her accident, and to the consternation of her private secretary, Sir Henry Ponsonby, Victoria began work on a eulogistic biography of Brown.[166] Ponsonby and Randall Davidson, Dean of Windsor, who had both seen early drafts, advised Victoria against publication, on the grounds that it would stoke the rumours of a love affair.[167] The manuscript was destroyed.[168] In early 1884, Victoria did publish More Leaves from a Journal of a Life in the Highlands, a sequel to her earlier book, which she dedicated to her "devoted personal attendant and faithful friend John Brown".[169] On the day after the first anniversary of Brown's death, Victoria was informed by telegram that her youngest son, Leopold, had died in Cannes. He was "the dearest of my dear sons", she lamented.[170] The following month, Victoria's youngest child, Beatrice, met and fell in love with Prince Henry of Battenberg at the wedding of Victoria's granddaughter Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine to Henry's brother Prince Louis of Battenberg. Beatrice and Henry planned to marry, but Victoria opposed the match at first, wishing to keep Beatrice at home to act as her companion. After a year, she was won around to the marriage by Henry and Beatrice's promise to remain living with and attending her.[171] Extent of the British Empire in 1898 Victoria was pleased when Gladstone resigned in 1885 after his budget was defeated.[172] She thought his government was "the worst I have ever had", and blamed him for the death of General Gordon at Khartoum.[173] Gladstone was replaced by Lord Salisbury. Salisbury's government only lasted a few months, however, and Victoria was forced to recall Gladstone, whom she referred to as a "half crazy & really in many ways ridiculous old man".[174] Gladstone attempted to pass a bill granting Ireland home rule, but to Victoria's glee it was defeated.[175] In the ensuing election, Gladstone's party lost to Salisbury's and the government switched hands again. Golden Jubilee Main article: Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria The Munshi stands over Victoria as she works at a desk Victoria and the Munshi Abdul Karim In 1887, the British Empire celebrated Victoria's Golden Jubilee. Victoria marked the fiftieth anniversary of her accession on 20 June with a banquet to which 50 kings and princes were invited. The following day, she participated in a procession and attended a thanksgiving service in Westminster Abbey.[176] By this time, Victoria was once again extremely popular.[177] Two days later on 23 June,[178] she engaged two Indian Muslims as waiters, one of whom was Abdul Karim. He was soon promoted to "Munshi": teaching her Urdu (known as Hindustani) and acting as a clerk.[179][180][181] Her family and retainers were appalled, and accused Abdul Karim of spying for the Muslim Patriotic League, and biasing the Queen against the Hindus.[182] Equerry Frederick Ponsonby (the son of Sir Henry) discovered that the Munshi had lied about his parentage, and reported to Lord Elgin, Viceroy of India, "the Munshi occupies very much the same position as John Brown used to do."[183] Victoria dismissed their complaints as racial prejudice.[184] Abdul Karim remained in her service until he returned to India with a pension, on her death.[185] Victoria's eldest daughter became Empress consort of Germany in 1888, but she was widowed within the year, and Victoria's grandchild Wilhelm became German Emperor as Wilhelm II. Under Wilhelm, Victoria and Albert's hopes of a liberal Germany were not fulfilled. He believed in autocracy. Victoria thought he had "little heart or Zartgefühl [tact] – and ... his conscience & intelligence have been completely wharped [sic]".[186] Gladstone returned to power after the 1892 general election; he was 82 years old. Victoria objected when Gladstone proposed appointing the Radical MP Henry Labouchère to the Cabinet, so Gladstone agreed not to appoint him.[187] In 1894, Gladstone retired and, without consulting the outgoing prime minister, Victoria appointed Lord Rosebery as prime minister.[188] His government was weak, and the following year Lord Salisbury replaced him. Salisbury remained prime minister for the remainder of Victoria's reign.[189] Diamond Jubilee Seated Victoria in embroidered and lace dress Victoria in her official Diamond Jubilee photograph by W. & D. Downey On 23 September 1896, Victoria surpassed her grandfather George III as the longest-reigning monarch in British history. The Queen requested that any special celebrations be delayed until 1897, to coincide with her Diamond Jubilee,[190] which was made a festival of the British Empire at the suggestion of the Colonial Secretary, Joseph Chamberlain.[191] The prime ministers of all the self-governing Dominions were invited to London for the festivities.[192] One reason for including the prime ministers of the Dominions and excluding foreign heads of state was to avoid having to invite Victoria's grandson, Wilhelm II of Germany, who, it was feared, might cause trouble at the event.[193] The Queen's Diamond Jubilee procession on 22 June 1897 followed a route six miles long through London and included troops from all over the empire. The procession paused for an open-air service of thanksgiving held outside St Paul's Cathedral, throughout which Victoria sat in her open carriage, to avoid her having to climb the steps to enter the building. The celebration was marked by vast crowds of spectators and great outpourings of affection for the 78-year-old Queen.[194] File:Queen Victoria In Dublin (Rare archive footage from 1900).webmPlay media Queen Victoria in Dublin, 1900 Victoria visited mainland Europe regularly for holidays. In 1889, during a stay in Biarritz, she became the first reigning monarch from Britain to set foot in Spain when she crossed the border for a brief visit.[195] By April 1900, the Boer War was so unpopular in mainland Europe that her annual trip to France seemed inadvisable. Instead, the Queen went to Ireland for the first time since 1861, in part to acknowledge the contribution of Irish regiments to the South African war.