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AD250 Ancient Roman Antioch Seal Ring Sz12 Hippocampus Poseidon Chariot Melqart

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Seller: ancientgifts (4,323) 100%, Location: Lummi Island, Washington, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 381777131660 Details: TRANSLATE Arabic Chinese French German Greek Indonesian Italian Hindi Japanese Korean Swedish Portuguese Russian Spanish Your browser does not support JavaScript. To view this page, enable JavaScript if it is disabled or upgrade your browser. Click here to see 1,000 archaeology/ancient history books and 2,000 ancient artifacts, antique gemstones, antique jewelry! Size 12 Genuine Ancient Roman Bronze Ring Third Century A.D. CLASSIFICATION: Ancient Roman Bronze Ring with Bezel (Seal) Seemingly Depicting a a Pair of Hippocampus Figures – The Mythical Creature Which Pulled Poseidon’s Chariot. ATTRIBUTION: Eastern Roman Empire (Antiochia, Syria), Third Century A.D. SIZE/MEASUREMENTS: Fits ring size 12 (U.S.). Diameter: 26mm * 25 1/2mm (outer dimensions); 23mm * 21mm (inner diameter). Bezel: 13 1/2mm (diameter). 4mm (thickness). Fixed Width 2mm Diameter Wire Band. Weight: 6.74 grams. CONDITION: Very Good! Completely intact notwithstanding ancient replacement band composed of bronze wire. Moderately heavy wear, moderately light porosity (surface pitting caused by contact with earth while buried). Professionally conserved. DETAIL: A nicely crafted and well preserved ancient Roman bronze ring circa third century A.D. The ring was originally of one-piece construction, much like a contemporary ring. The more archaic rings produced by Roman artisans were characteristically made in two pieces; an incomplete ring (a “shank”) with a separately crafted bezel which was brazed to the shank in order to assemble the ring. However the ring was evidently worn for so long (judging b the heavy wear evidenced), that the original bands of the ring wore out. At some point in the past (the ancient past), the original cast band was replaced with a 2mm bronze wire band, and the owner continued to use the ring. In fact, judging by the amount of wear evidenced to the bezel, it is quite possible that the ring was even a family heirloom handed down between generations and worn by the original owner’s offspring. The ring sports a large bezel which bears a deeply incised design. This type of ring was known as an “intaglio” ring, and it was used as a personal seal. This specimen is an example of the remarkable workmanship and technique of reverse intaglio carving. There are several photo enlargements of the intaglio bezel below, and you can see the technique used in this remarkable and ancient art form. An intaglio ring was used to press the wearer's "seal" into lead, clay, or wax, leaving an impression created by the ring's bezel. Though oftentimes the carved intaglio seal might be in the form of a gemstone such as carnelian, carved and then mounted onto a ring; frequently the intaglio seal was created by simply carving into a metal bezel – such as is the case here. Rather than in relief, the image was created recessed, and everything had to be carved in mirror image so that when a piece of clay or wax was impressed with the seal, the image would be “right side out”. The recessed engraving here of facing hippocampus figures is a remarkable illustration of the technique. As you can see, several holes are drilled into the material (whether it be gemstone or metal) to provide a starting point for the engravers tools. The carving here is neat and proficient, though it is not a “masterpiece” in miniature. Though very nice, the carving is a little clumsy when compared to some of the true museum quality intaglios which can be found, for example, in The Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg. Nonetheless the workmanship is very intricate, above average in quality, and the detail is sharp and well preserved. Though the bezel/seal is well worn, both by usage and by the scars of spending almost two millennia buried, burial, the general outline and remaining features discernible indicate that the intaglio is of two Hippocampus figures, a quite popular rendition during the latter Roman Empire. It’s difficult to be 100% certain given the fuzziness and somewhat worn nature of the engraving which remains, but we’re 99% certain based on what does remain of the intaglio that it is a pair of Hippocampus figures. The mythical origins of the Hippocampus start with the common seahorse. The seahorse was a magical, mythical creature in Greek mythology. It