Ancient Roman Thracia Silver Evil Eye Strap/Belt Applique Brooch/Lapel Pin AD200

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Seller: ancientgifts (4,619) 100%, Location: Lummi Island, Washington, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 382564234077 When ordering from the US, parcels may be subject to import tax and duty charges, which the buyer is responsible to pay. Handsome Ancient Roman Provincial Thracia "Evil Eye:" Motif Silver (Belt/Strap) Applique/Embellishment Brooch/Lapel Pin. CLASSIFICATION: Roman Silver Artifact, Engraved Appliqué. Contemporary pin. ATTRIBUTION: Eastern Roman Empire (Thracia – Present-Day Bulgaria), Third Century A.D. SIZE/MEASUREMENTS: Diameter: 31 millimeters. Depth: 14 millimeters. NOTE: Can also be mounted onto a plaque or into a shadow box (see below). CONDITION: Very good. Artifact is of sound integrity. Very light porosity (surface pitting caused by contact with earth while buried). Professionally conserved. DETAIL: This is a very handsome, decorative piece of ancient Roman silver ornamentation. It was probably an ornamental appliqué for a belt or strap, though it could have also been an appliqué for a piece of furniture, wooden chest, or table implement. It’s hard to be certain, but it does appear as if it might have been originally fastened onto a leather strap or belt. In any event the appliqué was discarded or lost almost two thousand years ago. It shows minimal wear, and minimal porosity (surface pitting caused by burial in caustic or acidic soil conditions). Notwithstanding this evidence of usage in the ancient world, it is in wonderful condition, the engraving very sharp, and the artifact is quite handsome. It is the type of decorative ornamentation one would have expected to find on a belt or strap employed by a Roman Soldier. Many pieces of equipment and weaponry were carried on the person of a Roman Legionnaire, many held in place with belts (and buckles), and such ornamental appliqués were quite popular. You'll note the engraved concentric circle on the center of the applique. This concentric circle was intended to provide the wearer a charm providing protection against the effects of "an evil eye". There was an ancient belief that some evil sorcerers or witches had the ability to transmit evil with just a glance. Certain items of personal adornment (amulets, talismans, etc.) were thought to protect the wearer from the "evil eye" by the proviso of an always watchful open eye. This applique would have afforded just such magic protection to the wearer.Though probably intended as a belt or strap ornament, we hope you will agree it makes a handsome brooch or lapel pin. With the addition of a contemporary pin, it can be worn and enjoyed – an authentic “souvenir” of the Roman Empire. Though securely fastened, the pin could be removed at a later date without injuring the artifact. Worn as a brooch (or lapel pin), we are sure that the original owner would not disapprove, as the Romans were quite fond of wearing ornamental brooches and pins. As a brooch or lapel pin it is a very handsome piece of jewelry, of very nice design and workmanship, an evocative memory of the glory and grandeur which was the world of Rome. It is a very solid piece, well constructed, and in a very good state of preservation. There are no cracks, chips, or other impairments its integrity. The Romans were very fond of jewelry and personal ornamentation, making wide use of very ornate belt buckles, brooches, appliqués, bracelets worn both on the forearm and upper arm, rings, earrings, hair pins, and pendants. If you prefer (follow the links below), we could remove the stick pin and mount the artifact onto a framed display plaque (see it here), and it would make a great gift. The plaque narrates a brief outline of the history of ancient Rome along with a couple of images of very beautiful artifacts. It would make a very handsome gift, for yourself or a friend, and would surely delight a son or daughter. It would not only make a very handsome display, but would be very educational as well. If you prefer, the artifact could be installed within a glass-front shadow box with or without printed history(see it here). CONCENTRIC CIRCLE SYMBOLISM: Within a few centuries of the creation of this artifact these symbols were associated almost exclusively with the Church, particular the Eastern (Byzantine) Church. However this was not always so. The symbolism of such concentric circles, or “eyes” found on items of personal adornment arose in very ancient times…much more ancient even than the Romans, Greeks, or Phoenicians. In the dim mists of early pagan pre-Christian civilization, these concentric circles were believed to protect the wearer against the potentially lethal consequences of exposure to the dire influence of “the evil eye”. There was an ancient belief that some evil sorcerers or witches had the ability to transmit evil with just a glance. Items of personal adornment such as this pendant were thought to protect the wearer from the "evil eye" by the proviso of an always watchful open