1957 Jewish YIDDISH PHOTO MAGAZINE Music HUBERMAN Rubinstein TOSCANINI Stern IPO

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Seller: Top-Rated Seller judaica-bookstore (2,068) 100%, Location: TEL AVIV, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 273890088292 DESCRIPTION : Up for auction is an EXTREMELY RARE memorabilia item IPO - ISRAEL PHILHARMONIC ORCHESTRA related as well as JEWISH MUSIC and LEGENDARY FIGURES : Huberman , Toscanini, Rubinstein, Stern , Tortolier and the YIDDISH culture and language. Over 60 years ago , In 1957 , The JEWISH - YIDDISH illustrated magazine "TSANIN ILLUSTRIRTE WELT " ( "Tsanin Illustrated World " - צאנינס אילוסטרירטע וועלט ) , On the occassion of the opening of the Frederick Mann Auditorium ( Heichal Hatarbut ) in TEL AVIV and the inaugural concert with some of the largest musical names , has dedicated its FRONT COVER to the legendary JEWISH PIANIST of Polish descent ARTHUR RUBINSTEIN who was one of the soloists at the concert and its MAIN ARTICLE to the PALESTINE ORCHESTRA , The IPO , The AUDITORIUM and the INAUGURAL CONCERT with Leonard Bernstein conducting the IPO with RUBINSTEIN , Isaac STERN and Paul TORTELIER ( Replacing the absent Gregor PIATIGORSKY ) . The double spread PHOTOGRAPHED ARTICLE accompanied by quite a few photos depicting the AUDITORIUM , The ORCHESTRA and all the above mentioned figures. The Israeli YIDDISH MAGAZINE "Tsanins Illustrierte Welt" ( Yiddish : צאנינס אילוסטרירטע וועלט , English: "Tsanin's illustrated world"), a magazine covering news, the arts, theater, movies and fashion , Was published in TEL AVIV Israel for only a few years in a very limited number of copies and hence EXTREMELY RARE. Many more photographed articles , A humor - Caricatures back page and more. Size of magazine around 13" x 9.5 ". 20 pp. Very good condition for age . Quite poor paper quality and printing quality. Yet Intact. Nothing missing. Age tanning of paper. ( Please watch the scan for a reliable AS IS scan ) . Magazine will be sent in a special protective rigid sealed packaging. AUTHENTICITY : The magazine is fully guaranteed ORIGINAL from 1957 , It holds a life long GUARANTEE for its AUTHENTICITY and ORIGINALITY.PAYMENTS : Payment method accepted : Paypal . SHIPPMENT : Shipp worldwide via registered airmail is $ 19 . Magazine will be sent inside a protective packaging . Will be sent within 3-5 days after payment . Kindly note that duration of Int'l registered airmail is around 14 daysThe Palestine Symphony Orchestra was founded in 1936 under the leadership of Bronislaw Huberman. Huberman, a violinist, at first envisioned an international center for the arts, but instead focused on developing a critically acclaimed symphony orchestra. Conditions in Europe had become such that the orchestra could serve as a haven for persecuted Jewish musicians. Many immigration certificates became available, as the orchestra could provide employment for the refugees. The new immigrants themselves provided fresh talent and energy for cultural pursuits in the yishuv. While Huberman continued to work on behalf of the orchestra, Arturo Toscanini agreed to become its first conductor. He was quick to help establish the orchestra's reputation. In addition to drawing talented musicians to the orchestra itself, many other chamber orchestras and groups formed throughout the yishuv. In 1948, the orchestra changed its name to the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra.****** The Israel Philharmonic Orchestra The internationally renowned musicians who began their careers with the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra (IPO) loyally returned home for its 60th anniversary celebrations in December 1996. The artists included Yitzhak Perlman, Daniel Barenboim, Pinchas Zuckerman, Yefim Bronfman, Shlomo Mintz and the young virtuoso Gil Shaham. Coincidentally, or perhaps not so because their fates have been so intertwined, the ]PO celebrated its 60th birthday together with conductor and Music Director for life, Zubin Mehta, the Indian-born maestro who took charge of the IPO in 1968, and who also turned 60 last year. It was Arturo Toscanini, the greatest conductor of his time, who presided over the orchestra's first performance in 1936. Italian-born Toscanini, who was not Jewish, despised Nazism and saw the formation of a Jewish orchestra as an act of defiance against Hitler. Most of the original members of the orchestra, then called the Palestine Philharmonic Orchestra, were assembled by the Polish Jewish violinist Bronislaw Huberman, and were fortunate enough to get out of Europe before the Holocaust began. Re-named the IPO after the establishment of Israel in 1948, the orchestra has always acted as the country's foremost cultural ambassador, carrying the joy of music and the message of peace from Israel to music lovers around the world. Zubin Mehta recalls that one of his most moving moments was when the IPO agreed to play in Germany in 1971 and he was able to conduct "Hatikvah," Israel's national anthem, in the country that had unintentionally caused the establishment of the IPO through its persecution of Jews. In the late 1980s, the IPO visited Auschwitz on a concert tour of Poland, Hungary and the former Soviet Union. And in 1994 Mehta was able to lead the IPO to China and his native India, shortly after Israel established diplomatic relations with the two Asian powers. The sell-out success of the 12 celebration concerts around Israel characterizes the local popularity of the IPO, which has the largest subscription public per capita in the world. In its 60th year the IPO recruited 6,200 new subscribers, a world record for a symphony orchestra. In fact, the IPO has always managed to break even without the need for government subsidies. With plentiful local talent, the IPO has never needed to offer fabulous salaries to entice musicians from overseas. About half of the orchestra's 110 musicians are native-born Israelis, 35% were born in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, and 15% hail from North America. In addition, the IPO's many worldwide friends, such as the late Leonard Bernstein, conductors Kurt Masur and Lorin Maazel, and violinists Isaac Stern and Yehudi Menuhin, have been frequent guest players. The IPO also regularly records for leading companies such as Sony Classical, Teldec, EMI and Deutsche Grammophon. Recent recordings include the best of the IPO's concert repertoire such as Brahms' four symphonies, Prokofiev's Piano Concertos and Mahler's symphonies. Based in Tel Aviv at the Mann Auditorium, the challenge facing the IPO over the next 60 years is to maintain and enhance the high standards that have been established. The Young Israel Philharmonic Orchestra, supported by scholarship funds, should ensure that the next generation of musicians is no less talented than the present. ******* The Israel Philharmonic Orchestra (abbreviation IPO; Hebrew: התזמורת הפילהרמונית הישראלית, ha-Tizmoret ha-Filharmonit ha-Yisre'elit) is the leading symphony orchestra in Israel. History The IPO was founded by violinist Bronisław Huberman in 1936, at a time when many Jewish musicians were being fired from European orchestras. Its inaugural concert took place in Tel Aviv on December 26, 1936, and was conducted by Arturo Toscanini. In 1958, the IPO was awarded the Israel Prize, in music, being the first year in which the Prize was awarded to an organization.[1] The IPO enjoys frequent international tours, and has performed under some of the world's greatest conductors, including Leonard Bernstein and Zubin Mehta, both of whom are prominent in the orchestra's history. Bernstein maintained close ties with the orchestra from 1947, and in 1988, the IPO bestowed on him the title of Laureate Conductor, which he retained until his death in 1990. Mehta has served as the IPO's Music Advisor since 1968. The IPO did not have a formal music director, but instead "music advisors", until 1977, when Mehta was appointed the IPO's first Music Director. In 1981, his title was elevated to Music Director for Life.