[196] Death and succession Queen Victoria aged 80, 1899 In July 1900, Victoria's second son Alfred ("Affie") died. "Oh, God! My poor darling Affie gone too", she wrote in her journal. "It is a horrible year, nothing but sadness & horrors of one kind & another."[197] Following a custom she maintained throughout her widowhood, Victoria spent the Christmas of 1900 at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight. Rheumatism in her legs had rendered her lame, and her eyesight was clouded by cataracts.[198] Through early January, she felt "weak and unwell",[199] and by mid-January she was "drowsy ... dazed, [and] confused".[200] She died on Tuesday 22 January 1901, at half past six in the evening, at the age of 81.[201] Her son and successor, King Edward VII, and her eldest grandson, Emperor Wilhelm II, were at her deathbed.[202] Her favourite pet Pomeranian, Turi, was laid upon her deathbed as a last request.[203] Poster proclaiming a day of mourning in Toronto on the day of Victoria's funeral In 1897, Victoria had written instructions for her funeral, which was to be military as befitting a soldier's daughter and the head of the army,[98] and white instead of black.[204] On 25 January, Edward, Wilhelm and Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught, helped lift her body into the coffin.[205] She was dressed in a white dress and her wedding veil.[206] An array of mementos commemorating her extended family, friends and servants were laid in the coffin with her, at her request, by her doctor and dressers. One of Albert's dressing gowns was placed by her side, with a plaster cast of his hand, while a lock of John Brown's hair, along with a picture of him, was placed in her left hand concealed from the view of the family by a carefully positioned bunch of flowers.[98][207] Items of jewellery placed on Victoria included the wedding ring of John Brown's mother, given to her by Brown in 1883.[98] Her funeral was held on Saturday 2 February, in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, and after two days of lying-in-state, she was interred beside Prince Albert in Frogmore Mausoleum at Windsor Great Park.[208] With a reign of 63 years, seven months and two days, Victoria was the longest-reigning British monarch and the longest-reigning queen regnant in world history until her great-great-granddaughter Elizabeth II surpassed her on 9 September 2015.[209] She was the last monarch of Britain from the House of Hanover. Her son and successor Edward VII belonged to her husband's House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Legacy See also: Cultural depictions of Queen Victoria Victoria smiling Victoria amused. The remark "We are not amused" is attributed to her but there is no direct evidence that she ever said it,[98][210] and she denied doing so.[211] According to one of her biographers, Giles St Aubyn, Victoria wrote an average of 2,500 words a day during her adult life.[212] From July 1832 until just before her death, she kept a detailed journal, which eventually encompassed 122 volumes.[213] After Victoria's death, her youngest daughter, Princess Beatrice, was appointed her literary executor. Beatrice transcribed and edited the diaries covering Victoria's accession onwards, and burned the originals in the process.[214] Despite this destruction, much of the diaries still exist. In addition to Beatrice's edited copy, Lord Esher transcribed the volumes from 1832 to 1861 before Beatrice destroyed them.[215] Part of Victoria's extensive correspondence has been published in volumes edited by A. C. Benson, Hector Bolitho, George Earle Buckle, Lord Esher, Roger Fulford, and Richard Hough among others.[216] Victoria was physically unprepossessing—she was stout, dowdy and only about five feet tall—but she succeeded in projecting a grand image.[217] She experienced unpopularity during the first years of her widowhood, but was well liked during the 1880s and 1890s, when she embodied the empire as a benevolent matriarchal figure.[218] Only after the release of her diary and letters did the extent of her political influence become known to the wider public.[98][219] Biographies of Victoria written before much of the primary material became available, such as Lytton Strachey's Queen Victoria of 1921, are now considered out of date.[220] The biographies written by Elizabeth Longford and Cecil Woodham-Smith, in 1964 and 1972 respectively, are still widely admired.[221] They, and others, conclude that as a person Victoria was emotional, obstinate, honest, and straight-talking.[222] Contrary to popular belief, her staff and family recorded that Victoria "was immensely amused and roared with laughter" on many occasions.[223] Through Victoria's reign, the gradual establishment of a modern constitutional monarchy in Britain continued. Reforms of the voting system increased the power of the House of Commons at the expense of the House of Lords and the monarch.[224] In 1867, Walter Bagehot wrote that the monarch only retained "the right to be consulted, the right to encourage, and the right to warn".[225] As Victoria's monarchy became more symbolic than political, it placed a strong emphasis on morality and family values, in contrast to the sexual, financial and personal scandals that had been associated with previous members of the House of Hanover and which had discredited the monarchy. The concept of the "family monarchy", with which the burgeoning middle classes could identify, was solidified.[226] The Victoria Memorial in Kolkata, India Bronze statue of winged victory mounted on a marble four-sided base with a marble figure on each side The Victoria Memorial in front of Buckingham Palace was erected as part of the remodelling of the façade of the Palace a decade after her death. Descendants and haemophilia Victoria's links with Europe's royal families earned her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe".[227] Victoria and Albert had 42 grandchildren, of whom 34 survived to adulthood. Their living descendants include Elizabeth II; Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh; Harald V of Norway; Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden; Margrethe II of Denmark; and Felipe VI of Spain. Victoria's youngest son, Leopold, was affected by the blood-clotting disease haemophilia B and at least two of her five daughters, Alice and Beatrice, were carriers. Royal haemophiliacs descended from Victoria included her great-grandsons, Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia, Alfonso, Prince of Asturias, and Infante Gonzalo of Spain.[228] The presence of the disease in Victoria's descendants, but not in her ancestors, led to modern speculation that her true father was not the Duke of Kent, but a haemophiliac.[229] There is no documentary evidence of a haemophiliac in connection with Victoria's mother, and as male carriers always suffer the disease, even if such a man had existed he would have been seriously ill.[230] It is more likely that the mutation arose spontaneously because Victoria's father was over 50 at the time of her conception and haemophilia arises more frequently in the children of older fathers.[231] Spontaneous mutations account for about a third of cases.[232] Namesakes Around the world, places and memorials are dedicated to her, especially in the Commonwealth nations. Places named after her include Africa's largest lake, Victoria Falls, the capitals of British Columbia (Victoria) and Saskatchewan (Regina), and two Australian states (Victoria and Queensland). The Victoria Cross was introduced in 1856 to reward acts of valour during the Crimean War,[233] and it remains the highest British, Canadian, Australian, and New Zealand award for bravery. Victoria Day is a Canadian statutory holiday and a local public holiday in parts of Scotland celebrated on the last Monday before or on 24 May (Queen Victoria's birthday). Titles, styles, honours and arms Titles and styles 24 May 1819 – 20 June 1837: Her Royal Highness Princess Alexandrina Victoria of Kent 20 June 1837 – 22 January 1901: Her Majesty The Queen At the end of her reign, the Queen's full style and title were: "Her Majesty Victoria, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Queen, Defender of the Faith, Empress of India."[234] Honours Founder and Sovereign of the Order of the Star of India – 1861[235] Founder and Sovereign of the Royal Order of Victoria and Albert – 1861[236] Founder and Sovereign of the Order of the Crown of India – 1878[237] Founder and Sovereign of the Distinguished Service Order – 1886[238] Founder and Sovereign of the Royal Victorian Order – 1896[239] Arms As Sovereign, Victoria used the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom. Before her accession, she received no grant of arms. As she could not succeed to the throne of Hanover, her arms did not carry the Hanoverian symbols that were used by her immediate predecessors. Her arms have been borne by all of her successors on the throne. Outside Scotland, the blazon for the shield—also used on the Royal Standard—is: Quarterly: I and IV, Gules, three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England); II, Or, a lion rampant within a double tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); III, Azure, a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland). In Scotland, the first and fourth quarters are occupied by the Scottish lion, and the second by the English lions. The crests, mottoes, and supporters also differ in and outside Scotland.[240] Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom in Scotland (1837-1952).svg Royal arms (outside Scotland) Royal arms (in Scotland) Issue See also: Grandchildren of Victoria and Albert and Royal descendants of Queen Victoria and King Christian IX Name Birth Death Spouse and children[234][241] Victoria, Princess Royal 21 November 1840 5 August 1901 Married 1858, Frederick, later German Emperor and King of Prussia (1831–1888); 4 sons (including Wilhelm II, German Emperor), 4 daughters (including Queen Sophia of Greece) Edward VII of the United Kingdom 9 November 1841 6 May 1910 Married 1863, Princess Alexandra of Denmark (1844–1925); 3 sons (including King George V of the United Kingdom), 3 daughters (including Queen Maud of Norway) Princess Alice 25 April 1843 14 December 1878 Married 1862, Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine (1837–1892); 2 sons, 5 daughters (including Empress Alexandra of Russia) Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha 6 August 1844 31 July 1900 Married 1874, Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia (1853–1920); 2 sons (1 stillborn), 4 daughters (including Queen Marie of Romania) Princess Helena 25 May 1846 9 June 1923 Married 1866, Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein (1831–1917); 4 sons (1 stillborn), 2 daughters Princess Louise 18 March 1848 3 December 1939 Married 1871, John Campbell, Marquess of Lorne, later 9th Duke of Argyll (1845–1914); no issue Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn 1 May 1850 16 January 1942 Married 1879, Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia (1860–1917); 1 son, 2 daughters (including Crown Princess Margaret of Sweden) Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany 7 April 1853 28 March 1884 Married 1882, Princess Helena of Waldeck and Pyrmont (1861–1922); 1 son, 1 daughter Princess Beatrice 14 April 1857 26 October 1944 Married 1885, Prince Henry of Battenberg (1858–1896); 3 sons, 1 daughter (Queen Victoria Eugenie of Spain) Queen Victoria House of Hanover Cadet branch of the House of Welf Born: 24 May 1819 Died: 22 January 1901 Regnal titles Preceded by William IV Queen of the United Kingdom 20 June 1837 – 22 January 1901 Succeeded by Edward VII Vacant Title last held by Bahadur Shah II as Mughal emperor Empress of India 1 May 1876 – 22 January 1901 vte Queen Victoria Events Coronation Honours Hackpen White Horse Wedding Wedding dress Golden Jubilee Honours Medal Police Medal Clock Tower, Weymouth Clock Tower, Brighton Bust Diamond Jubilee Honours Medal Reign Bedchamber Crisis Prime Ministers Edward Oxford Empress of India Victorian era Victorian morality Visits to Manchester Foreign visits Funeral