eye. The symbolism of concentric circles became increasing popular during Roman times, and by the third century concentric circles were increasingly associated with Christianity. By the sixth century rings, bracelets, and pendants worn by Christians commonly carried this theme, and the decoration was associated almost exclusively with Christianity. From the sixth century onward throughout the Byzantine Empire cross pendants would oftentimes bear five engraved or punched circles, believed by many historians and archaeologists to represent the five wounds of Christ. The topmost circle would represent the wounds caused by the crown of thorns; the bottom circle the wounds caused by the nailing of Christ's feet; the right and left circles the wounds caused by the nailing of Christ's hands; and the center circle the wound caused by the spear which penetrated his side. ANCIENT ROMAN HISTORY: One of the greatest civilizations of recorded history was the ancient Roman Empire. The Roman civilization, in relative terms the greatest military power in the history of the world, was founded in the 8th century (B.C.) on seven hills alongside Italy’s Tiber River. By the 4th Century (B.C.) the Romans were the dominant power on the Italian Peninsula, having defeated the Etruscans, Celts, Latins, and Greek Italian colonies. In the 3rd Century (B.C.) the Romans conquered Sicily, and in the following century defeated Carthage, and controlled Greece. Throughout the remainder of the 2nd Century (B.C.) the Roman Empire continued its gradual conquest of the Hellenistic (Greek Colonial) World by conquering Syria and Macedonia; and finally came to control Egypt and much of the Near East and Levant (Holy Land) in the 1st Century (B.C.). The pinnacle of Roman power was achieved in the 1st Century (A.D.) as Rome conquered much of Britain and Western Europe. At its peak, the Roman Empire stretched from Britain in the West, throughout most of Western, Central, and Eastern Europe, and into Asia Minor. For a brief time, the era of “Pax Romana”, a time of peace and consolidation reigned. Civilian emperors were the rule, and the culture flourished with a great deal of liberty enjoyed by the average Roman Citizen. However within 200 years the Roman Empire was in a state of steady decay, attacked by Germans, Goths, and Persians. The decline was temporarily halted by third century Emperor Diocletian. In the 4th Century (A.D.) the Roman Empire was split between East and West. The Great Emperor Constantine again managed to temporarily arrest the decay of the Empire, but within a hundred years after his death the Persians captured Mesopotamia, Vandals infiltrated Gaul and Spain, and the Goths even sacked Rome itself. Most historians date the end of the Western Roman Empire to 476 (A.D.) when Emperor Romulus Augustus was deposed. However the Eastern Roman Empire (The Byzantine Empire) survived until the fall of Constantinople in 1453 A.D. In the ancient world valuables such as coins and jewelry were commonly buried for safekeeping, and inevitably the owners would succumb to one of the many perils of the ancient world. Oftentimes the survivors of these individuals did not know where the valuables had been buried, and today, thousands of years later (occasionally massive) caches of coins and rings are still commonly uncovered throughout Europe and Asia Minor. Throughout history these treasures have been inadvertently discovered by farmers in their fields, uncovered by erosion, and the target of unsystematic searches by treasure seekers. With the introduction of metal detectors and other modern technologies to Eastern Europe in the past three or four decades, an amazing number of new finds are seeing the light of day thousands of years after they were originally hidden by their past owners. And with the liberalization of post-Soviet Eastern Europe, new sources have opened eager to share in these ancient treasures. HISTORY OF THRACE: The indigenous population of ancient Thrace were Indo-Europeans who spoke their own language and whom archaeologists believe originated in the area of the Black Sea around 5,000 B.C. Ancient Greek mythology provides them with a mythical ancestor, named Thrax, son of the war-god Ares, who was said to reside in Thrace. In geographical terms, historically Thrace has generally been bounded by the Balkan Mountains or the Danube on the north, Rhodope Mountains, ancient Macedonia and the Aegean Sea on the south, by the ancient lands of Illyria to the west, and by the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara on the east. Thrace included areas of present day Bulgaria, Northeastern Greece, Eastern Serbia, Macedonia, and northwest Turkey. Divided into separate tribes, the Thracians did not form a lasting political kingdom until the Odrysian and Dacian States were founded in the early fourth century B.C. Like Illyrians, Thracian tribes of the mountainous regions fostered a locally ruled warrior tradition, while the tribes based in the plains were purportedly more peaceable. Ancient Greek and Roman historians agreed that the ancient