Commodus son of Marcus Aurelius Silver Ancient Roman Coin Fides Trust i53131

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Seller: Top-Rated Seller highrating_lowprice (21,029) 100%, Location: Rego Park, New York, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 231813916374 Item: i53131 Authentic Ancient Coin of: Commodus - Roman Emperor : 177-192 A.D. Son of Marcus Aurelius Silver Denarius 18mm (2.47 grams) Rome mint: 190-191 A.D. Reference: RIC 220, C 127 MCOMMANTPFELAVGBRITPP - Laureate head right. FIDEICOHPMTRPXVICOSVI - Fides standing left, holding grain ears and standard. You are bidding on the exact item pictured, provided with a Certificate of Authenticity and Lifetime Guarantee of Authenticity. Commodus (Latin: Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus; 31 August, 161 AD – 31 December, 192 AD), was Roman Emperor from 180 to 192. He also ruled as co-emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius from 177 until his father's death in 180. His accession as emperor was the first time a son had succeeded his father since Titus succeeded Vespasian in 79. He was also the first Emperor to have both a father and grandfather as the two preceding Emperors. Commodus was the first (and until 337 the only) emperor "born in the purple"; i.e. during his father's reign. Commodus was assassinated in 192. Early life and rise to power (161–180) Early life Commodus was born on 31 August 161, as Commodus, in Lanuvium , near Rome . He was the son of the reigning emperor, Marcus Aurelius, and Aurelius's first cousin, Faustina the Younger; the youngest daughter of Roman Emperor Antonius Pius . Commodus had an elder twin brother, Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus, who died in 165. On 12 October 166, Commodus was made Caesar together with his younger brother, Marcus Annius Verus . The latter died in 169 having failed to recover from an operation, which left Commodus as Marcus Aurelius' sole surviving son. He was looked after by his father's physician, Galen , in order to keep Commodus healthy and alive. Galen treated many of Commodus' common illnesses. Commodus received extensive tuition at the hands of what Marcus Aurelius called "an abundance of good masters." The focus of Commodus' education appears to have been intellectual, possibly at the expense of military training. Commodus is known to have been at Carnuntum , the headquarters of Marcus Aurelius during the Marcomannic Wars , in 172. It was presumably there that, on 15 October 172, he was given the victory title Germanicus, in the presence of the army . The title suggests that Commodus was present at his father's victory over the Marcomanni . On 20 January 175, Commodus entered the College of Pontiffs , the starting point of a career in public life. In April 175, Avidius Cassius , Governor of Syria , declared himself Emperor following rumors that Marcus Aurelius had died. Having been accepted as Emperor by Syria, Palestine and Egypt , Cassius carried on his rebellion even after it had become obvious that Marcus was still alive. During the preparations for the campaign against Cassius, the Prince assumed his toga virilis on the Danubian front on 7 July 175, thus formally entering adulthood . Cassius, however, was killed by one of his centurions before the campaign against him could begin. Commodus subsequently accompanied his father on a lengthy trip to the Eastern provinces, during which he visited Antioch . The Emperor and his son then traveled to Athens , where they were initiated into the Eleusinian mysteries . They then returned to Rome in the Autumn of 176. Joint rule with father (177) Marcus Aurelius was the first emperor since Vespasian to have a biological son of his own and, though he himself was the fifth in the line of the so-called Five Good Emperors , each of whom had adopted his successor, it seems to have been his firm intention that Commodus should be his heir. On 27 November 176, Marcus Aurelius granted Commodus the rank of Imperator and, in the middle of 177, the title Augustus , giving his son the same status as his own and formally sharing power. On 23 December of the same year, the two Augusti celebrated a joint triumph , and Commodus was given tribunician power. On 1 January 177, Commodus became consul for the first time, which made him, aged 15, the youngest consul in Roman history up to that time. He subsequently married Bruttia Crispina before accompanying his father to the Danubian front once more in 178, where Marcus Aurelius died on 17 March 180, leaving the 18-year-old Commodus sole emperor. Sole reign (180–192) Upon his accession Commodus devalued the Roman currency . He reduced the weight of the denarius from 96 per Roman pound to 105 (3.85 grams to 3.35 grams). He also reduced the