Mausoleum Family Albert, Prince Consort (husband) Victoria, Princess Royal (daughter) Edward VII (son) Princess Alice of the United Kingdom (daughter) Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (son) Princess Helena of the United Kingdom (daughter) Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll (daughter) Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (son) Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany (son) Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom (daughter) Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (father) Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (mother) Grandchildren Royal descendants Princess Feodora of Leiningen (half-sister) Carl, 3rd Prince of Leiningen (half-brother) Early life Kensington System John Conroy Louise Lehzen Lady Flora Hastings Charlotte Percy George Davys Legitimacy Honours Places Empire Day Royal Family Order Victoria Day Victoria Day (Scotland) Victoria Cross Victoria (plant) Depictions Film Sixty Years a Queen (1913) Victoria the Great (1937) Sixty Glorious Years (1938) Mrs Brown (1997) The Young Victoria (2009) Victoria & Abdul (2017) The Black Prince (2017) Television Happy and Glorious (1952) The Young Victoria (1963) Victoria & Albert (2001) Looking for Victoria (2003) Royal Upstairs Downstairs (2011) Victoria (2016–) Stage Victoria and Merrie England (1897) Victoria Regina (1934) I and Albert (1972) Statues and Memorials List of statues Victoria Memorial, London Leeds St Helens Winnipeg Lancaster Penang Bristol Weymouth Chester Sydney Building Square Bangalore Hong Kong Reading Montreal Square Kolkata Victoria, British Columbia Liverpool Adelaide Birmingham London Christchurch Toronto Brisbane Melbourne Queen Victoria Pavilion Guernsey Isle of Man Valletta Birkenhead Regina Dundee Balmoral cairns Poetry "The Widow at Windsor" (1892) "Recessional" (1897) Songs Victoria Choral Songs Stamps Penny stamps Penny Black VR official Penny Blue Penny Lilac Penny Red Penny Venetian Red Two penny blue Others Lilac and Green Embossed stamps Chalon head Canada 12d black Canada 2c Large Queen Dull Rose Three Halfpence Red Halfpenny Rose Red Halfpenny Yellow Inverted Head 4 Annas Jubilee Issue Related Osborne House Queen Victoria's journals John Brown Abdul Karim Pets Dash Diamond Crown vte English, Scottish and British monarchs Monarchs of England until 1603 Monarchs of Scotland until 1603 Alfred the Great Edward the Elder Ælfweard Æthelstan Edmund I Eadred Eadwig Edgar the Peaceful Edward the Martyr Æthelred the Unready Sweyn Edmund II Cnut Harold I Harthacnut Edward the Confessor Harold II Edgar Ætheling William I William II Henry I Stephen Matilda Henry II Henry the Young King Richard I John Henry III Edward I Edward II Edward III Richard II Henry IV Henry V Henry VI Edward IV Edward V Richard III Henry VII Henry VIII Edward VI Jane Mary I and Philip Elizabeth I Kenneth I MacAlpin Donald I Constantine I Áed Giric Eochaid Donald II Constantine II Malcolm I Indulf Dub Cuilén Amlaíb Kenneth II Constantine III Kenneth III Malcolm II Duncan I Macbeth Lulach Malcolm III Donald III Duncan II Donald III Edgar Alexander I David I Malcolm IV William I Alexander II Alexander III Margaret of Norway John Balliol Robert I David II Edward Balliol Robert II Robert III James I James II James III James IV James V Mary I James VI Monarchs of England and Scotland after the Union of the Crowns from 1603 James VI and I Charles I Charles II James II and VII William III and II and Mary II Anne British monarchs after the Acts of Union 1707 Anne George I George II George III George IV William IV Victoria Edward VII George V Edward VIII George VI Elizabeth II Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics. vte British princesses The generations indicate descent from George I, who formalised the use of the titles prince and princess for members of the British royal family. Where a princess may have been or is descended from George I more than once, her most senior descent, by which she bore or bears her title, is used. 1st generation Sophia Dorothea, Queen in Prussia 2nd generation Anne, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange Princess Amelia Princess Caroline Mary, Landgravine of Hesse-Kassel Louise, Queen of Denmark and Norway 3rd generation Duchess Augusta of Brunswick Princess Elizabeth Princess Louisa Caroline Matilda, Queen of Denmark and Norway 4th generation Charlotte, Princess Royal and Queen of Württemberg Princess Augusta Sophia Elizabeth, Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh Princess Sophia Princess Amelia Princess Sophia of Gloucester Princess Caroline of Gloucester 5th generation Princess Charlotte, Princess Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Princess Elizabeth of Clarence Queen Victoria Augusta, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz Princess Mary Adelaide, Duchess of Teck 6th generation Victoria, Princess Royal and German Empress Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine Princess Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll Princess Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg Princess Frederica, Baroness von Pawel-Rammingen Princess Marie of Hanover 7th generation Louise, Princess Royal and Duchess of Fife Princess Victoria Maud, Queen of Norway Marie, Queen of Romania Grand Duchess Victoria Feodorovna of Russia Princess Alexandra, Princess of Hohenlohe-Langenburg Princess Beatrice, Duchess of Galliera Margaret, Crown Princess of Sweden Princess Patricia, Lady Patricia Ramsay Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone Princess Marie Louise, Princess Maximilian of Baden Alexandra, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Princess Olga of Hanover 8th generation Mary, Princess Royal and Countess of Harewood Princess Alexandra, 2nd Duchess of Fife Princess Maud, Countess of Southesk Princess Sibylla, Duchess of Västerbotten Princess Caroline Mathilde of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Frederica, Queen of Greece 9th generation Queen Elizabeth II Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy 10th