Thracians, who were of Indo-European stock and language, were superior fighters; only their constant political fragmentation prevented them from overrunning the lands around the northeastern Mediterranean. Although these historians characterized the Thracians as primitive partly because they lived in simple, open villages, the Thracians in fact had a fairly advanced culture that was especially noted for its poetry and music. At its greatest extent Thrace extended beyond the Danube to the north (Ancient Dacia and Pannonia, present day Moldova and Romania) and to Southern Russia and the Ukraine to the East. The Thracians were capable of wielding an army of 150,000, and threatened even regional powerhouse Macedonia until both were conquered by the Persians under Darius the Great. Thereafter their soldiers were valued as mercenaries, particularly by the Macedonians and Romans. The Thracians were to fall under the cultural influence of the ancient Greeks, though as non-Greek speakers, they were viewed by the Greeks (and subsequently the Romans) as barbarians. The Greeks founded Thracian coastal colonies as early as the sixth century B.C. The the most notable was Byzantium. Others were on the Bosporus, Propontis, and Thracian Chersonese peninsula. On the Aegean were Abdera near the Néstos delta and Aenus near Alexandroúpoli. Farther north on the Black Sea’s Gulf of Burgas, the Milesians founded Apollonia (7th century BC), and the Chalcedonians founded Mesembria (at the end of the 6th century BC). Homer’s Iliad records that the Thracians had agreed to fight on the side of the Mycenaean Greeks in the Trojan War. However according to the account the Thracians did not fulfill this promise, instead allying with the Trojans. In the Odyssey, Odysseus and his men raided Thrace on their way back home from the war. This was to punish them for their "cowardice", as the Odyssey puts it. Many mythical figures, such as the god Dionysus, princess Europa, and the hero Orpheus were borrowed by the Greeks from their Thracian neighbors. The Thracians were described by Roman Historian Herodotus as the second most numerous of peoples, after the Indians, and potentially the most powerful, and he suggested that the extent of the lands they inhabited and controlled would have made them a vast empire, if they were united. Thrace is also mentioned in Ovid's Metamorphoses. Thrace was to fall to the great Persian armies of Darius the Great in the late sixth century B.C., and subsequently to Alexander the Great in the fourth century B.C. Thracian troops then accompanied Alexander the Great when he crossed the Hellespont which abuts Thrace and invaded the Persian Empire. Thereafter Thrace was ruled by the Macedonians until Macedonia was stripped of its territories after its third war with the Romans. After the conclusion of the “Third Macedonian War”, Thrace was ruled directly by Rome as a client state. Thrace became increasing Hellenized after the conquests of Alexander the Great and through Roman times. In fact there were a number notable ancient Greeks who were actually of Thracian origin. These include Democritus (460-370 BC), who was a Greek philosopher and mathematician from Abdera, Thrace. His main contribution to the science of the ancient world was the atomic theory, the belief that all matter is made up of various imperishable indivisible elements which he called atoms. Protagoras was also from from Abdera, Thrace (490–420 BC.). Protagoras was a eminent philosopher, an expert in rhetorics and subjects connected to virtue and political life. Protagoras is regarded by many the ancient world’s first sophist. He is known primarily for his claims that man is the measure of all things, often interpreted as a sort of moral relativism; that he could make the "worse (or weaker) argument appear the better (or stronger)" (“sophism”); and that one could not tell if the gods existed or not (“agnosticism”). Another famous ancient Greek of Thracian origin was Herodicus, a fifth century BC Greek physician who is considered the founder of sports medicine. He is believed to have been one of Hippocrates' tutors. As a Roman Province, Thrace was somewhat smaller in geographical terms (compared to what originally had been “Thracia”) as it had lost some of its northern territory to the Macedonians. In 197 BC Rome had assigned much of Thrace to the kingdom of Pergamum, though the coastal area west of the Maritsa was annexed to the Roman province of Macedonia. In the first century BC Rome became more directly involved in the affairs of the whole region due to the dynastic quarrels among the local Thracian rulers, who had by then become client kings of Rome. The constant squabbling prompted the Emperor Claudius to annex the entire Thracian kingdom in 46 AD. Thrace was subsequently made into a Roman province. The Emperor Trajan and his successor, Hadrian, founded cities in Thrace, notably Sardica (modern Sofia) and Hadrianopolis (modern Edirne). Several Roman Thracians of note included Spartacus, who was a Thracian auxiliary soldier in the Roman army who deserted