AD400 Roman Thrace Teardrop Shape Zig-Zag Lightening Bolt Engraved Ring Size 5

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Seller: ancientgifts (4,624) 100%, Location: Lummi Island, Washington, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 382588282276 When ordering from the US, parcels may be subject to import tax and duty charges, which the buyer is responsible to pay. Size 5 Genuine Ancient Teardrop (Ivy Leaf) Shaped Engraved Roman Bronze Ring 400 A.D. CLASSIFICATION: Ancient Roman Bronze Ring with Engraved Geometric Design on Teardrop (Ivy Leaf) Shaped Bezel. ATTRIBUTION: Eastern Roman Empire (Thracia), Fourth Century A.D. SIZE/MEASUREMENTS: Fits ring size 5 (U.S.) Bezel: 13mm (height) * 11mm (height) * 3mm (thickness). Fixed Width 3mm Band. Overall Measurements: 21mm * 19mm (outer diameter); 17mm * 16mm (inner diameter). Weight: 3.49 grams. CONDITION: Excellent! Completely intact, moderately light wear consistent with occasional use, and little porosity (surface pitting caused by contact with earth while buried). Professionally conserved. DETAIL: An especially nice crafted and well preserved ancient Roman bronze ring circa 350-400 A.D. As you can see, the design is simple, but elegant. The "bezel" or center part of this ring is a very elegant teardrop shape, probably intended to be in the shape of an ivy leaf. The bezel itself is decorated with a zig-zag pattern which is probably nothing more than an abstract geometric pattern, which was a quite popular theme in late Imperial Rome. The engraving does bear a resemblance to a Roman depiction of a lightening bolt, which was shield (scutum) emblem used by a number of Roman Legions, including the infamous Tenth. The tenth, which fought for Julius Caesar, also was used to put down the revolt in Judea. However as much as the engraving looks like a lightening bolt to contemporary eyes, the Roman depiction of a lightening bolt was stylistically a little bit different. So this is probably merely a pleasing geometric design, quite handsome nonetheless. The construction of the ring is of the more archaic style where the bands and bezel are crafted separately and then attached. The workmanship is quite competent however – it is very difficult to ascertain that the bands and bezel are not of one-piece construction. Despite the archaic style, the craftsmanship is not in the slightest crude. The bezel is quite sturdy, a whopping three millimeters in thickness at the center point. The bands are three millimeters in width and over a millimeter thick. It is quite well constructed, but nonetheless maintains a delicate and artistic demeanor. The ring was obviously worn on occasion during the original owner’s lifetime in the four or fifth century Roman province of Thrace. But the wear is very light and of no detrimental consequence. The ring is superbly preserved and restored. The pattern is deeply engraved, and the engraving remains distinct. You have to look very closely to see any of the telltale signs indicating the ring was buried for millennia. Most small artifacts such as this suffer extensive degradation from porosity, which is fine surface pitting caused by prolonged burial in caustic soil. This ring spent perhaps over 1,600 years buried, yet by good fortune there is very little porosity evidenced. It happened to come to rest in very gentle soil conditions. This is an exceptional piece of Roman jewelry, a very handsome artifact, eminently wearable, and even under a jeweler's loop or magnifying glass, there is little discernable degradation due to corrosion, oxidation, porosity, except for very light wear consistent with occasional usage by the original ancient Roman owner. It is a quite remarkable artifact. The Romans were very fond of jewelry and personal ornamentation, making wide use of very ornate belt buckles, brooches, earrings, hair pins, bracelets worn both on the forearm and upper arm, rings, and pendants. The ring is distinctive in appearance – a classically timeless design. The ring has a very nice patina, a medium tone quite characteristic of ancient bronze. The ring could easily be worn and enjoyed on a daily basis for many, many decades to come. HISTORY: Legio X Fretensis (“Fretensis” meaning “of the sea straits”) was established in 41 or 40 B.C. by Octavius Augustus, the adopted son and heir of Julius Caesar. The legion was created in order to put an end to Sextus Pompeius' occupation of Sicily, which had imperiled Rome’s grain supply. Sextus Pompeius was the son of Pompey the Great, against whom Julius Caesar had engaged in civil war. Pompey and his son and many of Rome’s senators formed the “Republican” faction, favoring the traditional Republican form of government over an autocracy headed by Julius Caesar, and had fled East when Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon. Legio X Fretensis received the numeric designation “X” as a reminder of Julius Caesar’s Legio X Gemina (even though Legion X Gemina