was the creation and companion of Poseidon, the great god of the sea to the ancient Greeks. The Chariot of Poseidon was pulled by a seahorse, which the Greeks depicted as a horse with the tail of a dolphin or fish. What is remarkable about this particular depiction is that the seahorse, known to the Greeks as a “hippocampus”, seem to depicted with horns (again, given the fuzziness and wear it is hard to be 100% certain)! Although not widely known, part of the mythology of the seahorse was that they once had horns, but that the entire species lost their horns in a narrow escape with a fisherman’s trap. The myth proclaims that the lost horns of the seahorse still wash up on beaches as small shells twisted in tight spirals. The actual name itself, “hippocampus”, comes from the Greek hippos, horse; and kampos, sea monster. The term is also used contemporaneously as the name for the biological genus of seahorses, “hippocampus”. The mythical hippocampus actually predates classical Greek mythology, and can be traced back to the ancient Phoenicians. In Phoenician mythology the Hippocampus was associated with the God Melqart, referred to by many ancient historians as the Phoenician equivalent to the Greek Heracles (“Hercules”). Melqart was the son of the original Phoenician God, El. His mother was Astarte, the quintessential mother goddess of Phoenicia. As Phoenicia grew and prospered and founded colonies and exported her religion, Melqart became the most significant of all Phoenician Gods. In fact Melqart is the only Phoenician God referred to in The Bible (as “Baal”). The hippocampus was depicted by the Phoenicians not pulling a chariot, but rather with Melqart astride. Many ancient Phoenician coins of Tyre (the site of the Temple of Melqart) were minted depicting Melqart riding a hippocampus. And the legend of the seahorse and the loss of its horns is Phoenician in origin. Eventually the seahorse, a mythical creature half horse-half dolphin (or fish) became associated with the Greek God “Poseidon”, and was known as a hippocampus. In fact, many ancient depictions include not only a horned hippocampus, but the triton of Poseidon as well. By the most ancient accounts Poseidon was a fertility god and a patron of herdsmen. His emblem was the trident or three pronged spear. One of the twelve great Olympian gods, Poseidon was brother to Zeus and Hades. When in mythology the ancient Greek world was divided, Zeus became ruler of the sky, Hades got dominion of the Underworld and Poseidon was given dominion over all water, both fresh and salt. He was the god of earthquakes and floods and the lord of all the rivers and seas. As the god of the seas, Poseidon held great power and significance for the ancient Greeks. He was a very popular god, and is consequently the subject of many myths. He appears in both the works of Homer and of Hesiod. Poseidon's offspring included Atlas and the next nine kings of the mythical city Atlantis. Poseidon was also the horse-god, credited with the creation of the horse. Poseidon was relied upon by sailors for a safe voyage on the sea. Many men drowned horses in sacrifice of his honor. In myth he lived on the ocean floor in a palace made of coral and gems, and drove a chariot pulled by one or more hippocampi. The God Poseidon was known as Neptune in Roman mythology. Neptune never really gained the popularity with the Romans that he had as Poseidon with the Greeks. Neptune was held in much higher regard by the Roman as Neptune Equester, the god and patron of horse-racing and horses. In fact this engraved depiction of a hippocampus is probably more a reflection of its Syrian origin and Greco-Phoenician heritage, than of Rome. Syria might have been the most significant province in the Roman Empire, but its heritage included both the Phoenician and Greek worlds, and the flavor of this carved seal is decidedly Greco-Phoenician. As described, the ring does evidence considerable wear. It is clear that it was used as a seal for many years, perhaps even a couple of generations, as the seal has become a bit indistinct from wear; i.e., the finer details have been worn down a bit. And the ring was worn for such an extended period of time that eventually the original bands must have been worn away, as the wire band that now is mounted to the bezel is clearly an ancient replacement, quite cleverly done and attractive, but nonetheless a replacement/repair. However this should not be a source for disappointment. You must keep in mind that the ring was produced by an artisan and sold to a patron or consumer with the idea that the