silver purity from 79 percent to 76 percent – the silver weight dropping from 2.57 grams to 2.34 grams. In 186 he further reduced the purity and silver weight to 74 percent and 2.22 grams respectively, being 108 to the Roman pound. His reduction of the denarius during his rule was the largest since the empire's first devaluation during Nero's reign. Whereas the reign of Marcus Aurelius had been marked by almost continuous warfare, that of Commodus was comparatively peaceful in the military sense but was marked by political strife and the increasingly arbitrary and capricious behaviour of the emperor himself. In the view of Dio Cassius , a contemporary observer, his accession marked the descent "from a kingdom of gold to one of rust and iron" – a famous comment which has led some historians, notably Edward Gibbon , to take Commodus's reign as the beginning of the decline of the Roman Empire . Despite his notoriety, and considering the importance of his reign, Commodus's years in power are not well chronicled. The principal surviving literary sources are Dio Cassius (a contemporary and sometimes first-hand observer, but for this reign, only transmitted in fragments and abbreviations), Herodian and the Historia Augusta (untrustworthy for its character as a work of literature rather than history, with elements of fiction embedded within its biographies; in the case of Commodus, it may well be embroidering upon what the author found in reasonably good contemporary sources). Commodus remained with the Danube armies for only a short time before negotiating a peace treaty with the Danubian tribes. He then returned to Rome and celebrated a triumph for the conclusion of the wars on 22 October 180. Unlike the preceding Emperors Trajan , Hadrian , Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius, he seems to have had little interest in the business of administration and tended throughout his reign to leave the practical running of the state to a succession of favourites, beginning with Saoterus , a freedman from Nicomedia who had become his chamberlain . Dissatisfaction with this state of affairs would lead to a series of conspiracies and attempted coups, which in turn eventually provoked Commodus to take charge of affairs, which he did in an increasingly dictatorial manner. Nevertheless, though the senatorial order came to hate and fear him, the evidence suggests that he remained popular with the army and the common people for much of his reign, not least because of his lavish shows of largesse (recorded on his coinage) and because he staged and took part in spectacular gladiatorial combats. One of the ways he paid for his donatives and mass entertainments was to tax the senatorial order, and on many inscriptions, the traditional order of the two nominal powers of the state, the Senate and People (Senatus Populusque Romanus) is provocatively reversed (Populus Senatusque...). The conspiracies of 182 A bust of Commodus as a youth (Roman-Germanic Museum, Cologne). At the outset of his reign, Commodus, age 18, inherited many of his father's senior advisers, notably Tiberius Claudius Pompeianus (the second husband of Commodus's sister Lucilla ), his father-in-law Gaius Bruttius Praesens , Titus Fundanius Vitrasius Pollio, and Aufidius Victorinus , who was Prefect of the City of Rome . He also had five surviving sisters, all of them with husbands who were potential rivals. Four of his sisters were considerably older than he; the eldest, Lucilla, held the rank of Augusta as the widow of her first husband, Lucius Verus . The first crisis of the reign came in 182, when Lucilla engineered a conspiracy against her brother. Her motive is alleged to have been envy of the Empress Crispina. Her husband, Pompeianus, was not involved, but two men alleged to have been her lovers, Marcus Ummidius Quadratus Annianus (the consul of 167, who was also her first cousin) and Appius Claudius Quintianus , attempted to murder Commodus as he entered the theatre. They bungled the job and were seized by the emperor's bodyguard. Quadratus and Quintianus were executed. Lucilla was exiled to Capri and later killed. Pompeianus retired from public life. One of the two praetorian prefects , Tarrutenius Paternus , had actually been involved in the conspiracy but was not detected at this time, and in the aftermath, he and his colleague Sextus Tigidius Perennis were able to arrange for the murder of Saoterus, the hated chamberlain. Commodus took the loss of Saoterus badly, and Perennis now seized the chance to advance himself by implicating Paternus in a second conspiracy, one apparently led by Publius Salvius Julianus , who was the son of the jurist Salvius Julianus and was betrothed to Paternus's daughter. Salvius and Paternus were executed along with