Seller: ancientgifts ✉️ (5,288) 100%, Location: Lummi Island, Washington, US, Ships to: WORLDWIDE, Item: 382163953206 Amethyst Scotland 46¾ct Antique 19thC Roman St. Jerome Magic Eagle Snakebite Gem. Antique 19th Century Handcrafted Natural Forty Six and Three-Quarter Carat Amethyst from Scotland (Handcrafted in Russia). ORIGIN: Coastal Devonian Lava Beds, Angus, Scotland. 19th Century. SIZE: Length: 30mm. Width: 25mm. Depth: 12mm. All measurements approximate. WEIGHT: 46.69 carats. NOTES: Upon request we can set your gemstones as a ring, pendant, or as earrings (click here for more information). DETAIL: The first century historian and naturalist Pliny wrote that if amethyst were worn round the neck on a cord made from dog's hair, it would afford the wearer protection against snakebite. Several centuries later the fourth century Roman Catholic Priest Hieronymus (also known as Saint Jerome) reported that eagles placed an amethyst in their nest in order to protect their young from the danger of snakebite. Another Roman account of the gemstone relates that (third century Roman) Saint Valentine owned a ring set with an antique amethyst carved with an image of Cupid. Amethyst was used extensively the ancient Mediterranean world for carving intaglio gemstones and seals, particularly by the ancient Greeks and Romans. And in both ancient Greece and Rome rings of amethyst set in bronze were worn as charms against evil, and wearing the stone was believed to protect female wearers from seduction. Celebrating our cultural inheritance here's a very large, very clean, 19th century faceted amethyst oval from the Devonian lava beds found along the coast of Angus Country, Scotland. Exported to Russia, the gemstone was hand crafted and faceted by a 19th century Russian artisan, part of an heritage renown for the production of the elaborate gemstones and jewelry of the Czars of Medieval, Renaissance, and Victorian Russia. Very popular in 18th and 19th century Victorian Scotland, amethyst has remained a very popular gemstone through the 20th century. This is a very fine richly hued, regally textured deep purple colored semi-precious gemstone. As you can see from the photo enlargements here, it is to the eye completely transparent and free from inclusions, and possesses exceptional sparkle and luster. It is very clean, water clear, and very bright with brilliant sparkles. As might be expected under magnification the gemstone shows the unmistakable, hallmark characteristics of having been hand crafted. The coarseness of the antique, handcrafted finish is considered desirable to most gemstone aficionados, and is not considered a detriment, or detract from the value of a gemstone. These characteristics are not only expected of hand-finished gemstones, many believe that such antique hand-crafted gemstones possess much greater character and appeal than today's mass-produced, laser-cut gemstones. Unlike today’s computer controlled machine produced gemstones that approach flawlessness in a perfect finish, the cut and finish of an antique, handcrafted gemstone such as this is the legacy of an artisan who lived two centuries ago. Handcrafted though it may be the gemstone possesses superb luster and sparkle, and to the eye is completely transparent. However that is not to suggest that say with absolute certainty that it is unconditionally flawless. True, the blemishes it possesses are not visible to the naked eye, and to use trade jargon the gemstone can be characterized as "eye clean". To the eye it is indeed flawless; however were one to examine it in a jeweler’s loupe, it’s almost certain that a few minute blemishes could be detected. Of course much the same may said about almost any antique gemstone of natural origin. An absolutely flawless gemstone simply is not the rule in nature. Most absolutely flawless gemstones will upon close examination be revealed to be synthetic. You might also notice under magnification occasional irregularities in the cut and finish. Naturally these characteristics are not only expected of hand-finished gemstones, you must also consider that two centuries ago the mining techniques prevalent did not allow the ultra deep mining operations which are so common today. Keep in mind that two centuries ago mankind was more or less limited to surface deposits or near surface deposits of gemstones. Higher quality gemstones which today are routinely mined from beneath hundreds of meters, even kilometers beneath the earth's surface, were simply inaccessible then. It is precisely for these reasons antique gemstones must be appreciated as antiques first, gemstones second. The relatively superlative quality of contemporary gemstones routinely mined from deep beneath the earth's surface today were simply not accessible two centuries ago, or at least, only rarely so. However for most, the unique nature and character of these antique gemstones more than makes up for the blemishes found within the gemstones, as well as the cutting irregularities common to handcrafted gemstones, all of which are by and large (if at all) are only visible under magnification. AMETHYST HISTORY: Amethyst was one of the first