[2] Kurt Masur is the IPO's Honorary Guest Conductor, a title granted to him in 1992. Gianandrea Noseda is Principal Guest Conductor, a role previously occupied by Yoel Levi. With Mehta, the IPO has made a number of recordings for Decca. Under the baton of Bernstein, the IPO also recorded his works and those of Igor Stravinsky. The IPO has also collaborated with Japanese composer Yoko Kanno in the soundtrack of the anime Macross Plus. As of 2006, the composers whose works have been most frequently performed by the IPO were Beethoven, Mozart, Brahms, Mendelssohn and Dvořák. The initial concerts of the Palestine Orchestra in December 1936, conducted by Toscanini, featured the music of Richard Wagner.[3] However, after the Kristallnacht pogroms in November 1938, the orchestra has maintained a de facto ban on Wagner's work, due to that composer's antisemitism and the association of his music with Nazi Germany.[4] The Secretary-General of the orchestra is Avi Shoshani. The IPO has a subscriber base numbering 26,000.[5] Commentators have noted the musically conservative tastes of the subscriber base.[6] Musical Advisors/Music Directors Zubin Mehta (1968–) (Musical Advisor 1968–77; Music Director thereafter) Jean Martinon (1957–59)Bernardino Molinari Paul Paray (1949–51) Leonard Bernstein (1947–49; Laureate Conductor 1947–90) William Steinberg (1936–38) ***** Bronisław Huberman (19 December 1882 – 16 June 1947) was a Jewish Polish violinist. He was known for his individualistic and personal interpretations and was praised for his tone color, expressiveness, and flexibility. The Gibson ex-Huberman Stradivarius violin which bears his name was stolen and recovered twice during the period in which he owned the instrumen Biography Huberman was born in Częstochowa, Poland. In his youth he was a pupil of Mieczyslaw Michalowicz and Maurycy Rosen at the Warsaw Conservatory, and of Isidor Lotto in Paris. In 1892 he studied under Joseph Joachim in Berlin. Despite being only ten years old, he dazzled Joachim with performances of Louis Spohr, Henri Vieuxtemps, and the transcription of a Frederic Chopin nocturne. However, the two did not get along well, and after Huberman's fourteenth birthday he took no more lessons. In 1893 he toured Holland and Belgium as a virtuoso performer. Around this time, the six year old Arthur Rubinstein attended one of Huberman's concerts. Rubinstein's parents invited Huberman back to their house and the two boys struck up what would become a lifetime friendship. In 1894 Adelina Patti invited Huberman to participate in her farewell gala in London, which he did, and in the following year he actually eclipsed her in appearances in Vienna. In 1896 he performed the violin concerto of Johannes Brahms in the presence of the composer, who was stunned by the quality of his playing. In the twenties and early thirties, Huberman toured around Europe and North America with the pianist Siegfried Schultze and performed on the most famous stage (Carnegie in New York, Scala in Milan, Musikverein in Vienna, Konzerthaus in Berlin....). During many years, the duet Huberman-Schultze were regularly invited in private by European Royal Families. Countless recordings of these artists were done during that period at the "Berliner Rundfunk" and unfortunately destroyed during the second war. In 1937, a year before the Anschluss, Huberman left Vienna and took refuge in Switzerland. The following year, his career nearly ended as a result of an airplane accident in Sumatra in which his wrist and two fingers of his left hand were broken. After intensive and painful retraining he was able to resume performing. At the onset of the Second World War, Huberman was touring South Africa and was unable to return to his home in Switzerland until after the war. Shortly thereafter he fell ill from exhaustion and never regained his strength. He died in Corsier-sur-Vevey, Switzerland, on June 16, 1947, at age 64. Palestine Philharmonic Orchestra In 1929 Huberman first visited Palestine and developed his vision of establishing classical music in the Promised Land. In 1933, during the Nazis' rise to power, Huberman declined invitations from Wilhelm Furtwängler to return to preach a "musical peace", but wrote instead an open letter to German intellectuals inviting them to remember their essential values. In 1936 he founded the Palestine Philharmonic Orchestra, which gave its first performance on 26 December with Arturo Toscanini conducting. Upon the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948 the orchesra was renamed as the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra. Stradivarius theft Before 1936, Huberman's principal instrument for his concerts was the 1713-vintage Stradivarius "Gibson", which was named after one of its early owners, the English violinist George Alfred Gibson. It was stolen twice. In 1919, it was stolen from Huberman's Vienna hotel room, but recovered by the police within 3 days. The second time was in New York City. On February 28, 1936, while giving a concert at Carnegie Hall, Huberman switched the Stradivarius "Gibson" with his newly acquired Guarnerius violin, leaving the Stradivarius in his dressing room during intermission. It was stolen by a New York nightclub musician, Julian Altman, who kept it for the next half century. Huberman's insurance company, Lloyd's of London, paid him $US30,000 for the loss in 1936. Altman went on to become a violinist with the National Symphony Orchestra in Washington, D.C. and performed with the stolen Stradivarius for many years. In 1985, Altman made a deathbed confession to his wife, Marcelle Hall, that he had stolen the violin. Two years later, she returned it to Lloyd's and collected a finder's fee of $US263,000. The instrument underwent a 9-month restoration by J & A Beare Ltd., in London. In 1988, Lloyd's sold it for $USD 1.2 million to British violinist Norbert Brainin. In October 2001, the American violinist, Joshua Bell, purchased it for just under $4,000,000. The price, or the value, had more than tripled in 13 years - a 340% appreciation. Recordings Huberman made several commercial recordings of large-scale works, among which are: Beethoven: Violin Concerto (w. Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, cond. George Szell) (Columbia Records, LX 509-13) (18–20 June 1934). Beethoven: Kreutzer Sonata (no 9) (w. Ignaz Friedman, pno) (Columbia Records, C-67954/7D) Lalo: Symphonie Espagnole (omits 3rd movt.) (w. Vienna Philharmonic, cond. George Szell) (Columbia Records, C-68288/90D) Tchaikovsky: Violin Concerto (w. Berlin State Opera Orchestra, cond William Steinberg) (Columbia Records, C-67726/9D) (December 1928; originally for Odeon) Mendelssohn: Violin Concerto (2nd & 3rd movts) (w. Siegfried Schulze, pno) (Brunswick Records, PD-27242: acoustic) Also Bach Concerti 1 & 2, and Mozart Concerto 3. Several other large works exist in off-air broadcast recordings, including the Brahms concerto. ******* Arthur Rubinstein (Polish: Artur Rubinstein; January 28, 1887 – December 20, 1982) was a Polish American classical pianist. He received international acclaim for his performances of the music written by a variety of composers and many regard him as the greatest Chopin interpreter of his time.[1][2] He was described by The New York Times as one of the greatest pianists of the twentieth century.[1] He played in public for eight decades.[3] Contents [hide] 1 Early life 2 Music and career 3 Personal life 3.1 Marriage and family 3.2 Jewish identity 3.3 Polish identity 3.4 Charitable contributions 3.5 On practice 3.6 Pupils 4 Death and legacy 5 Recordings 6 Honors 7 Filmography 8 Bibliography 9 See also 10 References 11 External links Early life[edit] Rubinstein grew up on Piotrkowska Street, Łódź, Poland Rubinstein was born in Łódź, Congress Poland (part of the Russian Empire for the entire time Rubinstein resided there) on January 28, 1887, to a Jewish family. He was the youngest of seven children of Felicja Blima Fajga (née Heiman) and Izaak Rubinstein. His father owned a small textile factory.