CYME KYME Asia Minor 300BC Ancient Greek Coin Horse Amazon warrior i31480

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Seller: Top-Rated Seller highrating_lowprice (20,786) 100%, Location: Rego Park, New York, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 321333139187 Item: i31480 Authentic Ancient Coin of: Greek City of Cyme in Asia Minor Bronze 15mm (3.03 grams) Struck 300-200 B.C. Reference: Sear 4189 var.; B.M.C. 17.109,56 var. Head of the Amazon Kyme right. Forepart of prancing horse right; KY and one handled vase behind; legend below. By far the most important of the Aiolian coastal cities, Kyme was situated southwest of Myrina. For much of its history it was dominated by great powers - Persia, Athens, the Hellenistic Kingdoms and, finally, Rome. You are bidding on the exact item pictured, provided with a Certificate of Authenticity and Lifetime Guarantee of Authenticity. The Amazons (Greek: Ἀμαζόνες, Amazónes, singular Ἀμαζών, Amazōn) are a nation of all-female warriors in Greek mythology and Classical antiquity . Herodotus placed them in a region bordering Scythia in Sarmatia (modern territory of Ukraine ). Other historiographers place them in Asia Minor , or Libya . Notable queens of the Amazons are Penthesilea , who participated in the Trojan War , and her sister Hippolyta , whose magical girdle, given to her by her father Ares , was the object of one of the labours of Hercules . Amazonian raiders were often depicted in battle with Greek warriors in amazonomachies in classical art. The Amazons have become associated with various historical peoples throughout the Roman Empire period and Late Antiquity . In Roman historiography , there are various accounts of Amazon raids in Asia Minor. From the Early Modern period, their name has become a term for woman warriors in general. Etymology The origin of the word is uncertain. It may be derived from an Iranian ethnonym *ha-mazan-, "warriors", a word attested as a denominal verb (formed with the Indo-Iranian root kar- "make" also in kar-ma ) in Hesychius of Alexandria 's gloss ἁμαζακάραν· πολεμεῖν. Πέρσαι ("hamazakaran: 'to make war' (Persian)").[3] Alternatively, a Greek derivation from *ṇ-mṇ-gw-jon-es "manless, without husbands" ( privativea- and a derivation of *man- also found in Slavic muzh) has been proposed, an explanation deemed "unlikely" by Hjalmar Frisk .[4] 19th century scholarship also connected the term to the ethnonym Amazigh .[5] A further explanation proposes Iranian *ama-janah "virility-killing" as source.[6] Among Classical Greeks, amazon was given a popular etymology as from a-mazos, "without breast ", connected with an etiological tradition that Amazons had their right breast cut off or burnt out , so they would be able to use a bow more freely and throw spears without the physical limitation and obstruction;[7] there is no indication of such a practice in works of art, in which the Amazons are always represented with both breasts, although the right is frequently covered. Origins Illustration depicting defeated Greeks being cruelly executed by Amazons. Amazon wearing trousers and carrying a shield with an attached patterned cloth and a quiver. Ancient Greek Attic white-ground alabastron , ca. 470 BC, British Museum , London Amazons were said to have lived in Pontus , which is part of modern day Turkey near the shore of the Euxine Sea (the Black Sea ). There they formed an independent kingdom under the government of a queen named Hippolyta or Hippolyte ("loose, unbridled mare").[8] The Amazons were supposed to have founded many towns, amongst them Smyrna , Ephesus , Sinope , and Paphos . According to the dramatist Aeschylus , in the distant past they had lived in Scythia (modern Crimea ), at the Palus Maeotis ("Lake Maeotis", the Sea of Azov ), but later moved to Themiscyra on the River Thermodon (the Terme river in northern Turkey). Herodotus called them Androktones ("killers of men"), and he stated that in the Scythian language they were called Oiorpata, which he asserted had this meaning. The myth In some versions of the myth, no men were permitted to have sexual encounters or reside in Amazon country; but once a year, in order to prevent their race from dying out, they visited the Gargareans , a neighbouring tribe. The male children who were the result of these visits were either killed, sent back to their fathers or exposed in the wilderness to fend for themselves; the females were kept and brought up by their mothers, and trained in agricultural pursuits, hunting, and the art of war. In other versions when the Amazons went to war they would not kill all the men. Some they would take as slaves, and once or twice a year they would have sex with their slaves.[9] The intermarriage of Amazons and men from other tribes was also used to explain the origin of various peoples. For example, the story of the Amazons settling with the Scythians (Herodotus Histories 4.110.1-117.1, see Wikisource ). In the Iliad , the Amazons were referred to as Antianeirai ("those who fight like men"). The Amazons appear in Greek art of the Archaic period and in connection with several Greek legends. They invaded Lycia , but were defeated by Bellerophon , who was sent against them by Iobates , the king of that country, in the hope that he might meet his death at their hands.