gemstones used by man. Archaeologists have uncovered amethyst gemstones in burials dating back to the late Neolithic (5,000 B.C.). An amethyst bracelet was recovered at Abydos, in the tomb of the Pharaoh Djer, dating back to 3,000 B.C. Other notable finds in Egyptian archaeology have included an amethyst and gold “heart scarab”, from the tomb of Amenemhet II (20th century B.C.), an amethyst and gold anklet from the tomb of Queen Mereret in the funerary complex of Senusret III (19th century B.C.), and of course an amethyst bead bracelet from the tomb of Tutankhamun (14th century B.C.). In ancient Egypt, soldiers as well used to wear amethyst to remain calm during battle. The ancient Persians believed amethyst could ward off witchcraft when the stone was carved with a sun symbol. The name “amethyst” is derived from the Greek term "amethustos", meaning not drunk. Most ancient Mediterranean cultures believed that amethyst would protect against becoming intoxicated, and would protect soldiers from harm in battle. It was also believed that if a person drank from a cup or goblet made entirely of amethyst, he or she would not get drunk at all. Amethyst was also extensively used since ancient times for carving intaglio gemstones and seals, particularly by the ancient Greeks and Romans. In both ancient Greece and Rome rings of amethyst set in bronze were worn as charms against evil. Amethyst came to Greece from Egypt just after the death of Alexander the Great. In Greek mythology, amethyst was rock crystal dyed purple by the tears of Dionysus, the god of wine and revelry (“Bacchus” to the ancient Romans), and the stone was believed to protect female wearers from seduction. Throughout ancient and medieval history, the color purple was traditionally the color of royalty, and was also associated with the planet and the Roman God Jupiter the “Lord of Gods” of the Roman pantheon, also known as Zeus to the ancient Greeks). Consequentially Amethyst has been used since the dawn of recorded history to adorn the wealthy, as well as royalty. Ancient civilizations prized the stone more than many other gems which today enjoy more recognition and value, including sapphire, ruby, diamonds and emerald. For some time in the ancient world, amethyst was valued equally with the diamond, and only royal families were lawfully entitled to own and wear the stone. In ancient Rome, the first century historian and naturalist Pliny wrote that if amethyst were worn round the neck on a cord made from dog's hair, it would afford the wearer protection against snakebite. Later the fourth century Roman Catholic Priest Hieronymus (also known as Saint Jerome) even reported that eagles placed an amethyst in their nest in order to protect their young from the danger of snakebite. Amethyst was widely used in the Roman world both in jewelry, and as mentioned earlier, as carved intaglios for use in signet rings. Another ancient Roman account relates that (third century Roman) Saint Valentine owned a ring set with an antique amethyst carved with an image of Cupid. The stone was also a symbol of Saint Matthias (the apostle chosen by the remaining eleven apostles to replace Judas Iscariot following Judas' betrayal of Jesus and his suicide). Amethyst is also mentioned in the Bible (Exodus 28:19; 39:12) as one of the 12 stones adorning the breastplate (hoshen) of the high priests of Yahweh. Also described in the Bible, the twelfth foundation of the mythical (post rapture) heavenly “Holy City” is said to be built of amethyst. Moses described it as a symbol of the Spirit of God in the official robes of the High Priest of the Jews. For many centuries Amethyst was worn by ancient priests and priestesses as a personal magical stone and focus of power. In a modern continuation of this tradition the Pope wears an amethyst ring, which absorbs so much of his personal energy that it must be buried with him or destroyed when he dies. In the early medieval church amethyst stood for piety and celibacy and was therefore worn by members of the Catholic Church clergy and was used to adorn crosses. It was particularly used in Bishops’ rings, the royal purple color symbolizing Christ and the bishop’s Episcopal authority. First mentioned as an official part of the bishop's insignia in the early seventh century, the ring, usually made of gold with an amethyst, came to symbolize a bishop's fidelity to and nuptial bond with the church, his spouse. Today, bishops frequently wear an oval shaped amethyst, usually very large, with the diocesan seal engraved directly into the flat surface of the gem. Very good quality amethyst gemstones were also found in Aztec graves, though the deposits from which they were extracted are no longer known today. Aside from it use in medieval ecclesiastical jewelry, Amethyst also remained extremely popular in the jewelry of royalty. The oldest known stone in the Crown Jewels of England is an amethyst first worn in the 11th century by Edward the Confessor. In the Medieval world, Amethyst was also attributed with the power to control evil thoughts, and make its owner shrewd in business matters. It was also employed as a love charm, as