generation Anne, Princess Royal 11th generation Princess Beatrice of York Princess Eugenie of York Lady Louise Windsor1 12th generation Princess Charlotte of Cambridge 1 Status debatable; see her article. vte Hanoverian princesses by birth 1st generation Charlotte, Queen of Württemberg1 Princess Augusta Sophia1 Elizabeth, Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg1 Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh1 Princess Sophia1 Princess Amelia1 2nd generation Charlotte, Princess Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld1 Princess Charlotte of Clarence1 Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom1 Princess Elizabeth of Clarence1 Augusta, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz1 Princess Mary Adelaide, Duchess of Teck1 3rd generation Princess Frederica, Baroness von Pawel-Rammingen1 Princess Marie1 4th generation Marie Louise, Princess Maximilian of Baden1 Alexandra, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin1 Princess Olga1 5th generation Frederica, Queen of the Hellenes1 6th generation Princess Marie, Countess of Hochberg Princess Friederike, Mrs. Jerry Cyr Princess Olga Alexandra, Princess of Leiningen Princess Caroline-Louise Princess Mireille 7th generation Princess Saskia, Mrs. Edward Hooper Princess Vera, Mrs. Manuel Dmoch Princess Nora, Mrs. Christian Falk Princess Alexandra Princess Eugenia 8th generation Princess Elisabeth stablishments – Disestablishments Works category Works 1887 Millennium: 2nd millennium Centuries: 18th century 19th century 20th century Decades: 1860s 1870s 1880s 1890s 1900s Years: 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1887 in topic Humanities Archaeology – Architecture – Art Literature – Music By country Australia – Belgium – Brazil – Canada – Denmark – France – Germany – Mexico – New Zealand – Norway – Philippines – Portugal – Russia – South Africa – Spain – Sweden – United Kingdom – United States – Venezuela Other topics Rail transport – Science – Sports Lists of leaders Sovereign states – State leaders – Territorial governors – Religious leaders Birth and death categories Births – Deaths Establishments and disestablishments categories Establishments – Disestablishments Works category Works vte 1887 in various calendarsGregorian calendar 1887 MDCCCLXXXVII Ab urbe condita 2640 Armenian calendar 1336 ԹՎ ՌՅԼԶ Assyrian calendar 6637 Bahá'í calendar 43–44 Balinese saka calendar 1808–1809 Bengali calendar 1294 Berber calendar 2837 British Regnal year 50 Vict. 1 – 51 Vict. 1 Buddhist calendar 2431 Burmese calendar 1249 Byzantine calendar 7395–7396 Chinese calendar 丙戌年 (Fire Dog) 4583 or 4523 — to — 丁亥年 (Fire Pig) 4584 or 4524 Coptic calendar 1603–1604 Discordian calendar 3053 Ethiopian calendar 1879–1880 Hebrew calendar 5647–5648 Hindu calendars - Vikram Samvat 1943–1944 - Shaka Samvat 1808–1809 - Kali Yuga 4987–4988 Holocene calendar 11887 Igbo calendar 887–888 Iranian calendar 1265–1266 Islamic calendar 1304–1305 Japanese calendar Meiji 20 (明治20年) Javanese calendar 1816–1817 Julian calendar Gregorian minus 12 days Korean calendar 4220 Minguo calendar 25 before ROC 民前25年 Nanakshahi calendar 419 Thai solar calendar 2429–2430 Tibetan calendar 阳火狗年 (male Fire-Dog) 2013 or 1632 or 860 — to — 阴火猪年 (female Fire-Pig) 2014 or 1633 or 861 Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1887. 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1887th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 887th year of the 2nd millennium, the 87th year of the 19th century, and the 8th year of the 1880s decade. As of the start of 1887, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. Contents 1 Events 2 Births 3 Deaths 4 References Events January–March January 6: Menelik II January 11 – Louis Pasteur's anti-rabies treatment is defended in the Académie Nationale de Médecine, by Dr. Joseph Grancher. January 20 – The United States Senate allows the Navy to lease Pearl Harbor as a naval base. January 21 The Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) is formed in the United States. Brisbane receives a one-day rainfall of 465 millimetres (18.3 in) (a record for any Australian capital city). January 24 – Battle of Dogali: Abyssinian troops defeat the Italians. January 28 In a snowstorm at Fort Keogh, Montana, the largest snowflakes on record are reported. They are 15 inches (38 cm) wide and 8 inches (20 cm) thick. Construction on the foundation of the Eiffel Tower starts in Paris, France. February 2 – The first Groundhog Day is observed in Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania. February 4 – The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887, passed by the 49th United States Congress, is signed into law by President Grover Cleveland. February 5 – The Giuseppe Verdi opera Otello premieres at La Scala. February 8 – The Dawes Act, or the General Allotment Act, is enacted. February 23 – The French Riviera is hit by a large earthquake, killing around 2,000 along the coast of the Mediterranean. February 26 – At the Sydney Cricket Ground, George Lohmann becomes the first bowler to take eight wickets, in a Test innings. March 3 – Anne Sullivan begins teaching Helen Keller. March 3: Helen Keller and Sullivan. March 4 – Gottlieb Daimler unveils his first automobile. March 4: Daimler March 7 – North Carolina State University is established, as North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. March 13 – Chester Greenwood patents earmuffs. April–June April 1 – The Mumbai Fire Brigade is established in India. April 4 – Argonia, Kansas elects Susanna M. Salter, as the first female mayor in the United States. April 9 – The Charter of Incorporation is approved for The Teutonia Maennerchor Hall, in the East Allegheny (Deutschtown) neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. April 10 – The Catholic University of America is founded on Easter Sunday, in Washington, DC. April 20 – Occidental College is founded in Los Angeles, California. April 21 – Schnaebele incident: A French/German border incident nearly leads to war between the two countries. May 3 – An earthquake hits Sonora, Mexico. May 9 – Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show opens in London. May 14 – The cornerstone of the new Stanford University, in northern California, is laid (the college opens in 1891). May 27 – 34 Chinese goldminers were ambushed and murdered in Hells Canyon, Oregon in an event now known as the Hells Canyon massacre. June 8 – Herman Hollerith receives a patent for his punched card calculator. June 18 – The Reinsurance Treaty is closed, between Germany and Russia. June 21 The British Empire celebrates Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee, marking the 50th year of her reign.