[10][11] The tomb of Myrine is mentioned in the Iliad; later interpretation made of her an Amazon: according to Diodorus ,[12] Queen Myrine led her Amazons to victory against Libya and much of Gorgon . They attacked the Phrygians , who were assisted by Priam , then a young man.[13] Although in his later years, towards the end of the Trojan War , his old opponents took his side again against the Greeks under their queen Penthesilea "of Thracian birth", who was slain by Achilles .[14][15][16][17][18][19] One of the tasks imposed upon Heracles by Eurystheus was to obtain possession of the girdle of the Amazonian queen Hippolyta .[20][21][22][23] He was accompanied by his friend Theseus , who carried off the princess Antiope , sister of Hippolyta, an incident which led to a retaliatory invasion of Attica ,[24][25] in which Antiope perished fighting by the side of Theseus. In some versions, however, Theseus marries Hippolyta and in others, he marries Antiope and she does not die; by this marriage with the Amazon Theseus had a son Hippolytus . The battle between the Athenians and Amazons is often commemorated in an entire genre of art, amazonomachy , in marble bas-reliefs such as from the Parthenon or the sculptures of the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus . The Amazons are also said to have undertaken an expedition against the island of Leuke , at the mouth of the Danube , where the ashes of Achilles had been deposited by Thetis . The ghost of the dead hero appeared and so terrified the horses, that they threw and trampled upon the invaders, who were forced to retire. Pompey is said to have found them in the army of Mithridates . They are heard of in the time of Alexander, when some of the king's biographers make mention of Amazon Queen Thalestris visiting him and becoming a mother by him (the story is known from the Alexander Romance ). However, several other biographers of Alexander dispute the claim, including the highly regarded secondary source , Plutarch . In his writing he makes mention of a moment when Alexander's secondary naval commander, Onesicritus , was reading the Amazon passage of his Alexander history to King Lysimachus of Thrace who was on the original expedition: the king smiled at him and said "And where was I, then?" The Roman writer Virgil 's characterization of the Volscian warrior maiden Camilla in the Aeneid borrows heavily from the myth of the Amazons. Jordanes ' Getica (c. 560), purporting to give the earliest history of the Goths , relates that the Goths' ancestors, descendants of Magog , originally dwelt within Scythia, on the Sea of Azov between the Dnieper and Don Rivers . After a few centuries, following an incident where the Goths' women successfully fended off a raid by a neighboring tribe, while the menfolk were off campaigning against Pharaoh Vesosis , the women formed their own army under Marpesia and crossed the Don, invading Asia. Her sister Lampedo remained in Europe to guard the homeland. They procreated with men once a year. These Amazons conquered Armenia, Syria, and all of Asia Minor, even reaching Ionia and Aeolia , holding this vast territory for 100 years. Jordanes also mentions that they fought with Hercules, and in the Trojan War, and that a smaller contingent of them endured in the Caucasus Mountains until the time of Alexander. He mentions by name the Queens Menalippe, Hippolyta, and Penthesilea. Lists There are several (conflicting) lists of names of Amazons. Quintus Smyrnaeus [26] lists the attendant warriors of Penthesilea: "Clonie was there, Polemusa, Derinoe, Evandre, and Antandre , and Bremusa , Hippothoe , dark-eyed Harmothoe, Alcibie , Derimacheia, Antibrote, and Thermodosa glorying with the spear." Diodorus Siculus [27] enlists nine Amazons who challenged Heracles to single combat during his quest for Hippolyta's girdle and died against him one by one: Aella , Philippis, Prothoe, Eriboea, Celaeno , Eurybia, Phoebe , Deianeira, Asteria , Marpe, Tecmessa, Alcippe. After Alcippe's death, a group attack followed. Another list of Amazons' names is found in Hyginus ' Fabulae.[28] Along with Hippolyta , Otrera , Antiope and Penthesilea , it attests the following names: Ocyale, Dioxippe, Iphinome, Xanthe, Hippothoe , Laomache, Glauce , Agave , Theseis, Clymene, Polydora. Yet another different set of names is found in Valerius Flaccus ' Argonautica[29]: he mentions Euryale, Harpe, Lyce, Menippe and Thoe. Of these Lyce also appears in a fragment preserved in the Latin Anthology where she is said to have killed the hero Clonus of Moesia , son of Doryclus, with her javelin.