was still in existence under the command of reminder of Caesar's tenth legion - although the original legion served in the army of Octavian's fellow-triumvir and rival Marc Antony). According to historians, the new legion received its surname “Fretensis” because it guarded the Straits of Messina (between Sicily and the Italian mainland). After Sextus Pompeius had been defeated, relations between Marc Antony and Augustus deteriorated to the point where again Rome became embroiled in a civil war, culminating in the Battle of Actium in 31 B.C. where the forces of Augustus defeated to forces of Marc Antony and Cleaopatra VII, bring the last of the Hellenic Dynasties to an end. The Battle of Actium was essentially a naval battle, and the two opposing legionary land forces witnessing the battle, never really engaged each other. At the conclusion of the naval battle, Marc Antony’s legions found themselves abandoned by Marc Antony, and so surrendered to Augustus. Curiously enough, while the Legio X Fretensis had been under the command of Augustus, Legio X Gemina had been under the command of Marc Antony. After the victory at Actium, many Roman Legions were pensioned off. Soldiers of the Tenth were sent to Cremona in northern Italy, which was thenceforth known as the Colonia Veneria; dedicated to the goddess Venus. Legio X Fretensis was ultimately reactivated and briefly sent to the Balkans, and then transferred to Syria sometime in the first decade of the first millennium (about 5 A.D.). Some of the units of the Tenth were stationed at Cyrrhus, where they guarded the route from the Euphrates to Antioch. In between their station in the Balkans and their permanent transfer to Syria, the Tenth was likely used to suppress the rebellions of the Jewish messianic claimants Judas, Simon, and Athronges after the death of King Herod the Great in 4 B.C. Again the Tenth found itself in Judaea in 6 A.D. when the Roman Governor of Syria, Publius Sulpicius Quirinius, again found it necessary to dispatch Roman legions to quiet a population newly agitated after Augustus had exiled Herod Archelaus and annexed Judaea as a Roman Province (and not merely a client Kingdom). Elements of the Tenth were known to have been headquartered at Ptolemais (or “Acco/“Akko” as it wsas also known in ancient times, present-day Acre, Israel). During the reign of Nero Legio X Fretensis fought successfully in Armenia against the Parthians. In 66 A.D. the Tenth was sent into Jerusalem to quell an incipient rebellion, was unable to subdue the city, was defeated, and lost their eagle standard, an event which is oftentimes given as a primary cause of the first Jewish Roman War (66-73 A.D.). After spending the winter of 66 A.D. in Ptolemais, from 67 A.D. onward the Tenth fought in the war against the Jews. It was commanded by Marcus Ulpius Trajanus, the father of the future Roman Emperor Trajan. The supreme commander of the Roman forces in Judaea was General Vespasian, who was to become emperor during the civil war that broke out after the suicide of Nero in 68 A.D. After the first year of war, the Tenth wintered at Caesarea, and after the capture of Gamala, moved to Scythopolis (modern Beth-Shean). In the summer of 68 A.D. the Tenth destroyed the monastery of Qumran, where the Dead Sea Scrolls were found, whereafter the Tenth wintered at Jericho and was mentioned in the accounts of Flavius Josephus. In 70 A.D. the Tenth took part in the siege of Jerusalem, and eventually was responsible for the siege of the citadel at Masada. The tenth was to stay in Judaea for more than a century and a half. After a campaign against the Parthians in 115-117 A.D., the Tenth was again involved in war against Judaea in the Second Jewish-Roman War (132-136 A.D.). The Tenth was forced to evacuate its fortress at Jerusalem, where the Jews restored the proper cult in the Temple. When the Romans finally prevailed over the Jews in 136 A.D. and the war came to an end, a second Roman Legion was permanently headquartered in the region so as to prevent future uprisings of the Jews. The Legio VI Ferrata Ferrata was transferred to Palestine, and from that time onwards two legions were to occupy the reorganized province. During the reign of Marcus Aurelius the Tenth was present in Dacia as part of the Roman effort in the Marcomannic War. The Tenth legion was still in Jerusalem during the reign of Caracalla (211-217 A.D.), but it was shortly thereafter transferred to Aela, near modern Eilat, where it guarded the Scorpion pass, which connects Eilat with central Israel. The specific history of the Tenth thereafter rather dissolves into the chaotic uncertainties during the decline of Rome, except it is known that they were deployed by the Emperor Gallienus participated in the civil war between Rome and the splinter Gallic Empire of Postumus. Sometime in the Fourth Century the Tenth was moved to Aila (close to modern Aqaba, the southern port city of Jordan), and was described