a number of other prominent consulars and senators. Didius Julianus , the future emperor, a relative of Salvius Julianus, was dismissed from the governorship of Germania Inferior . Cleander Perennis took over the reins of government and Commodus found a new chamberlain and favourite in Cleander , a Phrygian freedman who had married one of the emperor's mistresses, Demostratia. Cleander was in fact the person who had murdered Saoterus. After those attempts on his life, Commodus spent much of his time outside Rome, mostly on the family estates at Lanuvium. Being physically strong, his chief interest was in sport: taking part in horse racing , chariot racing , and combats with beasts and men, mostly in private but also on occasion in public. Dacia and Britain A bust of Commodus (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna). According to Herodian he was well proportioned and attractive, with naturally blonde and curly hair. Commodus was inaugurated in 183 as consul with Aufidius Victorinus for a colleague and assumed the title Pius. War broke out in Dacia : few details are available, but it appears two future contenders for the throne, Clodius Albinus and Pescennius Niger , both distinguished themselves in the campaign. Also, in Britain in 184, the governor Ulpius Marcellus re-advanced the Roman frontier northward to the Antonine Wall , but the legionaries revolted against his harsh discipline and acclaimed another legate, Priscus, as emperor. Priscus refused to accept their acclamations, but Perennis had all the legionary legates in Britain cashiered . On 15 October 184 at the Capitoline Games , a Cynic philosopher publicly denounced Perennis before Commodus, who was watching, but was immediately put to death. According to Dio Cassius, Perennis, though ruthless and ambitious, was not personally corrupt and generally administered the state well. However, the following year, a detachment of soldiers from Britain (they had been drafted to Italy to suppress brigands) also denounced Perennis to the emperor as plotting to make his own son emperor (they had been enabled to do so by Cleander, who was seeking to dispose of his rival), and Commodus gave them permission to execute him as well as his wife and sons. The fall of Perennis brought a new spate of executions: Aufidius Victorinus committed suicide. Ulpius Marcellus was replaced as governor of Britain by Pertinax ; brought to Rome and tried for treason, Marcellus narrowly escaped death. Cleander's zenith and fall (185–190) Cleander proceeded to concentrate power in his own hands and to enrich himself by becoming responsible for all public offices: he sold and bestowed entry to the Senate, army commands, governorships and, increasingly, even the suffect consulships to the highest bidder. Unrest around the empire increased, with large numbers of army deserters causing trouble in Gaul and Germany . Pescennius Niger mopped up the deserters in Gaul in a military campaign, and a revolt in Brittany was put down by two legions brought over from Britain. In 187, one of the leaders of the deserters, Maternus, came from Gaul intending to assassinate Commodus at the Festival of the Great Goddess in March, but he was betrayed and executed. In the same year, Pertinax unmasked a conspiracy by two enemies of Cleander – Antistius Burrus (one of Commodus's brothers-in-law) and Arrius Antoninus. As a result, Commodus appeared even more rarely in public, preferring to live on his estates. Early in 188, Cleander disposed of the current praetorian prefect, Atilius Aebutianus , and himself took over supreme command of the Praetorians at the new rank of a pugione ("dagger-bearer") with two praetorian prefects subordinate to him. Now at the zenith of his power, Cleander continued to sell public offices as his private business. The climax came in the year 190, which had 25 suffect consuls – a record in the 1000-year history of the Roman consulship—all appointed by Cleander (they included the future Emperor Septimius Severus ). In the spring of 190, Rome was afflicted by a food shortage, for which the praefectus annonae Papirius Dionysius , the official actually in charge of the grain supply , contrived to lay the blame on Cleander. At the end of June, a mob demonstrated against Cleander during a horse race in the Circus Maximus : he sent the praetorian guard to put down the disturbances, but Pertinax, who was now City Prefect of Rome, dispatched the Vigiles Urbani to oppose them. Cleander fled to Commodus, who was at Laurentum in the house of the Quinctilii , for protection, but the mob followed him calling for his head. At the urging of his mistress Marcia , Commodus had Cleander beheaded and his son killed. Other victims at this time were the praetorian prefect Julius