but was captured and then enslaved by the Romans. Spartacus led a large slave uprising in what is now Italy in 73–71 BC. His army of escaped gladiators and slaves defeated several Roman legions in what is known as the “Third Servile War”. Another famous Roman Thracian was Belisarius, one of the most successful Generals of the Roman Empire. Belisarius was born in the borderlands between Thrace and Illyria. As well, a number of Roman Emperors of the third through fifth centuries were Thracians (Maximinus Thrax, Licinius, Galerius, Aureolus, Leo the Thracian, etc.). All of these emperors gained the through as a culmination of their military careers, arising from the status of a common soldier in one of the Roman legions, ultimately achieving the apex of political power within the Roman Empire as Augustus. About 300 AD, Diocletian reorganized the area between the Lower Danube and the Aegean into the Diocese of Thrace. The reforms of Diocletian had reorganized the Roman Empire into smaller provinces. What was once Thracia was subdivided into six small provinces which constituted the Diocese of Thrace. From the third through the seventh century Provincial Thrace was greatly affected by repeated Gothic, Visigothic, and Slavic invasions and immigrations. By the mid fifth century as the Roman Empire began to crumble Thracia fell from the authority of Rome and into the hands of Germanic “barbarian” tribes. With the fall of Rome Thracia turned into a battleground territory for the better part of the next 1,000 years. The successor of the Roman Empire on the Balkans, the Byzantine (or Eastern Roman) Empire retained some control over some portion(s) of Thrace. However Medieval/Byzantine Thrace was small, only the eastern portion of what had been ancient Thrace. Though initially the Byzantines kept control of the region, in the seventh century the Bulgarian state was founded from what had been Roman Moesia, and Byzantium subsequently lost all Thrace north of the Balkan Mountains to the Bulgarians. From the beginning of the ninth century the control of Thrace alternated between the Byzantine Empire and Bulgaria. Byzantium regained much of the regional territory in the late tenth century and retained it for several centuries until near the end of the twelfth century the Bulgarians regained control. Throughout the thirteenth century and into the first half of the fourteenth century the region was constantly changing hands back and forth between the Bulgarians and the Byzantine Empire, except for a brief interlude when in 1265AD the area suffered a Mongol raid from the Golden Horde, led by Nogai Khan. Racked by Byzantine civil wars in the 14th century up until the eventual fall of Byzantium in 1453 AD, Thrace fell piece by piece to the Ottoman Turks, who ruled it for four centuries thereafter. In 1878, Northern Thrace was incorporated into the semi-autonomous Ottoman province of Eastern Rumelia, which united with Bulgaria in 1885. With the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire, the rest of Thrace was divided among Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey. Today Thracian is a geographical term used in Greece, Turkey and Bulgaria. Recently Bulgarian archaeologists have made monumental discoveries of Royal Thracian burials dating back to the fifth through third centuries B.C. in what has become known as the “Thracian Valley of the Kings”. Other archaeological highlights include the ancient city of Abdera as well as the remains of the Roman highway called the Via Egnatia. HISTORY OF SILVER: After gold, silver is the metal most widely used in jewelry and the most malleable. The oldest silver artifacts found by archaeologists date from ancient Sumeria about 4,000 B.C. At many points in the ancient world, it was actually more costly than gold, particularly in ancient Egypt. Silver is found in native form (i.e., in nuggets), as an alloy with gold (electrum), and in ores containing sulfur, arsenic, antimony or chlorine. Much of the silver originally found in the ancient world was actually a natural alloy of gold and silver (in nugget form) known as “electrum”. The first large-scale silver mines were in Anatolia (ancient Turkey) and Armenia, where as early as 4,000 B.C. silver was extracted from lead ores by means of a complicated process known as “smelting”. Even then the process was not perfect, as ancient silver does contain trace elements, typically lead, gold, bismuth and other metals, and as much as a third of the silver was left behind in the slag. However measuring the concentrations of the “impurities” in ancient silver can help the forensic jewelry historian in determining the authenticity of classical items. From Turkey and Armenia silver refining technology spread to the rest of Asia Minor and Europe. By about 2,500 B.C. the Babylonians were one of the major refiners of silver. Silver “treasures” recovered by archaeologists from the second and third millenniums demonstrate the high value the ancient Mediterranean and Near East placed upon silver. Some of the richest burials in history uncovered