ring would be enjoyed and worn by the purchaser. And without any regard to twenty-first century posterity, that precisely what happened! The original Roman owner of this ring wore it, enjoyed it, and probably never could have in his most delusional moment ever dreamed that almost 100 generations later the ring would still exist. It should likewise come as no surprise that also detectable are the telltale signs that the ring spent thousands of years in the soil. Porosity is fine surface pitting (oxidation, corrosion) caused by extended burial in caustic soil. Many small ancient metal artifacts such as this are extensively disfigured and suffer substantial degradation as a consequence of the ordeal of being buried for millennia. It is not at all unusual to find metal artifacts decomposed to the point where they are not much more substantial than discolored patterns in the soil. Actually most smaller ancient artifacts such as this are so badly oxidized that oftentimes all that is left is a green (bronze) or red (iron) stain in the soil, or an artifact which crumbles in your hand. However this specimen is not so heavily afflicted, and certainly has not been disfigured. To the casual inspection of the casual admirer, it simply looks like an ancient ring, nicely surfaced, no immediately discernible blemishes. You have to look fairly closely to detect the telltale signs indicating the ring was buried for millennia. No denying, there is oxidation. However the extent is very modest. This ring spent almost 2,000 years buried, yet by good fortune there is only a fairly moderate degree of porosity evidenced. It happened to come to rest in reasonably gentle soil conditions. Consequentially, the integrity of the artifact remains undiminished (notwithstanding the ancient repairs), and despite the wear, the rings remains quite handsome, and entirely wearable. Another feature of the ring which bears evidence of being buried for millennia is the fact that the wire bands are slightly misshapen, consequence of the pressure of the soil exerted on the artifact during the thousands of years it was buried. One could heat the bands and gently reshape them if desired. But inasmuch as the ring “wears well” as it is, it seemed advisable to “leave well enough alone”. The handsome ring creates a very distinctive appearance – a classically timeless design. And though the ring obviously has been worn, it is nonetheless fairly well preserved. As you can see the design of the ring is simple, but elegant. The ring’s integrity is relatively undiminished by the passage of time, and it has been professionally conserved. There are no cracks, chips, or other impairments to its integrity. The ring is sturdy, beautifully toned, and quite handsome. The Romans were of course very fond of ornate personal jewelry including bracelets worn both on the forearm and upper arm, brooches, pendants, hair pins, earrings intricate fibulae and belt buckles, and of course, rings. This is an exceptional piece of Roman jewelry, a very handsome artifact, and eminently wearable. Aside from being significant to the history of ancient jewelry, it is also an evocative relic of one of the world’s greatest civilizations and than ancient world’s most significant military machine; the glory, might and light which was known as the “Roman Empire”. And it is as well a significant relic pertaining to ancient Greco-Roman-Phoenician mythology. This ring could easily be worn and enjoyed on a daily basis for many, many years to come. HISTORY: One of the greatest civilizations of recorded history was the ancient Roman Empire. In exchange for a very modest amount of contemporary currency, you can possess a small part of that great civilization in the form of a 2,000 year old piece of jewelry. The Roman civilization, in relative terms the greatest military power in the history of the world, was founded in the 8th century (B.C.). By the 4th Century (B.C.) the Romans were the dominant power on the Italian Peninsula, having defeated the Etruscans and Celts. In the 3rd Century (B.C.) the Romans conquered Sicily, and in the following century defeated Carthage, and controlled the Greece. Throughout the remainder of the 2nd Century (B.C.) the Roman Empire continued its gradual conquest of the Hellenistic (Greek Colonial) World by conquering Syria and Macedonia; and finally came to control Egypt in the 1st Century (B.C.). The pinnacle of Roman power was achieved in the 1st Century (A.D.) as Rome conquered much of Britain and Western Europe. For a brief time, the era of “Pax Romana”, a time of peace and consolidation