Buried People Ancient Pre-Roman Italian Etruscan Life Digs Art Gods 80 pix RARE

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Seller: ancientgifts ✉️ (5,288) 100%, Location: Lummi Island, Washington, US, Ships to: WORLDWIDE, Item: 383830488917 Buried People Ancient Pre-Roman Italian Etruscan Life Digs Art Gods 80 pix RARE. The Buried People: A Study of the Etruscan World by Sibylle von Cles-Reden. NOTE: We have 75,000 books in our library, almost 10,000 different titles. Odds are we have other copies of this same title in varying conditions, some less expensive, some better condition. We might also have different editions as well (some paperback, some hardcover, oftentimes international editions). If you don’t see what you want, please contact us and ask. We’re happy to send you a summary of the differing conditions and prices we may have for the same title. DETAIL:DESCRIPTION: Hardcover with Dust Jacket: 248 pages. Publisher: Rupert-Hart-Davis; (1955). Dimensions: 9 x 7 x 1½ inches; 2 pounds This is the story of the vanished race which for nearly 400 years, until the rise of Rome in the fifth century B.C., exercised power over Central Italy and the Mediterranean. Everything about the Etruscans is mysterious. The Romans, their successors in dominion over Italy, sought systematically to delete all trace of them from the face of the earth. Superficially the attempt almost succeeded, for it was not until two centuries ago that archaeology began effectively to restore the Etruscans to history. But in reality the attempt was always doomed to failure because, as this book sets out to show, the soil of Etruria was so steeped in the spirit of the Etruscans that their influence was never extinct or even dormant, least of all among their conquerors, the Romans themselves. Frau Sibylle von Cles-Reden, a trained archaeologist, describes the Etruscan sites and brings them back to life with the imagination of an artist. Each major site in turn: Caere, Vulci, Clusium, Volsinium and the rest, is seen to represent one or another of the major fields of Etruscan achievement: pottery or sculpture, painting or architecture, religion or the Etruscan way of life. Each leads her in turn to a fascinatingly discursive account of a different aspect of Etruscan history, in which her sensitive awareness of the continuity of the race and the timeless quality of their native landscape is matched by a large number of magnificent photographs. The Etruscan mystery has never been more sympathetically evoked, nor more nearly unraveled. CONDITION: FAIR. Lightly read (albeit shelf-worn and age-blemished) hardcover with dustjacket (in mylar sleeve). Rupert-Hart-Davis (1955) 248 pages. Inside except as noted immediately following, the pages are clean, unmarked, unmutilated, remain well bound, showing modest reading wear. Now the exceptions to the previous sentence. First, a prior own wrote their name (neatly, in ink) along top edge of the front end page (that's the blank paper underside of the front cover). Second, at the lower edge of the same front end paper there is a foil sticker from the original seller in the UK (a British custom amongst book sellers). Second, there are tan-colored age speckles and spots (known as "foxing") to the front and back end papers (the underside of the covers and the first blank, unprinted page within the book). With that exception, the inside of the book is clean and evidences only modest reading wear. From the outside the mass of closed page edges also show tiny, tan-colored age speckles ("foxing)". This is true of both the top and fore-edge surfaces of the mass of closed page edges (oftentimes referred to as the "page block"). These speckles are to the OUTSIDE surface of the closed page edges, visible when the book is CLOSED. They are not visible to individual, opened pages. This particular copy of this book was printed in the UK, not in the USA. Having spent all of its life in a rather more humid environment, the book's pages do show more "foxing" or age-spotting than one would ordinarily see in a book which spent its "life" in the USA. Consequently not only do the page edges and end papers show foxing, so the the book's cloth covers. The bottom inch of the front cloth covers shows faint spotting, and upper quarter of the back side of the back cloth cover shows much larger, more prominent spotting. Of course, this is only visible if you remove the dustjacket from the book so as to inspect the covers. The dustjacket this book was published with in 1955 was nothing to write home about. It's of surfaced heavy weight paper, but not with a plastic laminate coating. So most dustjackets on this title, 65 years after publication, are in tatters. Many copies of this book in fact no longer even possess a dustjacket. Happily this book still possesses a reasonably intact (though heavily edgeworn) dustjacket. The dustjacket does evidence fairly heavy edge and corner shelfwear, principally evidenced as considerable crinkling, creasing, wrinkling, and abrasive rubbing to the spine head, spine heel, and the four dustjacket "tips" (the four outer, open corners of the dustjacket, front and back, top and bottom). All open edges of the dustjacket; top, bottom, front and back, including the spinehead and heel show edge creasing and wrinkling. There's also a neatly mended, closed edge tear about 1 inch long at the front side of the spine head. And along the top edge of the back side of the dustjacket there arer two very small closed, neatly repaired edge tears, about 1/4 and 1/8 inch long. Along the bottom edges of the dustjacket there's a 1/2 inch closed, neatly mended edge tear to both the front and back open edges of the dustjacket. There's also a few very tiny (1/8 to 1/4 inch) closed, neatly mended edge tears to the bottom open edges of both the front and back sides of the dustjacket. We carefully repaired all of the closed edge tears from the underside of the dustjacket and touched them up with an oil-based sharpie, minimizing the prominence of these superficial cosmetic blemishes (in fact most of the smaller ones are by and large fairly hard to spot even when you know they are there). Otherwise overall the dustjacket evidences some rubbing to the extremities (along the spine, the open edges of the front and back sides of the dustjacket, and the top and bottom edges of both sides of the dustjacket, especially at the open corners and the spine head and heel). THe "rubbing" means in some instances the top colored layer of paper was abraded off, leaving the uncolored substrate layers beneath. We touched these spots up with an oil-based sharpie as well. Though we've now made the dustjacket sound like scrap paper, actually it's reasonably intact, and not altogether unpresentable. Yes, if you hold it up to a light source and inspect it you'll be able to see it has been repaired. But we did place it into a new mylar sleeve so as to enhance its appearance and protect it against further wear. Obviously with the shelfwear to the dustjacket and the considerable foxing to the covers and closed page edges. the book lacks the "sex appeal" of a "shelf trophy". Nonetheless it is an only modestly read copy of this classic tome. For those not concerned with whether the book will or will not enhance their social status or intellectual reputation, it's a solid copy with "lots of miles left under the hood". Satisfaction unconditionally guaranteed. In stock, ready to ship. No disappointments, no excuses. PROMPT SHIPPING! HEAVILY PADDED, DAMAGE-FREE PACKAGING! Meticulous and accurate descriptions! Selling rare and out-of-print ancient history books on-line since 1997. We accept returns for any reason within 30 days! #1382g. PLEASE SEE IMAGES BELOW FOR JACKET DESCRIPTION(S) AND FOR PAGES OF PICTURES FROM INSIDE OF BOOK. PLEASE SEE PUBLISHER, PROFESSIONAL, AND READER REVIEWS BELOW. PUBLISHER REVIEW: REVIEW: First published in German as Das Versunkene Volk. A study of the archeological sites as well as the permeating influence of Etruscan culture on the classical world and early Christianity. PROFESSIONAL REVIEW: REVIEW: This book was originally published in German as Das Versunkenne Volk. It tells of the story of a vanished race who for nearly 400 years before the rise of Rome exercised authority over Central Italy and the Mediterranean. It is a fascinating account of the Etruscan civilization through archaeology and art. READER REVIEWS: REVIEW: Cles-Redden discusses the afterlife and its religious aspects in Chapter 12. She specifically discusses Christianity, and the facets of it that she suggests are Etruscan in origin, specifically the role of demons and other creatures of Hell. She argues that the Etruscan presence was felt by the Church well into Medieval times. It is fairly unique discussion. Overall this book is a remarkable, readable, and fascinating book about the ancient Etruscan culture. REVIEW: The author describes Etruscan sites and brings to life the achievements of a disappeared people. A good study of the Etruscans, their history and culture. Well written and clear. REVIEW: An interesting book detailing the Etruscan civilization. Clearly, it was written by someone whose first language is English but it suits a scholar who likes detailed and deep reading. REVIEW: A class of its time. Remains a relevant study. ADDITIONAL BACKGROUND: THE ANCIENT ETRUSCANS: AN OVERVIEW: Etruria and Etruscan Civilization: The Etruscan civilization flourished in central Italy between the 8th and 3rd century BC. The ancient nation of Etruria which was the homeland of the Etruscans was renowned in antiquity for its rich mineral resources and as a major Mediterranean trading power. Much of Etruscan culture and even history was either obliterated or assimilated into the conquering Roman Empire. Nevertheless surviving Etruscan tombs, their contents and their wall paintings convey to historians and archaeologists much about the culture. Roman adoption of certain Etruscan clothing, religious practices, and architecture, also convey that culture from the ancient past to the present. These constitute convincing testament to the great prosperity and significant contribution to Mediterranean culture achieved by Italy's first great civilization [Ancient History Encyclopedia]. Villanovan Culture: The Villanovan culture of Etruria developed during the Iron Age in central Italy from around 1100 BC. The name is of the Villanovan culture is actually misleading as the culture is the Etruscans in their early form. There is no evidence of migration or warfare to suggest the two peoples were different. The Villanovan culture benefited from a greater exploitation of the areas natural resources. This encouraged the formation of villages. Houses were typically circular and made of wattle and daub walls and thatch roofs with wooden and terracotta decoration added. Pottery models of houses survive. These were used to store the ashes of the deceased, but inform archaeologists and historians as to the appearance and structure of Villanovan houses. Well-managed and robust agriculture gave the Villanovans a dependable, regular yield of crops. Thus a portion of the community was freed to devote itself to manufacturing and trade. The importance of horses is evidenced by the many finds of bronze horse bits in the large Villanovan cemeteries located just outside their settlements. By around 750 BC the Villanovan culture had evolved into what historians recognize as the Etruscan culture proper. Many of the Villanovan sites would continue to develop as major Etruscan cities. The Etruscans were now ready to establish themselves as one of the most successful population groups in the ancient Mediterranean. The Etruscan cities were independent city-states linked to each other only by a common religion, language and culture in general. Etruria was geographically spread from the Tiber River in the south to parts of the Po Valley in the north, the major Etruscan cities included Cerveteri (Cisra), Chiusi (Clevsin), Populonia (Puplona), Tarquinia (Tarchuna), Veii (Vei), Vetulonia (Vetluna), and Vulci (Velch). Cities developed independently. Innovations then in such areas as manufacturing, art and architecture, and government occurred at different times in different places. Generally speaking coastal sites with their greater contact with