[4][5] Rubinstein's birth name was to be Leo, but his eight-year-old brother claimed that "His name must be Artur. Since Artur X (a neighbor's son) plays the violin so nicely, the baby may also become a great musician!"[6] And so he was called Artur, although in English-speaking countries, he preferred to be known as Arthur Rubinstein. His United States impresario Sol Hurok, however, insisted he be billed as Artur, and records were released in the West under both versions of his name.[7] At age two, Rubinstein demonstrated perfect pitch and a fascination with the piano, watching his elder sister's piano lessons. By the age of four, he was recognised as a child prodigy. His father had a predilection for the violin and offered Rubinstein a violin; but Rubinstein rejected it because he thought his instinct was for harmony and polyphony. The Hungarian violinist Joseph Joachim, on hearing the four-year-old child play, was greatly impressed, telling Arthur's family, "This boy may become a very great musician—he certainly has the talent for it... When the time comes for serious study, bring him to me, and I shall be glad to supervise his artistic education." On December 14, 1894, seven-year-old Arthur Rubinstein had his debut with pieces by Mozart, Schubert and Mendelssohn.[6][8] When he became ten years of age, Rubinstein moved to Berlin to continue his studies, and gave his first performance with the Berlin Philharmonic in 1900, at the age of 13.[1] Joseph Joachim recommended Karl Heinrich Barth as the boy's piano teacher. As a student of Barth, Rubinstein inherited a renowned pedagogical lineage: Barth was himself a pupil of Liszt, who had been taught by Czerny, who had in turn been a pupil of Beethoven.[1] Music and career[edit] In 1904, Rubinstein moved to Paris to launch his career in earnest, where he met the composers Maurice Ravel and Paul Dukas and the violinist Jacques Thibaud. He also played Camille Saint-Saëns' Piano Concerto No. 2 in the presence of the composer. Through the family of Juliusz Wertheim (to whose understanding of Chopin's genius Rubinstein attributed his own inspiration in the works of that composer) he formed friendships with the violinist Paul Kochanski and composer Karol Szymanowski.[8] Rubinstein in 1906 Rubinstein made his New York debut at Carnegie Hall in 1906, and thereafter toured the United States, Austria, Italy, and Russia. According to his own testimony and that of his son in François Reichenbach's film L'Amour de la vie (1969), he was not well received in the United States. By 1908, Rubinstein, destitute and desperate, hounded by creditors, and threatened with being evicted from his Berlin hotel room, made a failed attempt to hang himself. Subsequently, he said that he felt "reborn" and endowed with an unconditional love of life. In 1912, he made his London debut, and found a home there in the Edith Grove, Chelsea, musical salon of Paul and Muriel Draper, in company with Kochanski, Igor Stravinsky, Jacques Thibaud, Pablo Casals, Pierre Monteux and others.[8] During World War I, Rubinstein stayed in London, giving recitals and accompanying the violinist Eugène Ysaÿe. In 1916 and 1917, he made his first tours in Spain and South America where he was wildly acclaimed. It was during those tours that he developed a lifelong enthusiasm for the music of Enrique Granados, Isaac Albéniz, Manuel de Falla, and Heitor Villa-Lobos. He was the dedicatee of Manuel de Falla's Fantasía Bética, Villa-Lobos's Rudepoêma and Stravinsky's Trois mouvements de Petrouchka. Rubinstein was disgusted by Germany's conduct during the war and never played there again. His last performance in Germany was in 1914.[8] In the autumn of 1919 Rubinstein toured the British provinces with soprano Emma Calvé and tenor Vladimir Rosing.[9] In 1921 Rubinstein gave two American tours, travelling to New York with Karol Szymanowski and his close friend Paul Kochanski.[8] In 1934, the pianist, who stated he neglected his technique in his early years, relying instead on natural talent, withdrew from concert life for several months of intensive study and practice. Rubinstein toured the United States again in 1937, his career becoming centered there during the World War II years when he lived in Brentwood, California. He became a naturalized US citizen in 1946.[10] A cast of the pianist's hands, at the Łódź museum During his time in California, Rubinstein provided the piano soundtrack for several films, including Song of Love with Katharine Hepburn. He appeared, as himself, in the films Carnegie Hall and Of Men and Music. Although best known as a recitalist and concerto soloist, Rubinstein was also considered an outstanding chamber musician, partnering with such luminaries as Henryk Szeryng, Jascha Heifetz, Pablo Casals, Gregor Piatigorsky and the Guarneri Quartet. Rubinstein recorded much of the core piano repertoire, particularly that of the Romantic composers. At the time of his death, The New York Times in describing him wrote, "Chopin was his specialty ... it was [as] a Chopinist that he was considered by many without peer."[1] With the exception of the Études, he recorded most of the works of Chopin. In 1964, at the height of the Cold War, he gave a legendary concert in Moscow, with a pure Chopin program.[11] He was one of the earliest champions of Spanish and South American composers, as well as French composers of the early 20th century (such as Debussy and Ravel). In addition, Rubinstein promoted the music of his compatriot Karol Szymanowski. Rubinstein, in conversation with Alexander Scriabin, named Brahms as his favorite composer, a response that enraged Scriabin.[12] Oscar Award statuette granted in 1969 for the film "L'Amour de la Vie" with Arthur Rubinstein. The statuette is exhibited in Izrael Poznanski Castle (Museum of City of Lodz). In 1969 Arthur Rubinstein – The Love of Life was released; it won the Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature. A TV special, Rubinstein at 90, represented that he had been playing for people for eight decades. By the mid-1970s, Rubinstein's eyesight had begun to deteriorate. He retired from the stage at age 89 in May 1976, giving his last concert at London's Wigmore Hall, where he had first played nearly 70 years before. Rubinstein, who was fluent in eight languages,[10] held much of the repertoire, not simply that of the piano, in his formidable memory.[10] According to his memoirs, he learned César Franck's Symphonic Variations while on a train en route to the concert, without the benefit of a piano, practicing passages in his lap. Rubinstein described his memory as photographic, to the extent that he would visualize an errant coffee stain while recalling a score.[13] Rubinstein also had exceptionally developed aural abilities, which allowed him to play whole symphonies in his mind. "At breakfast, I might pass a Brahms symphony in my head," he said. "Then I am called to the phone, and half an hour later I find it's been going on all the time and I'm in the third movement." This ability was often tested by Rubinstein's friends, who would randomly pick extracts from opera and symphonic scores and ask him to play them from memory.[1] Rubinstein's autobiography contained two volumes: My Young Years (1973); and My Many Years (1980). Many were displeased by their emphasis on personal anecdotes over music. Pianist Emanuel Ax, one of Rubinstein's greatest admirers, was profoundly disappointed by reading My Many Years: "Until then," he told Sachs, "I had idolized Rubinstein—I had wanted to have a life like his, the book changed all that."