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Seller: californiacoolcoins4u (2,366) 100%, Location: US, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 361450085517 MEDIEVAL BYZANTINE CHRIST FOLLES Large Ancient Coin of Jesus SIZE RANGE: 21-28mm 10th and 11th Centuries This sale is for 1 Coin in Album with the Story of the Coin and a "Certificate of Authenticity" There were a few Christ portraits found on Byzantine coins issued in the 8th century which ended with the ascension of Leo III (717-741), who brought about the start of the Iconoclast period. This was a tumultuous era during which all religious images and statuary were considered by some, the "Iconoclasts", to be blasphemous, based on their strict interpretation of scripture. The population was bitterly divided over this issue. Depending on which group was in power, religious icons were intermittently destroyed, rebuilt, and then destroyed again. During this time, religious images disappeared from coins. After more than a century of culture wars, with rebellion, assassination, and destruction, the Iconoclast controversy finally ended. Coins bearing portraits of Christ became popular with the death of Theophilius in 842 AD. The next emperor, Michael III, immediately reinstated the Christ bust. Religious themes once again flourished on coins, most often associated with enhancing the emperor's legitimacy. Upon John I's ascension to the throne in 969 AD, he initiated a new standard for bronze coinage. Until this time, nearly all Byzantine coins contained the image and name of the issuing emperor. John ended this tradition on the bronze folles by introducing the "anonymous folles," a series not struck in the name of any emperor, where Jesus is portrayed in the traditional bust form on the obverse; the reverse showed only the words, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings" in a mixture of Latin and Greek. After John I's introduction of the anonymous Christ folles design, his successor Basil II and later emperors issued variations that included the addition of a cross to the reverse while retaining the abbreviations of the original inscription around the cross. Later changes replaced Jesus' bust with a full, standing figure. Reverse varieties during this period show a cross with no inscription or a bust of the Madonna. Prominent religious themes on the Byzantine coinage continued until the great monetary reform of Alexius I in AD 1092. Earliest Christ Portraits – In 692 the Trullum Council, convened by Byzantine Emperor Justianian II, decreed:…”We ordain that the human figure of Christ our God, the lamb, who took on the sins of the world, be set up in the images instead of the ancient [depection of Christ as the] lamb.” It was at this time that Justinian introduced Christ on his coins. The Iconoclasts – All Religious images, including Christ portrait on coins, disappeared in 717 A.D. with introduction of the “Iconoclast” period by Leo III. During this tumultuous era, adherents of Iconoclasm advanced strict interpretation of the scriptural ban on graven images to include all religious iconography. The Iconoclast controversy finally ended with upon death of Emperor Theophilius in 842 A.D., after more than a century of culture wars, rebellion, assassination and destruction. The next Emperor, Michael III, immediately reinstated the Christ bust on the gold coins. Religious themes once again flourished on coins. The Anonymous bronze folles- First introduced by Emperor Joannes I, Tzimisces (969-976 A.D.), Jesus traditional bust shows on the obverse. “Jesus Christ, King of Kings” shown on the reverse. This radical design change can be linked to two sets of influences. As a propaganda tool, the religious message was intended to reinforce the position that, as the Christian Empire, Byzantium was in the right in the perpetual war against the Islamic invaders. The decision to create anonymous coins can be interpreted as an act of contrition, humility or perhaps simply good politics. It seems Johannes’ rise to the throne in December of 969 resulting from assassinating his uncle, the Emperor Nicephorus II. While Nicephorus II was very unpopular with the Clergy, he was in fact sinfully murdered. On the day of Johannes’ coronation, he was stopped in the threshold of St. Sophia, by Polyeuctus, Patriarch of Constantinople, “who charged [Johannes] conscience with the deed of treason and blood” and convinced him to do penance in order to receive the Imperial Crown. The co-conspirators were all punished. Johannes was pardoned for his sins, followed soon after by his reversal of earlier laws that were prejudicial to the property of the Church. Johannes’ new coin design may have been partly motivated by personal political concerns. The design, however, caught on. The anonymous bronze folles design was Christ’s portrait continued with minor variations for another century without any depiction of the issuing Emperor. Even silver and gold issues from this time, which saw far less circulation, either relegated the Emperor to the reverse, or eliminated him completely from the coinage. Excellent Grade (Look at photo's and you decide the grade) DISCOUNT ON SHIPPING FOR MULTIPLE PURCHASES FASTEST SHIPPER ON EBAY ALL MY ITEMS ARE SHIPPED THE DAY OF PURCHASE IF PAID BEFORE 1:00PM. ALL ITEMS PAID AFTER 1:00PM WILL BE SHIPPED THE NEXT DAY… *** GUARANTEED *** ***Please don’t hold me responsible for the Post office shipping time when leaving feedback*** AND VISIT MY COOL EBAY STORES DISCOUNT ON SHIPPING FOR MULTIPLE PURCHASES FASTEST SHIPPER ON EBAY ALL MY ITEMS ARE SHIPPED THE DAY OF PURCHASE IF PAID BEFORE 1:00PM. ALL ITEMS PAID AFTER 1:00PM WILL BE SHIPPED THE NEXT DAY… *** GUARANTEED *** ***Please don’t hold me responsible for the Post Office shipping time when leaving feedback***Thank You for your Purchase and Please come back soonAll orders come with a 5% discount card good for your next purchase Not Responsible for any further charges including Customs.If unsure about Customs charges contact the Customs Office in your CountryAll coin orders over $79.99 gets a FREE Ancient Roman Coin in a Display Album with the Story of the coin and a "Certificate of Authenticity" Froo | Froo Cross Sell, Free Cross Sell, Cross promote, eBay Marketing, eBay listing Apps, eBay Apps, eBay Application Certification Number: does not apply, Certification: Uncertified, Grade: does not apply, Provenance: does not apply

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