reigned. Civilian emperors were the rule, and the culture flourished with a great deal of liberty enjoyed by the average Roman Citizen. However within 200 years the Roman Empire was in a state of steady decay, attacked by Germans, Goths, and Persians. In the 4th Century (A.D.) the Roman Empire was split between East and West. The Great Emperor Constantine temporarily arrested the decay of the Empire, but within a hundred years after his death the Persians captured Mesopotamia, Vandals infiltrated Gaul and Spain, and the Goths even sacked Rome itself. Most historians date the end of the Western Roman Empire to 476 (A.D.) when Emperor Romulus Augustus was deposed. However the Eastern Roman Empire (The Byzantine Empire) survived until the fall of Constantinople in 1453 A.D. At its peak, the Roman Empire stretched from Britain in the West, throughout most of Western, Central, and Eastern Europe, and into Asia Minor. Valuables such as coins and jewelry were commonly buried for safekeeping, and inevitably these ancient citizens would succumb to one of the many perils of the ancient world. Oftentimes the survivors of these individuals did not know where the valuables had been buried, and today, two thousands years later caches of coins and rings are still commonly uncovered throughout Europe and Asia Minor. Roman Soldiers oftentimes came to possess large quantities of “booty” from their plunderous conquests, and routinely buried their treasure for safekeeping before they went into battle. If they met their end in battle, most often the whereabouts of their treasure was likewise, unknown. Throughout history these treasures have been inadvertently discovered by farmers in their fields, uncovered by erosion, and the target of unsystematic searches by treasure seekers. With the introduction of metal detectors and other modern technologies to Eastern Europe in the past three or four decades, an amazing number of new finds are seeing the light of day 2,000 years or more after they were originally hidden by their past owners. And with the liberalization of post-Soviet Eastern Europe, new markets have opened eager to share in these treasures of the Roman Empire. HISTORY OF ROMAN SYRIA: Antioch was the capitol city of the Roman Province of Syria. Antioch stands at the focal point for communications with Palestine to the south and with the Euphrates to the east. A road led southwest through the suburb of Daphne to the Seleucid seaport of Laodicea, and another road to Antioch's own harbor town, Seleuceia. The ancient city extended along both sides of the Orontes River, which was crossed by five bridges (of which one of Roman origin still remains). Daphne was the celebrated sanctuary of Apollo. The road between Antioch and Daphne - a distance of five miles - was bordered by parks, fountains, villas and splendid structures appropriate to the gay procession that thronged from the city gate to the scene of consecrated pleasure. Daphne itself was a pleasure garden. ompey added Antioch to the Roman Empire in 64 BC. The city still flourished after annexation to the Roman Empire, and was one of the two largest cities in the East, the other being Alexandria. Its continued prosperity was due to its position as an administrative center and its excellent trade routes to the hinterland and overseas. Antioch, the famous "Queen of the East", with its population of more than half a million, its beautiful site, its trade and culture, and its important military position, was a rival of Alexandria (Egypt). The two cities vied for position as the most significant city in the empire after Rome itself. The Greco-Macedorian colonies which comprised Syria had been in the past organized as self-governing city-states. Required to pay taxes and obey royal ordinances but allowed to administer their internal affairs. These semi-independent satrapies were begun by the Persian Empire, retained by Seleucid, and essentially the system used by the Romans. When Pompey established the Roman province of Syria in 64 B.C., Antioch was included within it as a nominally free city, and as such it continued until the time of Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.). The early emperors raised some large and important structures, such as aqueducts, amphitheaters and baths. Antioch seems to have had almost a monopoly in the valuable ivory trade from the elephants that existed in the region at the time. It long enjoyed the right of coinage even during the Republican period when it was the only city in the entire empire (other than Rome itself) which was permitted to strike coinage with