ANTIQUE 18-19th CENTURY RUSSIAN ORTHODOX "OLD BELIEVERS" "SKULL" CROSS PENDANT

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Seller: Top-Rated Seller godblessyou21 (1,014) 100%, Location: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Ships to: US & many other countries, Item: 202834143715 Authentic antique medium-sized (approx. 1-5/8" tall with bale) Orthodox Cross pendant featuring plain and humble right-angled "Old Believers" design with image of the three-bar Savior's cross flanked by the Instruments of the Passion over the skull (Adam's head), a partially preserved complex ornament on the reverse and large solid necklace bale. The Cross appears to be made from bronze or similar copper alloy. Origin likely circa 18-19th century Imperial Russia. The Cross shows signs of wear and aging such as reduced quality of images and inscriptions, scratches, dents, lost fragments, deformations, and dark patina. The inside of the necklace bale shows signs of wear consistent with long continuous wearing. The size of the pendant is shown on the photographs. The obverse bears an image of the three-bar Suppedaneum cross surrounded with the Instruments of the Passion of Christ, such as the Holy Lance (spear) and the Holy Sponge attached to the end of a cane, several inscriptions made with Cyrillic letters, and a small image of the skull, or the Adam's head buried below the cross. The Byzantine three-bar cross is venerated in the Orthodox and some Eastern Catholic churches. Such a cross has three horizontal crossbeams: the top one represents the "INRI" nameplate, and the bottom one, a footrest. The footrest crossbeam is depicted pointing up, toward Heaven, on Christ's right hand side where the Penitent thief, St. Dismas was crucified. The top end of the vertical crossbar incorporates the larger, two-word, abbreviated inscription meaning "KING OF GLORY" used in the Eastern Orthodox pectoral crosses as a nameplate in their top part. The side ends of the central horizontal crossbar bear the Sacred Name of Jesus Christ inscribed as the Greek Christogram, as the "IC" on the left, and the "XC" on the right. Parallel to the vertical crossbar, there are images of the two Instruments of the Passion (Arms of Christ, Arma Christi), the Holy Lance (spear) of a Roman soldier, and the Holy Sponge attached to the end of a cane (stick). They are subjects to adoration along with the Cross, and are often depicted on the Byzantine-style "Golgotha" crosses worn as Baptism, body crosses for the entire life of a faithful Christian. Just below the central horizontal crossbar, there is the "NIKA" inscription in Church Slavonic (as "NI" on the left and "KA" on the right side) meaning the "VICTORY" of Christ over sin and death. A symbolic image of the skull, or Adam's head, below the image of the Suppedaneum cross refers to Golgotha (Calvary), the elevated site where Jesus was crucified, which the Bible says means "the place of the skull" in Hebrew. An ancient tradition of Catholic and Orthodox Churches held that it was also the burial place of Adam, thus also symbolizing the ultimate victory of Christ over sin and death. In the bottom end of the vertical crossbar, there is a four letter abbreviation in Cyrillic letters "MLRB" meaning "THE CALVARY (Golgotha) BECAME PARADISE", a symbol of the execution place becoming a place of the redemption and reclaiming of the lost paradise. Please examine all photographs carefully and do your own research if necessary. Please note that photographs are an important part of the item's description. The U.S. quarter coin, decorative stone and measuring meter are not for sale, and are photographed with the item in order to provide a size reference. Please ask all questions before making a purchase. There are no guarantees with the listing because most items are original vintage or antique objects that are quite old. All items are sold "as is" with no returns because of a change of mind offered. Shipping and handling is free for the continental US. International shipping is handled by Ebay Global Shipping Program. International buyers, please familiarize yourself with the Global Shipping Program through the Ebay "Help" section and ask your shipping questions, if any, prior to buying. Please note that customs regulations differ from country to country, and it is a buyer's responsibility to ensure that any customs fees or other duties collected by the buyer's country are paid and satisfied in full. Condition: Used, Condition: Authentic antique medium-sized (approx. 1-5/8" tall with bale) Orthodox Cross pendant featuring plain and humble right-angled "Old Believers" design with image of the three-bar Savior's cross flanked by the Instruments of the Passion over the skull (Adam's head), a partially preserved complex ornament on the reverse and large solid necklace bale. The Cross appears to be made from bronze or similar copper alloy. Origin likely circa 18-19th century Imperial Russia. The Cross shows signs of wear and aging such as reduced quality of images and inscriptions, scratches, dents, lost fragments, deformations, and dark patina. The inside of the necklace bale shows signs of wear consistent with long continuous wearing. The size of the pendant is shown on the photographs., Country/Region of Manufacture: Unknown, Material: Copper alloy, patina, Featured Refinements: Orthodox Cross, Type: Pendant

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