[3] In a reflective muse, Rubinstein once noted "It is simply my life, music. I live it, breathe it, talk with it. I am almost unconscious of it. No, I do not mean I take it for granted--one should never take for granted any of the gifts of God. But it is like an arm, a leg, part of me. On the other hand, books and paintings and languages and people are passions with me, always to be cultivated. Travel too. I am a lucky man to have a business which allows me to be on the road so much. On the train, the plane, I have time to read. There again, I am a lucky man to be a pianist. A splendid instrument, the piano, just the right size so that you cannot take it with you. Instead of practicing, I can read. A fortunate fellow, am I not?"[14] Personal life[edit] Rubinstein in 1963 Marriage and family[edit] Of his youth, Rubinstein once said: "It is said of me that when I was young I divided my time impartially among wine, women and song. I deny this categorically. Ninety percent of my interests were women."[1] At the age of 45, in 1932, Rubinstein married Nela Młynarska, a 24-year-old Polish ballerina (who had studied with Mary Wigman). Nela was the daughter of the Polish conductor Emil Młynarski and his wife Anna Talko-Hryncewicz, who was from a Polish aristocratic heraldic family of Iłgowski coat of arms. Nela had first fallen in love with Rubinstein when she was 18, but married Mieczysław Munz after Rubinstein began an affair with an Italian princess.[15][16] Nela subsequently divorced Munz and three years later married Rubinstein.[16] They had five children (one died in infancy), including photographer Eva Rubinstein, who married William Sloane Coffin, and son John Rubinstein, a Tony Award-winning actor and father of actor Michael Weston.[17] Nela subsequently authored Nela's Cookbook, which included the dishes she prepared for the couple's legendary parties.[18] Both before and during his marriage, Rubinstein carried on a series of affairs with women, including Lesley Jowitt, the wife of the politician William Jowitt, and Irene Curzon.[19] In addition to fathering a daughter (South American pianist Luli Oswald) with his mistress Paola Medici del Vascello, who was an Italian marchioness (née Princess Paola di Viggiano), he may have been the father of American decorator and artist Muriel Draper's son Sanders Draper, who died in World War II.[8] Though he and Nela never divorced, in 1977, at age 90, he left her for Annabelle Whitestone, then 33 years old. Jewish identity[edit] While he was an agnostic, Rubinstein was nevertheless proud of his Jewish heritage.[20] He was a great friend of Israel,[21] which he visited several times with his wife and children, giving concerts with the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra, recitals, and master classes at the Jerusalem Music Centre. In 1949, Rubinstein—who lost family members in the Holocaust—along with other prominent musicians (including Horowitz and Heifetz) announced that he would not appear with the Chicago Symphony if it engaged the conductor Wilhelm Furtwängler, who had remained in Germany during the war.[3] Polish identity[edit] Throughout his life, Rubinstein was deeply attached to Poland. At the inauguration of the United Nations in 1945, Rubinstein showed his Polish patriotism at a concert for the delegates. He began the concert by stating his deep disappointment that the conference did not have a delegation from Poland. Rubinstein later described becoming overwhelmed by a blind fury and angrily pointing out to the public the absence of the Polish flag. He then sat down at the piano and played the Polish national anthem loudly and slowly, repeating the final part in a great thunderous forte. When he had finished, the public rose to their feet and gave him a great ovation.[10][22] Charitable contributions[edit] Rubinstein pictured in 1970 Rubinstein was active in supporting charities throughout his life. He performed charity concerts to raise donations for numerous organizations which interested him. In 1961, he performed ten recitals in Carnegie Hall to raise roughly $100,000 for charities including Big Brothers, United Jewish Appeal, Polish Assistance, Musicians Emergency fund, the National Association for Mental Health, and the Legal Defense Fund of the National Advancement of Colored People.[23] On practice[edit] In his youth, as a natural pianist with a big technique, Rubinstein practiced as little as possible, learning new pieces quickly and without sufficient attention to textual details, relying on his personal charm to conceal the lack of finish in his playing. But his attitude toward his playing changed after his marriage. He stated that he did not want his children to take him as a has-been, so he began in the summer of 1934 to restudy his entire repertoire. "I buckled down back to work—six hours, eight hours, nine hours a day." he recalled in 1958. "And a strange thing happened... I began to discover new meaning, new qualities, new possibilities in music that I have been regularly playing for more than 30 years." In general, however, Rubinstein believed that a foremost danger for young pianists is to practice too much. Rubinstein regularly advised that young pianists should practice no more than three hours a day. "I was born very, very lazy and I don't always practice very long," he said, "but I must say, in my defense, that it is not so good, in a musical way, to overpractice. When you do, the music seems to come out of your pocket. If you play with a feeling of 'Oh, I know this,' you play without that little drop of fresh blood that is necessary—and the audience feels it." Of his own practice methods, he said, "At every concert I leave a lot to the moment. I must have the unexpected, the unforeseen. I want to risk, to dare. I want to be surprised by what comes out. I want to enjoy it more than the audience. That way the music can bloom anew. It's like making love. The act is always the same, but each time it's different."[1][24] Pupils[edit] For Rubinstein's notable students, see List of music students by teacher: R to S § Arthur Rubinstein. Rubinstein was reluctant to teach in his earlier life, refusing to accept William Kapell's request for lessons. It was not until the late 1950s that he accepted his first pupil, Dubravka Tomšič Srebotnjak. Other pupils of Rubinstein include François-René Duchâble, Avi Schönfeld, Ann Schein Carlyss, Eugen Indjic, Janina Fialkowska, Dean Kramer and Marc Laforêt. Rubinstein also gave master classes towards the end of his life.[21] Death and legacy[edit] "I have found that if you love life, life will love you back..." "People are always setting conditions for happiness... I love life without condition." — Arthur Rubinstein[25] Grave of Arhur Rubinstein at Arthur Rubinstein forest near Jerusalem Rubinstein died in his sleep at his home in Geneva, Switzerland, on December 20, 1982, at the age of 95, and his body was cremated.[1] On the first anniversary of his death, an urn holding his ashes was buried in Jerusalem—as specified in his will—in a dedicated plot now dubbed "Rubinstein Forest" overlooking the Jerusalem Forest. This was arranged with Israel's chief rabbis so that the main forest wouldn't fall under religious laws governing cemeteries.[26] In October 2007, his family donated to the Juilliard School an extensive collection of original manuscripts, manuscript copies and published editions that had been seized by the Germans during World War II from his Paris residence. Seventy-one items were returned to his four children, marking the first time that Jewish property kept in the Berlin State Library was returned to the legal heirs.[27] In 1974, Jan Jacob Bistritzky established the Arthur Rubinstein International Piano Master Competition, held every three years in Israel, intended to promote the careers of young and outstanding pianists. The Arthur Rubinstein Award and other prizes are presented to the winners. The Rubinstein Competition also commissions works by Israeli composers.