the inscription “SC”, which was the abbreviation for Senatus Consultus (with the permission of the Senate). The Roman emperors Caligula, Trajan, and Hadrian built aqueducts to supply Antioch with excellent water. Under Diocletian an Imperial armament factory was established at Antioch. Under Roman rule, Alexandria and Antioch, with their unruly, pleasure-seeking and highly industrious populations were great eastern capitals. Their busy trade brought strange peoples and cargoes from as far away as India and China, and at the same time, as centers of learning, they continued to attract intellectual leaders. The population of Antioch was an agglomeration of peoples and races, and the city was divided into sections, or quarters. There were Greeks, Macedonians, Jews, and Syrians, with occasional Egyptians, Mesopotamians, and Persians. Proud, turbulent and satirical, the Antiochians were noted for their mastery of the art of ridicule, coupled with an inability to hold their tongue. Having enjoyed autonomy for most of their history, they chafed under Roman rule. They insulted each Roman Emperor, General, or Governor, sent their way. They also suffered the wrath of the insulted party. Hadrian withdrew the right of coinage; Marcus Aurelius the right of assembly; Septimius Severus transferred the primacy (capitol city) of Syria to away from Antioch to Laodicea, where it temporarily remained. Emperors bestowed titles and rights upon a city as a reward for good behavior; they withdrew these privileges as a punishment for disloyalty. Though diminished by repeated severe earthquakes and several sacks by the Persians, Antioch remained a significant city well in the timeframe of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire. HISTORY OF BRONZE: Bronze is the name given to a wide range of alloys of copper, typically mixed in ancient times with zinc, tin, lead, or arsenic. The discovery of bronze enabled people to create metal objects which were better than previously possible. Tools, weapons, armor, and building materials made of bronze were harder and more durable than their stone and copper predecessors from the “Chalcolithic” (the “Copper Age”), i.e., about 7000-3500 B.C., and the Neolithic (“New Stone Age”), i.e. about 12000 to 7000 B.C.). Of particular significance were bronze agricultural implements, tools for cutting stone, and weapons. Culturally significant was bronze statuary, particularly that of the Romans and Greeks. The ancient Greeks and Romans had a long history of making statuary in bronze. Literally thousands of images of gods and heroes, victorious athletes, statesmen, and philosophers filled temples and sanctuaries, and stood in the public areas of major cities. In fact, the Statue of Zeus at Olympia and the Colossus of Rhodes are two of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Initially bronze was made out of copper and arsenic. It was only later that tin was used, becoming (except in ancient Egypt) the sole type of bronze in the late 3rd millennium B.C. Tin-alloyed bronze was superior to arsenic-alloyed bronze in that the alloying process itself could more easily be controlled, the alloy was stronger and easier to cast, and unlike arsenic, tin is not toxic. Toxicity was a major factor in the production of arsenic bronze. Repeated exposure to arsenic fumes ultimately led to nerve damage in the limbs. Evidence of the long agony of Bronze Age metalsmiths came down to the ancient Greeks and Romans in the form of legend, as the Greek and Roman gods of metalsmiths, Greek Hephaestus and Roman Vulcan, were both lame. In practice historical bronze alloys are highly variable in composition, as most metalworkers probably used whatever scrap was to hand. In one instance of ancient bronze from Britain, analysis showed the bronze to contain a mixture of copper, zinc, tin, lead, nickel, iron, antimony, arsenic, and silver. Other advantages of bronze over iron include that bronze better resists corrosion, particularly seawater corrosion; bronze resists metal fatigue better than iron; and bronze is a better heat conductor (and thus is better suited for cooking vessels). However ancient bronze, unless conserved properly, is susceptible to “bronze disease”, wherein hydrochloric or hydrosulfuric acid is formed due to impurities (cuprous chloride or sulfur) found within the ancient bronze. Traditionally archaeology has maintained that the earliest bronze was produced by the Maikop, a proto-Indo-European, proto-Celtic culture of Caucasus prehistory around 3500 B.C. Recent evidence however suggests that the smelting of bronze might