in historical documents of the time (the Roman Notitia Dignitatum circa 410-420 A.D.) as still being stationed in Palestine. If you would like to learn more about Legio X Fretensis, there are a couple of good starting points here and here; and some nice historical recreations here. ANCIENT MACEDONIA: Macedon (or Macedonia) is known to have been inhabited since the Neolithic, early inhabitants including Thracians, Pannonians, and Ilyrians. It is believed by anthropologists that the original population was of Indo-European Dorian stock. The Dorians were responsible for the invasion of Myceanean Greece to the south about 1150 A.D., precipitating the “Greek Dark Ages”. Mycenea was sacked, and the archaeological record shows that many other principle cities in Greece and Crete were reduced to villages. It is known that the Greeks considered the Doric Macedonians “barbarians”, and that the Macedonians spoke a distinct language or dialect, and were considered by the Greeks as “non-Greek” speakers. Up until the time of Alexander the Great Macedonians were not allowed to participate in Olympic Games. However with the Hellenization of the Greek Peninsula, eventually Macedon was considered Hellenic. The area of ancient Macedon was in the north part of the Greek Peninsula, and was bordered by ancient Thrace. Ancient Macedon is now split between Greece and the Republic of Macedonia (formerly part of Yugosalvia). Due to the barbarian incursions and depopulation of the region after the fall of the Roman Empire, the surviving Greek population of Macedon fled southwards into what is now the Macedonian region of Greece; while eventually the northernmost regions (present day Republic of Macedonia) became repopulated with Slavic peoples, and even later by Armenians. The ancient populations coalesced into the Kingdom of Macedonia about 800 B.C. Ancient Macedon fell to the Persian Armies of Darius the Great in the late sixth century B.C. It became more Hellenic in character after King Alexander I of Macedon began promoting the Attic (Greek) dialect and culture in the first half of the fifth century B.C. The Hellenic character of Macedon grew over the next century. Under the rule of Philip II, Macedon extended its power over the rest of northern Greece, including Thrace, Pannonia, and Illyria. Philip's son Alexander the Great conquered not only the remainder of Greece, but also the Persian Empire, Egypt, and Northern India. After his death Alexander’s generals divided the empire between them, founding their own states and dynasties. Macedon was part of the empire created by Antigonus, remaining independent until foolishly engaging the Romans in three successive wars in the late third and early second centuries B.C. The Romans initially divided Macedonia into four republics, client kingdoms of Rome, before finally annexing Macedon as the first Roman Province in 146 B.C. With the division of the Roman Empire, Macedon eventually became part of the surviving Eastern Roman/Byzantine Empire. However the population of the entire region was severely depleted by destructive successive invasions of Goths, Avars, Visigoths, Huns, and Vandals. In the fifth and sixth centuries a number of Slavic tribes repopulated the desolated northern regions (what is today the Republic of Macedonia). Most of inland (Slavic) Macedonia was incorporated into Bulgaria in the ninth century, while the ethnic Greek Aegean coastal regions remained part of the Byzantine Empire. However the period following (one century plus) was punctuated by almost incessant warfare between Bulgaria and the Byzantine Empire, until finally in 1018 A.D. Bulgaria fell and the whole of Macedonia was incorporated into the Byzantine Empire as the province of Bulgaria. Macedonia was ultimately to fall to the Islamic Ottoman Empire in the first half of the fifteenth century. For the next five centuries Macedonia remained part of the Ottoman Empire. The initial period of Ottoman rule saw the complete desolation of the plains and river valleys of Macedonia. The Christian population there was slaughtered, escaped to the mountains or was forcefully converted to Islam. Towns destroyed during the conquest were repopulated with Turkish Muslim settlers. At the conclusion of World War I and the dismembering of the Ottoman Empire, Macedonia was incorporated with the rest of Serbia into the Kingdon of Serbs, Croats, Slovenes (later the Kingdom of Yugoslavia). After the fall of the Soviet Empire late in the twentieth century, Slavic Macedonia became the Republic of Macedonia. Greek Macedonia remains of course, part of Greece. ROMAN HISTORY: One of the greatest civilizations of recorded history was the ancient Roman Empire. In exchange for a very modest amount of contemporary currency, you can possess a small part of that great civilization in the form of a 2,000 year old ancient Roman artifact. The Roman civilization, in relative terms the greatest military power in the history of the