Seller: ukr10 (727) 96.6%, Location: Clearwater Beach, Florida, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 182120782375 Condition: genuine patina and wear; there is a connection stem at the back, Material: Bronze, Provenance: Ownership History Available, Details: Byzantine bronze plaque icon Mother Mary and Jesus child, circa 600-1000AD This plaque was possibly a part of bigger Christian wooden icon. These objects were made at a time when tremendous effort and innovation went into producing art with Christian themes. Size: 37 x 29 mm = 3.7 cm x 2.9 cm; Weight: 9.05 g; Condition: genuine patina and wear; there is a connection stem at the back Provenance: Ex-Estate of M. Reiniger, Chicago, IL All items legal to buy/sell under U.S. Statute covering cultural patrimony Code 2600, CHAPTER 14, and are guaranteed to be as described or your money back. A Certificate of Authenticity will accompany all purchases. Religious dispute over iconoclasm Main article: Byzantine iconoclasm The 8th and early 9th centuries were also dominated by controversy and religious division over Iconoclasm, which was the main political issue in the Empire for over a century. Icons (here meaning all forms of religious imagery) were banned by Leo and Constantine from around 730, leading to revolts by iconodules (supporters of icons) throughout the empire. After the efforts of empress Irene, the Second Council of Nicaea met in 787 and affirmed that icons could be venerated but not worshiped. Irene is said to have endeavoured to negotiate a marriage between herself and Charlemagne, but, according to Theophanes the Confessor, the scheme was frustrated by Aetios, one of her favorites. In the early 9th century, Leo V reintroduced the policy of iconoclasm, but in 843 Empress Theodora restored the veneration of icons with the help of Patriarch Methodios. Iconoclasm played a part in the further alienation of East from West, which worsened during the so-called Photian schism, when Pope Nicholas I challenged the elevation of Photios to the patriarchate.