ANTIQUES c.18-19 century "OLD BELIEVE" ORTHODOX "SKULL" CROSS PSALM 68

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Seller: mitroffanov (39) 100%, Location: Ukrainian, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 254462699822 Authentic antique l Orthodox Cross pendant featuring plain and humble right-angled "Old Believers" design with image of the three-bar Savior's cross over the skull (Adam's head), large solid necklace bale, and words of Orthodox prayer based on Psalm 68 of David the King inscribed on the reverse. The Cross appears to be made from a copper alloy. It has marks from hand grinding tools such as files. Origin likely circa 18-19th century Imperial Russia. The Cross shows signs of wear and aging such as reduced quality of images and inscriptions, scratches, dents, lost fragments, deformations, and patina. The inside of the necklace bale shows signs of wear consistent with long continuous wearing. The size of the pendant is shown on the photographs. The obverse bears an image of the three-bar Suppedaneum cross surrounded with the Instruments of the Passion of Christ, such as the Holy Lance (spear) and the Holy Sponge attached to the end of a cane, several inscriptions made with Cyrillic letters, and a tiny image of the skull, or the Adam's head buried below the cross. The Byzantine three-bar cross is venerated in the Orthodox and some Eastern Catholic churches. Such a cross has three horizontal crossbeams: the top one represents the "INRI" nameplate, and the bottom one, a footrest. The footrest crossbeam is depicted pointing up, toward Heaven, on Christ's right hand side where the Penitent thief, St. Dismas was crucified.The Holy Lance and the Holy Sponge are the subjects of adoration together with the Cross, and are often depicted on the Orthodox crosses, creating an image of Calvary (Golgotha) with the three-bar cross and Adam's head. According to the "Old Believers'" tradition, the "INRI" inscription made by Pontius Pilate is considered profane or blasphemous, and is not inscribed in the nameplate part of the cross. Instead, the top end of the cross pendant bears an abbreviation in Church Slavonic which means "KING OF GLORY JESUS CHRIST (IC XC)". The Kingship of Jesus is also symbolized by the shape of the necklace loop resembling the shape of a Byzantine-style crown. The side ends of the central horizontal crossbar bear inscriptions in Church Slavonic meaning "SON OF GOD NIKA" (Greek: "VICTORIOUS"). Parallel to the vertical crossbar, there are images of the two Instruments of the Passion (Arms of Christ, Arma Christi), the Holy Lance (spear, marked as "K" for the Church Slavonic "Kopiye") of a Roman soldier, and the Holy Sponge attached to the end of a cane (marked as "T" for the Church Slavonic "Trost"). They are subjects to adoration along with the Cross, and are often depicted on the Byzantine-style "Golgotha" crosses worn as Baptism, body crosses for the entire life of a faithful Christian.A symbolic image of the skull, or Adam's head, below the image of the Suppedaneum cross refers to Golgotha (Calvary), the elevated site where Jesus was crucified, which the Bible says means "the place of the skull" in Hebrew. An ancient tradition of Catholic and Orthodox Churches held that it was also the burial place of Adam, thus also symbolizing the ultimate victory of Christ over sin and death. The reverse of the cross bears an abbreviated version of Psalm 68 in Church Slavonic starting with "MAY GOD ARISE AND MAY HIS ENEMIES BE SCATTERED...". The words of the prayer are well preserved and identifiable. This psalm-based prayer is traditionally inscribed on the reverse of the Old Believers' Orthodox body (Baptism) cross pendants, meaning to provide protection of the faithful cross-bearer against the evil spirits (God's enemies), and thereby is considered a version of the Exorcism prayer. Please examine all photographs carefully and do your own research if necessary. Please note that photographs are an important part of the item's description. Condition: Used, Condition: Look at the photo everything is shown in detail., Country/Region of Manufacture: Russian Federation, Featured Refinements: Orthodox Cross

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