[28] There is an Arthur Rubinstein Street in Tel Aviv, Israel. Recordings[edit] For more details on this topic, see Arthur Rubinstein discography. In 1910, Rubinstein recorded Franz Liszt's Hungarian Rhapsody No. 10 for the Polish Favorit label.[8] The pianist was displeased with the acoustic recording process, saying it made the piano sound "like a banjo" and did not record again until the advent of electrical recording. However, Rubinstein made numerous player piano music rolls for the Aeolian Duo-Art system and the American Piano Company (AMPICO) in the 1920s. Beginning in 1928, Rubinstein began to record extensively for the Gramophone Company, better known as His Master's Voice in England and then RCA Victor in the USA, making a large number of solo, concerto and chamber music recordings until his retirement in 1976. As recording technology improved, from 78-rpm discs to LPs and stereophonic recordings, Rubinstein re-recorded much of his repertoire. All of his RCA recordings have been released on compact disc and amount to about 107 hours of music. Rubinstein preferred to record in the studio, and during his lifetime approved for release only about three hours of live recordings. However, since his death, several labels have issued live recordings taken from radio broadcasts. Honors[edit] Sculpture of Arthur Rubinstein on Piotrkowska Street, in Łódź, Poland, where Rubinstein once lived Sonning Award (1971; Denmark) On April 1, 1976, Arthur Rubinstein was presented with the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Gerald Ford. In 1977, he was made an honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire (KBE).[29] Grand Officier of the Legion of Honour. Kennedy Center Honors (1978) Officer's Cross (Krzyż Oficerski) of the Order of Polonia Restituta. Commander of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic. Member of the Civil Order of Alfonso X, the Wise. Officier of the Order of Leopold of Belgium. Voted into Gramophone's Hall of Fame in 2012.[30] Best Chamber Performance Grammy Award statuette granted in 1975 to Arthur Rubinstein, Henryk Szeryng and Pierre Fourner for their performance of Brahms and Schumann Trios. The statuette is exhibited in Izrael Poznanski Castle (Museum of City of Lodz). a Grammy Award for Best Chamber Music Performance: Pierre Fournier, Arthur Rubinstein & Henryk Szeryng for Schubert: Trios Nos. 1 in B-flat, Op. 99 and 2 in E-flat, Op. 100 (Piano Trios) (Grammy Awards of 1976) Pierre Fournier, Arthur Rubinstein & Henryk Szeryng for Brahms: Trios (Complete)/Schumann: Trio No. 1 in D Minor (Grammy Awards of 1975) Grammy Award for Best Instrumental Soloist Performance (without orchestra): Arthur Rubinstein for 'Beethoven: Piano Sonata No. 18 in E-flat/Schumann: Fantasiestücke, Op. 12 (Grammy Awards of 1978) Arthur Rubinstein for Beethoven: Sonatas No. 21 in C (Waldstein) and No. 18 in E-flat (Grammy Awards of 1960) Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award (1994) Filmography[edit] Night Song (1948) L'amour de la Vie (The Love of Life) (1969) Bibliography[edit] Artist Biography by James Reel Warm, lyrical, and aristocratic in his interpretations, Artur Rubinstein performed impressively into extremely old age, and he was a keyboard prodigy almost from the time he could climb onto a piano bench. He came from a mercantile rather than a musical family, but fixated on the piano as soon as he heard it. At age three he impressed Joseph Joachim, and by the age of seven he was playing Mozart, Schubert, and Mendelssohn at a charity concert in his hometown. In Warsaw, he had piano lessons with Alexander Róóycki; then in 1897 he was sent to Berlin to study piano with Heinrich Barth and theory with Robert Kahn and Max Bruch, all under Joachim's general supervision. In 1899 came his first notable concerto appearance in Potsdam. Soon thereafter, just barely a teenager, he began touring Germany and Poland. After brief studies with Paderewski in Switzerland in 1903, Rubinstein moved to Paris, where he met Ravel, Dukas, and Jacques Thibaud, and played Saint-Saëns' G minor concerto to the composer's approval. That work would remain a flashy Rubinstein vehicle for six decades, and it was the concerto he offered in his American debut with the Philadelphia Orchestra in New York's Carnegie Hall in 1906. His under-prepared American tour was not especially well-received, though, so he withdrew to Europe for further study. Rubinstein became an adept and sensitive chamber musician and accompanist; his 1912 London debut was accompanying Pablo Casals, and during World War I he toured with Eugène Ysaÿe. He gave several successful recitals in Spain during the 1916-1917 season, and soon toured Latin America. Along the way he developed a great flair for Hispanic music; Heitor Villa-Lobos went so far as to dedicate to Rubinstein his Rudepoêma, one of the toughest works in the repertory. Although Rubinstein would later be somewhat typecast as a Chopin authority, his readings of Falla, Granados, and Albéniz would always be equally idiomatic. Rubinstein's international reputation grew quickly, although he was by his own account a sloppy technician. In the mid-1930s he withdrew again and drilled himself in technique. By 1937 he reemerged as a musician of great discipline, poise, and polish -- qualities he would mostly retain until his farewell recital in London in 1976, at the age of 89. Rubinstein's temperament had sufficient fire for Beethoven but enough poetry for Chopin; his tempos and dynamics were always flexible, but never distorted. His 1960s recordings for RCA of nearly all Chopin's solo piano music have been considered basic to any record collection since their release, and his version of Falla's Nights in the Gardens of Spain is another classic, as are his various late collaborations with the Guarneri Quartet. Rubinstein became a naturalized American citizen in 1946, but he maintained residences in California, New York, Paris, and Geneva; two of his children were born in the United States, one in Warsaw, and one in Buenos Aires. He had married Aniela Mlynarska in 1932, but womanizing remained integral to his reputation as an irrepressible bon vivant. He maintained that the slogan "wine, women, and song" as applied to him meant 80 percent women and only 20 percent wine and song. Still, there was a serious side to his life. After World War II, he refused ever again to perform in Germany, in response to the Nazi extermination of his Polish family. Rubinstein became a strong supporter of Israel; in gratitude, an international piano competition in his name was instituted in Jerusalem in 1974. His honors included the Gold Medal of the Royal Philharmonic Society of London, the U.S. Medal of Freedom (1976), and membership in the French Legion of Honor. **** Zubin Mehta (English pronunciation: /ˈzuːbɪn ˈmeɪtɑ/[1] or /ˈmeɪtə/[2] Hindi: ज़ूबिन मेहता, Hindi pronunciation: [ˈzuːbɪn ˈmeːɦt̪aː];[3]born 29 April 1936) is an Indian conductor of Western classical music. He is the Music Director for Life of the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra and the Main Conductor for Valencia's opera house. Mehta is also the chief conductor of Maggio Musicale Fiorentino festival. Contents [hide] 1 Background 2 Conducting career 2.1 1990s 2.2 2000s 2.3 2010s 3 Performance style 4 Honours and awards 5 Films 6 Educational projects 7 See also 8 References 9 Sources 10 External links Background[edit] Mehta was born into a Parsi family in Bombay (now Mumbai), India, the son of Mehli and Tehmina Mehta. His father was a violinist and founding conductor of the Bombay Symphony Orchestra, and also conducted the American Youth Symphony upon moving to Los Angeles, CA. Mehta is an alumnus of St. Mary's School, Mumbai, and St. Xavier's College, Mumbai. While in school, Mehta was taught to play the piano by Joseph de Lima, who was his first piano teacher. Mehta initially intended to study medicine, but eventually became a music student in Vienna at the age of 18, under Hans Swarowsky. Also at the same academy along with Mehta were conductor Claudio Abbado and conductor–pianist Daniel Barenboim. Mehta's first marriage was to Canadian soprano Carmen Lasky in 1958. They have a son, Mervon, and a daughter, Zarina. In 1964, they divorced.