[30] John Tzetzes in Posthomerica[31] enumerates the Amazons that fell at Troy: Hippothoe, Antianeira, Toxophone, Toxoanassa, Gortyessa, Iodoce, Pharetre, Andro, Ioxeia, Oïstrophe, Androdaïxa, Aspidocharme, Enchesimargos, Cnemis, Thorece, Chalcaor, Eurylophe, Hecate, Anchimache, Andromache the queen. Concerning Antianeira and Andromache, see below; for almost all the other names on the list, this is a unique attestation. Stephanus of Byzantium provides an alternate list of the Amazons that fell against Heracles, describing them as "the most prominent" of their people: Tralla, Isocrateia, Thiba, Palla, Coea (Koia), Coenia (Koinia).[32] Eustathius gives the same list minus the last two names.[33] Both Stephanus and Eustathius write of these Amazons in connection with the placename Thibais, which they report to have been derived from Thiba's name. Other names of Amazons from various sources include: Aegea , queen of the Amazons who was thought by some to have been the eponym of the Aegean Sea .[34] Ainia, enemy of Achilles and an Amazon, one of the twelve who accompanied Penthesilea to the Trojan War . Her name means "swiftness."[citation needed] Ainippe, an Amazon who confronted Telamon in the battle against Heracles' troops[35] Alce, who was said to have killed the young Oebalus of Arcadia , son of Ida (otherwise unknown), with her spear during the Parthian War.[30] Amastris, who was believed to be the eponym of the city previously known as Kromna,[36] although the city was also thought to have been named after the historical Amastris [37] Anaea, an Amazon whose tomb was shown at the island of Samos [38] Andromache, an Amazon who fought Heracles and was defeated; only known from vase paintings.[35][39] Not to be confused with Andromache , wife of Hector . Antianeira, succeeded Penthesilea as Queen of the Amazons. She was best known for ordering her male servants to be crippled "as the lame best perform the acts of love".[40] Areto and Iphito , two little-known Amazons, whose names are only attested in inscriptions on artefacts.[41] Clete, one of the twelve followers of Penthesilea. After Penthesilea's death she, in accord with the former's will, sailed off and eventually landed in Italy, founding the city of Clete .[42] Cyme, who gave her name to the city of Cyme (Aeolis) [43][44] Cynna (?), one of the two possible eponyms (the other one being "Cynnus, brother of Coeus ") of Cynna, a small town not far from Heraclea .[45] Ephesos, a Lydian Amazon, after whom the city of Ephesus was thought to have been named; she was also said to have been the first to honor Artemis and to have surnamed the goddess Ephesia.[46] Her daughter Amazo was thought of as the eponym of the Amazons[47]. Eurypyle , queen of the Amazons who was reported to have led an expedition against Ninus and Babylon around 1760 BC[48][49][50] Gryne, an Amazon who was thought to be the eponym of the Gryneian grove in Asia Minor . She was loved by Apollo and consorted with him in said grove.[51][52] Helene, daughter of Tityrus. She fought Achilles and died after he seriously wounded her.[53] Hippo, an Amazon who took part in the introduction of religious rites in honor of the goddess Artemis . She was punished by the goddess for not having performed a ritual dance.[54] Lampedo , queen of the Amazons, co-ruler with Marpesia[55][56] Latoreia, who had a small village near Ephesus named after her.[57] Lysippe , mother of Tanais by Berossos. Her son only venerated Ares and was fully devoted to war, neglecting love and marriage. Aphrodite cursed him with falling in love with his own mother. Preferring to die rather than give up his chastity, he threw himself into the river Amazonius, which was subsequently renamed Tanais .[58] Marpesia , queen of the Amazons, co-ruler with Lampedo[55][56] Melanippe , sister of Hippolyta. Heracles captured her and demanded Hippolyta's girdle in exchange for her freedom. Hippolyta complied and Heracles let her go. According to some,[59] however, she was killed by Telamon . Molpadia , an Amazon who killed Antiope .[60] Myrleia, possible eponym of a city in Bithynia , which was later known as Apamea .[61] Myrto, in one source, mother of Myrtilus by Hermes [62] (elsewhere his mother is called Theobule ).[63] Mytilene, Myrina's sister and one of the possible eponyms for the city of Mytilene [44] Orithyia , daughter and successor of Marpesia, famous for her conquests[55][56] Otrera , consort of Ares and mother of Hippolyta and Penthesilea. Pantariste , who killed Timiades in the battle between the Amazons and Heracles' troops.[35] Pitane and Priene, two commanders in Myrina's army, after whom the cities of Pitane (Aeolis) and Priene were named.[44] Sinope, successor of Lampedo and Marpesia.[56] Sisyrbe, after whom a part of Ephesus was called Sisyrba, and its inhabitants the Sisyrbitae.