other contemporary cultures evolved quicker. However the knowledge they gained eventually passed on as new ideas to the inland Etrurian populations. Notwithstanding this cultural dissemination, the Etruscan cities still developed along their own lines. Significant differences are evident in one city from another [Ancient History Encyclopedia]. Etruscan Civilization: Prosperity in ancient Etruria was based primarily on fertile lands and improved agricultural tools to better exploit it. It was also based on rich local mineral resources, especially iron. The prosperous economic base also included the manufacture of metal tools, pottery, and goods in precious materials such as gold and silver. Equally significant as a source of prosperity were the Etrurian trade networks. These not only connected the Etruscan cities to one another. They also connected the Etruscans to tribes in the north of Italy and across the Alps. Last but of equal significance, the trade routes included maritime networks with other maritime trading nations such as the Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians, and the Near East in general. Slaves, raw materials, and manufactured goods, especially Greek pottery were imported. The Etruscans exported iron, their own indigenous bucchero pottery, and foodstuffs. Particularly notable exports of agricultural products included wine, olive oil, grain, and pine nuts. With trade flourishing from the 7th century BC onward the cultural impact of the consequent increase in contact between cultures also became more profound. Craftsmen from Greece and the Levant settled in Emporia. Semi-independent trading ports sprang up on the Tyrrhenian coast. The most famous port was at Pyrgri, one of the ports of Cerveteri. Eating habits, clothing, the alphabet, and religion are just some of the areas where Greek and Near Eastern peoples would transform Etruscan culture. This occurred during what cultural anthropologists, archaeologists, and historians have named the 'Orientalizing' period. Etruscan cities teamed with Carthage to successfully defend their trade interests against a Greek naval fleet at the “Battle of Alalia”, also known as the “Battle of the Sardinian Sea” in 540 BC. Such was the Etruscan dominance of the seas and maritime trade along the Italian coast that the Greeks repeatedly referred to them as scoundrel pirates. However in the 5th century BC it was Syracuse in Sicily that the dominant Mediterranean trading power. The Sicilian city combined with Cumae to inflict a naval defeat on the Etruscans at the “Battle at Cumae in 474 BC. Worse was to come when Dionysius I, the Tyrant of Syracuse, decided to attack the Etruscan coast in 384 BC. Many of the Etruscan ports were destroyed. These factors contributed significantly to the loss of trade and consequent decline of many Etruscan cities seen from the 4th to 3rd century BC. Inland Etruscan warfare seems to have initially followed Greek principles and the use of Hoplites. Warriors wore a bronze breastplate, Corinthian helmet, greaves for the legs, and a large circular shield. They were deployed in the static phalanx formation. However from the 6th century BC the greater number of smaller round bronze helmets would suggest a more mobile warfare. Although several chariots have been discovered in Etruscan tombs, it is likely that these were for ceremonial use only. The minting of coinage from the 5th century BC suggests that mercenaries were used in warfare, as they were in many cultures contemporary of the Etruscans. Also during the 5th century BC many towns built extensive fortification walls with towers and gates. All of these developments point to a new military threat. The threat would come from the south where a great empire was building. Starting with the conquest of the Etruscans, Ancient Rome was not only ascendant but also on the warpath. In the 6th century BC some of Rome's early kings, although believed mere legendary, were from Tarquinia, Etruria. By the late 4th century BC Rome was no longer the lesser neighbor of the Etruscans, and Rome was beginning to flex its muscles. In addition the Etruscan cause was not in any way helped by invasions from the north. Even if they would sometimes be their allies against Rome, Celtic tribes made repeated incursions into Etruria from the 5th to 3rd century BC. There would follow some 200 years of intermittent warfare between Etruria and Rome. Peace treaties, alliances, and temporary truces were punctuated by battles and sieges. Examples of such would include Rome's 10-year attack on Veii from 406 BC, as well as the siege of Chiusi and Battle of Sentinum, both in 295 BC. Eventually Rome's professional army, greater organizational skills, superior manpower and resources proved vastly superior to that of the Etruscans. Even more crucial was the lack of political unity amongst the Etruscan cities. All of these factors meant that there could only be one winner in the ongoing struggle between the Etruscans and Roman. The year 280 BC proved pivotal as it witnessed the fall of the Etruscan cities of among others, Tarquinia, Orvieto, and Vulci. Cerveteri fell in 273 BC. Cerveteri was one f the last major Etruscan city/states to hold out against the relentless spread of the Roman empire. The Romans often butchered and sold into slavery the vanquished Etruscans. The Romans then established colonies and repopulated formerly Etruscan areas with Rome’s veterans. The end finally came when many Etruscan cities supported Marius in the civil war won by Sulla. Sulla then turned around and sacked the Etruscan cities of his former allies all over again in 83 and 82 BC. The Etruscans were completely absorbed in to Roman Empire. Their culture and language gave way to Latin and Latin ways as they were completely “Romanized”. Etruscan literature was destroyed and their history obliterated. It would take 2,500 years and the almost miraculous discovery of intact tombs stuffed with exquisite artifacts and decorated with vibrant wall paintings before the world realized what had been lost. Etruscan Government and Society: The early government of the Etruscan city/states was based on a monarchy. It later developed into rule by an oligarchy that supervised and dominated all public positions. This was also oftentimes accompanied by a popular assembly of citizens. The only evidence of a political connection between cities is an annual meeting of the Etruscan League. This is a political body which history unfortunately has no knowledge of other than that the 12 or 15 of the most important cities sent elders to meet together. Indications suggest that the assembly was largely for religious purposes. The venue of the assembly was at a sanctuary called “Fanum Voltumnae”. The location of the sanctuary is also unknown, but was probably near Orvieto. There is however ample evidence that Etruscan cities occasionally fought each other. There are records of Etruscans even displacing the populations of lesser cities. No doubt this was a consequence of the competition for resources. This competition was driven both by population increases as well as by a desire to control increasingly lucrative trade routes. Etruscan society had various levels of social status which distinguished between foreigners and slaves as well as women and male citizens. Males of certain clan groups seem to have dominated key roles in the areas of politics. Religion, justice, and one's membership of a clan was likely more important than even which city one came from. Women enjoyed more freedom than in most other ancient cultures. They were for example able to inherit property in their own right. Nonetheless their status was still not equal to males. Women were also unable to participate in public life beyond social and religious occasions. Etruscan Religion: The religion of the Etruscans was polytheistic with gods for all those important places, objects, ideas, and events, which were thought to affect or control everyday life. At the head of the pantheon was Tin, although like most such figures he was probably not thought to concern himself much with mundane human affairs. For that there were all sorts of other gods such as Thanur, the goddess of birth; Aita, god of the Underworld; and Usil, the Sun god. The national Etruscan god seems to have been Veltha, also known as Veltune or Voltumna. This god was closely associated with vegetation. Lesser figures included winged females known as Vanth, who seem to be messengers of death. There were also heroes. Amongst those was Hercules. Hercules along with many other Greek gods and heroes were adopted, renamed and tweaked by the Etruscans to sit alongside their own deities. The two main features of the religion included first, augury, which involved reading omens from birds and weather phenomena such as lightening or thunder. The second was haruspicy, which involves examining the entrails of sacrificed animals to divine future events. Haruspicy of the liver was considered particularly significant. The Etruscans were particularly pious and preoccupied with destiny, fate and how to affect it positively. This was noted by any number ancient authors, including the 1st century Roman Historian Livy. Livy described the Etruscans as, "a nation devoted beyond all others to religious rites". Priests would consult a now lost body of religious texts called the “Etrusca Disciplina”. The texts were based on knowledge given to the Etruscans by two divinities. The first was the wise infant Tages, grandson of Tin, who miraculously appeared from a field in Tarquinia while it was being ploughed. The second was the nymph Vegoia, also known as Vecui. The Etrusca Disciplina dictated when certain ceremonies should be performed and revealed the meaning of signs and omens. Such ceremonies as animal sacrifices, the pouring of blood into the ground, and music and dancing usually occurred outside temples built in honor of particular gods. Ordinary folk would leave offerings at these temple sites to thank the gods for a favor fulfilled or in the hope of receiving one in the near future. Votive offerings were either foodstuffs or inscribed pottery vessels and figurines or bronze statuettes of humans and animals. Amulets were worn, especially by children, to attract the favor of the gods and as well to keep away evil spirits and bad luck. The presence of both precious and everyday objects in Etruscan tombs is an indicator of a belief in the afterlife. The Etruscans considered the afterlife to be a continuation of the person's life in this world, much like the ancient Egyptians. If the wall paintings in many tombs are an indicator, then the next life started with a family reunion and rolled on to an endless round of pleasant banquets, games, dancing, and music. Etruscan Architecture: The most ambitious architectural projects of the Etruscans were temples built in a sacred precinct where they could make offerings to their gods. Originally temples were dried mud-brick buildings roofed with wooden poles and thatch roofs. By around 600 BC the temples had gradually evolved into more solid and imposing structures using stone and Tuscan columns. Tuscan columns were characterized by a base but with no flutes. Each town had three main temples, as dictated by the Etrusca Disciplina. Etruscan temples were much like Greek temples in design. However they differed in that usually only the front porch had columns, and the front porch extended further outwards than those designed by Greek architects. Other differences were a higher base platform, a three-room cella inside, a side entrance, and large terracotta roof decorations. The large terracotta roof decorations were first seen in the buildings of the Villanovan culture. However by around 600 BC they became much more extravagant. These included life-size figure sculptures. An exceptional example would be the striding figure of Apollo from the Portonaccio Temple at Veii which was built around 510 BC. Private houses from the early 6th century BC have multiple intercommunicating rooms. There are also sometimes present a hall and a private courtyard, all on one floor. Roofs are gabled and supported by columns. The homes had an atrium, an entrance hall open to the sky in the center. In the entrance hall beneath the opening to the sky would be a shallow basin in the