[4] Two years after the divorce, Carmen married Mehta's brother, Zarin Mehta, formerly the Executive Director of the New York Philharmonic. In July 1969, Mehta married Nancy Kovack, an American former film and television actress.[5] Mehta, a permanent resident of the United States, retains his Indian citizenship. Conducting career[edit] With Isaac Stern at Lincoln Center, 1980 In 1958, Mehta made his conducting debut in Vienna. The same year he won the International Conducting Competition in Liverpool and was appointed assistant conductor of the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic. Mehta soon rose to the rank of chief conductor when he was made Music Director of the Montreal Symphony Orchestra in 1960, a post he held until 1967. In 1961, he was named assistant conductor of the Los Angeles Philharmonic; however, the orchestra's music director designate, Georg Solti, was not consulted on the appointment, and subsequently resigned in protest;[6] soon after, Mehta himself was named Music Director of the orchestra, and held the post from 1962 to 1978. Mehta conducted the Los Angeles Philharmonic in the finale of Beethoven's 9th Symphony that concluded the legendary 12-hour Beethoven Marathon on the composer's 200th birthday, December 16, 1970, a concert at which his father Mehli Mehta, also conducted.[7] In 1978 Mehta became the Music Director and Principal Conductor of the New York Philharmonic and remained there until his resignation in 1991, becoming the longest holder of the post. The Israel Philharmonic Orchestra (IPO) appointed Mehta its Music Advisor in 1969, Music Director in 1977, and made him its Music Director for Life in 1981.[8] Since 1985, Mehta has been chief conductor of the Teatro del Maggio Musicale Fiorentino in Florence. (In 2015, he announced his intention to step down from this position in 2017.[9]) Additionally, from 1998 until 2006, Mehta was Music Director of the Bavarian State Opera in Munich. The Munich Philharmonic named him its Honorary Conductor. Since 2005, Mehta has been the main conductor (together with Lorin Maazel) of the Palau de les Arts, the new opera house of the Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències in Valencia, Spain. Mehta conducted the Vienna New Year's Concert in 1990, 1995, 1998, 2007 and 2015. He has also made a recording of Indian instrumentalist Ravi Shankar's Sitar Concerto No. 2, with Shankar and the London Philharmonic Orchestra. 1990s[edit] In 1990, he conducted the Orchestra del Maggio Musicale Fiorentino and the Orchestra del Teatro dell'Opera di Roma in the first ever Three Tenors concert in Rome, joining the tenors again in 1994 at the Dodger Stadium, Los Angeles. In between those appearances he conducted the historic 1992 production of Tosca in which each act took place in the actual setting and at the actual time specified in the score. This production starred Catherine Malfitano in the title role, Plácido Domingo as Cavaradossi and Ruggero Raimondi as Baron Scarpia. Act I was telecast live from Rome's basilica of Sant'Andrea della Valle on Saturday, 11 July, at noon (Central European Daylight Saving Time); act II was telecast later that evening from the Palazzo Farnese at 9:40 p.m.; act III was telecast live on Sunday, 12 July, at 7:00 am from the Castel Sant'Angelo, also known as Hadrian's Tomb. Mehta conducting the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra in Mumbai, October 2008 In June 1994, Mehta performed the Mozart Requiem, along with the members of the Sarajevo Symphony Orchestra and Chorus at the ruins of Sarajevo's National Library, in a fund raising concert for the victims of armed conflict and remembrance of the thousands of people killed in the Yugoslav Wars. On 29 August 1999, he conducted Mahler Symphony No. 2 (Resurrection), at the vicinity of Buchenwald concentration camp in the German city of Weimar, with both the Bavarian State Orchestra and the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra, sitting alongside each other. He toured his native country India and home city Mumbai (Bombay) in 1984, with the New York Philharmonic, and again in November–December 1994, with the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra, along with soloists Itzhak Perlman and Gil Shaham. In 1997 and 1998, Mehta worked in collaboration with Chinese film director Zhang Yimou on a production of the opera Turandot by Giacomo Puccini which they took to Florence, Italy, and then to Beijing, China, where it was staged in its actual surroundings in the Forbidden City, with over 300 extras and 300 soldiers, for nine historic performances. The making of this production was chronicled in a documentary called The Turandot Project which Mehta narrated. 2000s[edit] Zubin Mehta, 2010 On 26 December 2005, the first anniversary of the Indian Ocean tsunami, Mehta and the Bavarian State Orchestra performed for the first time in Chennai (formerly called Madras) at the Madras Music Academy. This tsunami memorial concert was organised by the Madras German consulate along with the Max-Mueller Bhavan/Goethe-Institut. 2006 was his last year with the Bavarian State Orchestra. 2010s[edit] In 2011, Mehta's performance with the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra at The Proms in London was picketed and interrupted by pro-Palestinian protesters.[10] On 7 September 2013, Zubin Mehta appeared with the Bavarian State Orchestra at a Special concert named Ehsaas e Kashmir organized by the German Embassy in India, at historic Mughal Gardens, Srinagar. Both Mehta and Orchestra reportedly renounced their usual fees for this concert.[11] For his 80th birthday on April 29, 2016, Mehta conducted the Vienna Philharmonic in an all-Beethoven concert in the "Golden Hall" of Vienna's Musikverein that included Daniel Barenboim performing the 3rd Piano Concerto. Performance style[edit] Mehta received praise early in his career for dynamic interpretations of the large scale symphonic music of Anton Bruckner, Richard Strauss, Gustav Mahler and Franz Schmidt. His conducting is renowned as being flamboyant, vigorous and forceful. In 2010, Mehta conducted the orchestra for the King Carlos and Queen of Spain to play variations of Happy Birthday in the styles of various performers including Wagner, Bach, Mozart, Beethoven and in the Viennese, New Orleans and Hungarian composition styles.[12][13] Honours and awards[edit] Mehta at a ceremony to receive a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in March 2011 In 1965, he received an honorary doctorate from Sir George Williams University, which later became Concordia University.[14] Mehta's name is mentioned in the song Billy the Mountain on the 1972 album Just Another Band from L.A. by Frank Zappa and The Mothers of Invention. At the Israel Prize ceremony in 1991, Mehta was awarded a special prize in recognition of his unique devotion to Israel and to the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra. In 1995, he became a Laureate of the Wolf Prize in Arts. In 1999, Mehta was presented the "Lifetime Achievement Peace and Tolerance Award" of the United Nations. The Government of India honoured Mehta in 1966 with the Padma Bhushan and in 2001 with India's second highest civilian award, the Padma Vibhushan.