[64][65] Smyrna, who obtained possession of Ephesus and gave her name to a quarter in this city, as well as to the city of Smyrna [66][67][68] Hero cults According to ancient sources, (Plutarch Theseus ,[69] Pausanias ), Amazon tombs could be found frequently throughout what was once known as the ancient Greek world. Some are found in Megara , Athens , Chaeronea , Chalcis , Thessaly at Skotousa , in Cynoscephalae and statues of Amazons are all over Greece. At both Chalcis and Athens Plutarch tells us that there was an Amazoneum or shrine of Amazons that implied the presence of both tombs and cult. On the day before the Thesea at Athens there were annual sacrifices to the Amazons. In historical times Greek maidens of Ephesus performed an annual circular dance with weapons and shields that had been established by Hippolyta and her Amazons. They had initially set up wooden statues of Artemis , a bretas, (Pausanias, (fl.c.160): Description of Greece, Book I: Attica).[70] Two female gladiators with their names Amazonia and Achillea In art In works of art, battles between Amazons and Greeks are placed on the same level as and often associated with battles of Greeks and centaurs . The belief in their existence, however, having been once accepted and introduced into the national poetry and art, it became necessary to surround them as far as possible with the appearance of natural beings. Their occupation was hunting and war; their arms the bow, spear, axe, a half shield, nearly in the shape of a crescent, called pelta, and in early art a helmet, the model before the Greek mind having apparently been the goddess Athena. In later art they approach the model of Artemis, wearing a thin dress, girt high for speed; while on the later painted vases their dress is often peculiarly Persian – that is, close-fitting trousers and a high cap called the kidaris. They were usually on horseback but sometimes on foot. They can also be identified in vase paintings by the fact that they are wearing one earring. The battle between Theseus and the Amazons (Amazonomachy) is a favourite subject on the friezes of temples (e.g. the reliefs from the frieze of the temple of Apollo at Bassae , now in the British Museum ), vases and sarcophagus reliefs; at Athens it was represented on the shield of the statue of Athena Parthenos , on wall-paintings in the Theseum and in the Stoa Poikile. There were also three standard Amazon statue types . In historiography Herodotus reported that the Sarmatians were descendants of Amazons and Scythians, and that their females observed their ancient maternal customs, "frequently hunting on horseback with their husbands; in war taking the field; and wearing the very same dress as the men". Moreover, said Herodotus, "No girl shall wed till she has killed a man in battle". In the story related by Herodotus , a group of Amazons was blown across the Maeotian Lake (the Sea of Azov ) into Scythia near the cliff region (today's southeastern Crimea ). After learning the Scythian language, they agreed to marry Scythian men, on the condition that they not be required to follow the customs of Scythian women. According to Herodotus, this band moved toward the northeast, settling beyond the Tanais (Don) river, and became the ancestors of the Sauromatians . According to Herodotus , the Sarmatians fought with the Scythians against Darius the Great in the 5th century B.C. Hippocrates describes them as: "They have no right breasts...for while they are yet babies their mothers make red-hot a bronze instrument constructed for this very purpose and apply it to the right breast and cauterize it, so that its growth is arrested, and all its strength and bulk are diverted to the right shoulder and right arm." Amazons came to play a role in Roman historiography . Caesar reminded the Senate of the conquest of large parts of Asia by Semiramis and the Amazons. Successful Amazon raids against Lycia and Cilicia contrasted with effective resistance by Lydian cavalry against the invaders (Strabo 5.504; Nicholas Damascenus ). Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus pays particularly detailed attention to the Amazons. The story of the Amazons as deriving from a Cappadocian colony of two Scythian princes Ylinos and Scolopetos is due to him. Philostratus places the Amazons in the Taurus Mountains . Ammianus places them east of Tanais , as neighbouring the Alans . Procopius places them in the Caucasus. Diodorus Siculus (Bibliotheca historica chapter 49) derived the Amazons from Atlantis and located them in western Libya . He also relates the story of Hercules defeating the Amazons at Themiscyre. Although Strabo shows scepticism as to their historicity, the Amazons in general continue to be taken as historical throughout Late Antiquity. Several Church Fathers speak of the Amazons as of a real people. Solinus embraces the account of Plinius . Under Aurelianus , captured Gothic women were identified as Amazons (Claudianus). The account of Justinus was influential, and was used as a source by Orosius who continued to be read during the European Middle Ages. Medieval authors thus continue the tradition of locating the Amazons in the North, Adam of Bremen placing them at the Baltic Sea and Paulus Diaconus in the heart of Germania.[71] Renaissance literature Amazons continued to be discussed by authors of the European Renaissance, and with the Age of Exploration , they were located in ever more remote areas. In 1542, Francisco de Orellana reached the Amazon River (Amazonas in Spanish), naming it after a tribe of warlike women he claimed having encountered and fought there.