world, was founded in the 8th century (B.C.). In the 4th Century (B.C.) the Romans were the dominant power on the Italian Peninsula, having defeated the Etruscans and Celts. In the 3rd Century (B.C.) the Romans conquered Sicily, and in the following century defeated Carthage, and controlled the Greece. Throughout the remainder of the 2nd Century (B.C.) the Roman Empire continued its gradual conquest of the Hellenistic (Greek Colonial) World by conquering Syria and Macedonia; and finally came to control Egypt in the 1st Century (B.C.) The pinnacle of Roman power was achieved in the 1st Century (A.D.) as Rome conquered much of Britain and Western Europe. At its peak, the Roman Empire stretched from Britain in the West, throughout most of Western, Central, and Eastern Europe, and into Asia Minor. For a brief time, the era of “Pax Romana”, a time of peace and consolidation reigned. Civilian emperors were the rule, and the culture flourished with a great deal of liberty enjoyed by the average Roman Citizen. However within 200 years the Roman Empire was in a state of steady decay, attacked by Germans, Goths, and Persians. The decline was temporarily halted by third century Emperor Diocletian. In the 4th Century (A.D.) the Roman Empire was split between East and West. The Great Emperor Constantine again managed to temporarily arrest the decay of the Empire, but within a hundred years after his death the Persians captured Mesopotamia, Vandals infiltrated Gaul and Spain, and the Goths even sacked Rome itself. Most historians date the end of the Western Roman Empire to 476 (A.D.) when Emperor Romulus Augustus was deposed. However the Eastern Roman Empire (The Byzantine Empire) survived until the fall of Constantinople in 1453 A.D. In the ancient world valuables such as coins and jewelry were commonly buried for safekeeping, and inevitably the owners would succumb to one of the many perils of the ancient world. Oftentimes the survivors of these individuals did not know where the valuables had been buried, and today, thousands of years later caches of coins and rings are still commonly uncovered throughout Europe and Asia Minor. Throughout history these treasures have been inadvertently discovered by farmers in their fields, uncovered by erosion, and the target of unsystematic searches by treasure seekers. With the introduction of metal detectors and other modern technologies to Eastern Europe in the past three or four decades, an amazing number of new finds are seeing the light of day thousands of years after they were originally hidden by their past owners. And with the liberalization of post-Soviet Eastern Europe, new markets have opened eager to share in these ancient treasures. HISTORY OF BRONZE: Bronze is the name given to a wide range of alloys of copper, typically mixed in ancient times with zinc, tin, lead, or arsenic. The discovery of bronze enabled people to create metal objects which were better than previously possible. Tools, weapons, armor, and building materials made of bronze were harder and more durable than their stone and copper predecessors from the “Chalcolithic” (the “Copper Age”), i.e., about 7000-3500 B.C., and the Neolithic (“New Stone Age”), i.e. about 12000 to 7000 B.C.). Of particular significance were bronze agricultural implements, tools for cutting stone, and weapons. Culturally significant was bronze statuary, particularly that of the Romans and Greeks. The ancient Greeks and Romans had a long history of making statuary in bronze. Literally thousands of images of gods and heroes, victorious athletes, statesmen, and philosophers filled temples and sanctuaries, and stood in the public areas of major cities. In fact, the Statue of Zeus at Olympia and the Colossus of Rhodes are two of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Initially bronze was made out of copper and arsenic. It was only later that tin was used, becoming (except in ancient Egypt) the sole type of bronze in the late 3rd millennium B.C. Tin-alloyed bronze was superior to arsenic-alloyed bronze in that the alloying process itself could more easily be controlled, the alloy was stronger and easier to cast, and unlike arsenic, tin is not toxic. Toxicity was a major factor in the production of arsenic bronze. Repeated exposure to arsenic fumes ultimately led to nerve damage in the limbs. Evidence of the long agony of Bronze Age metalsmiths came down to the ancient Greeks and Romans in the form of legend, as the Greek and Roman gods of metalsmiths, Greek Hephaestus and Roman Vulcan, were both lame. In practice historical bronze alloys are highly variable in composition, as most metalworkers probably used whatever scrap was to hand. In one instance of ancient bronze from Britain, analysis showed the bronze to contain a mixture of copper, zinc, tin, lead, nickel, iron, antimony, arsenic, and silver. Other advantages of bronze over iron include that bronze better resists corrosion, particularly seawater