Julianus, Commodus's cousin Annia Fundania Faustina , and his brother-in-law Mamertinus. Papirius Dionysius was executed too. The emperor now changed his name to Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus. At 29, he took over more of the reins of power, though he continued to rule through a cabal consisting of Marcia, his new chamberlain Eclectus, and the new praetorian prefect Quintus Aemilius Laetus , who about this time also had many Christians freed from working in the mines in Sardinia . Marcia, the widow of Quadratus, who had been executed in 182, is alleged to have been a Christian. Megalomania (190–192) In opposition to the Senate, in his pronouncements and iconography , Commodus had always laid stress on his unique status as a source of god-like power, liberality and physical prowess. Innumerable statues around the empire were set up portraying him in the guise of Hercules , reinforcing the image of him as a demigod, a physical giant, a protector and a battler against beasts and men (see "Commodus and Hercules" and "Commodus the Gladiator" below). Moreover, as Hercules, he could claim to be the son of Jupiter , the representative of the supreme god of the Roman pantheon . These tendencies now increased to megalomaniac proportions. Far from celebrating his descent from Marcus Aurelius, the actual source of his power, he stressed his own personal uniqueness as the bringer of a new order, seeking to re-cast the empire in his own image. During 191, the city of Rome was extensively damaged by a fire that raged for several days, during which many public buildings including the Temple of Pax , the Temple of Vesta and parts of the imperial palace were destroyed. Perhaps seeing this as an opportunity, early in 192 Commodus, declaring himself the new Romulus , ritually re-founded Rome, renaming the city Colonia Lucia Annia Commodiana. All the months of the year were renamed to correspond exactly with his (now twelve) names: Lucius, Aelius, Aurelius, Commodus, Augustus, Herculeus, Romanus, Exsuperatorius, Amazonius, Invictus, Felix, Pius. The legions were renamed Commodianae, the fleet which imported grain from Africa was termed Alexandria Commodiana Togata, the Senate was entitled the Commodian Fortunate Senate, his palace and the Roman people themselves were all given the name Commodianus, and the day on which these reforms were decreed was to be called Dies Commodianus. Thus he presented himself as the fountainhead of the Empire and Roman life and religion. He also had the head of the Colossus of Nero adjacent to the Colosseum replaced with his own portrait, gave it a club and placed a bronze lion at its feet to make it look like Hercules, and added an inscription boasting of being "the only left-handed fighter to conquer twelve times one thousand men". Character and physical prowess Character and motivations Dio Cassius, a first-hand witness, describes him as "not naturally wicked but, on the contrary, as guileless as any man that ever lived. His great simplicity, however, together with his cowardice, made him the slave of his companions, and it was through them that he at first, out of ignorance, missed the better life and then was led on into lustful and cruel habits, which soon became second nature."[8] His recorded actions do tend to show a rejection of his father’s policies, his father’s advisers, and especially his father’s austere lifestyle, and an alienation from the surviving members of his family. It seems likely that he was brought up in an atmosphere of Stoic asceticism , which he rejected entirely upon his accession to sole rule. After repeated attempts on Commodus' life, Roman citizens were often killed for raising his ire. One such notable event was the attempted extermination of the house of the Quinctilii. Condianus and Maximus were executed on the pretext that, while they were not implicated in any plots, their wealth and talent would make them unhappy with the current state of affairs. Changes of name On his accession as sole ruler, Commodus added the name Antoninus to his official nomenclature. In October 180 he changed his praenomen from Lucius to Marcus, presumably in honour of his father. He later took the title of Felix in 185. In 191 he restored his praenomen to Lucius and added the family name Aelius, apparently linking himself to Hadrian and Hadrian's adopted son Lucius Aelius Caesar , whose original name was also Commodus. Later that year he dropped Antoninus and adopted as his full style Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus Augustus Herculeus Romanus Exsuperatorius Amazonius Invictus Felix Pius (the order of some of these titles varies in the sources). "Exsuperatorius" (the supreme) was a title given to Jupiter, and "Amazonius" identified him again with