[72] Afterwards the whole basin and region of the Amazon (Amazonía in Spanish) were named after the river. Amazons also figure in the accounts of both Christopher Columbus and Walter Raleigh .[73] Famous medieval traveller John Mandeville mentions them in his book: "Beside the land of Chaldea is the land of Amazonia, that is the land of Feminye. And in that real is all woman and no man; not as some may say, that men may not live there, but for because that the women will not suffer no men amongst them to be their sovereigns." [74] Medieval and Renaissance authors credit the Amazons with the invention of the battle-axe . This is probably related to the Sagaris , an axe-like weapon associated with both Amazons and Scythian tribes by Greek authors (see also Thracian tomb of Aleksandrovo kurgan ). Paulus Hector Mair expresses astonishment that such a "manly weapon" should have been invented by a "tribe of women", but he accepts the attribution out of respect for his authority, Johannes Aventinus . Ariosto 's Orlando Furioso contains a country of warrior women, ruled by Queen Orontea; the epic describes an origin much like that in Greek myth, in that the women, abandoned by a band of warriors and unfaithful lovers, rallied together to form a nation from which men were severely reduced, to prevent them from regaining power.They and Queen Hippolyta were also referenced in Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales in The Knight's Tale. Historical background Classicist Peter Walcot wrote, "Wherever the Amazons are located by the Greeks, whether it is somewhere along the Black Sea in the distant north-east, or in Libya in the furthest south, it is always beyond the confines of the civilized world . The Amazons exist outside the range of normal human experience."[75] Nevertheless, there are various proposals for a historical nucleus of the Amazons of Greek historiography, the most obvious candidates being historical Scythia and Sarmatia in line with the account by Herodotus , but some authors prefer a comparison to cultures of Asia Minor or even Minoan Crete . Archaeology Scythians and Sarmatians Speculation that the idea of Amazons contains a core of reality is based on archaeological findings from burials, pointing to the possibility that some Sarmatian women may have participated in battle. These findings have led scholars to suggest that the Amazonian legend in Greek mythology may have been "inspired by real warrior women",[76] though this remains a minority opinion among classical historians Evidence of high-ranking warrior women comes from kurgans in southern Ukraine and Russia. David Anthony notes, "About 20% of Scythian -Sarmatian "warrior graves" on the lower Don and lower Volga contained females dressed for battle as if they were men, a phenomenon that probably inspired the Greek tales about the Amazons."[77] Mounted Amazon in Scythian costume, on an Attic red-figure vase, ca 420 BCE Up to 25% of military burials were of armed Sarmatian women usually including bows.[78] Russian archaeologist Vera Kovalevskaya points out that when Scythian men were away fighting or hunting, nomadic women would have to be able to defend themselves, their animals and pasture-grounds competently. During the time that the Scythians advanced into Asia and achieved near-hegemony in the Near-East, there was a period of twenty-eight years when the men would have been away on campaigns for long periods. During this time the women would not only have had to defend themselves, but to reproduce and this could well be the origin of the idea that Amazons mated once a year with their neighbours, if Herodotus actually intended to base this on a factual base.[78] Before modern archaeology uncovered some of the Scythian burials of warrior-maidens entombed under kurgans in the region of Altai Mountains and Sarmatia,[79] [80] giving concrete form at last to the Greek tales of mounted Amazons, the origin of the story of the Amazons has been the subject of speculation among classics scholars. In the Encyclopædia Britannica1911 speculation ranged along the following lines: "While some regard the Amazons as a purely mythical people, others assume an historical foundation for them. The deities worshipped by them were Ares (who is consistently assigned to them as a god of war, and as a god of Thracian and generally northern origin) and Artemis , not the usual Greek goddess of that name, but an Asiatic deity in some respects her equivalent. It is conjectured that the Amazons were originally the temple-servants and priestesses (hierodulae) of this goddess; and that the removal of the breast corresponded with the self-mutilation of the god Attis and the galli , Roman priests of Rhea Cybele . Another theory is that, as the knowledge of geography extended, travellers brought back reports of tribes ruled entirely by women, who carried out the duties which