be as much as several thousand years older (bronze artifacts dating from about 4500 B.C. have been unearthed in Thailand). Shortly after the emergence of bronze technology in the Caucasus region, bronze technology emerged in ancient Mesopotamia (Sumer), Egypt, the Indus Valley Civilization of Northern India, the Aegean, the Caspian Steppes (Ukraine), the Southern Russia/Central Mongolia Region (the Altai Mountains), the Levant (Eastern Mediterranean), Anatolia (Turkey) and the Iranian Plateau. By the late third millennium B.C. many Western European Bronze Age Cultures had emerged. Some of the more notable were the Celtic cultures of Middle Europe stretching from Hungary to Poland and Germany, including the Urnfield, Lusatian, and (Iron Age Transitional) Hallstatt Cultures. The Shang in ancient China also developed a significant Bronze Age culture, noted for large bronze burial urns. The ancient Chinese were the first to cast bronze (using the “lost wax” technique) about 2200 B.C. Prior to that time all bronze items were forged. Though weapons and utilitarian items were produced in great numbers, the production of bronze in ancient China was especially noteworthy for ornamented ritualistic/religious vessels (urns, wine vessels, water pots, food containers, and musical instruments), many of immense size. Britain’s Bronze Age cultures included the Beaker, Wessex, Deverl, and Rimbury. Copper and tin ores are rarely found together, so the production of bronze has always involved trade. Cornwall was one of the most significant sources of tin not only for Britain, but exported throughout the Mediterranean. Other significant suppliers of tine were the Taurus Mountains of Anatolia (Turkey), as well as Spain. Enormous amounts of copper was produced from the Great Orme mine in North Wales, the island of Cyprus, the European Alps, and from the Sinai Peninsula and other nearby sites in the Levant. Though much of the raw minerals may have come from Britain, Spain, Anatolia, and the Sinai, it was the Aegean world which controlled the trade in bronze. The great seafaring Minoan Empire (about 2700 to 1450 B.C.) appears to have controlled, coordinated, and defended the trade. Tin and charcoal were imported into Cyprus, where locally mined copper was mined and alloyed with the tin from Britain. Indicative of the seafaring trade in the Eastern Mediterranean, a shipwreck from about 1300 B.C. off the Turkish coast revealed a ship carrying a ton of copper ingots, several dozen small tin ingots, new bronze tools, scrap metal, and a blacksmith's forge and tools (along with luxury trade goods from Africa). It appears that the Bronze Age collapsed with the fall of Minoan Empire, to be replaced by a Dark Age and the eventual rise of the Iron Age Myceneans (on mainland Greece). Evidence suggests that the precipitating event might have been the eruption of Thera (Santorini) and the ensuing tsunami, which was only about 40 miles north of Crete, the capital of the Minoan empire. Some archaeologists argue that it was Santorini itself which was the capitol city of the Minoan World. However where Crete or Santorini, it is known that the bread-basket of the Minoan trading empire, the area north of the Black Sea lost population, and thereafter many Minoan colony/client-states lost large populations to extreme famines or pestilence. Inasmuch as the Minoans were the principals of the tin/copper shipping network throughout the Mediterranean, the Bronze Age trade network is believed to have failed. The end of the Bronze Age and the rise of the Iron Age is normally associated with the disturbances created by large population disruptions in the 12th century B.C. The end of the Bronze Age saw the emergence of new technologies and civilizations which included the large-scale production of iron (and limited scale production of steel). Although iron was in many respects much inferior to bronze (and steel was inefficiently produced in very limited quantities), iron had the advantage that it could be produced using local resources during the dark ages that followed the Minoan collapse, and was very inexpensive when compared to the cost of producing bronze. Bronze was still a superior metal, resisting both corrosion and metal fatigue better than iron. And bronze was still used during the Iron Age, but for many purposes the weaker iron was sufficiently strong to serve in its place. As an example, Roman officers were equipped with bronze swords while foot soldiers had to make do with iron blades. Pliny the Elder, the famous first century Roman historian and naturalist, wrote about the