Hercules. An inscribed altar from Dura-Europos on the Euphrates shows that Commodus's titles and the renaming of the months were disseminated to the furthest reaches of the Empire; moreover, that even auxiliary military units received the title Commodiana, and that Commodus claimed two additional titles: Pacator Orbis (pacifier of the world) and Dominus Noster (Our Lord). The latter eventually would be used as a conventional title by Roman emperors, starting about a century later, but Commodus seems to have been the first to assume it. Commodus and Hercules Disdaining the more philosophic inclinations of his father, Commodus was extremely proud of his physical prowess. He was generally acknowledged to be extremely handsome. As mentioned above, he ordered many statues to be made showing him dressed as Hercules with a lion's hide and a club. He thought of himself as the reincarnation of Hercules, frequently emulating the legendary hero's feats by appearing in the arena to fight a variety of wild animals. He was left-handed, and very proud of the fact. Cassius Dio and the writers of the Augustan History say that Commodus was a skilled archer, who could shoot the heads off ostriches in full gallop, and kill a panther as it attacked a victim in the arena. Commodus the gladiator Commodus also had a passion for gladiatorial combat, which he took so far as to take to the arena himself, dressed as a gladiator. The Romans found Commodus's naked gladiatorial combats to be scandalous and disgraceful. It was rumoured that he was actually the son, not of Marcus Aurelius, but of a gladiator whom his mother Faustina had taken as a lover at the coastal resort of Caieta . In the arena, Commodus always won since his opponents always submitted to the emperor. Thus, these public fights would not end in death. Privately, it was his custom to slay his practice opponents. For each appearance in the arena, he charged the city of Rome a million sesterces , straining the Roman economy. Commodus raised the ire of many military officials in Rome for his Hercules persona in the arena. Often, wounded soldiers and amputees would be placed in the arena for Commodus to slay with a sword. Commodus's eccentric behaviour would not stop there. Citizens of Rome missing their feet through accident or illness were taken to the arena, where they were tethered together for Commodus to club to death while pretending they were giants. These acts may have contributed to his assassination. Commodus was also known for fighting exotic animals in the arena, often to the horror of the Roman people. According to Gibbon, Commodus once killed 100 lions in a single day. Later, he decapitated a running ostrich with a specially designed dart and afterwards carried the bleeding head of the dead bird and his sword over to the section where the Senators sat and gesticulated as though they were next. On another occasion, Commodus killed three elephants on the floor of the arena by himself. Finally, Commodus killed a giraffe , which was considered to be a strange and helpless beast. Assassination (192) In November 192 Commodus held Plebian Games, in which he shot hundreds of animals with arrows and javelins every morning, and fought as a gladiator every afternoon, winning all the bouts. In December he announced his intention to inaugurate the year 193 as both consul and gladiator on 1 January. At this point, the prefect Laetus formed a conspiracy with Eclectus to supplant Commodus with Pertinax, taking Marcia into their confidence. On 31 December Marcia poisoned his food but he vomited up the poison; so the conspirators sent his wrestling partner Narcissus to strangle him in his bath. Upon his death, the Senate declared him a public enemy (a de facto damnatio memoriae ) and restored the original name to the city of Rome and its institutions. Commodus's statues were thrown down. His body was buried in the Mausoleum of Hadrian . In 195 the emperor Septimius Severus , trying to gain favour with the family of Marcus Aurelius, rehabilitated Commodus's memory and had the Senate deify him. Commodus was succeeded by Pertinax , whose reign was short lived, being the first to fall victim to the Year of the Five Emperors . Commodus's death marked the end of the Nervan-Antonian dynasty . The Principate Julio-Claudian dynasty Reign Incumbent Notes 16 January 27 BC to 19 August AD 14 Augustus 19 August 14 to 16 March 37 Tiberius 18 March 37 to 24 January 41 Caligula Murdered by Praetorian Guard 24 January 41 to 13 October 54 Claudius Poisoned by his wife Agrippina, mother of Nero 13 October 54 to 11 June 68 Nero Made a slave kill him Year of the Four Emperors (Civil War) Reign Incumbent Notes 8 June 68 to 15 January 69 Galba Murdered in favour of Otho 15 January 69 to 16 April 69 Otho