by archaeologists have been from this time frame, that of Queen Puabi of Ur, Sumeria (26th century B.C.); Tutankhamun (14th century B.C.), and the rich Trojan (25th century B.C.) and Mycenaean (18th century B.C.) treasures uncovered by Heinrich Schliemann. The ancient Egyptians believed that the skin of their gods was composed of gold, and their bones were thought to be of silver. When silver was introduced into Egypt, it probably was more valuable than gold (silver was rarer and more valuable than gold in many Mesoamerican cultures as well). In surviving inventories of valuables, items of silver were listed above those of gold during the Old Kingdom. Jewelry made of silver was almost always thinner than gold pieces, as indicated by the bracelets of the 4th Dynasty (about 2,500 B.C.) Queen Hetephere I, in marked contrast to the extravagance of her heavy gold jewelry. A silver treasure excavated by archaeologists and attributable to the reign of Amenemhat II who ruled during the 12th Dynasty (about 1900 B.C.), contained fine silver items which were actually produced in Crete, by the ancient Minoans. When the price of silver finally did fall due to more readily available supplies, for at least another thousand years (through at least the 19th dynasty, about 1,200 B.C.) the price of silver seems to have been fixed at half that of gold. Several royal mummies attributable to about 1,000 B.C. were even entombed in solid silver coffins. Around 1,000 B.C. Greek Athenians began producing silver from the Laurium mines, and would supply much of the ancient Mediterranean world with its silver for almost 1,000 years. This ancient source was eventually supplemented around 800 B.C. (and then eventually supplanted) by the massive silver mines found in Spain by the Phoenicians and their colony (and ultimate successors) the Carthaginians (operated in part by Hannibal’s family). With the defeat of Carthage by Rome, the Romans gained control of these vast deposits, and mined massive amounts of silver from Spain, stripping entire forests regions for timber to fuel smelting operations. In fact, it was not until the Middle Ages that Spain’s silver mines (and her forests) were finally exhausted. Although known during the Copper Age, silver made only rare appearances in jewelry before the classical age. Despite its infrequent use as jewelry however, silver was widely used as coinage due to its softness, brilliant color, and resistance to oxidation. Silver alloyed with gold in the form of “electrum” was coined to produce money around 700 B.C. by the Lydians of present-day Turkey. Having access to silver deposits and being able to mine them played a big role in the classical world. Actual silver coins were first produced in Lydia about 610 B.C., and subsequently in Athens in about 580 B.C. Many historians have argued that it was the possession and exploitation of the Laurium mines by the Athenians that allowed them to become the most powerful city state in Greece. The Athenians were well aware of the significance of the mining operations to the prosperity of their city, as every citizen had shares in the mines. Enough silver was mined and refined at Laurium to finance the expansion of Athens as a trading and naval power. One estimate is that Laurium produced 160 million ounces of silver, worth six billion dollars today (when silver is by comparison relatively cheap and abundant). As the production of silver from the Laurium mines ultimately diminished, Greek silver production shifted to mines in Macedonia. Silver coinage played a significant role in the ancient world. Macedonia’s coinage during the reign of Philip II (359-336 B.C.) circulated widely throughout the Hellenic world. His famous son, Alexander the Great (336-323 B.C.), spread the concept of coinage throughout the lands he conquered. For both Philip II and Alexander silver coins became an essential way of paying their armies and meeting other military expenses. They also used coins to make a realistic portrait of the ruler of the country. The Romans also used silver coins to pay their legions. These coins were used for most daily transactions by administrators and traders throughout the empire. Roman silver coins also served as an important means of political propaganda, extolling the virtues of Rome and her emperors, and continued in the Greek tradition of realistic portraiture. As well, many public works and architectural achievements were also depicted (among them the Coliseum, the Circus Maximus). In addition many important political events were recorded on the coinage. Roman coins depicted the assassination of Julius Caesar, alliances between cities, between emperors, between armies, etc. And many contenders for the throne of Rome are known only through their coinage. Silver was also widely used as ornamental work and in other metal wares. In ancient cultures, especially in Rome, silver was highly prized for the making of plate ware, household utensils, and ornamental work. The stability of Rome’s economy and currency depended primarily on the output of the silver mines in