a potent influence in improving sleep, as protection against thieves, to help the hunter in search of his game, and to protect the wearer from contagious diseases and insect bites. In the Medieval world amethyst was also worn as a talisman to protect crops against tempests and locusts. Medieval European soldiers wore amethyst amulets as protection in battle. In Renaissance magic, an amethyst engraved with the image of a bear was worn as a protective amulet, and had the power to put demons to flight. Amethyst was believed to bring forth the highest, purest aspirations of human kind. Chastity/celibacy, sobriety, and control over one’s thoughts were all attributes heightened by wearing the stone. The gem would guard against the anger of passion, and the violent or base nature of its wearer. The stone was believed to encourage calm, bravery, and contemplation. Shamans of the ancient and medieval world used amethyst to assist prophecy and visions. Amethyst was also used in spells designed to magnify beauty. Amethyst is the most highly valued variety of quartz. The purple coloring is caused by the presence of compounds of iron or manganese. Aside from the gorgeous color, Amethyst is also very popular in the production of jewelry due to the fact it is very hard and durable. Huge 18th century finds in South America and Russia (the Russian Empress Catherine the Great sent thousands of miners into the Siberian Urals to look for it) made it more plentiful, and as its rarity decreased, so did its price. For many experts in the trade, the amethyst from the Ural Mountains in Siberia are considered the finest amethyst ever produced. Some of the other popular varieties of quartz include rock crystal (colorless quartz), citrine (yellow quartz), and aventurine (green quartz). Amethyst, like all quartz crystals, produces an electric voltage, a property known as piezoelectric. Unable to understand the characteristic, ancient cultures attributed many mystical properties have been attributed to the various varieties of quartz gemstones. Quartz gemstones were believed to act as psychic purifiers, tuning one into their inner "vibrations”. It was believed that quartz possessed the ability to amplify emotions, enhance concentration and intuition, and neutralize "negative energies". Throughout history, gemstones were believed capable of curing illness to providing protection. Found in Egypt dated 1500 B. C., the "Papyrus Ebers" offered one of most complete therapeutic manuscripts containing prescriptions using gemstones and minerals. In the eastern civilizations of China, India, and Tibet, gemstones were not only valued for their medicinal and protective properties, but also for educational and spiritual enhancement. The medicinal uses of amethyst were many, including as a treatment for excess stomach acidity. A few centuries ago it was the practice to moisten the stone with saliva and rub it on the face to banish pimples, rough skin, and skin rashes. In traditional Chinese medicine, amethyst was prescribed for stomach pains and bad dreams, and was also be used for the healing of illnesses of the lungs as well as heart disease. It was believed to help detoxify the body, strengthen the immune system, and was used to treat ailments involving the central nervous system as well as the brain. Not only would amethyst alleviate a headache, cure deafness and relieve arthritis, but it would also help clear one’s thinking process, allowing one to process information more efficiently. The metaphysical benefits of wearing amethyst included the ability to enhance and focus psychic abilities (opening the “third eye”, enabling visions of past lives and the inner self), as well as to calm nightmares and relieve insomnia. Wearing amethyst was believed to make the wearer gentle and amiable, and was also used to treat manic-depressives by bringing thought patterns into alignment, soothing overactive minds. It was believed to exert a calming influence on individuals prone to compulsive behavior, as well as (in the ancient world) over professional warriors who were addicted to the adrenaline rush of combat and warfare. When placed under a pillow, it was believed that an amethyst would induce pleasant dreams and self healing, and was believed to help with conscious recall of dreams and symbolic message. Amethyst was also believed to attract wealth and power to the wearer. In the Chinese philosophy of Feng Shui, amethyst enhances the wealth corner focusing on the giving and receiving of material wealth. Amethyst was also regarded as a stone of love, exchanged between lovers as a token of mutual commitment. Amethyst was believed to loosen blocks in the mind where mental functioning had become confused and undirected, and to free the way to clearer thinking. Amethyst was also believed to help people who suffered from a faulty memory. In addition amethyst was used to help those prone to depression and melancholy. Amethyst was also often used to relieve stress and heal stress-related illness. It was considered to be especially effective for headaches, muscle tension and back or neck ache. Many also believed that amethysts were useful for