corrosion; bronze resists metal fatigue better than iron; and bronze is a better heat conductor (and thus is better suited for cooking vessels). However ancient bronze, unless conserved properly, is susceptible to “bronze disease”, wherein hydrochloric or hydrosulfuric acid is formed due to impurities (cuprous chloride or sulfur) found within the ancient bronze. Traditionally archaeology has maintained that the earliest bronze was produced by the Maikop, a proto-Indo-European, proto-Celtic culture of Caucasus prehistory around 3500 B.C. Recent evidence however suggests that the smelting of bronze might be as much as several thousand years older (bronze artifacts dating from about 4500 B.C. have been unearthed in Thailand). Shortly after the emergence of bronze technology in the Caucasus region, bronze technology emerged in ancient Mesopotamia (Sumer), Egypt, the Indus Valley Civilization of Northern India, the Aegean, the Caspian Steppes (Ukraine), the Southern Russia/Central Mongolia Region (the Altai Mountains), the Levant (Eastern Mediterranean), Anatolia (Turkey) and the Iranian Plateau. By the late third millennium B.C. many Western European Bronze Age Cultures had emerged. Some of the more notable were the Celtic cultures of Middle Europe stretching from Hungary to Poland and Germany, including the Urnfield, Lusatian, and (Iron Age Transitional) Hallstatt Cultures. The Shang in ancient China also developed a significant Bronze Age culture, noted for large bronze burial urns. The ancient Chinese were the first to cast bronze (using the “lost wax” technique) about 2200 B.C. Prior to that time all bronze items were forged. Though weapons and utilitarian items were produced in great numbers, the production of bronze in ancient China was especially noteworthy for ornamented ritualistic/religious vessels (urns, wine vessels, water pots, food containers, and musical instruments), many of immense size. Britain’s Bronze Age cultures included the Beaker, Wessex, Deverl, and Rimbury. Copper and tin ores are rarely found together, so the production of bronze has always involved trade. Cornwall was one of the most significant sources of tin not only for Britain, but exported throughout the Mediterranean. Other significant suppliers of tine were the Taurus Mountains of Anatolia (Turkey), as well as Spain. Enormous amounts of copper was produced from the Great Orme mine in North Wales, the island of Cyprus, the European Alps, and from the Sinai Peninsula and other nearby sites in the Levant. Though much of the raw minerals may have come from Britain, Spain, Anatolia, and the Sinai, it was the Aegean world which controlled the trade in bronze. The great seafaring Minoan Empire (about 2700 to 1450 B.C.) appears to have controlled, coordinated, and defended the trade. Tin and charcoal were imported into Cyprus, where locally mined copper was mined and alloyed with the tin from Britain. Indicative of the seafaring trade in the Eastern Mediterranean, a shipwreck from about 1300 B.C. off the Turkish coast revealed a ship carrying a ton of copper ingots, several dozen small tin ingots, new bronze tools, scrap metal, and a blacksmith's forge and tools (along with luxury trade goods from Africa). It appears that the Bronze Age collapsed with the fall of Minoan Empire, to be replaced by a Dark Age and the eventual rise of the Iron Age Myceneans (on mainland Greece). Evidence suggests that the precipitating event might have been the eruption of Thera (Santorini) and the ensuing tsunami, which was only about 40 miles north of Crete, the capital of the Minoan empire. Some archaeologists argue that it was Santorini itself which was the capitol city of the Minoan World. However where Crete or Santorini, it is known that the bread-basket of the Minoan trading empire, the area north of the Black Sea lost population, and thereafter many Minoan colony/client-states lost large populations to extreme famines or pestilence. Inasmuch as the Minoans were the principals of the tin/copper shipping network throughout the Mediterranean, the Bronze Age trade network is believed to have failed. The end of the Bronze Age and the rise of the Iron Age is normally associated with the disturbances created by large population disruptions in the 12th century B.C. The end of the Bronze Age saw the emergence of new technologies and civilizations which included the large-scale production of iron (and limited scale production of steel). Although iron was in many respects much inferior to bronze (and steel was inefficiently produced in very limited quantities), iron had the advantage that it could be produced using local resources during the dark ages that followed the Minoan collapse, and was very inexpensive when compared to the cost of producing bronze. Bronze was still a superior metal, resisting both corrosion and metal fatigue better than iron. And bronze was still used during the Iron Age, but for many purposes the weaker iron was