elsewhere were regarded as peculiar to man, in whom alone the rights of nobility and inheritance were vested, and who had the supreme control of affairs. Hence arose the belief in the Amazons as a nation of female warriors, organized and governed entirely by women. According to J. Viirtheim (De Ajacis origine, 1907), the Amazons were of Greek origin [...] It has been suggested that the fact of the conquest of the Amazons being assigned to the two famous heroes of Greek mythology, Heracles and Theseus [...] shows that they were mythical illustrations of the dangers which beset the Greeks on the coasts of Asia Minor; rather perhaps, it may be intended to represent the conflict between the Greek culture of the colonies on the Euxine and the barbarism of the native inhabitants." Minoan Crete When Minoan archeology was still in its infancy, nevertheless, a theory raised in an essay regarding the Amazons contributed by Lewis Richard Farnell and John Myres to Robert Ranulph Marett 's Anthropology and the Classics (1908),[81] placed their possible origins in Minoan civilization , drawing attention to overlooked similarities between the two cultures. According to Myres, (pp. 153 ff), the tradition interpreted in the light of evidence furnished by supposed Amazon cults seems to have been very similar and may have even originated in Minoan culture. Cyme (or Kymi, also: Phriconis, modern Namurt) was an ancient Greek city in Aeolis (Asia Minor) close to the kingdom of Lydia . The Aeolians regarded Cyme as the largest and most important of their twelve cities, which were located on the coastline of Asia Minor (modern day Turkey ). As a result of their direct access to the sea, unlike most non-landlocked settlements of the ancient world, trade is believed to have prospered. In his Histories, Herodotus makes reference to Cyme (or Phriconis) as being one of the cities in which the rebel Lydian governor Pactyes sought refuge, following his attempted rebellion against the Persian King Cyrus the Great : Pactyes, when he learnt that an army was already on his tracks and near, took fright and fled to Cyme, and Mazares the Mede marched to Sardis with a detachment of Cyrus' troops. Finding Pactyes and his supporters and his supporters gone, the first thing he did was to compel the Lydians to carry out Cyrus' orders — as a result of which they altered from that moment their whole way of life; he then sent a demand to Cyme that Pactyes should be surrendered, and the men of the town decided to consult the oracle at Branchidae as to whether they should obey…The messengers returned home to report, and the citizens of Cyme were prepared in consequence to give up the wanted man. // Location Both the author of the 'life of Homer ' and Strabo the ancient geographer, locate Cyme north of the Hermus river on the Asia Minor coastline, modern day Namurt Limani Map of Aegean c.200 BC showing the location of Kyme. After crossing the Hyllus , the distance from Larissa to Cyme was 70 stadia, and from Cyme to Myrina was 40 stadia. (Strabo: 622) Archaeological finds such as coins give reference also to a river, believed to be that of the Hyllus . Early history Little is known about the foundation of the city to supplement the traditional founding legend. Settlers from mainland Greece (most likely Euboea ) migrated across the Aegean Sea during the Late Bronze Age as waves of Dorian-speaking invaders brought an end to the once mighty Mycenaean civilisation some time around 1050 BC. During the Late Bronze Age and early Greek Dark Ages the dialect of Cyme and the surrounding region of Aeolis, like that of neighboring island Lesbos closely resembled the local dialect of Thessalia and Boetia. Culturally however the citizens of Cyme considered themselves of Ionian descent. An Ionic dialect is believed to have been the local language and would have given rise to the famous Cumae alphabet that is believed to have originated in or near Cyme. Archaeologists believe Kyme was already inhabited by Pelasgians prior to the Euboean arrival: Around 950 every tribe had settled down in its own territory. They co-existed beside each other, but never formed a nation… they even almost never felt as one nation. There would always be a strong contrast between the different groups, especially between the Ionians and the Dorians. The Ionians arrived in Hellas around 1600 and mixed with the original inhabitants while the Dorians arrived 500 years later and enslaved them, without learning anything from their culture. The Dorians valued their system of tribes and remained isolated as Sparta would show later on, while the Ionians valued art, science and individualism which were the cornerstones of Athens . The colony was founded during the Greek Dark Ages by settlers from Locris in central Greece who began by reducing the Pelasgian citadel of Larisa near the river Hermus Cyme developed into a regional metropolis to some thirty other towns and settlements in Aeolis. The Cymeans were later ridiculed as a people who had for three hundred years lived on the