those working to transcend chemical dependence, the stone working as a talisman to provide inner strength when battling dependency. Amethyst was also one of the few gemstones specifically prescribed for men to use to attract a “good woman” to love him. SHIPPING & RETURNS/REFUNDS: Your purchase will ordinarily be shipped within 48 hours of payment. We package as well as anyone in the business, with lots of protective padding and containers. All of our shipments are fully insured against loss, and our shipping rates include the cost of this coverage (through stamps.com, Shipsaver.com, the USPS, UPS, or Fed-Ex). International tracking is provided free by the USPS for certain countries, other countries are at additional cost. ADDITIONAL PURCHASES do receive a VERY LARGE discount, typically about $5 per item so as to reward you for the economies of combined shipping/insurance costs. We do offer U.S. Postal Service Priority Mail, Registered Mail, and Express Mail for both international and domestic shipments, as well United Parcel Service (UPS) and Federal Express (Fed-Ex). Please ask for a rate quotation. We will accept whatever payment method you are most comfortable with. Please note for international purchasers we will do everything we can to minimize your liability for VAT and/or duties. But we cannot assume any responsibility or liability for whatever taxes or duties may be levied on your purchase by the country of your residence. If you don’t like the tax and duty schemes your government imposes, please complain to them. We have no ability to influence or moderate your country’s tax/duty schemes. If upon receipt of the item you are disappointed for any reason whatever, I offer a no questions asked 30-day return policy. Send it back, I will give you a complete refund of the purchase price; 1) less our original shipping/insurance costs, 2) less non-refundable eBay payment processing fees. Please note that eBay does NOT refund payment processing fees. Even if you “accidentally” purchase something and then cancel the purchase before it is shipped, eBay will not refund their processing fees. So all refunds for any reason, without exception, do not include eBay payment processing fees (typically between 5% and 15%) and shipping/insurance costs (if any). If you’re unhappy with eBay’s “no fee refund” policy, and we are EXTREMELY unhappy, please voice your displeasure by contacting eBay. We have no ability to influence, modify or waive eBay policies. ABOUT US: Prior to our retirement we used to travel to Eastern Europe and Central Asia several times a year seeking antique gemstones and jewelry from the globe’s most prolific gemstone producing and cutting centers. Most of the items we offer came from acquisitions we made in Eastern Europe, India, and from the Levant (Eastern Mediterranean/Near East) during these years from various institutions and dealers. Much of what we generate on Etsy, Amazon and Ebay goes to support worthy institutions in Europe and Asia connected with Anthropology and Archaeology. Though we have a collection of ancient coins numbering in the tens of thousands, our primary interests are ancient/antique jewelry and gemstones, a reflection of our academic backgrounds. Though perhaps difficult to find in the USA, in Eastern Europe and Central Asia antique gemstones are commonly dismounted from old, broken settings – the gold reused – the gemstones recut and reset. Before these gorgeous antique gemstones are recut, we try to acquire the best of them in their original, antique, hand-finished state – most of them originally crafted a century or more ago. We believe that the work created by these long-gone master artisans is worth protecting and preserving rather than destroying this heritage of antique gemstones by recutting the original work out of existence. That by preserving their work, in a sense, we are preserving their lives and the legacy they left for modern times. Far better to appreciate their craft than to destroy it with modern cutting. Not everyone agrees – fully 95% or more of the antique gemstones which come into these marketplaces are recut, and the heritage of the past lost. But if you agree with us that the past is worth protecting, and that past lives and the produce of those lives still matters today, consider buying an antique, hand cut, natural gemstone rather than one of the mass-produced machine cut (often synthetic or “lab produced”) gemstones which dominate the market today. We can set most any antique gemstone you purchase from us in your choice of styles and metals ranging from rings to pendants to earrings and bracelets; in sterling silver, 14kt solid gold, and 14kt gold fill. When you purchase from us, you can count on quick shipping and careful, secure packaging. We would be happy to provide you with a certificate/guarantee of authenticity for any item you purchase from us. There is a $3 fee for mailing under separate cover. I will always respond to every inquiry whether via email or eBay message, so please feel free to write. Condition: Please see detailed condition description below (click "additional details" button on your cell phone or tablet).