middle of the floor for collecting rainwater. Opposite was a large room, with a hearth and cistern, and side rooms including accommodation for servants. The burial practices of the Etruscans were by no means uniform across Etruria or even over time. A general preference for cremation eventually gave way to inhumation and then back to cremation again in the Hellenistic period. However some sites were slower to change. It is the burial of members of the same family over several generations in large earth-covered tombs or in small square buildings above ground that are the Etruscan's greatest architectural legacy. Some circular tombs measure as much as 40 meters (130 feet) in diameter. They have corbelled or domed ceilings and are often accessed by a stone-lined corridor. The cube-like structures are best seen in the Banditaccia necropolis of Cerveteri. Each has a single doorway entrance. Inside are stone benches on which the deceased were laid, Carved altars and sometimes stone seats were set. Built in orderly rows, the tombs correspond a greater concern with town-planning at that time. Etruscan Art: Without doubt the greatest artistic legacy of the Etruscans is their magnificent tomb wall paintings. These magnificent works of art give a unique and technicolor glimpse into their lost world. Only 2% of tombs were painted. This indicates only the elite could afford such luxury. The paintings are applied either directly to the stone wall or onto a thin base layer of plaster wash. The artists first drew outlines using chalk or charcoal. The use of shading is minimal. However the color shading of many causes the pictures stand out vibrantly. The earliest tomb paintings date to the mid-6th century BC. Topics remain consistent over the centuries. There was a particular affection for depictions of dancing, music, hunting, sports, processions, and dining scenes. Sometimes there are also historical scenes such as the battles depicted in the “Francois Tomb” at Vulci. The paintings give us an idea of Etruscan daily life, eating habits, and clothing. They also but also reveal social attitudes, notably to slaves, foreigners, and women. For example the depictions include the presence of married women at banquets and drinking parties. As indicated by inscriptions accompanying the depictions it is evident that they enjoyed a more equal social status with their husbands than seen in other ancient cultures of the period. Pottery was another area of expertise. Bucchero is the indigenous pottery of Etruria. It has a distinctive, almost black glossy finish. Produced from the early 7th century BC the style often imitated embossed bronze vessels. Popular shapes include bowls, jugs, cups, utensils, and anthropomorphic vessels. Bucchero wares were commonly placed in tombs. They were also exported widely throughout Europe and the Mediterranean. Another later specialization was the production of terracotta funerary urns which had a half-life-size figure of the deceased on the lid sculpted in the round. These were painted. Although sometimes a little idealized, they nevertheless on the whole present a realistic portraiture. The sides of these square urns are often decorated with relief sculpture showing scenes from mythology. Bronze work had been another Etruscan specialty dating back to the Villanovan period. All manner of daily items were produced in bronze. However the artist's hand is best seen first in small statuettes. Secondly, and in particular, the bronze mirrors which were decorated with engraved scenes. Again these scenes were usually from mythology. Finally, large-scale metal sculpture was produced of exceptional quality. Very few examples have survived. But those that do survive are testimony to the imagination and skill of the Etruscan artist. One particularly notable example would be the Chimera of Arezzo. The Etruscan Legacy: The Romans not only grabbed what lands and treasures they could from their neighbors but also stole quite a few ideas from the Etruscans. The Romans adopted the Etruscan practice of divination which itself an adaptation of Near Eastern practices. The Romans also adopted other elements of Etruscan religious practices such as the rituals for establishing new towns and dividing territories. Etruscan soothsayers and diviners were acknowledged by the Romans as the Mediterranean's experts in such matters. Thus they became a staple member of elite households and army units. The Romans adopted the Tuscan column, arched gate, and private villas with atriums. They also adopted the Etruscan tombs with niches for multiple funerary urns, and large-scale temples on impressive raised stepped platforms. Other cultural influences on Roman society which originated with the Etruscans included the victory procession which would become the Roman triumph. The Romans also adopted the Etruscan robe in white, purple or with a red border. This would evolve into what would become the Roman toga. Finally in the area of language the Etruscans passed on many words to their successors in Italy. Through their alphabet which was itself adapted from Greek, the Etruscans would influence northern European languages with the creation of the Runic script [Ancient History Encyclopedia]. ETRUSCAN WARFARE: The Etruscan civilization flourished in central Italy from the 8th through the 3rd centuries BC. The Etruscans gained a reputation in antiquity for being party-loving pushovers when it came to warfare. Reality however was somewhat different. As the saying goes, history is most often written by the victors. The Etruscans were conquered by and assimilated into the Romans' fast-growing empire. Latin authors minimized the debt they owed to Italy's first great civilization, the Etruscans. Latin authors also minimized the difficulties they had in conquering and establishing control over the Etruscans. Without extensive surviving written texts of their own, the history of the Etruscans must be pieced together from what little remains of their culture. These elements include the ruins of fortification walls, surviving weapons, armor, and artworks depicting warfare-related themes. It also includes second-hand accounts of ancient writers, including the accounts of their conquerors, the Romans. Nevertheless, some features of Etruscan warfare become clear. The Etruscans utilized bronze armor, shields and swords. The Etruscans demonstrated a preoccupation for defense as evidenced in the building of fortification walls. The Etruscans also demonstrated a general lack of unity between cities, which would in the end ring the death knell of the Etruscan culture. Like most Mediterranean fighting powers of the day Etruscan armies were drawn from the citizen body. These citizen-soldiers were otherwise farmers when not at war. Soldiers paid for their own equipment. They fought for their individual city-state to protect its and their own interests. This might be to defend their territory or expand it. It could also be in an effort to control trade routes on land and sea, and to acquire the resources they deemed necessary. From the 5th century BC onwards evidence of paid soldiers and mercenaries is seen in the minting of coinage for the purpose of paying those mercenaries and/or soldiers. Corinthian helmets have been found in Etruscan tombs,. However the most common type seems to have been the plain bronze bell-shape helmet which had a narrow brim. Armor was of bronze and took the form of breastplates, greaves to protect the lower legs, helmet, and round shield. The total kit was much like the hoplite of Greek warfare. It is likely that hardened leather was widely used as body armor too. Lighter and more effective than bronze such perishable material would not survive in the archaeological record as has bronze armor. The principal weapons were bronze spears and double-edged swords. A stele from Vetulonia depicts an Etruscan warrior carrying a double-axe, but this may have been a symbol of authority rather than a weapon. Both bronze armor and weapons of the Greek hoplite type have been found in multiple Etruscan tombs of the 8th and 7th century BC. These include tombs at such varied locations as Cerveteri, Tarquinia, Veii, and Vetulonia. However it is important to note here that some of these weapons, helmets in particular, may have only had a symbolic ritual purpose. They may not have actually been used in battle. An example of such a ceremonial helmet is the famous bronze helmet of Veii with its huge and impractical bronze triangular crest. And again, Corinthian helmets have also been found in tombs. However the most common type of bronze helmet found in Etruscan tombs is of the plain bell-shape which is characterized by a narrow brim and in some cases, detachable cheek-guards. Another less than clear issue is the Etruscan use of horses in warfare. Tombs abound with bronze horse bits. There are also numerous bronze two-wheeled chariots interred with the dead. Just whether these were used in warfare or if they were merely a symbol of wealth or whether they were intended only to aid the deceased in their passage into the next life is at this point and likely will always be an unanswerable. As one historian made clear, reconstructing the Etruscan military past has its difficulties. “…The literary evidence is untrustworthy, and the iconographical evidence is to be treated with caution…” Constructing Etruscan realities from depictions of warriors on either imported Greek or Near-Eastern artifacts is dangerous. Roman writers and Etruscan art demonstrate that Etruscan warriors were armed very similarly to the hoplites of Greece. This suggests that the Etruscans may also have adopted the Greek phalanx formation. The Greek Phalanx consisted of a line of warriors moving forward as one. On the battlefield this presented the opponent with a mass of armed soldiers with spears bristling and the soldiers composing the formation each protecting the other with a solid barrier of bronze shields. Hoplite warfare was brief and brutal with the two sides clashing. However this type of warfare had the “advantage” that the issue was often settled in one encounter rather than armed conflict dragging out for years. Such tactics as the phalanx may only have been used early on in Etruscan history when battles were between rival cities to settle disputes in a formulaic set-piece battle. The fact that most Etruscan helmets are of a simpler bronze bowl type would suggest that warfare was typically more dynamic. Consequently the majority of Etruscan helmets were characterized as providing greater visibility and mobility. The greater protection but more restricted visibility of the Corinthian helmet is better suited to more static phalanx engagements. However such helmets are in the distinct minority in Etruscan archaeological finds. Similarly shields are generally smaller in the 5th century BC as compared to previous century. This too suggests a transition from the more static phalanx style to more fluid and mobile tactics. Many Etruscan cities were protected by city walls. Not always entirely enclosing a city, they protected it from attack at its weakest points. Those sections not benefiting from a wall were usually protected by a natural precipice or man-made terraces and ditches. Portions of fortification walls survive at Cerveteri, Tarquinia, Veii, Vulci, and other cities. Made from either mud-bricks on top of stone plinths or entirely from tufa blocks, most date from the 5th century BC (“tufa” is a local variety of limestone). Many include well-built gates with their own towers. Such fortifications were designed to offer the community a temporary point of refuge in the case of attack, for both town and country dwellers. That these walls were capable of withstanding a prolonged attack is evidenced by the historical records documenting a 10-year Roman siege of Veii between 406 and 396 BC. If the history of Etruscan land warfare is rather patchy, then their naval exploits are positively threadbare in the historical record. With a plentiful supply of timber, the Etruscans were able to build large sailing ships. Those ships under the power of oars in battle could ram enemy ships. If necessary the enemy ships would then boarded by the compliment of foot soldiers aboard the Etruscan vessel. The importance to the Etruscan economy of maritime