[15] In September 2006 the Kennedy Center announced Mehta as one of the recipients of that year's Kennedy Center Honors, presented on 2 December 2006. On 3 February 2007, Mehta was the recipient of the Second Annual Bridgebuilder Award at Loyola Marymount University. Then U.S. President George W. Bush and First Lady Laura Bush stand with the Kennedy Center honourees in the Blue Room of the White House during a reception Sunday, 3 December 2006. From left, they are: singer and songwriter Smokey Robinson; Andrew Lloyd Webber; country singer Dolly Parton; film director Steven Spielberg; and Zubin Mehta. In 2007 he received the prestigious Dan David Prize. Conductor Karl Böhm awarded Mehta the Nikisch Ring – the Vienna Philharmonic Ring of Honor. Mehta is an honorary citizen of Florence and Tel Aviv. He was made an honorary member of the Vienna State Opera in 1997. In 2001 he was bestowed the title of "Honorary Conductor" of the Vienna Philharmonic and in 2004 the Munich Philharmonic awarded him the same title, as did the Los Angeles Philharmonic and the Teatro del Maggio Musicale Fiorentino in 2006. At the end of his tenure with the Bavarian State Opera he was named Honorary Conductor of the Bavarian State Orchestra and Honorary Member of the Bavarian State Opera, and the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, Wien, appointed him honorary member in November 2007. In October 2008, Mehta received the Praemium Imperiale (World Culture Prize in Memory of His Imperial Highness Prince Takamatsu), Japan. On 1 March 2011, Mehta received the 2,434th star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. On 2 October 2011 he received the Echo Klassik in Berlin, for his life's work.[16] On 6 September 2013, President of India Pranab Mukherjee awarded him the Tagore Award 2013 for his outstanding contribution towards cultural harmony.[17] Films[edit] Mehta's life has been documented in Terry Sanders' film Portrait of Zubin Mehta. A documentary film about Mehta, Zubin and I, was produced by the grandson of an Israeli harpist who played with the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra before Mehta assumed the helm. The filmmaker joins the orchestra on a tour of Mumbai and meets with him for two interviews, in India and Tel Aviv.[18] In Christopher Nupen's 1969 documentary The Trout about a performance of Schubert's Trout Quintet in London by Jacqueline du Pré, Daniel Barenboim, Pinchas Zukerman, Itzhak Perlman and Mehta, he plays the double bass.[19] Zubin Mehta was also mentioned in the novel Master of the Game by Sidney Sheldon. Educational projects[edit] In 2009, Mehta established Mifneh (Hebrew for "change"), a music education program for Israeli Arabs, in cooperation with Bank Leumi and the Arab-Israel Bank. Three schools, in Shfaram, the Jezreel Valley and Nazareth, are taking part in the pilot project.[20] He and his brother Zarin constitute the Advisor Council of the Mehli Mehta Foundation.[21] **** Mordechai Tsanin (Yiddish: מרדכי צאנין ; Hebrew: מרדכי צאנין ; 1 April 1906 – 4 February 2009) was a Yiddish language author, journalist and lexicographer and a leading[citation needed] figure in post-war Israeli Yiddish culture. Contents 1Early life 2World War 2 3Civic Affairs 4Journalism 5Books 6Yiddish politics and controversy 7References Early life[edit] Tsanin was born Mordechai Yeshayahu Cukierman,[1] in the town of Sokołów Podlaski in the Russian Empire (today in Poland). His father's occupation, practiced in nearby Siedlce, was that of writing petitions to the government on behalf of private citizens, while his mother worked in the family home.[2] His formal education began in Heder and Yeshiva (roughly, the elementary and high schools of traditional Jewish education). When the family relocated to Warsaw, in 1921,[1] he embarked on secular studies, at a Polish gymnasium.[3] As a young man, his politics leaned towards the Bund, a Jewish Socialist party.[4] Of the Zionist enterprise he took a dim view: as he told an interviewer many years later, "Heint and Moment [Jewish newspapers in pre-war Warsaw], were, for me, treif; they were Zionist."[2] World War 2[edit] At the outbreak of World War II, Tsanin served in the Polish army. With Poland defeated, he returned home to Warsaw. After two months, he fled to Lithuania with his family, from where he saw them off to Mandatory Palestine.[2] He remained in Lithuania through the Soviet takeover in 1940, soon after which he obtained a Japanese visa.[4] From Japan he went to Shanghai and from there back west, aiming at Mandatory Palestine, which he reached in 1941 via India and finally Egypt.[3] In 1947, Tsanin returned to Poland on a year-long[3] fact-finding mission as correspondent for the New York Yiddish daily Forward. What he found there was published in the Forward, republished in every major Yiddish newspaper worldwide,[4] and finally collected in book form as Uber Stein und Stock: a reise uber hundert horuw gewarene kehilos in Poilin (Yiddish: איבער שטיין און שטאק: א רייזע איבער הונדערט חרוב געווארענע קהילות אין פוילן , English: "Of Stones and Ruins: a journey through one hundred destroyed communities in Poland"). The mission ended prematurely when it came to the attention of the Polish authorities, who expressed their displeasure with Tsanin's emphasis on the negative, compelling him to quit the country promptly.[4] Civic Affairs[edit] For the rest of his life, Tsanin lived in Tel Aviv where, apart from his literary pursuits, he was active in civic affairs.[5] He co-founded [3] Beit Leivick (named for the writer Leivick Halpern), the headquarters for the Israeli association of Yiddish journalists and a center for everything Yiddish in Tel Aviv. Tsanin headed that association of Yiddish journalists for many years, and also served as president of an international association of Jewish journalists.[3] Journalism[edit] His first published works — chiefly short stories and journalism — appeared in Warsaw beginning in 1929. His outlets included the periodicals Oifgang (Yiddish: אויפגאנג , English: "Dawn"), Naie Volkszeitung (Yiddish: נאיע פאלקסצייטונג , English: "New popular newspaper"), and Literarische Wochenschriften (Yiddish: ליטערארישע וואכנשריפטן , English: "Literary weekly"). In addition, he edited a book review insert, Bucherwelt (Yiddish: ביכערוועלט , English: "Book world").[4] In July 1948, after seven years in Israel, he founded a Yiddish weekly, Illustrierter Wochenblatt (Yiddish: אילוסטרירטער וואכנבלאט , English: "Illustrated Weekly"). It ran until October 1949 and was immediately succeeded by the publication for which he is best-known, Lezte Neies (Yiddish: לעצטע נייעס , English: "Latest News"). This, founded with two partners,[3] began also as a weekly, soon went to thrice-weekly and finally in 1957 to daily. Though a big success in terms of circulation (daily runs of 20-30,000),[6] financial difficulties [6] led Tsanin, in 1960, to sell Lezte Neies to Pirsumim (Hebrew: פרסומים ), a news conglomerate owned by the Mapai party. There is, however, another theory for why Tsanin sold Lezte Neies to Mapai: he knew that his ideas would stir up party operatives, which would force them to think about his ideas.[7] Though no longer the owner, and despite sharp political differences with Mapai and its successor, the Labor Party,[6] Tsanin remained editor-in-chief until his retirement from journalism in 1977.[3] In parallel with Lezte Neies, Tsanin founded Tsanins Illustrierte Welt (Yiddish: צאנינס אילוסטרירטע וועלט , English: "Tsanin's illustrated world"), a magazine covering news, the arts, theater, movies and fashion. Naming it for himself was a bid to capitalize on his fame.[3] This operated from 1968 to 1975. Lezte Neies itself kept on after Tsanin's retirement until 2006 when it succumbed, as had all its competitors already, to the dwindling population of Yiddish speakers in Israel.[6] Books[edit] Tsanin's first published book appeared in 1935, in Poland. It was a collection of stories, Vivat Leben (Yiddish: וויוואט לעבען , English: "To life!"). Two years later he published his first novel, Oif Sumpiker Erd (Yiddish: אויף זומפיקער ערד , English: "On Swampy Ground").