sufficiently strong to serve in its place. As an example, Roman officers were equipped with bronze swords while foot soldiers had to make do with iron blades. Pliny the Elder, the famous first century Roman historian and naturalist, wrote about the reuse of scrap bronze and copper in Roman foundries, noting that the metals were recast as armor, weapons or articles for personal use, such as bronze mirrors. The melting and recasting foundries were located at the Italian port city of Brindisi. Located on the Adriatic coast, Brindisi was the terminus of the great Appian Way, the Roman road constructed to facilitate trade and military access throughout the Italian part of the Roman Empire. The city was the gateway for Roman penetration into the eastern parts of her empire (Greece, the Eastern Mediterranean, the Black Sea Region, the Danubian Provinces, and eventually Mesopotamia). Domestic shipping (insured first class mail) is included in the price shown. Domestic shipping also includes USPS Delivery Confirmation (you might be able to update the status of your shipment on-line at the USPS Web Site). Canadian shipments are an extra $17.99 for Insured Air Mail; International shipments are an extra $21.99 for Air Mail (and generally are NOT tracked; trackable shipments are EXTRA). ADDITIONAL PURCHASES do receive a VERY LARGE discount, typically about $5 per item so as to reward you for the economies of combined shipping/insurance costs. Your purchase will ordinarily be shipped within 48 hours of payment. We package as well as anyone in the business, with lots of protective padding and containers. We do NOT recommend uninsured shipments, and expressly disclaim any responsibility for the loss of an uninsured shipment. Unfortunately the contents of parcels are easily “lost” or misdelivered by postal employees – even in the USA. If you intend to pay via PayPal, please be aware that PayPal Protection Policies REQUIRE insured, trackable shipments, which is INCLUDED in our price. International tracking is at additional cost. We do offer U.S. Service Priority Mail, Registered Mail, and Express Mail for both international and domestic shipments, as well United Parcel Service (UPS) and Federal Express (Fed-Ex). Please ask for a rate quotation. We will accept whatever payment method you are most comfortable with. If upon receipt of the item you are disappointed for any reason whatever, I offer a no questions asked return policy. Send it back, I will give you a complete refund of the purchase price (less our original shipping costs). Most of the items I offer come from the collection of a family friend who was active in the field of Archaeology for over forty years. However many of the items also come from purchases I make in Eastern Europe, India, and from the Levant (Eastern Mediterranean/Near East) from various institutions and dealers. Though I have always had an interest in archaeology, my own academic background was in sociology and cultural anthropology. After my retirement however, I found myself drawn to archaeology as well. Aside from my own personal collection, I have made extensive and frequent additions of my own via purchases on Ebay (of course), as well as many purchases from both dealers and institutions throughout the world – but especially in the Near East and in Eastern Europe. I spend over half of my year out of the United States, and have spent much of my life either in India or Eastern Europe. In fact much of what we generate on Yahoo, Amazon and Ebay goes to support The Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, as well as some other worthy institutions in Europe connected with Anthropology and Archaeology. I acquire some small but interesting collections overseas from time-to-time, and have as well some duplicate items within my own collection which I occasionally decide to part with. Though I have a collection of ancient coins numbering in the tens of thousands, my primary interest is in ancient jewelry. My wife also is an active participant in the "business" of antique and ancient jewelry, and is from Russia. I would be happy to provide you with a certificate/guarantee of authenticity for any item you purchase from me. There is a $2 fee for mailing under separate cover. Whenever I am overseas I have made arrangements for purchases to be shipped out via domestic mail. If I am in the field, you may have to wait for a week or two for a COA to arrive via international air mail. But you can be sure your purchase will arrive properly packaged and promptly - even if I am absent. And when I am in a remote field location with merely a notebook computer, at times I am not able to access my email for a day or two, so be patient, I will always respond to every email. Please see our "ADDITIONAL TERMS OF SALE." Material Ancient Bronze Ring Size 5 Jewelry Ancient Roman Ring Material: Ancient Bronze, Ring Size: 5, Jewelry: Ancient Roman Ring

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