Seller: paropamiso.gioielli (667) 100%, Location: Venezia, Ships to: Americas, Europe, Asia, AU, Item: 111765403973 Condition: Very Good Condition., Material: Nephrite Stone, Details: Beautiful serie of Dian stone elements, to make ear pendants. Probably belonging to the middle of the Western Han period (150 - 50 BCE). Nephrite stone. Please look at the catalogue of the exhibition "Bronze from Dian Kingdom, Yunnan China (6th century / 1st century BCE)", 1986 -1987, page 92, pic. 52 you can find the same elements in two series of 14 elements each to make ear pendents. Found in Shizhaishan (Jinning) Necropolis. Size: from 22mm. x 18mm. up to 25mm. x 20mm. The Dian Kingdom was established by the Dian people, who lived around Dian lake in northern Yunnan, China from the late Spring and Autumn period until the Eastern Han dynasty.. The Dian buried their dead in vertical pit graves. The Dian like spoke Tibeto-Burman languages. Dian was annexed by the Han dynasty during the southward expansion of Han dynasty. In 109 BCE, Han campaigns against Dian led to the establishment of the Yizhou commandery by the Han. The Dian were first mentioned historically in Sima Quian's "Records of the Grand Historia"; according to Chinese sources, General Zhuang Quiao of Chu was the founder of the Dian Kingdom. Sent to conquer the "barbarians peoples" of the area, he and his army were prevented from going back to Chu by enemy armies, so he settled down and became king of the new Dian Kingdom. The soldiers who accompanied him married natives. The kingdom was located around Kunming; it was surrounded on its east by the Yelang tribes, to the west by Kunming tribes, and to the north in Chengdu by the Han Chinese, and had relations with all of them. It is said that during the reign of King Qinxiang of Chu (298-236 BCE), a military force was sent on a mission to the lands of the Ba and Shu (modern Sichuan), Qinzong (Guizhou), and the Dian Kingdom (Kunming, Yunnan). Native women married the Chu soldiers, who stayed in the area. The Dian were subjugated by the Han under the reign of Emperor Wu of Han in 109 BCE. The Dian King willingly received the Chinese invasion in the hopes of assistance against rival tribes. It was at this time he received his seal from the Chinese, and became a tributary. Han campaigns against Dian lead to its territory being incorporated into Yizhou Commandery (modern Sichuan) but left the king of Dian as local ruler until a rebellion during the rule of Emperor Zhao of Han. The Han proceeded with colonization and conquered the people of Kunming in 86 and 82 BCE, reaching Burma. Import duties, sales taxes (vat) and other charges are not included in the item prices or in the shipping charges. These charges are under the buyer’s responsibility. Please check with your country’s customs office to determine what these additional costs will be, before bidding / buying. If you are not satisfied of your purchase, we accept return within 14 days for a full refund, less postage. Please look carefully to our pictures and read sizes and weight, because pictures are oversized to show lacks and values. We do not accept to undervalue our items. Please do not pay before receiving the final invoice including shipping fees. We’ll ship out of Europe purchases over euro 100,00 ONLY by FedEx courier. Insurance on demand. Our items are vintage or antique and will show signs of age.However we will point out any damage or fault. Please look at our pictures, they are extremely precise, but they are just pictures, so colors could change from monitor to monitor. If you have any doubt about colors, please call us or write to us for any information. Please email us for any questions or additional photos. Although the utmost care is taken with packing and dispatch; all items are sent at owner’s risk.