[1] Zululand becomes a British colony. June 23 – The Rocky Mountains Park Act becomes law in Canada, creating that nation's first national park, Banff National Park.[2] June 28 – Minot, North Dakota is incorporated as a city. June 23: Banff National Park June 29 – The United Retail Federation is established in Brisbane, Australia. July–September July – James Blyth operates the first working wind turbine at Marykirk, Scotland.[3][4] July 1 – Construction of the iron structure of the Eiffel Tower starts in Paris, France. July 6 – King Kalākaua of Hawai'i is forced by anti-monarchists to sign the 'Bayonet Constitution', stripping the Hawaiian monarchy of much of its authority, as well as disenfranchising most native Hawaiians, all Asians and the poor. July 12 – Odense Boldklub, the Danish football team, is founded as the Odense Cricket Club. July 19 – Dorr Eugene Felt receives the first U.S. patent for his comptometer.[5] July 26 L. L. Zamenhof publishes "Unua Libro" (Dr. Esperanto's International Language), the first description of Esperanto, the constructed international auxiliary language. Blackpool F.C. is created in England, UK. August – The earliest constituent of the U.S. National Institutes of Health is established at the Marine Hospital, Staten Island, as the Laboratory of Hygiene. August 8 – Antonio Guzmán Blanco ends his term as President of Venezuela. August 13 – Hibernian F.C. of Scotland defeats Preston North End F.C. of England to win the Championship of the World, after the two teams win the Association football Cup competitions in their respective countries. September 5 – The Theatre Royal, Exeter, England, burns down, killing 186 people. September 28 – The 1887 Yellow River flood begins in China, killing 900,000 to 2,000,000 people. July 26: Esperanto October–December October 1 – The British Empire takes over Balochistan. October 3 – Florida A&M University opens its doors in Tallahassee, Florida. November Results of the Michelson–Morley experiment are published, indicating that the speed of light is independent of motion. Arthur Conan Doyle's detective character Sherlock Holmes makes his first appearance, in the novel A Study in Scarlet, published in Beeton's Christmas Annual. November 3 – The Coimbra Academic Association, the students' union of the University of Coimbra in Portugal, is founded. November 6 – The Association football club Celtic F.C. is formed in Glasgow, Scotland, by Irish Marist Brother Walfrid, to help alleviate poverty in the city's East End by raising money for his charity, the Poor Children's Dinner Table.[6][7] November 8 – Emile Berliner is granted a patent for his Gramophone. November 10 – Louis Lingg, sentenced to be hanged for his alleged role in the Haymarket affair (a bombing in Chicago on May 4, 1886), kills himself by dynamite. November 11 – August Spies, Albert Parsons, Adolph Fischer and George Engel are hanged for inciting riot and murder, in the Haymarket affair. November 13 – Bloody Sunday: Police in London clash with radical and Irish nationalist protesters. November: Michelson-Morley. December 5 – The International Bureau of Intellectual Property is established. December 25 – Glenfiddich single malt Scotch whisky is first produced. Date unknown Franz König publishes "Über freie Körper in den Gelenken" in the medical journal Deutsche Zeitschrift für Chirurgie, describing (and naming) the disease Osteochondritis dissecans for the first time. Teachers College, later part of Columbia University, is founded. The first All-Ireland Hurling and Football Finals are held. Heinrich Hertz discovers the photoelectric effect on the production and reception of electromagnetic (EM) waves (radio); this is an important step towards the understanding of the quantum nature of light. A. G. Edwards, Inc., is founded by General Albert Gallatin Edwards. Heyl & Patterson Inc., a pioneer in coal unloading equipment, is founded by Edmund W. Heyl and William J. Patterson. Laos and Cambodia are added to French Indochina. The first English-language edition of Friedrich Engels' 1844 study of The Condition of the Working Class in England, translated by Florence Kelley, is published in New York City. Publication in Barcelona of Enrique Gaspar's El anacronópete, the first work of fiction to feature a time machine.[8] Publication begins of Futabatei Shimei's Ukigumo, the first modern novel in Japan. The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn is founded. Births January–March August Macke Miklós Kállay Arthur Rubinstein Masaichi Niimi Edelmiro Julián Farrell Joseph Bech Chico Marx January 1 Wilhelm Canaris, head of German military intelligence in World War II (d. 1945) Max Ritter von Müller, German World War I fighter ace (d. 1918) January 3 – August Macke, German painter (d. 1914) January 10 – Robinson Jeffers, American poet (d. 1962) January 13 – Jorge Chávez, pioneer Peruvian aviator (d. 1910) January 17 – Ola Raknes, Norwegian psychoanalyst, philologist (d. 1975) January 19 – Alexander Woollcott, American intellectual (d. 1943) January 21 – Maude Davis, oldest person in the World (d. 2002) January 22 Helen Hoyt, American poet (d. 1972) Elmer Fowler Stone, American aviator, first United States Coast Guard aviator (d. 1936) January 23 Miklós Kállay, 34th Prime Minister of Hungary (d. 1967) Dorothy Payne Whitney, American-born philanthropist, social activist (d. 1968) January 28 – Arthur Rubinstein, Polish-born pianist, conductor (d. 1982) February 1 – Charles Nordhoff, English-born author (d. 1947) February 3 – Georg Trakl, Austrian poet (d. 1914) February 4 Masaichi Niimi, Imperial Japanese Navy admiral during World War II (d. 1993) Sheila Kaye-Smith, English writer (d. 1955) February 6 – Josef Frings, Archbishop of Cologne (d. 1978) February 10 – John Franklin Enders, American scientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1985) February 11 Ernst Hanfstaengl, German-born pianist, U.S. politician (d. 1975) H. Kent Hewitt, American admiral (d. 1972) John van Melle, Dutch-born writer (d. 1953) February 12 – Edelmiro Julián Farrell, Argentine general, 28th President of Argentina (d. 1980) February 17 Joseph Bech, Luxembourgish politician, 2-time Prime Minister of Luxembourg (d. 1975) Leevi Madetoja, Finnish composer (d. 1947) February 20 Carl Ebert, German theatre, opera director (d. 1980) Vincent Massey, Governor General of Canada (d. 1967) February 26 Grover Cleveland Alexander, American baseball player (d. 1950) William Frawley, American actor (d. 1966) March 3 – Lincoln Beachey, American stunt pilot (d. 1915) March 4 – Violet MacMillan, American Broadway theatre actress (d. 1953) March 5 – Heitor Villa-Lobos, Brazilian composer (d. 1959) March 9 – Phil Mead, English cricketer (d. 1958) March 11 – Raoul Walsh, American film director (d. 1980) March 13 – Alexander Vandegrift, American general (d. 1973) March 14 Sylvia Beach, American publisher in Paris (d. 1952) Charles Reisner, American silent actor, film director (d. 1962) March 22 – Chico Marx, American comedian, actor (d. 1961) March 23 Juan Gris, Spanish-born painter, graphic artist (d. 1927) Prince Felix Yusupov, Russian assassin of Rasputin (d. 1967) March 24 – Roscoe Arbuckle, American actor, comedian, film director, and screenwriter (d. 1933) March 25 – Chūichi Nagumo, Japanese admiral (d. 1944) April–June Julian Huxley Marc Chagall Gustav Ludwig Hertz Erwin Schrödinger Harry Hooper Alf Landon Giovanni Gronchi Theodore Roosevelt Jr. Le Corbusier Chiang Kai-shek Georgia O'Keeffe Bernard Montgomery Boris Karloff Prince Naruhiko Higashikuni Adone Zoli April 2 – Louise Schroeder, German politician (d. 1957) April 3 – Nishizō Tsukahara, Japanese admiral (d. 1966) April 10 – Bernardo Houssay, Argentine physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1971) April 12 – Harold Lockwood, American film actor (d.1918) April 15 – Mike Brady, American golfer (d. 1972) April 26 – Kojo Tovalou Houénou, prominent African critic of the French colonial empire in Africa (d. 1936) May 2 Vernon Castle, British dancer (d. 1918) Eddie Collins, American baseball player (d. 1951) May 5 – Geoffrey Fisher, Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1972) May 10 – Mir Ghotbeddin Mohammad Angha, 40th master of the Oveyssi Sufi Order (d. 1962) May 11 – Paul Wittgenstein, Austrian-born pianist (d. 1951) May 15 – John H. Hoover, American admiral (d. 1970) May 16 – Laura Wheeler Waring, African-America painter (d. 148) May 22 Arthur Cravan, born Fabian Avenarius Lloyd, Swiss-born Dadaist writer, poet, artist and boxer (disappeared 1918) Jim Thorpe, American athlete (d. 1953) May 25 – Pio of Pietrelcina, Italian saint (d. 1968) May 26 – Paul Lukas, Hungarian-born actor (d. 1971) May 31 – Saint-John Perse, French diplomat, writer and Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1975) June 2 – Orrick Johns, American poet, playwright (d. 1946) June 3 – Carlo Michelstaedter, Italian philosopher (d. 1910) June 5 – Ruth Benedict, American anthropologist (d. 1948) June 9 – Emilio Mola, Spanish Nationalist commander (d. 1937) June 13 – André François-Poncet, French politician, diplomat (d. 1978) June 22 Julian Huxley, British biologist (d. 1975) Santiago Amat, Spanish sailor (d. 1982) June 25 – George Abbott, American playwright (d. 1995) June 26 – Ganna Walska, Polish opera singer (d. 1984) June 29 – Geertje Roelinga-de Groot, Dutch supercentenarian (d. 1997) July–September July 1 Maria Isidia da Conceição, Brazilian supercentenarian Morton Deyo, American admiral (d. 1973) July 3 – Elith Pio, Danish actor (d. 1983) July 6 Marc Chagall, Russian-born painter (d. 1985) Annette Kellermann, Australian professional swimmer, vaudeville star, film actress, writer and business owner (d. 1975) July 7 – Raymond Hatton, American actor (d. 1971) July 9 – Samuel Eliot Morison, American historian (d. 1976) July 16 – Shoeless Joe Jackson, American baseball player (d. 1951) July 18 – Vidkun Quisling, Norwegian politician, traitor (d. 1945) July 22 – Gustav Ludwig Hertz, German physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1975) July 28 – Marcel Duchamp, French-born artist (d. 1968) July 29 – Sigmund Romberg, Hungarian-born composer (d. 1951) July 31 – Mitsuru Ushijima, Japanese general (d. 1945) August 3 – Rupert Brooke, British war poet (d. 1915) August 4 – Peter Bocage, American jazz musician (d. 1967) August 6 – Oliver Wallace, English-born film composer (d. 1963) August 12 – Erwin Schrödinger, Austrian physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1961) August 13 – Julius Freed, American inventor, banker (d. 1952) August 15 – Edna Ferber, American novelist (d. 1968); other sources give her year of birth as 1885 August 17 Emperor Charles I of Austria (d. 1922) Marcus Garvey, African American publisher, entrepreneur and Pan Africanist (d. 1940) August 22 – Walter Citrine, 1st Baron Citrine, British trade unionist (d. 1983) August 24 – Harry Hooper, American baseball player (d. 1974) August 27 – Julia Sanderson, American actress (d. 1975) August 28 – István Kühár, Prekmurje Slovene writer, politician (d. 1922) September 1 – Blaise Cendrars, Swiss writer (d. 1961) September 3 – Frank Christian, American jazz musician (d. 1973) September 5 – Irene Fenwick, American actress (d. 1936) September 8 – Jacob L. Devers, American general (d. 1979) September 9 – Alf Landon, American Republican politician, presidential candidate (d. 1987) September 10 – Giovanni Gronchi, 3rd President of Italy (d. 1978) September 12 – Yusif Vazir Chamanzaminli, Azerbaijani statesman, writer and claimed "core author" of novel Ali and Nino (d. in Gulag 1943) September 13 