Spain which they had wrested from the Carthaginians. In fact many historians would say that it was the control of the wealth of these silver mines which enabled Rome to conquer most of the Mediterranean world. When in 55 B.C. the Romans invaded Britain they were quick to discover and exploit the lead-silver deposits there as well. Only six years later they had established many mines and Britain became another major source of silver for the Roman Empire. It is estimated that by the second century A.D., 10,000 tons of Roman silver coins were in circulation within the empire. That’s about 3½ billion silver coins (at the height of the empire, there were over 400 mints throughout the empire producing coinage). That’s ten times the total amount of silver available to Medieval Europe and the Islamic world combined as of about 800 A.D. Silver later lost its position of dominance to gold, particularly in the chaos following the fall of Rome. Large-scale mining in Spain petered out, and when large-scale silver mining finally resumed four centuries after the fall of Rome, most of the mining activity was in Central Europe. By the time of the European High Middle Ages, silver once again became the principal material used for metal artwork. Huge quantities of silver from the New World also encouraged eager buyers in Europe, and enabled the Spanish to become major players in the late Medieval and Renaissance periods. Unlike the ores in Europe which required laborious extraction and refining methods to result in pure silver, solid silver was frequently found as placer deposits in stream beds in Spain’s “New World” colonies, reportedly in some instances solid slabs weighing as much as 2,500 pounds. Prior to the discovery of massive silver deposits in the New World, silver had been valued during the Middle Ages at about 10%-15% of the value of gold. In 15th century the price of silver is estimated to have been around $1200 per ounce, based on 2010 dollars. The discovery of massive silver deposits in the New World during the succeeding centuries has caused the price to diminish greatly, falling to only 1-2% of the value of gold. The art of silver work flourished in the Renaissance, finding expression in virtually every imaginable form. Silver was often plated with gold and other decorative materials. Although silver sheets had been used to overlay wood and other metals since ancient Greece, an 18th-century technique of fusing thin silver sheets to copper brought silver goods called Sheffield plate within the reach of most people. At the same time the use of silver in jewelry making had also started gaining popularity in the 17th century. It was often as support in settings for diamonds and other transparent precious stones, in order to encourage the reflection of light. Silver continued to gain in popularity throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, and by the 20th century competed with gold as the principal metal used in the manufacture of jewelry. Silver has the highest thermal and electrical conductivity of any metal, and one of the highest optical reflectivity values. It has a brilliant metallic luster, is very ductile and malleable, only slightly harder than gold, and is easily worked and polished. When used in jewelry, silver is commonly alloyed to include 7.5% copper, known as “sterling silver”, to increase the hardness and reduce the melting temperature. Silver jewelry may be plated with 99.9% pure ‘Fine Silver’ to increase the shine when polished. It may also be plated with rhodium to prevent tarnish. Virtually all gold, with the exception of 24 carat gold, includes silver. Most gold alloys are primarily composed of only gold and silver. Throughout the history of the ancient world, gemstones were believed capable of curing illness, possessed of valuable metaphysical properties, and to provide protection. Found in Egypt dated 1500 B. C., the "Papyrus Ebers" offered one of most complete therapeutic manuscripts containing prescriptions using gemstones and minerals. Gemstones were not only valued for their medicinal and protective properties, but also for educational and spiritual enhancement. Precious minerals were likewise considered to have medicinal and “magical” properties in the ancient world. In its pure form silver is non toxic, and when mixed with other elements is used in a wide variety of medicines. Silver ions and silver compounds show a toxic effect on some bacteria, viruses, algae and fungi. Silver was widely used before the advent of antibiotics to prevent and treat infections, silver nitrate being the prevalent form. Silver Iodide was used in babies' eyes upon birth to prevent blinding as the result of bacterial contamination. Silver is still widely used in topical gels and impregnated into bandages because of its wide-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The recorded use of silver to prevent infection dates to ancient Greece and Rome. Hippocrates, the ancient (5th century B.C.) Greek "father of medicine" wrote that silver had beneficial healing and anti-disease properties. The