Seller: ukr10 (726) 96.4%, Location: Clearwater Beach, Florida, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 182120774136 Condition: genuine patina and wear; 3/5 fragment of 5 icons;, Material: Bronze, Provenance: Ownership History Available, Details: Byzantine Bronze Christian Fragment of iconostas: 3 Icons, circa 600-1000AD Byzantine religious plaque in a shape of the cross, showing the Mother Virgin and Jesus Child in the middle, and 2 Apostles around (should be 4 Apostles). These objects were made at a time when tremendous effort and innovation went into producing art with Christian themes. Size: 47 mm x 35 mm = 4.7 cm x 3.5 cm; Weight: 9.31 g; Condition: genuine patina and wear; 3/5 fragment of 5 icons; Provenance: Ex-Estate of M. Reiniger, Chicago, IL All items legal to buy/sell under U.S. Statute covering cultural patrimony Code 2600, CHAPTER 14, and are guaranteed to be as described or your money back. A Certificate of Authenticity will accompany all purchases. Byzantine iconoclasms Andrei Rublev's Trinity. Main article: Iconoclasm (Byzantine) Following a series of heavy military reverses against the Muslims, the Iconoclasm emerged in the early 8th century. In the 720s the Byzantine Emperor Leo III the Isaurian banned the pictorial representation of Christ, saints, and biblical scenes. In the West, Pope Gregory III held two synods at Rome and condemned Leo's actions. The Byzantine Iconoclast Council at Hieria in 754, ruled that holy portraits were heretical. The movement destroyed much of the Christian church's early artistic history. The iconoclastic movement itself was later defined as heretical in 787 under the Seventh Ecumenical council, but enjoyed a brief resurgence between 815 and 842. Religious dispute over iconoclasm Main article: Byzantine iconoclasm The 8th and early 9th centuries were also dominated by controversy and religious division over Iconoclasm, which was the main political issue in the Empire for over a century. Icons (here meaning all forms of religious imagery) were banned by Leo and Constantine from around 730, leading to revolts by iconodules (supporters of icons) throughout the empire. After the efforts of empress Irene, the Second Council of Nicaea met in 787 and affirmed that icons could be venerated but not worshiped. Irene is said to have endeavoured to negotiate a marriage between herself and Charlemagne, but, according to Theophanes the Confessor, the scheme was frustrated by Aetios, one of her favorites. In the early 9th century, Leo V reintroduced the policy of iconoclasm, but in 843 Empress Theodora restored the veneration of icons with the help of Patriarch Methodios. Iconoclasm played a part in the further alienation of East from West, which worsened during the so-called Photian schism, when Pope Nicholas I challenged the elevation of Photios to the patriarchate.