reuse of scrap bronze and copper in Roman foundries, noting that the metals were recast as armor, weapons or articles for personal use, such as bronze mirrors. The melting and recasting foundries were located at the Italian port city of Brindisi. Located on the Adriatic coast, Brindisi was the terminus of the great Appian Way, the Roman road constructed to facilitate trade and military access throughout the Italian part of the Roman Empire. The city was the gateway for Roman penetration into the eastern parts of her empire (Greece, the Eastern Mediterranean, the Black Sea Region, the Danubian Provinces, and eventually Mesopotamia). Domestic shipping (insured first class mail) is included in the price shown. Domestic shipping also includes USPS Delivery Confirmation (you might be able to update the status of your shipment on-line at the USPS Web Site). Canadian shipments are an extra $15.99 for Insured Air Mail; International shipments are an extra $19.99 for Air Mail (and generally are NOT tracked; trackable shipments are EXTRA). ADDITIONAL PURCHASES do receive a VERY LARGE discount, typically about $5 per item so as to reward you for the economies of combined shipping/insurance costs. Your purchase will ordinarily be shipped within 48 hours of payment. We package as well as anyone in the business, with lots of protective padding and containers. We do NOT recommend uninsured shipments, and expressly disclaim any responsibility for the loss of an uninsured shipment. Unfortunately the contents of parcels are easily “lost” or misdelivered by postal employees – even in the USA. If you intend to pay via PayPal, please be aware that PayPal Protection Policies REQUIRE insured, trackable shipments, which is UNCLUDED in our price. International tracking is at additional cost. We do offer U.S. Postal Service Priority Mail, Registered Mail, and Express Mail for both international and domestic shipments, as well United Parcel Service (UPS) and Federal Express (Fed-Ex). Please ask for a rate quotation. We will accept whatever payment method you are most comfortable with. If upon receipt of the item you are disappointed for any reason whatever, I offer a no questions asked return policy. Send it back, I will give you a complete refund of the purchase price (less our original shipping costs). Most of the items I offer come from the collection of a family friend who was active in the field of Archaeology for over forty years. However many of the items also come from purchases I make in Eastern Europe, India, and from the Levant (Eastern Mediterranean/Near East) from various institutions and dealers. Though I have always had an interest in archaeology, my own academic background was in sociology and cultural anthropology. After my retirement however, I found myself drawn to archaeology as well. Aside from my own personal collection, I have made extensive and frequent additions of my own via purchases on Ebay (of course), as well as many purchases from both dealers and institutions throughout the world – but especially in the Near East and in Eastern Europe. I spend over half of my year out of the United States, and have spent much of my life either in India or Eastern Europe. In fact much of what we generate on Yahoo, Amazon and Ebay goes to support The Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, as well as some other worthy institutions in Europe connected with Anthropology and Archaeology. I acquire some small but interesting collections overseas from time-to-time, and have as well some duplicate items within my own collection which I occasionally decide to part with. Though I have a collection of ancient coins numbering in the tens of thousands, my primary interest is in ancient jewelry. My wife also is an active participant in the “business” of antique and ancient jewelry, and is from Russia. I would be happy to provide you with a certificate/guarantee of authenticity for any item you purchase from me. There is a $2 fee for mailing under separate cover. Whenever I am overseas I have made arrangements for purchases to be shipped out via domestic mail. If I am in the field, you may have to wait for a week or two for a COA to arrive via international air mail. But you can be sure your purchase will arrive properly packaged and promptly – even if I am absent. And when I am in a remote field location with merely a notebook computer, at times I am not able to access my email for a day or two, so be patient, I will always respond to every email. Please see our "ADDITIONAL TERMS OF SALE."

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