ancient Phoenicians stored water, wine, and vinegar in silver bottles to prevent spoiling. These uses were “rediscovered” in the Middle Ages, when silver was used for several purposes; such as to disinfect water and food during storage, and also for the treatment of burns and wounds as a wound dressing. The ingestion of colloidal silver was also believed to help restore the body's “electromagnetic balance” to a state of equilibrium, and it was believed to detoxify the liver and spleen. In the 19th century sailors on long ocean voyages would put silver coins in barrels of water and wine to keep the liquid potable. Silver (and gold) foil is also used through the world as a food decoration. Traditional Indian dishes sometimes include the use of decorative silver foil, and in various cultures silver dragée (silver coated sugar balls) are used to decorate cakes, cookies, and other dessert items. Domestic shipping (insured first class mail) is included in the price shown. Domestic shipping also includes USPS Delivery Confirmation (you might be able to update the status of your shipment on-line at the USPS Web Site). Canadian shipments are an extra $15.99 for Insured Air Mail; International shipments are an extra $19.99 for Air Mail (and generally are NOT tracked; trackable shipments are EXTRA). ADDITIONAL PURCHASES do receive a VERY LARGE discount, typically about $5 per item so as to reward you for the economies of combined shipping/insurance costs. Your purchase will ordinarily be shipped within 48 hours of payment. We package as well as anyone in the business, with lots of protective padding and containers. We do NOT recommend uninsured shipments, and expressly disclaim any responsibility for the loss of an uninsured shipment. Unfortunately the contents of parcels are easily “lost” or misdelivered by postal employees – even in the USA. If you intend to pay via PayPal, please be aware that PayPal Protection Policies REQUIRE insured, trackable shipments, which is INCLUDED in our price. International tracking is at additional cost. We do offer U.S. Service Priority Mail, Registered Mail, and Express Mail for both international and domestic shipments, as well United Parcel Service (UPS) and Federal Express (Fed-Ex). Please ask for a rate quotation. We will accept whatever payment method you are most comfortable with. If upon receipt of the item you are disappointed for any reason whatever, I offer a no questions asked return policy. Send it back, I will give you a complete refund of the purchase price (less our original shipping costs). Most of the items I offer come from the collection of a family friend who was active in the field of Archaeology for over forty years. However many of the items also come from purchases I make in Eastern Europe, India, and from the Levant (Eastern Mediterranean/Near East) from various institutions and dealers. Though I have always had an interest in archaeology, my own academic background was in sociology and cultural anthropology. After my retirement however, I found myself drawn to archaeology as well. Aside from my own personal collection, I have made extensive and frequent additions of my own via purchases on Ebay (of course), as well as many purchases from both dealers and institutions throughout the world – but especially in the Near East and in Eastern Europe. I spend over half of my year out of the United States, and have spent much of my life either in India or Eastern Europe. In fact much of what we generate on Yahoo, Amazon and Ebay goes to support The Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, as well as some other worthy institutions in Europe connected with Anthropology and Archaeology. I acquire some small but interesting collections overseas from time-to-time, and have as well some duplicate items within my own collection which I occasionally decide to part with. Though I have a collection of ancient coins numbering in the tens of thousands, my primary interest is in ancient jewelry. My wife also is an active participant in the “business” of antique and ancient jewelry, and is from Russia. I would be happy to provide you with a certificate/guarantee of authenticity for any item you purchase from me. There is a $2 fee for mailing under separate cover. Whenever I am overseas I have made arrangements for purchases to be shipped out via domestic mail. If I am in the field, you may have to wait for a week or two for a COA to arrive via international air mail. But you can be sure your purchase will arrive properly packaged and promptly – even if I am absent. And when I am in a remote field location with merely a notebook computer, at times I am not able to access my email for a day or two, so be patient, I will always respond to every email. Please see our "ADDITIONAL TERMS OF SALE." TRANSLATE Arabic Chinese French German Greek Indonesian Italian Hindi Japanese Korean Swedish Portuguese Russian Spanish Color Bronze Material Ancient Silver Jewellery Brooch Color: Bronze, Material: Ancient Silver, Jewellery: Brooch

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