trade is attested by the depiction of ships in art, the presence of model ships in tombs, and the prodigious amount of foreign goods that found their way to Etruria. That the Etruscans were able sailors and navigators is attested by Greek and Roman writers. The Romans and Greeks paid them the rather backhanded compliment of continuously referring to them collectively as Tyrrhenian pirates. This label referred to the Etruscan domination of the waters off the coast of western Italy. This 'piracy' was more likely legitimate trade operations which the Greeks and Romans would dearly have loved for themselves. The legendary prowess of Etruscan seamen is further illustrated in Greek myth. Even the god Dionysus found himself captured by the Etruscans, and only managed to escape by changing the sailors into dolphins. Greek writers mention that the Etruscans managed to occupy parts of Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, Samos, and southern France and Spain. Etruria even rivaled the great naval power of Carthage in the Mediterranean. For Etruscans their dominant position as a naval power came to an end with the rise of Syracuse and their defeat at the Battle of Cumae in 474 BC. The Etruscan armies of part-time soldiers were probably recruited on a basis of kinship or clan membership. They proved to be no match for the more professional and tactically dynamic Roman army. The Romans were also able to draw on greater resources of both men and equipment. Another disadvantage of the Etruscan cities was their failure to support each other against the common threat of Rome. Individual cities had in the past formed alliances to good effect. A perfect example of that common defense was seen in the defeat of a Phocaean fleet by a joint Cerveterian and Carthaginian force in 540 BC. However the military weakness of the Etruscans was all too evident in the wave of attacks from Syracuse in the first quarter of the 4th century BC. The Etruscan coastal cities were sacked and their lucrative trade routes taken over by the Sicilians. The northern parts of Italy the Etruscans had colonized were also attacked from the north by migrating Celts. This conflict started from the beginning of the 5th century BC. It culminated in defeat at the Battle of Melpum (Milan) in 396 BC. After six centuries the Etruscan control of central Italy was suddenly under serious threat from two directions. The Etruscan cities had long been rivals and frequently fought each other. There are no direct historical accounts of these struggles, such as first-hand written accounts. However tomb paintings of local wars such as those of the “Francois Tomb at Vulci” depict just such armed struggles, and add veracity to Roman accounts of such battles. Additional evidence of infighting between Etruscan cities is found at such sites as Acquarossa. These sites were abandoned and the population absorbed into larger neighboring towns. As Rome encroached into Etruria moving ever northwards the Etruscan cities failed to mobilize. The Etruscan League which was a religious league could have been transformed into a military league providing the Etruscan cities with mutual aid. The Romans still did not have everything their own way, though. The legendary King of Chiusi Lars Porsenna had attacked and sacked Rome in the final decade of the 6th century BC. The Etruscans despite their reputation otherwise proved a stubborn foe to conquer. Battles, sieges, and the sacking of cities would rumble on for two centuries in a brutal fight for control of central Italy. Tarquinia famously sacrificed 307 Roman prisoners in their forum in 356 BC. The Romans retaliated by murdering 358 Tarquinian prisoners in Rome. The Etruscans formed an alliance with the Samnites, Umbrians, and Gauls to face Rome. However despite some initial successes by the forces allied against Rome, the Romans won a decisive victory at Sentinum in 295 BC. Sieges of towns such as Chiusi, Perugia, and Troilum soon followed. Another Roman victory came in 283 BC against an Etruscan-Gaul alliance at the Battle of Lake Vadimo. In 281 through 280 BC witnessed more Roman victories against the likes of Tarquinia, Orvieto, and Vulci. The outcome of those battles meant that most of Etruria finally fell under Roman control. Rome established colonies of retiring veterans as reward for their military service. By so doing the once great Etruscan towns were reduced to minor Roman settlements. One of the last Etruscan towns to fall was Cerveteri in 273 BC. Those lands as well were confiscated and redistributed amongst Rome’s military veterans. Through a mix of diplomacy, alliances, prolonged truces, and military prowess, the Romans had established themselves as the masters of Italy. This was to prove to be Rome’s control the entire Mediterranean and beyond. Sadly for the Etruscans this was not the end of the fighting. Etruscan armies sided with Rome in the Battle of Talamone against the Gauls in 225 BC. The former Etruscan cities also made the wise decision to stay loyal to Rome when Hannibal invaded Italy during the Second Punic War from 218 through 201 BC. However many northern Etruscan towns then unwisely sided with Marius in the Roman civil war of the early 1st century BC. However Sulla proved victorious in that conflict. After defeating Marius, Sulla took brutal revenge against the Etruscan city-states which had sided with Marius. Chiusi, Populonia, and Vetulonia were mercilessly sacked in 83 and 82 BC. The Etruscans were finished as a warring nation. Even their culture fast disappeared into the new reality of a Roman world [Ancient History Encyclopedia]. ETRUSCAN COMMERCE: The Etruscan civilization flourished in central Italy between the 8th and 3rd century BC. Their prosperity was largely based on their exploitation of local mineral resources, both through the production of manufactured goods and the trade of those goods. The Etruscans exchanged goods not only with their fellow cities in Etruria. The Etruscans also traded with contemporary Mediterranean civilizations such as the Greeks, Phoenicians, and Near East cultures. Especially noted for their production and export of iron, the Etruscans received in many good in exchange. Amongst other goods, the Etruscans received ivory from Egypt, amber from the Baltic, and pottery from Greece and Ionia. With these trade relations came cultural influences as evidenced in both Etruscan daily life and art. It is perhaps important to note here that when speaking of Etruscan trade we are describing the external trade relationships individual towns maintained. The Etruscans did not form a cohesive political and economic state. It is clear that there was no administered trade at this stage. Many small political units (i.e., cities) were competing on relatively equal terms in an exchange network. Access to this exchange network was restricted to a 'chiefly' elite but was not heavily centralized. Nonetheless despite the decentralization of external trade relationships it is true that the Etruscan coastal towns generally acted as emporia. This role as a trading nexus was especially true from the 7th century BC onwards. From coastal sites such as Cerveteri, Tarquinia, and Populonia goods would then have been traded on into the interior of Etruria. Scholars suspect that goods from inland sources destined for export would have traveled in the opposite direction. In the beginning goods would have been bartered and paid for in kind. However from the 6th century BC there is evidence that bronze ingots stamped with a branch without leaves was used as a monetary form to pay for bulk orders. From the 5th century BC several Etruscan towns minted their own gold or silver coinage. However evidence suggests that as elsewhere in the Mediterranean the use of coinage was probably driven by a necessity to pay soldiers and mercenaries rather than for trade. Early Etruscan culture was known as the Iron Age Villanovan culture. The Villanovan culture developed between 1000 and 750 BC in western central Italy. The initial prosperity of these peoples was based on rich mineral deposits in the area. These included lead, tin, copper, silver, and most of all, iron. Agriculture developed with metal implements improving productivity. This in turn yielded economic stability which brought with it the possibility of a small-scale manufacturing industry of pottery and metal goods. Thus a trade network involving the exchange of goods developed between Etruscan towns. This was especially prevalent in those towns on the coast and near rivers where access inland was made easier. In addition commercial-scale bronze workings discovered at Etruscan sites indicate contact with Sardinia, central Europe, the Balkans and even the Cyclades. These links brought about a more advanced metallurgy. However the flowering of Etruscan trade was only just beginning. Eventually the mineral resources and the increased wealth of the Etruscans began to attract foreigners to the area. In the 8th century BC Euboeans from their base at Pithecusae, present day Ischia, introduced themselves to the Etruscans. Euboeans were from the island of Euboea. Their colony of Pethecusae was also an island. Also no later than the 8th century BC, and perhaps even earlier, Etruscan trade links were established with Egypt, Phoenicia, Ionia, and the Near East. All of these cultures were eager to find new metal sources. The trade between Etruria and these other cultures is evidenced by archaeological finds in what was ancient Etruria of ivory goods and glass paste jewelry. Also ostrich eggs which while decorated in Etruria, certainly were not originally laid in Etruria! They have also been unearthed objects that possessed distinctive origin, unquestionably outside Etruria. These would include such finds as small bronze boats from originally from Sardinia and scarabs from Egypt. Fine Greek pottery seems to have been especially esteemed by the Etruscans. The pottery came from workshops in Sparta, Corinth, Eastern Greece, and above all, Attica. There is also evidence that pottery wares were even especially made to suit Etruscan tastes. Foreign imports however did not put a stop to local production. One notable example was the pottery wares were produced by the famed Etruscan “Micali Painter of Vulci”. His vessels have been found at sites across Etruria. The widespread distribution demonstrates that local trade prospered alongside imported Greek pottery. Other notable foreign imports into Etruria would have included gold, ivory, fine wooden furniture, glass bottles for perfumes and creams, oil lamps, and slaves. Such was the Etruscan maritime presence in this period that they gained a reputation for piracy which lasted throughout antiquity. The manufacturing industry was booming thanks to a ready supply of raw materials. Manufacturing and export further benefited from artists and craftsmen from Greece and the Levant. These immigrants to Etruria came and set up shop. This was in response to the high demand for precious metal goods such as jewelry, as well as fine pottery. Many of these foreign artists and traders established themselves in specialized coastal trading areas or “emporia”. Here they could live as they wished. They were protected by their sanctuaries and able to worship their religion. In effect Etruria provided them with a home away from home. The most important of these emporia were Pyrgi, a port belonging to Cerveteri. There was also the port of Regae, which belonged to Vulci. And finally the port of Gravisca belonged to Tarquinia. As a benefit of the trade through these ports the Etruscans were guaranteed a continuous supply of the luxury goods. These might be goods which they required for everyday use. They could be goods used as votive offerings to the gods at sanctuaries. Or such luxury goods might also be left to accompany the dead in the large painted tombs of the Etruscan elite over the centuries. By the 6th century BC Etruscan grain, pine nuts, olive oil, and wine were being exported in large quantities throughout the Mediterranean. Chiusi produced fine stone sculpture and bronze cauldrons. Pisa was noted for its marble and wood suitable for shipbuilding, Cerveteri gained fame for its gold work and distinctive two-handled pottery water vessels. Populonia was one of the Mediterranean's main