coast and not once exacted harbor taxes on ships making port. Hesiod’s father is said to have started his journey across the Aegean from Cyme. The cities of southern Aeolis in the region surrounding Cyme occupied a good belt of land with rough mountains in the background yet Cyme like other colonies along the coast did not trade with the native Anatolians further inland who had occupied Asia Minor for thousands of years. Cyme consequently played no significant role in the history of western Asia Minor prompting the historian Ephorus, himself a native of the city, to comment repeatedly in his narrative of Greek history that while the events he wrote about were taking place his fellow Cymeans had for centuries sat idly by and kept the peace. Politically, Cyme is assumed to have started as a settler democracy following in the tradition of other established colonies in the region although Aristotle concluded that by the 7th and 6th centuries BC the once great democracies in the Greek world (including Cyme) evolved not from democracies to oligarchies as was the natural custom but from democracies to tyrannies. Cyme was an important settlement long before the prominent events of the Greco-Persian wars. Evidence has pointed to Cyme establishing itself not as a democracy but rather a monarchy under King Agamemnon of Cyme who supposedly married his daughter to King Midas of Lydia 5th Century BC By the 5th century BC, Cyme was one of the 12 established Ionian colonies in Aeolis. Herodotus (4.138) mentions that one of the esteemed voters deciding whether or not to support Militiades the Athenian in his plan to liberate the Ionian Coast from Persian rule in (year BC) was Aristagoras of Cyme. Aristagorus campaigned on the side of Histiaeus the Milesian with the tyrants Strattis of Chios, Aeaces of Samos and Laodamas of Phocaea in opposing such an initiative arguing instead that each tyrant along the Ionian Coast owed their position to Darius King of Persia and that liberating their own cities would encourage democracy over tyranny. Cyme eventually came under the control of the Persian Empire following the collapse of the Lydian Kingdom at the hands of Cyrus the Great. Herodotus is the principal source for this period in Greek history and has paid a great deal of attention to events taking place in Ionia and Aeolis. When Pactyes, the Lydian general sought refuge in Cyme from the Persians the citizens were between a rock and a hard place. As Herodotus records, they consulted the Greek god Apollo (supporting the claim that they were of Ionic not eastern culture), who said after much confusion through an oracle that he should be handed over. However a native of Cyme questioned Apollo's word and went back to the oracle himself to confirm if indeed Apollo wanted the Cymians to surrender Pactyes. Not wanting to come to grief over the surrender of Pactyes, nor wanting the ill-effects of a Persian siege (confirms Cyme was a fortified city capable of self defence) they avoided dealing with the Persians by simply sending him off to Mytilene on the island of Lesbos , not far from their city. After the Persian naval defeat at Salamis, Xerxes moored the surviving ships at Cyme. Before 480 BC, Cyme had been the principle naval base for the Royal Fleet. Later accounts of Cyme's involvement in the Ionian Revolt which triggered the Persian Wars confirm their allegiance to the Ionian Greek cause. During this time, Herodotus states that due to the size of the Persian army, Darius the Great was able to launch a devastating three-pronged attack on the Ionian cities. The third army which he sent north to take Sardis was under the command of his son-in-law Otanes who promptly captured Cyme and Clazomenae in the process. However later accounts reveal how Sandoces, the supposed Ionian governor of Cyme helped draft a fleet of fifteen ships for Xerxes I great expedition against mainland Greece c. 480 BC. Cyme is also believed to have been the port in which the Persian survivors of the Battle of Salamis wintered and lends considerable weight to the argument that Cyme was not only well served by defensive walls, but enjoyed the benefits of a large port capable of wintering and supplying a large wartime fleet. As a result, Cyme, like most Ionian cities at the time was a maritime power and a valuable asset to the Persian Empire. Once Aristagoras of Miletus roused the Ionians to rebel against Darius , Cyme joined the insurrection. However, the revolts at Cyme were quelled once the city was recovered by the Persians . Sandoces, the governor of Cyme at the time of Xerxes , commanded fifteen ships in the Persian military expedition against Greece (480 BC). Herodotus believes that Sandoces may have been a Greek. After the Battle of Salamis , the remnants of Xerxes's fleet wintered at Cyme. Thucydides does not provide any significant mention of place is hardly more than mentioned in the history of Thucydides . Roman and Byzantine eras Polybius records that Cyme obtained freedom from taxation following the defeat of Antiochus III , later being incorporated into Roman Asia province. During the reign of Tiberius , the city is believed to have suffered from a great earthquake, common in the Aegean. Other Roman sources such as Pliny the Elder mention Cyme as one of the cities of Aeolia which supports Herodotus ' similar claim: The above-mentioned, then, are the twelve towns of the Ionians. The Aeolic cities are the following:- Cyme, called also Phriconis, Larissa , Neonteichus, Temnus , Cilla , Notium , Aegiroessa, Pitane , Aegaeae, Myrina , and Gryneia. These are the eleven ancient cities of the Aeolians . Originally, indeed, they had twelve cities upon the mainland, like the Ionians , but the Ionians deprived them of Smyrna , one of the number. The soil of Aeolis is better than that of Ionia , but the climate is less agreeable. Archaeological coinage exists from the Roman Imperial era from Nero to Gallienus . The river god Hermos, horse with their forefoot raised and victorious athletes are typical symbols commonly found on period coinage minted at Cyme. Later under the leadership of the Eastern Roman Empire , Cyme became a bishop 's see. Archaeology Archaeologists first started taking an interest in the site in the middle of the 19th century as the wealthy landowner D. Baltazzi and later S. Reinach began excavation on the southern necropolis. In 1925, A. Salaç, working out of the Bohemian Mission, uncovered many interesting finds, including a small temple to Isis, a Roman porticus and what is believed to be a 'potter's house'. Encouraged by their successes, Turkish archaeologist E. Akurgal began his own project in 1955 which uncovered an Orientalising ceramic on the southern hill. Between 1979-1984, the Izmir Museum carried out similar excavations at various locations around the site, uncovering further inscriptions and structures on the southern hill. Geophysical studies at Cyme in more recent years, have given archaeologists a much greater knowledge of the site without being as intrusive. Geomagnetic surveys of the terrain reveal additional structures beneath the soil, as yet untouched by excavations. Statue of a young woman; late Hellenistic, 1st century BC, Cyme (Namurt). The northwest side of the southern hill was utilized as a residential neighborhood during the entire existence of the city. Only a limited area of the hill has been investigated. It has been verified that there were at least five successive phases of building. 1. A long and straight wall going from north to southeast represented the most ancient building phase. In the wall there are visible traces of a threshold linking two rooms. There is uncertainty as to the chronology of the wall, but what is sure is that is was built before the end of the 5th century BC. 2. Two rooms (A and B), that were part of a building dating back to the end of the 5th century BC, belong to the second phase. The building appears to be complete on the northern side, but could have also had other rooms on the southern side, where the entrance to room A opened up. The western wall of room A, was constructed with squared limestone blocks, and also acted as a terracing wall connecting the strong natural difference on the side of the hill. At the foot of this wall there was a cistern excavated in the rock that gathered water coming from the roof of the house. The cistern was filled with debris and great amounts of black and plain pottery dating back to the late Hellenistic Age. 3. Some walls that belonged to the Imperial Roman Period were constructed by means of white mortar and bricks. During this phase a service room east of room A, with a floor that was made of leveled rock, was built. In the area of the cistern, by now filled, a new room decorated by wall paintings was also built. 4. A large house occupied the area during the Late Roman Period. The rooms were constructed using reused materials, but without the use of mortar, and often enriched by polychrome mosaics. Access was gained by a ramp placed at the edge of the southwestern part of the excavation. Still, what needs to be clarified is the extent of the building, whose destruction is placed between the end of the 6th century to the beginning of the 7th century AD. 5. The final phase is represented by some superficial structures found at the northern part of the excavation. There is a long wall going from the northwest to the southeast and a ramp built with reused blocks, with the same orientation as the wall. The wall and the ramp could be proof that this area was utilized during the Byzantine Age. Trivia Cyme was the birthplace of the historian Ephorus ; and Hesiod 's father, according to the poet (Op. et D. 636), sailed from Cyme to settle at Ascra in Boeotia ; which does not prove, as such compilers as Stephanus and Suidas suppose, that Hesiod was a native of Cyme. Frequently Asked Questions How long until my order is shipped? Depending on the volume of sales, it may take up to 5 business days for shipment of your order after the receipt of payment. 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