Lancelot Holland, British admiral (d. 1941) Leopold Ružička, Croatian chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1976) Theodore Roosevelt Jr., American political, business leader (d. 1944) September 16 George Roby Dempster, American businessman, inventor and politician (d. 1964) Nadia Boulanger, French composer and composition teacher (d. 1979) September 26 Edwin Keppel Bennett, British writer (d. 1958) William Barnard Rhodes-Moorhouse, British aviator, first airman to receive the Victoria Cross (d. 1915) September 28 – Avery Brundage, American sports official (d. 1975) October–December October 2 – Violet Jessop, Argentine-born British RMS Titanic survivor (d. 1971) October 4 – Charles Alan Pownall, American admiral, 3rd Military Governor of Guam (d. 1975) October 5 – René Cassin, French judge, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1976) October 6 – Le Corbusier, Swiss architect (d. 1965) October 8 – Huntley Gordon, Canadian-born actor (d. 1956) October 13 – Jozef Tiso, Prime Minister of Slovakia (d. 1947) October 14 – Ernest Pingoud, Finnish composer (d. 1942) October 20 – Prince Yasuhiko Asaka, Japanese prince (d. 1981) October 22 – John Reed, American journalist (d. 1920) October 24 – Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg, Queen Consort of Spain (d. 1969) October 28 – Herb Byrne, Australian rules footballer (d. 1959) October 31 – Chiang Kai-shek, 1st President of the Republic of China (d. 1975) November 1 – L. S. Lowry, English painter (d. 1976) November 6 – Walter Johnson, American baseball player (d. 1946) November 10 – Arnold Zweig, German writer (d. 1968) November 11 Walther Wever, German general, pre-World War II Luftwaffe commander (d. 1936) Roland Young, English actor (d. 1953) December 13 – Nikolai Vavilov, Russian and Soviet agronomist, botanist and geneticist (d. 1943) December 14 – Xul Solar, Argentine painter, sculptor, writer (d. 1963) November 15 – Georgia O'Keeffe, American painter (d. 1986) November 17 – Bernard Montgomery, British World War II commander (d. 1976) November 19 – James B. Sumner, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1955) November 23 Boris Karloff, British horror film actor (d. 1969) Henry Moseley, English physicist (d. 1915) November 24 – Erich von Manstein, German field marshal (d. 1973) November 27 – Masaharu Homma, Japanese general (d. 1946) November 28 Jacobo Palm, Curaçao-born composer (d. 1982) Ernst Röhm, German Nazi SA leader (d. 1934) November 30 – Beatrice Kerr, Australian swimmer, diver, and aquatic performer (d. 1971) December 3 – Prince Naruhiko Higashikuni, former Prime Minister of Japan (d. 1990) December 6 – Lynn Fontanne, British-born actress (d. 1983) December 12 – Kurt Atterberg, Swedish composer (d. 1974) December 13 – Alvin Cullum York, American World War I hero (d. 1964) December 16 – Adone Zoli, Italian politician, 35th Prime Minister of Italy (d. 1960) December 22 – Srinivasa Aaiyangar Ramanujan, Indian mathematician (d. 1920) December 25 – Conrad Hilton, American hotelier (d. 1979) December 26 – Arthur Percival, British general (d. 1966) Date Unknown Isabel Emslie Hutton, Scottish nurse in Serbia during World War I, psychiatrist (d. 1960) Alfred Naqqache, Lebanese politician, 11th Prime Minister, 4th President of Lebanon (d. 1978) White Parker, missionary and actor (d. 1956) Sami as-Solh, 5-time Prime Minister of Lebanon (d. 1968) Deaths January–June January 12 – Stafford Northcote, 1st Earl of Iddesleigh, British politician (b. 1818) February 19 – Eduard Douwes Dekker, Dutch writer (b. 1820) February 26 – Anandi Gopal Joshi, first Indian woman doctor (b. 1865) February 27 – Alexander Borodin, Russian composer (b. 1833) March 4 – Catherine Huggins, British actor, singer, director and manager (b. 1821) March 8 – Henry Ward Beecher, American clergyman, reformer (b. 1813) March 24 – Justin Holland, American musician, civil rights activist (b. 1819) Ivan Kramskoi, Russian painter (b. 1837) March 28 – Ditlev Gothard Monrad, Danish politician (b. 1811) April 10 – John T. Raymond, American actor (b. 1836) April 23 – John Ceiriog Hughes, Welsh poet (b. 1832) May 7 – C. F. W. Walther, German-American theologian (b. 1811) May 8 – Aleksandr Ulyanov, Russian revolutionary, brother of V. I. Lenin (b. 1866) May 14 – Lysander Spooner, American philosopher, abolitionist (b. 1808) June 4 – William A. Wheeler, 19th Vice President of the United States (b. 1819) June 10 – Richard Lindon, British inventor of the rugby ball, the India-rubber inflatable bladder and the brass hand pump for the same (b. 1816) July–December Gustav Kirchhoff July 8 – John Wright Oakes, English landscape painter (b. 1820) July 17 – Dorothea Dix, American social activist (b. 1802) July 25 – John Taylor, American religious leader (b. 1808) August 8 – Alexander William Doniphan, American lawyer, soldier (b. 1808) August 16 Webster Paulson, English civil engineer (b. 1837) Sir Julius von Haast, German-born New Zealand geologist (b. 1822) August 19 – Alvan Clark, American telescope manufacturer (b. 1804) August 20 – Jules Laforgue, French poet (b. 1860) October 17 – Gustav Kirchhoff, German physicist (b. 1824) October 21 – Bernard Jauréguiberry, French admiral, statesman (b. 1815) November 2 Jenny Lind, Swedish soprano (b. 1820) Alfred Domett, 4th Premier of New Zealand (b. 1811) November 8 – Doc Holliday, American gambler, gunfighter (b. 1851) November 19 – Emma Lazarus, American poet (b. 1859) November 28 – Gustav Fechner, German experimental psychologist (b. 1801) December 5 – Richard Lyons, 1st Viscount Lyons, British diplomat (b. 1817) December 14 – William Garrow Lettsom, British diplomat, mineralogist and spectroscopist (b. 1805) December 23 – Adolphus Frederick Alexander Woodford, British parson (b. 1821) Date Unknown Antoinette Nording, Swedish perfume entrepreneur (b. 1814) Condition: In Good Condition for its age, Modified Item: No, Country/Region of Manufacture: United Kingdom, Year of Issue: 1887, Denomination: Florin/ Two Shillings, Collections/ Bulk Lots: 1887 Florin, Era: Victoria (1837-1901)

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