producers of pig iron, smelting ore from Elba. Tarquinia was renowned for its production and export of linen production. Veii produced pottery and bronze horse bits. Vulci in particular had countless workshops where just about everything was produced from painted ostrich eggs to inlaid ivory plaques. Amphorae made at Vulci carrying the local wine have been all along the Etrurian coast and in Provence, Alicante, and on the islands of Sicily and Naxos. Eventually however increasing Competition from Greek and Carthaginian traders drove the Etruscans to look for new markets inland. These they found in the Celts on the other side of the Alps. Wine exports to the Celts are attested by the many finds in their historical lands of the large bronze jugs made at Vulci. Another successful Etruscan export was bucchero. This was the Etruscans own distinctive pottery with a near-black glossy finish. Examples of bucchero have been found along the coastal areas of southern France and northwestern Spain, at Athens, Sparta, and Corinth, on Corfu and Cyprus, at Carthage, in Romania, Syria, Libya, and Egypt. It’s also clear that other Etruscan-manufactured goods such as horse bits, helmets, and shields were appreciated by foreign cultures. This is evidenced by the use of such Etruscan products as votive offerings at such important 'international' religious sites as Olympia, Delphi, and Dodona. In addition, Italian-made fibulae, or garment pins, have been excavated on Aegina, Rhodes, and Samos. Naturally the Etruscans did not have everything their own way. Other trading cultures frequently sought to muscle in on their lucrative trade routes. Etruscan cities signed a treaty with Carthage to agree on exclusive areas of operation in 509 BC. However even so Carthage and the Etruscan cities had to defend their interests against a Greek naval fleet. This they did with success in 540 BC at the “Battle of Alalia”, also known as the “Battle of the Sardinian Sea” in 540 BC. During the 5th century BC Syracuse was the dominant Mediterranean trading power. The Sicilian city combined with Cumae to inflict a naval defeat on the Etruscans at the battle at Cumae in 474 BC. Cumae was the oldest and strongest Greek colony on the Italian peninsula. Worse was to come when the Syracusan Tyrant Dionysius I decided to attack the Etruscan coast in 384 BC. Syracuse’s forces destroyed many of the Etruscan ports. By the late 4th century BC Rome was beginning to flex its muscles in the region as well. All of these external factors contributed significantly to the loss of trade and the consequent decline of many Etruscan cities seen from the 4th century BCE onwards [Ancient History Encyclopedia]. ETRUSCAN CITY OF CERVETARI: Cerveteri was an important Etruscan town which flourished between the 7th and 4th century BC. It was known to the Etruscans as “Cisra” or “Caisra”. To the Greeks it was “Agylla”. To the Romans it was “Caere”. Cerveteri is located near the western coast of central Italy. It is around 50 kilometers (30 miles) north of Rome. Cerveteri is today most famous for its thousands of rock-cut tombs. These tombs were rich in artifacts and wall paintings depicting scenes from Etruscan daily life. Outstanding among these is the “Regolini-Galassi” tomb. This was discovered to be chock-full of precious artifacts which ranged from silver cups to the finest Etruscan gold jewelry ever discovered. Etruscan Cerveteri is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. Cerveteri is located on a tufa (limestone) outcrop overlooking the Tyrrhenian Sea. It possesses archaeological evidence of settlement from the Bronze Age and has cemeteries which date back to the Iron Age. Many of these latter burials contain instruments related to wool working such. These include spools, spindles and loom weights made of pottery and though less frequently, of bronze. Cerveteri was Blessed with fertile land for agriculture rich mineral resources in the nearby Tolfa Mountains. Cerveteri was a thriving settlement of the pre-Etruscan culture known as the Villanovan (1000 to 750 BC). There existed a brisk exchange goods with neighbors such as Tarquinia, and Cerveteri was set to become a prosperous town in the Etruria region of central Italy. From the 7th century BC Cerveteri was an important production centre for the indigenous bucchero pottery which has a glossy dark grey, almost black finish. In fact Cerveteri may have been the first Etruscan city to produce these iconic wares as early as 675 BC. Cerveteri also produced ceramic wares imitating Near Eastern and Greek styles, particularly those Ionian in origin. These ceramic wares were sometimes produced by Greek immigrant artists. The town's workshops produced Cerveteri’s own distinctive vase shape, the Caeretan hydria. This was a large two-handled vessel used for holding water and often decorated with scenes from Greek and Etruscan mythology. Evidence of Cerveteri's position as a trade center takes the form of the many fine Greek vases found at the site. The general prosperity of the city's elite is evidenced in the large tombs and their contents, placed within tumuli and set in orderly rows along streets. By the 6th century BC the city covered some 375 acres and was creating colonies of its own such as at Tolfa. Cerveteri is the only known Etruscan city to have had its own treasury at Delphi. This is indicative of its status as one of the richest members of the Etruscan League. The Etruscan League was a loose confederacy of somewhere between 12 and 15 Etruscan towns. They included Chiusi, Populonia, Tarquinia (Tarchuna), Vulci (Velch) and Volterra. Very little is known of the Etruscan League except that its members had common religious ties and that leaders met annually at the Fanum Voltumnae sanctuary near Orvieto. The precise location of the sanctuary is as yet unknown). That Cerveteri was one of the most advanced Etruscan cities and something of a trendsetter is evidenced in finds of some of the earliest pottery, artwork, and inscriptions produced in the region of Etruria. Cerveteri had three ports: Alsium, Punicum, and Pyrgi. Pyrgi possessed two grand temples and a sanctuary. One of these temples had three gold plaques nailed to its door, which were dedicated by a king of Cerveteri named “Thefarie Velianas”. The inscriptions, dating to around 500 BC, were written in both Etruscan and Phoenician, again indicating the town's role as an international trade center. Cerveteri's interests were safeguarded following a naval victory in the “Battle of Alalia” in 540 BCE. The conflict is also known as the “Battle of the Sardinian Sea”. Allied with a Carthaginian naval force they saw off a fleet of the Greek Phocaeans. Phocaea was an ancient Ionian Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia. Greek colonists from Phocaea founded the colony of Massalia in 600 BC, Emporion in 575 BC and Elea in 540 BC. According to 5th century BC Greek historian Herodotus some of the Greek survivors of the battle were taken to Cerveteri and brutally stoned to death. There then followed a curse of paralysis on anyone who went near the spot of this tragedy. Seeking to allay the curse the rulers of Cerveteri consulted the oracle at Delphi and were told to hold athletic games in honor of the dead. According to Herodotus this they did and continued to do so regularly thereafter. However a period of decline set in for Cerveteri from the mid-5th century BC onward. Control of their lucrative local trade routes fell into the hands of Syracuse, Sicily's rising power. The Etruscan loss at the naval battle at Cumae in 474 BC was the beginning of a slow decline. The Syracusan tyrant Dionysius I, sent an expedition to central Italy to grab what riches it could. This was in no small part retribution for the Etruscan support of Athens' attack on Syracuse 30 years before. The ports of Cerveteri were sacked by Syracuse forces and the temples robbed of their treasures in 384 BC. Further Syracusan attacks would hit Etruria in the following decades. However even worse was to come as the Etruscan's southern neighbors started to show more territorial ambition too. The Romans were coming. The Romans would exploit the lack of political and military unity between the Etruscan League members and eventually take over all of the Etruscan cities. Cerveteri had actually been a loyal ally of Rome in the past. For example Cerveteri had provided a safe haven for the Vestal Virgins when the Gauls had attacked Rome in the 4th century BC. However the cultural and military march of the Romans would stop for no one. There was a long and bloody conflict between the Romans and Etruscan, though punctuated by sporadic periods of peace. In the end Cerveteri was assimilated into the Roman Republic along with its fellow Etruscan cities. A Roman maritime colony was established at Pyrgi. By the early 2nd century BC Cerveteri's ultimate Romanization included the granting of Roman citizenship and several building projects including a theatre. Then of course came the inevitable imposition of further Roman colonization into Cerveteri's former territories. Cerveteri became something of a cultural backwater. The city was essentially dedicated to the production of agricultural products including cloth and rope for their Roman overlords. Gone forever were its glory days as one of the liveliest cultural centers of the ancient Mediterranean. Today to the south of the city archaeologists have excavated the foundations of two large temples. Both temples are dated to the 6th century BC. It’s quite possible that one of them may have been dedicated to Hercules. An inscribed cup and several clubs are believed to be evidence of votive offerings to the god. Similarly a lead weight inscribed with the Etruscan word for Hermes (“Turms”) may indicate the deity of the second temple. Hermes was eventually known to the Romans as “Mercury”. A third large structure discovered is known as the “Manganello Temple”. It possessed a tufa (limestone) block base, cisterns, water channels, wells, and a furnace. Archaeologists believe it was perhaps as part of workshop manufacturing votive goods. The thousands of rock-cut chamber tombs at Cerveteri are distributed over several cemeteries. These cemeteries include those named the Banditaccia, Cava Della Pozzolana, Monte Abatone, and Sorbo. The Sorbo cemetery dates back to the Iron Age. The earliest Etruscan tombs date to the 7th century BC. Many are tumuli. Tumuli are grass and earth mounds covering a rock base. The rock base is either made from blocks or cut out of natural outcrops. The largest tombs are over 20 feet in diameter. Other kinds of tombs are the distinctive cube-like structures in the Banditaccia necropolis. These date from the mid-6th century BC. The tombs are made from large stone blocks and as with tumuli they incorporate natural rocks. Each tomb has a single doorway entrance. Inside are stone benches on which the deceased were laid. As well the tombs often contained carved altars, and sometimes stone seats. Set in rows the tombs seem to perhaps indicate a greater concern with town-planning at that time. Unlike the tombs at Tarquinia many of the wall paintings at Cerveteri were applied directly to the stone walls without a plaster under layer. This has meant that they have deteriorated much more than at other Etruscan sites where tombs were plastered before they were painted. Nevertheless there are still some fine examples of Etruscan art. Scenes commonly show Greek myths, animals, and daily life. The splendid “Tomb of the Stucco Reliefs” was constructed for the Matuna family during the last quarter of the 4th century BC. It is accessed via a steep stepped corridor which opens into a chamber with stone benches on all sides and places for 32 bodies. The chamber's two columns and walls are covered in painted stucco depictions of everyday objects from tools to board games. The objects hang from nails in imitation of the typical Etruscan household where storage cabinets are largely unknown and possessions were hung from the walls. Objects from the tombs of Cerveteri include many examples of exquisite gold jewelry pieces. These include bracelets, buckles, earrings, rings, pins, necklaces, and pendants. Many of these pieces of gold jewelry evidence the most difficult gold work techniques. There are also bucchero