[4] He authored some twenty more books, with a few translated to English, Hebrew and French but the lion's share as yet available only in the original Yiddish.[3] The account of his post-war mission to Poland has been noted above. Among his other books, especially notable is the story of his long war-time flight through the USSR, the Far East, India, Egypt and finally to Israel, Grenezen bis zum Himmel (Yiddish: גרענעצן ביז צום הימל , English: "Borders all the way to the sky"), 1970. His biggest literary work is Yiddish: ארטפנוס קומט צוריק אהיים , translated to English as Artapanos Comes Home, (Gazelle Book Services Ltd, 1980) an epic six-volume work that follows the eponymous hero's family through the Jewish people's 1900-year exile. As of 2014, the University of California, Berkeley, library holds nine distinct Tsanin books.[8] These include novels, reflections on the condition of the Jewish people, collected essays, and a dictionary. The dictionary is notable as the first Yiddish-Hebrew (and Hebrew-Yiddish) dictionary that reflects modern Hebrew usage.[3]Reviews of it, however, have been mixed.[3][9] In the words of one [9] reviewer, "The author was a journalist and not a linguist or possessed of any deep knowledge of historical linguistics or of Yiddish itself, and his dictionary reflects that fact: each entry and its translation, nothing more." To be fair, that reviewer has little good to say about any extant Yiddish-Hebrew dictionaries. Yiddish politics and controversy[edit] At the beginning of the twentieth century, three languages competed for the loyalty of modernizing Jews in Eastern Europe: Russian, Yiddish and Hebrew.[10] The Zionist movement lined up behind Hebrew, and after the establishment of the State of Israel made establishing Hebrew among the many new immigrants a top priority.[6] Yiddish was viewed as a threat to the nation's unity, and the early Israeli state's uncertain commitment to press freedom provided a tool. Thus, in 1949, when Tsanin wished to convert Lezte Neies from a weekly to a daily, he had to apply with the government for permission. Permission was granted to go to a three-day-a week format, but no further. Tsanin evaded this stricture by establishing a second thrice-weekly newspaper, Heintike Naies (Yiddish: האינטיקע נאייעס , English: "Daily News") and arranged to have that and Lezte Neies published on alternate days. The authorities chose to look the other way on that,[3] and finally approved Lezte Neies for daily format in 1957. It would be wrong to describe the government's attitude to Yiddish, even early on, as uniformly hostile. The Israeli army itself ordered copies of Tsanin's first magazine, Illustrierter Wochenblatt, in quantity for the benefit of newly-arrived Yiddish-speaking soldiers. However, the army cancelled that subscription after only three months, a decision Tsanin interpreted as ideologically motivated.[2] Friction between Tsanin and the establishment came to a head in 1964. Lezte Neies was by then, as mentioned above, owned by a subsidiary of Mapai (the governing party at the time and long a leading force in the battle against Yiddish). Though Tsanin, still editor-in-chief, had much to complain about on the language-war front (for example the government's policy of discouraging Yiddish theater [6]) he consciously toned down his criticism in the interests of keeping his job.[6]Nonetheless, a group of party functionaries felt that Tsanin's fulsome praise of Yiddish and the Eastern European Jewish culture that went with it went too far at suggesting an invidious comparison to the heritage of Jews from North Africa and the Middle East,[6] and for that tried to get Tsanin fired. They found some support from the prime minister, David Ben-Gurion, who said about Tsanin, "I don't read that Lezte Neies paper, but I know its editor was once an anti-Zionist and I have no idea how he wound up in Israel."[6] Ben Gurion's accusation was not implausible in view of Tsanin's own statement (see above) about "treif" Zionist newspapers.[2]Nonetheless, Tsanin kept his job. In time, the government became more tolerant of Yiddish. Tsanin's one-time protege Yitzhak Luden summed it up: "Tsanin symbolized Yiddish in the Jewish state, and the authorities' attitude to him was always an indication of its attitude to the Yiddish language." *** TSANIN, (Yeshaye) MORDKHE (1906– ), Yiddish writer. Born in Sokołow-Podlaski (Poland), he settled in Warsaw(1920), where he had a traditional and secular education and became a writer and cultural organizer (publications in Oyfgang, which he also edited, and Naye Folksysaytung) until the Nazi invasion, when he fled to Vilna (1939), Japan (1940), and Palestine (1941). After several years of manual labor, he worked full-time as a journalist and writer. His consistent and adamant advocacy of Yiddish in Israel was of signal importance. His Iber Shteyn un Shtok: a Rayze iber Hundert Khorev - Gevorene Kehiles in Poyln ("Through Thick and Thin: A Journey through 100 Destroyed Jewish Communities in Poland," 1952) collected his columns from the Forverts (for which he was also the Israeli correspondent, 1947–56), based on his postwar travels through Poland, posing as a gentile (1945–6). He contributed to Yiddish newspapers and periodicals throughout the world, including Tsukunft, Di Goldene Keyt, Davar, and edited Ilustrirte Veltvokh (1956– ) and founded and edited Letste Nayes(1949– ), Israel's first Yiddish daily, where the first part of his magnum opus, Artopanus Kumt Tsurik Aheym("Artopanus Comes Home") began to appear serially; it was published in six volumes: Yerusholayim un Roym("Jerusalem and Rome," 1966), Fremde Himlen ("Foreign Skies," 1968), Libshaft in Geviter ("Love during a Storm," 1972), Di Meride fun Mezhibozh ("The Revolt of Mezhibozh," 1976), Der Yardn Falt Arayn in Yam Hamelekh ("The Jordan Flows into the Dead Sea," 1981), and Der Gzar-Din ("The Verdict," 1985). The epic series of historical novels traces the history of Jews and Jewish culture from the Roman conquest of Judea up to the present as a series of cycles of persecution, survival, exile, and personal memory that comes to function as cultural memory and cultural tradition, projecting a moral and intellectual code that transcends individuals and even historical periods. It is one of the great achievements of Yiddish narrative, especially in post-war literature. Among his other books are Vivat Lebn! ("Live!," 1933; stories), Oyf Zumpiker Erd ("On Swampy Ground," 1935; novel), Vuhin Geyt Yapan ("Whither Japan," 1942; journalism), Shabesdike Shmuesn ("Sabbath Chats," 1957; feuilletons), Megiles Ruth / Shir Hashirim ("Ruth / Song of Songs," 1962; Yid. tr.); Oyf di Vegn fun Yidishn Goyrl ("The Paths of Jewish Fate," 1966; also Heb., 1967; essays), Der Dekadents fun a Meshiekh ("Decadence of a Messiah," 1967; essays), Grenetsn biz tsum Himl ("Borders up to Heaven," 1969/70; autobiography), Der Shlisl tsum Himl ("The Key to Heaven," 1979; stories), Fuler Yidish-Hebreisher Verterbukh ("Complete Yiddish-Hebrew Dictionary," 1982), Fuler Hebreish-Yidisher Verterbukh ("Complete Hebrew-Yiddish Dictionary," 1983), Fun Yener Zayt Tsayt ("Behind the Times," 1988), Zumershney ("Summer Snow," 1992; stories, essays), Herts Grosbard (1995; biography), Shluf Nit Mameshi ("Do Not Sleep, Mama," 1996; stories), and Dos Vort Mayn Shverd ("Word My Sword," 1997; essays). For several decades Tsanin served as president of the Association of Yiddish Writers and Journalists in Israel. folder 156 Condition: Used, Condition: Very good condition for age . Quite poor paper quality and printing quality. Yet Intact. Nothing missing. Age tanning of paper. ( Please watch the scan for a reliable AS IS scan ) ., Country/Region of Manufacture: Israel

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