wares as well as painted pottery. The painted pottery included both locally produced as well as imported pottery, the imported especially from Corinth and Athens). The tombs also yield terracotta sculptures as well as sarcophagi decorated with relief sculptures. Now in the Louvre museum one outstanding example of the latter has a married couple figure sculpture on its lid. It dated to about 530 to 520 BC. The terracotta coffin contained a cremation and was once brightly painted. Finally many tombs contained painted terracotta plaques depicting scenes most especially from mythology. Fragments of these terra cotta plaques found scattered across Cerveteri would suggest that they were also used to decorate the interiors of private houses and public buildings. The most spectacular tomb in terms of finds at Cerveteri is the Tomba “Regolini-Galassi”. It is so-named after the priest and general, respectively, who discovered it in 1836 AD. The pair discovered the tomb intact and came face to face with the skeleton of the tomb’s female occupant. She was bedecked in fine jewelry. She wore a gold pectoral 17 inches across decorated with animals and plants, a symbol of her high social status. The woman also wore a belt with a magnificent gold fibula made with repoussé and granulation techniques. It is decorated with five lions on its upper disk and 50 minute ducks in three-dimensions on the lower disk. Whatever the role of this person was in life, we do know her name, Larthia. Her name was inscribed on an eleven-piece silver service set found at her feet. Neither was she interred alone in the tomb. There was a second chamber containing the ashes of a male. Other items in the tomb possessed Near Eastern like decoration include a large bronze couch, round shields, incense burners, cauldrons, and a throne in the same material. There were also silver cups and dishes as well as bucchero wares in the form of bowls, pitchers, and beakers. There were large terracotta vases which once contained food for the deceased including wheat, oil, honey, and eggs. Finally, there was a four-wheeled bed-carriage on which lay the woman of the tomb and another two-wheeled chariot. The contents of the tomb were dated to between 680 and 660 BC. They are today on display in their own dedicated room in the Vatican Museums, Rome [Ancient History Encyclopedia]. THE ETRUSCAN CITY OF VULCI: Vulci (Velch) was an Etruscan city located 12 kilometers (7 miles) from the western coast of central Italy by the banks of the Fiora River. It flourished as a trading port between the 6th and 4th century BC and the city was an important member of the Etruscan League. The archaeological site has yielded many bronze works and a vast quantity of fine pottery. The archaeological finds have ended up on display in museums worldwide. However Vulci’s most important contribution to history and archaeology has been its most impressive contribution to our knowledge of the Etruscans. Vulci has provided historians and archaeologists with any tombs yield such knowledge including the 4th century BC “Francois Tomb” with its vibrant wall paintings. There are few written sources describing the history of Vulci, known as Velch to the Etruscans themselves. However substantial archaeological remains are testimony to its prosperity from the 6th to 4th century BC. The site had been inhabited since the Neolithic period. However Vulci had been long overshadowed by nearby Tarquinia in the first centuries of the 1st millennium BC. The wealth of Vulci was based on three factors. The first was its fertile agricultural lands. The second were rich metal deposits in nearby Monte Amiata. The last and third element was its strategic location on the Fiora River. This allowed Vulci to control trade from the coast to inland territories. The city's seaport has been identified by some scholars as Regae. Vulci did not just prosper as a trade centre passing on goods made by others. It was also a major manufacturing centre in its own right. However it did conduct a thriving import trade of black-figure and red-figure pottery from Greece. The imported pottery was often specifically made for the Etruscan Market. Vulci also traded large quantities of faience flasks imported from Egypt). However Vulci also produced its own finely Fine decorated pottery. The bucchero wares produced possessed a shiny dark grey surface. Vulci also produced bronze work including utensils, tripods, braziers, and even chariots. Vulci was also renowned for it production of gold jewelry, carved precious stones, wooden boxes inlaid with ivory plaques, bone and ivory spoons, and large-scale stone carvings. Last Vulci also imported ostrich eggs which were then painted by Etruscan artists. The stone carvings were produced from the local volcanic stone known as nenfro. Vulci's school of stonemasons influenced those of other Etruscan cities. All of these goods were exported throughout Italy and beyond. Vulci-manufactured wares have turned up in tombs across Europe. The high quality of the pottery finds, such items as finely-worked gold jewelry, and the sumptuous adornments and clothes of women depicted in tomb wall paintings all attest to the wealth of Vulci's elite. Further the general prosperity and cultural pull of the city is illustrated by the presence of such foreign artists as the East Greek 'Swallow Painter'. Famed still millennia later, this artist set up shop in Vulci and produced there his famous black-figure vases. Vulci was one of the twelve (or perhaps fifteen) members of the Etruscan League. This was a loose association of politically independent cities bound together by common religious ties. The other members of the league included Cerveteri, Chiusi, Populonia, Tarquinia, and Volterra. However the exact relationship between the members of the Etruscan League is not clear. Ancient authors group them together as Etruria or “the peoples of Etruria”. The 1st century AD Roman historian Livy describes an annual meeting of city leaders at the Fanum Voltumnae sanctuary near Orvieto. However in general the inability of the Etruscans to form a cohesive political alliance would be an important factor in their downfall at the hands of their aggressive southern neighbors the Romans. Vulci declined along with the Etruscan civilization in general between 450 and 350 BC. This was due to the fact that Sicilian Syracuse gained control of shipping routes previously dominated by the Etruscans. Nevertheless the city did subsequently recover to some degree. This is attested by artifacts such as marble sarcophagi dating to the second half of the 4th century BC. However the revival was to be short-lived. Led by T. Coruncanius the Romans conquered Vulci in 280 BC. In 273 BC a Roman colony was founded at Cosa which took over Vulci’s lucrative trade routes. Vulci was condemned first to be made merely municipium in 90 BC. Thereafter Vulci eventually faded into obscurity in the following centuries. This decline was exacerbated by the presence of malaria in the region. The site of Vulci today largely contains remains dating from the 4th century BC. There are very few traces of the structures from Vulci's Etruscan heyday. There are however portions of the city walls surviving, as well as a large temple platform which measures 82 x 119 feet. It once had four columns on the short sides and six along the long sides. The remains suggest that the temple was dedicated to Minerva. There are also the remains of several pottery workshops. A cemetery or necropolis has been an incredibly rich source of finds. These finds as well as the large area over which the city’s remains are situated is indicative of the city's wealth in the Archaic period. Objects excavated from Vulci’s remains include stone funerary sculptures, gold jewelry pieces, engraved bronze mirrors, and a bronze urn in the form of a hut. One particularly wondrous archaeological artifact was a fine 6th century BC bronze tripod with lion's claw feet and figures of satyrs, Hercules and Iole. The remains of the city have also yielded fine decorated pottery vases both of local origin as well as imported. The site has also provided two particularly fine 4th-century BC marble sarcophagi. Each has a tenderly embracing couple carved on the lid. The body of the first sarcophagi had scenes of the husband and wife departing in a chariot for the underworld at either end. The second sarcophagi has scenes involving Amazons. Both of these coffins are today in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. Many of the finest small-scale Etruscan art pieces are to be found in the Museo Etrsuco di Villa Giulia in Rome. The larger tombs at Vulci were guarded by stone sculptures of Greek monsters such as centaurs, sphinxes, rams and winged lions. However it was the interiors of the tombs which are of special interest. The 6th-century BCE tomb of 'Isis' was excavated by Napoleon's brother Lucien Bonaparte in 1839 AD. It was found to contain many fine artworks now mostly at the British Museum. These include a hammered bronze bust of an unidentified goddess holding a horned bird, a 36 inch tall statuette of a standing woman, and a stamped gold sheet diadem. Another tomb known as the “Tomb of the Bronze Chariot” contained a 7th-century BCE embossed bronze sheet chariot. The “Tomb of the Warrior” dates to around 510 BC. The tomb is so named because of the bronze armor and weapons found therein. There was a large bronze shield as well as a Negau-type helmet decorated with images of the river god Achelos. These were accompanied by a crest holder shaped in the form of the Dioscuri, greaves (shin protectors), a bronze sword with iron scabbard, and two spears. In addition there was an entire banqueting set of bronze vessels and utensils. This is evidence of the Etruscan custom recorded in history whereby leaders offered their followers free banquets as a symbol of their power and status. Most spectacular of all the tombs is the late 4th-century BC “Francois Tomb”. It possesses painted walls depicting lively scenes from Greek and Etruscan mythology. The walls also depict various battle scenes with the Romans, and the Vulci rulers fighting against those of the rival Etruscan towns of Volsinii and Sovana. There are depictions of funeral games where prisoners are sacrificed in gladiator matches. One fresco shows a man named in an inscription as Vel Saties. This might have been the occupant of the tomb. The figure appears to have possibly been a magistrate. He wears a dark blue embroidered cloak and is accompanied by a dwarf holding a woodpecker attached to a string. The bird is about to be released and Vel Saties looks on. The depiction might perhaps be an indication of his preparation to metaphorically follow the woodpecker into his passage into the next life [Ancient History Encyclopedia]. THE ETRUSCAN CITY OF TARQUINIA: Tarquinia is a town located on the western coast of central Italy which was an important Etruscan and then Roman settlement. It was known to the Etruscans as “Tarch'na” or “Tarch”. To the Romans it was known as “Tarquinii”. It is famous today as the site of around 200 Etruscan tombs which were discovered to be rich in artifacts. The tombs were decorated with magnificent wall paintings showing lively scenes from mythology and Etruscan everyday life. The tombs are designated as a UNESCO World Heritage site. The site of modern Tarquinia is today located on a plateau some 3½ miles from the central Italian coast, 55 miles north of Rome. Excavations in the 19th century AD revealed that the site was inhabited in the Late Bronze Age. From the 9th century BC it was part of the Iron Age culture known as the Villanovan, the precursive culture of the Etruscans. According to Etruscan mythology, the city was founded by Tarchon. Tarchon was in mythology the grandson of Hercules and the son of Tyrrhenus, the king of the Tyrrhenian Sea. The site was also the mythical spot where Tages, the wise child, sprang from the earth. In mythology Tages was revealed when a field near Tarquinia was being ploughed. Tages showed Tarchon who founded the city, or the 12 Etruscan priests called the lucumones, the art of divination. Divination was achieved through reading omens and animal entrails. Tages also taught Tarchon and the Etruscan priests how to maintain contact with the gods (“Etrusca Disciplina”). It is interesting to note that archaeologists have discovered a 9th century BC child burial at the site which was the subject of a long cult. It’s possible that this may be a physical link to the myth of Tages. Tarquinia became the most important of the twelve (or perhaps fifteen) Etruscan towns which formed the loose confederacy known as the Etruscan League. Very little is known of the league except that its members had common religious ties and leaders met annually at the Fanum Voltumnae sanctuary near Orvieto. The precise location of the sanctuary is as yet unknown. The other members of the league included Cerveteri (Cisra), Chiusi, Populonia, Vulci (Velch), and Volterra. The precise workings of Tarquinia's political structure are not known beyond that it was first a monarchy. Historians believe it the likely had a government dominated by the aristocrats of the city. Tarquinia's prosperity from the 8th century BC was based on its role as a trade center as well as by the presence of rich mineral deposits nearby. Nearby fertile land was put to good use for agriculture, especially the cultivation of olives and vines. Goods were manufactured and exported such as bronze work, gold jewelry, and linen. A wealthy elite developed as indicated by large and handsomely decorated tombs. One resident of the city was Demaratus of Corinth. He was the father of Rome's King Lucius Tarquinius Priscus. This gives an indication of the significant cultural links with Greece at that time. A port was established at Gravisca. Goods were imported and exported across the Mediterranean. Trade was especially brisk with Greek cities, Phoenician traders, and later, Carthage. Greek Art was especially influential on Etruscan art. Particularly influential was the art of Eastern Greek or Ionian style. That influence can be seen in the tomb wall-paintings of Tarquinia. It is also evident in the appreciation of Greek art objects such as fine black-figure pottery as evidenced by the fact that they are found in abundance in the city's tombs. Tarquinia continued to flourish throughout the 6th and 5th centuries BC. The city constructed large fortification walls totaling six miles in length. The era also witnessed the construction of a temple as well as impressive chamber tombs. The temple was built in the 4th century BC on the site of an earlier structure. It was known by the later name of the “Ara della Regina” (“Altar of the Queen”). It was dedicated to an unknown god or goddess. However a votive bronze rod was found there dedicated to Artemis. Terracotta winged horses were added to the building in the 4th century BC. Etruscan cities in general suffered a partial decline between 450 and 350 BC when Sicilian Syracuse gained control of the lucrative local shipping routes. Tarquinia did recover somewhat. However a new and more deadly threat approached from the southern horizon, the Romans. Initially treaties were signed between the two Etruscans and the Romans. However as Rome expanded they realized that the weak political alliance of the Etruscan cities made them ripe for conquest. Indeed the Etruscan cities were known to have fought each other in long-standing rivalries for regional dominance. An ongoing war against Rome ensued with atrocities on both sides. Particularly notable was the sacrifice of 307 Roman prisoners in the Tarquinian forum in 356 BC. This brought retaliation by the Romans in the form of the murder of 358 Tarquinian prisoners in Rome. In 281/280 BC Etruria finally fell under Roman control. In 181 BC a Roman colony was founded at Gravisca. By 89 BC Tarquinia was demoted to the status of a municipium. However its inhabitants were by now granted the right of Roman citizenship. A slow slide into obscurity followed. Tarquinia was abandoned in the medieval period with the population shifting to nearby Corneto. Corneto would eventually change its name to Tarquinia. The nearby Monterozzi cemetery possesses many Etruscan remains. Beneath these is evidence of an extensive Villanovan-era settlement. The remains of the 4th century BC temple are located on the Pian di Civita. It is the largest known Etruscan temple with a surviving limestone blocks base measuring 255 x 112 feet. The temple was of Tuscan design, with side walls protruding at the front and an access ramp flanked by steps on the east side. The inner cella had three chambers at the rear. Pieces of its decorative sculpture also survive. These include a terracotta charioteer with a lance. Also surviving in terracotta are reliefs of two winged horses and fragments of a goddess. The goddess was part of a plaque placed over a beam-end of one of the pediments. Other artifacts excavated from the site include painted marble sarcophagi and bronze hand mirrors. The hand mirrors were engraved with scenes on the back, particularly popular were mythical depictions. These mirrors typically had wood, bone, or ivory handles and were a symbol of status in Etruscan society. Another artifact common to Tarquinia are relief slabs. Carved from the local nenfro (limestone) they depict scenes showing figures embracing, dancing, dining, usually in pairs of figures separated by decorative frames. Also popular were again, depictions of scenes from mythology. The function of the relief slabs is not certain, but perhaps they were used as tomb markers. Among the artifacts discovered are many examples of the Etruscan bucchero wares with its shiny dark grey surface as well as bronze work such as vessels and tripods. Finally there is a series of 1st-century AD Latin inscriptions known as the “Elogia Tarquiniensia”. These describe the lives of the city's most celebrated citizens. The inscriptions were carved on marble slabs and placed on the pediments of a statue of the person described. The earliest tombs at Tarquinia date from the late 7th century BC. In total there are about 6,000 tombs. Around 200 of those had painted interior walls. They constitute the largest pre-Roman tomb complex from antiquity. Many of the tomb chambers are decorated with colorful and lively wall paintings. They are an invaluable source of information on Etruscan daily life and religious practices. The paintings are applied to a thin base layer of plaster wash. The artists first drew outlines using chalk or charcoal. The earliest tombs are rectangular rock-cut chambers. The tombs were painted to replicate the architectural features of real houses. Others have ceilings painted to mimic tent fabric. This is an allusion to the earlier Etruscan practice of using tents to cover the deceased. Mythical creatures were commonly painted on pillars. Banquet scenes were commonly painted near the ceilings. Later tombs have false doorways and more ambitious painted scenes covering entire walls. Particularly ambitious depictions include diners reclining on couches, drinkers on mats, Dionysus-inspired revelry, hunting, games, and figures bidding a fond farewell to the deceased. The “Tomb of the Bulls” is dated to between 540 and 530 BC. It is a typical example for such complex portrayals. It even has the name of its occupant painted on one wall: Aranth Spurianas. The tomb has a central chamber leading to two smaller rooms. Painted scenes include Achilles attacking Troilos, the young Trojan prince. A frieze above this scene depicts two bulls and two scenes of people copulating. Of the two depictions of human copulation, one depicts a heterosexual trio and the other a homosexual couple. Another wall in the tomb portrays the myth of Bellerophon and Pegasus. The hero is depicted riding a horse and facing the Chimera and a sphinx. Finally there is a scene of a young man riding a hippocamp, which is a mythical seahorse. The young man riding the hippocamp over the ocean, perhaps as a metaphor for the tomb occupant's journey into the next life. The misleadingly named “Tomb of the Lionesses” was built between 530 and 520 BC. The tomb actually depicts two painted panthers as well as a large drinking party scene. The tomb is particularly noteworthy for its unusual checkered pattern ceiling and six painted wooden columns. There is also a fine frieze of dolphins, birds, palmettes, and lotus flowers. The “Tomb of the Augurs” dates to about 520 BC. It depicts a scene of two nude wrestlers named as Teitu and Latithe, probably slaves. Between the two wrestlers lie three bowls, the prizes for the victor. There is also a representation of a figure who appears in several other tombs, Phersu. Phersu is a man wearing a black-bearded mask who holds a ferocious dog on a long leash. The dog attacks a man whose head is wrapped in a cloth. This may be a scene of prisoner execution. The “Tomb of The Baron” is named after its discoverer Baron Kestner, and dates to about 510 BC. It has various human figures either standing or riding. These figures include a woman caught in the act of saying farewell, presumably to the tomb's occupant. Contemporary with this tomb is the “Cardarelli Tomb”, which is named after a local poet. This tomb depicts the scene of a woman, wearing a flowing cape and red pointed shoes, accompanied by a slave girl and boy. The slave boy is shown carrying a fan. Other figures include two nude boxers, as well as dancers and musicians. The “Tomb of the Bigas” is dated to about 480 BC. It depicts a representation of athletic games and a chariot (“bighe”) race. The race is being watched by a crowd of spectators. The depiction is quite imaginative and realistic in that some of the figures are drawn in a three-quarter view, other figures are foreshortened to provide perspective. The “Tomb of the Dying” and the “Tomb of the Dead Man” are both dated to about 470 BC. They are both quite unusual in that they actually portray the occupant of the tomb laid out on their deathbed surrounded by mourning relatives. Finally the “Tomb of the Blue Demons” which was constructed between 420 and 400 BCE gives a rare glimpse of the Etruscan vision of the Underworld. Here the Underworld is depicted as being inhabited by blue- and black-skinned demons. One of the demons is depicted as holding two snakes. However also depicted are the more welcoming, already dead relatives of the tomb's occupant. They are depicted awaiting the family's reunification in the afterlife [Ancient History Encyclopedia]. PRE-ETRUSCAN VILLANOVAN CULTURE: The Villanovan culture flourished during the Iron Age in central Italy from about 1000 to 750 BC. It was a precursor of the Etruscan civilization. Of course the two populations are actually the same. The term “Villanovan” should not imply a separate people. Rather the Villanovan culture is a label of convenience used by historians and archaeologists to describe the Etruscans in their formative years during the Iron Age. The name Villanovan derives from that of the estate owned by Giovanni Gozzadini near Bologna. It was on this estate that the first excavations were made in 1853 AD. Eventually traces of the Iron Age Villanovan culture were discovered over a wide area of western central Italy and part of the north. These traces were principally in the form of cemeteries. The time period between about 1100 and 900 BCE is known as the Proto-Villanovan. The Proto-Villanovan Culture prosperity was based on agriculture. Farmers grew cereals and legumes. Animal husbandry included raising livestock such as sheep, goats, cattle, and pigs. The agriculture endeavors were augmented by hunting. Central Italy also had an abundance of copper and iron. These economic assets led to an increase in population, urbanization, and social stratification. All of these in turn led to the Villanovan culture proper. Settlements developed on easily defendable plateaus such as at Cerveteri, Tarquinia, Veii, and Vulci. Settlements also developed on defensible hilltops as seen at Populonia and Chiusi. All of these Villanovan villages would eventually become important Etruscan towns. Housing was constructed of wattle and daub or sun-dried mud brick with wooden posts for support and thatched roofs. The roofs had projecting eaves and were oftentimes decorated with terracotta ornamentation. Houses could be rectangular, oval, or circular. In many cases the holes for the posts and trenches cut into the foundation rock to support the walls remain in situ, visible even today. Huts vary in size. The smallest would have housed a single family. The lager rectangular structures measured up to 42 by 23 feet. They would have housed up to ten people perhaps. Some huts had large pottery jars for food storage sunk into their floors. Others possessed rock-cut drainage channels around buildings to drain off rainwater which was collected in communal reservoirs. Models of Etruscan homes were made as containers for the ashes of the deceased. If they indeed imitated real architecture, some of these homes would have ad decorations on the exterior walls of geometric patterns. They would also have had an aperture above the door for releasing smoke. The models which survive also possessed roof decorations. These would likely have been an imitation of the terracotta additions so typical of later Etruscan architecture. However such decorations also existed as wood carvings. The horse was especially important to the Villanovans and Etruscans. This is evidenced in the many finds of horse fittings found as archaeological artifacts, as well as by frequent representations in art. The quality of metalwork in bronze and pottery suggest a class of artisans dedicated to their production. Higher quality grave goods in some burials indicate the beginnings of an elite social class. A belief in an afterlife is suggested by the presence of miniature everyday items and tools. These typically include knives, weapons and armor for men. For women the miniature everyday implements generally include weaving paraphernalia for women. However burials have been found with weapons for women, and other burials with tools for mending or making clothing for men. This suggests perhaps a more active role for women in Villanovan society. It also suggests the possibility that men too made clothing. As towns prospered, populations increased as evidenced by the expansion of cemeteries. A consequence was a greater competition for resources and land between towns. Many cities created new colonies to the north, south, and west of central Italy. Evidence of trade between Villanovan cities is evidenced in finds of manufactured goods discovered in Villanovan cities other than where they were produced. The culture was also in contact with the wider Mediterranean via the mid-8th century BC arrival of Greek settlers, especially Euboeans. These colonists were eager to exploit the mineral rich region of what would become Etruria. Bronze-works also indicate contact with Sardinia, central Europe, and the Balkans. These links brought about advancements in Villanovan metallurgy. The presence of Greek migrants/colonists is specifically attested by many finds of Greek pottery as well as local pottery made in imitation of it. Villanovan cemeteries were generally located on hilltops or ravines just outside the community. They contain burials of cremated remains in urns which are biconical. Biconical urns are simply two vases with one smaller one acting as a lid for the other. The urns often carried simple incised decoration of geometric patterns, whirls, and swastikas. Some even carried simple human 'stick' figures. Some urns have metal strips applied as decoration using lead or tin. One rarer type of urn, instead of a ceramic lid has a bronze helmet on top. The bronze helmet has an impressive angular crest and embossed decoration. The urns were placed in shallow pits and accompanied by votive goods as described above. A later type of burial was inhumation in trench tombs, sometimes with the body placed in a wooden or stone sarcophagus. Some such coffins at Populonia contained couples. The same site has the first evidence of chamber tombs. There first chamber tombs were built in the late 9th century BC using limestone slabs. They were the precursor of the more ambitious Etruscan tombs from the following century. Such lavish burial practices for only a few members of the community indicate a more complex society and separate elite class. In northern Villanovan settlements such as near Bologna tomb markers were made of stone and carved with reliefs. The markers typically consisted of a rectangular base and circular top portion. They depict scenes with animals, sphinxes, and geometric patterns. Depictions on these and other Villanovan artifacts are often of a female holding a quadruped in each hand. Known as the 'Mistress of the Animals', the depictions suggest a female nature deity was the focus of many religious practices. Pottery was made by hand not on the wheel. The pottery utilized unpurified clay fired at a low temperature. The primitive wares produced are known as impasto. Bronze goods include belts and buckles, some with inlaid glass beads. Also produced in bronze were pins, sewing needles, spindles, loom weights, urns, razors, cuirasses, shields, helmets, and arrowheads. Arrowheads were often produced in miniature, and may have been used as trade goods. Bronze was also used to produce jewelry including earrings and bracelets. Jewelry other than in bronze includes gold hair spirals; earrings and fibulas made from Baltic amber, and necklaces with beads made from bone, faience, and striped blue and white glass paste. Analysis of the cremated and buried remains at Villanovan sites has revealed that life expectancy was no more than 50 years of age. The diet was also generally short of animal-based protein. Vegetables were eaten more often than was meat. However the range of foodstuffs consumed included fruit, nuts, fish, peas, broad beans, barley, and emmer. The latter was roasted, pounded, and boiled into a porridge to become the staple dish of the region. The Villanovan culture underwent what is known as an 'orientalizing' process where art and culture were influenced by contact with Greece, Phoenicia, and the Near East. From here the people of central Italy matured into the Etruscan culture proper. This cultural transition occurred first in the south and then spread northwards. It spread from coastal areas to inland settlements. There is no evidence of a migration of peoples or warfare in the region at this time. So the rather confusing name of the “Villanovan Culture” would perhaps be better termed “Proto-Etruscan”. The process of cultural evolution is datable by grave goods. It was complete by the early 7th century BC in the south of Etruria. In parts of northern Italy the Villanovan culture would persist until the 6th century BC. This was particularly so around the Po Valley which was more isolated from the wider Mediterranean. The Etruscans would go on to prosper until the 2nd century BC and their conquest and eventual cultural assimilation by the Romans [Ancient History Encyclopedia]. SHIPPING & RETURNS/REFUNDS: We always ship books domestically (within the USA) via USPS INSURED media mail (“book rate”). Most international orders cost an additional $15.49 to $46.49 for an insured shipment in a heavily padded mailer. There is also a discount program which can cut postage costs by 50% to 75% if you’re buying about half-a-dozen books or more (5 kilos+). Our postage charges are as reasonable as USPS rates allow. ADDITIONAL PURCHASES do receive a VERY LARGE discount, typically about $5 per book (for each additional book after the first) so as to reward you for the economies of combined shipping/insurance costs. Your purchase will ordinarily be shipped within 48 hours of payment. We package as well as anyone in the business, with lots of protective padding and containers. All of our shipments are fully insured against loss, and our shipping rates include the cost of this coverage (through stamps.com, Shipsaver.com, the USPS, UPS, or Fed-Ex). International tracking is provided free by the USPS for certain countries, other countries are at additional cost. We do offer U.S. Postal Service Priority Mail, Registered Mail, and Express Mail for both international and domestic shipments, as well United Parcel Service (UPS) and Federal Express (Fed-Ex). Please ask for a rate quotation. We will accept whatever payment method you are most comfortable with. If upon receipt of the item you are disappointed for any reason whatever, I offer a no questions asked 30-day return policy. Send it back, I will give you a complete refund of the purchase price; 1) less our original shipping/insurance costs, 2) less non-refundable PayPal/eBay payment processing fees. Please note that PayPal does NOT refund fees. Even if you “accidentally” purchase something and then cancel the purchase before it is shipped, PayPal will not refund their fees. So all refunds for any reason, without exception, do not include PayPal/eBay payment processing fees (typically between 3% and 5%) and shipping/insurance costs (if any). If you’re unhappy with PayPal and eBay’s “no fee refund” policy, and we are EXTREMELY unhappy, please voice your displeasure by contacting PayPal and/or eBay. We have no ability to influence, modify or waive PayPal or eBay policies. ABOUT US: Prior to our retirement we used to travel to Europe and Central Asia several times a year. Most of the items we offer came from acquisitions we made in Eastern Europe, India, and from the Levant (Eastern Mediterranean/Near East) during these years from various institutions and dealers. Much of what we generate on Etsy, Amazon and Ebay goes to support The Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, as well as some other worthy institutions in Europe and Asia connected with Anthropology and Archaeology. Though we have a collection of ancient coins numbering in the tens of thousands, our primary interests are ancient jewelry and gemstones. Prior to our retirement we traveled to Russia every year seeking antique gemstones and jewelry from one of the globe’s most prolific gemstone producing and cutting centers, the area between Chelyabinsk and Yekaterinburg, Russia. From all corners of Siberia, as well as from India, Ceylon, Burma and Siam, gemstones have for centuries gone to Yekaterinburg where they have been cut and incorporated into the fabulous jewelry for which the Czars and the royal families of Europe were famous for. My wife grew up and received a university education in the Southern Urals of Russia, just a few hours away from the mountains of Siberia, where alexandrite, diamond, emerald, sapphire, chrysoberyl, topaz, demantoid garnet, and many other rare and precious gemstones are produced. Though perhaps difficult to find in the USA, antique gemstones are commonly unmounted from old, broken settings – the gold reused – the gemstones recut and reset. Before these gorgeous antique gemstones are recut, we try to acquire the best of them in their original, antique, hand-finished state – most of them centuries old. We believe that the work created by these long-gone master artisans is worth protecting and preserving rather than destroying this heritage of antique gemstones by recutting the original work out of existence. That by preserving their work, in a sense, we are preserving their lives and the legacy they left for modern times. Far better to appreciate their craft than to destroy it with modern cutting. Not everyone agrees – fully 95% or more of the antique gemstones which come into these marketplaces are recut, and the heritage of the past lost. But if you agree with us that the past is worth protecting, and that past lives and the produce of those lives still matters today, consider buying an antique, hand cut, natural gemstone rather than one of the mass-produced machine cut (often synthetic or “lab produced”) gemstones which dominate the market today. We can set most any antique gemstone you purchase from us in your choice of styles and metals ranging from rings to pendants to earrings and bracelets; in sterling silver, 14kt solid gold, and 14kt gold fill. When you purchase from us, you can count on quick shipping and careful, secure packaging. We would be happy to provide you with a certificate/guarantee of authenticity for any item you purchase from us. There is a $3 fee for mailing under separate cover. I will always respond to every inquiry whether via email or eBay message, so please feel free to write. Condition: FAIR. Lightly read but shelf-worn and age-blemished. See detailed condition description below., Publisher: Rupert-Hart-Davis (1955), Format: Hardcover with dustjacket, Length: 248 pages, Dimensions: 9 x 7 x 1½ inches; 2 pounds

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