Committed suicide 2 January 69 to 20 December 69 Vitellius Murdered in favour of Vespasian Flavian dynasty Reign Incumbent Notes 1 July 69 to 24 June 79 Vespasian 24 June 79 to 13 September 81 Titus Possibly assassinated by Domitian 14 September 81 to 18 September 96 Domitian Assassinated Nervan-Antonian dynasty Main article: Five Good Emperors Reign Incumbent Notes 18 September 96 to 27 January 98 Nerva Proclaimed emperor by senate 28 January 98 to 7 August 117 Trajan 11 August 117 to 10 July 138 Hadrian 10 July 138 to 7 March 161 Antoninus Pius 7 March 161 to 17 March 180 Marcus Aurelius 7 March 161 to March 169 Lucius Verus Co-emperor with Marcus Aurelius 175 Avidius Cassius Usurper; ruled in Egypt and Syria; murdered by his own army 177 to 31 December 192 Commodus Assassinated Year of the Five Emperors & Severan dynasty Reign Incumbent Notes 1 January 193 to 28 March 193 Pertinax Proclaimed emperor by senate; murdered by Praetorian Guard 28 March 193 to 1 June 193 Didius Julianus Proclaimed emperor by Praetorian Guard; executed on orders of the Senate 9 April 193 to 4 February 211 Septimius Severus Proclaimed emperor by Pannonian troops; accepted by senate 193 to 194/195 Pescennius Niger Proclaimed emperor by Syrian troops, defeated in battle by Septimius Severus 193/195 to 197 Clodius Albinus Proclaimed emperor by British troops, defeated in battle by Septimius Severus 198 to 8 April 217 Caracalla Assassinated at the behest of Macrinus 209 to 4 February 211 Geta Co-emperor with Caracalla ; assassinated on orders of Caracalla 11 April 217 to June 218 Macrinus Proclaimed himself emperor; executed on orders of Elagabalus May 217 to June 218 Diadumenian Junior co-emperor under Macrinus ; executed June 218 to 222 Elagabalus Proclaimed emperor by army; murdered by his own troops 13 March 222 to ?March 235 Alexander Severus Murdered by his own troops Rulers during the Crisis of the Third Century Reign Incumbent Notes February/March 235 to March/April 238 Maximinus Thrax Proclaimed emperor by the army; murdered by Praetorian Guard earlyJanuary/March 238 to lateJanuary/April 238 Gordian I Proclaimed emperor in Africa; committed suicide after Gordian II 's death earlyJanuary March 238 to lateJanuary/April 238 Gordian II Proclaimed emperor with Gordian I , killed in battle earlyFebruary 238 to earlyMay 238 Pupienus Proclaimed joint emperor by senate; murdered by Praetorian Guard earlyFebruary 238 to earlyMay 238 Balbinus Proclaimed joint emperor by senate; murdered by Praetorian Guard May 238 to February 244 Gordian III Nephew of Gordian II ; death unclear, probably murdered 240 Sabinianus Usurper; proclaimed himself emperor; defeated in battle February 244 to September/October 249 Philip the Arab Proclaimed emperor after death of Gordian III ; killed in battle by Decius 248 Pacatianus Usurper; proclaimed himself emperor; murdered by his own soldiers 248 to 249 Iotapianus Usurper; proclaimed himself emperor in the east; murdered by his own soldiers 248? or 253? Silbannacus Usurper; details essentially unknown 249 to June 251 Decius Killed in battle 249 to 252 Priscus Proclaimed himself emperor in the east in opposition to Decius 250 to 250 Licinianus Usurper; proclaimed emperor in Rome; rebellion suppressed early251 to June 251 Herennius Etruscus Junior co-emperor under Decius ; killed in battle 251 Hostilian Son of Decius ; died of plague June 251 to August 253 Gallus Proclaimed emperor by his troops after Decius's death; murdered by them in favour of Aemilianus July 251 to August 253 Volusianus Junior co-emperor under Gallus ; murdered by army August 253 to October 253 Aemilian Proclaimed emperor by his troops; murdered by them in favour of Valerian 253 to June 260 Valerian Proclaimed emperor by his troops; captured in battle by the Persians ; died in captivity 253 to September 268 Gallienus Junior co-emperor under Valerian to 260; probably murdered by his generals 260 Saloninus Son of Gallienus ; proclaimed emperor by army; murdered shortly after by troops of Postumus June 260 (or 258) Ingenuus Usurper; proclaimed himself emperor after Valerian 's capture; defeated in battle 260 Regalianus Usurper; proclaimed emperor after Ingenuus 's defeat; fate unclear 260 to 261 Macrianus Major Usurper; proclaimed emperor by eastern army; defeated and killed in battle 260 to 261 Macrianus Minor Usurper; son of Macrianus Major ; defeated and killed in battle 260 to 261 Quietus Usurper; son of Macrianus Major ; defeated and killed in battle 261 to 261 or 262 Mussius Aemilianus Usurper; proclaimed himself emperor after the defeat of the Macriani; defeated and executed 268 to 268 Aureolus Usurper; proclaimed himself emperor after Gallienus 's death; surrendered to Claudius II Gothicus ; murdered by Praetorian Guard 268 to August 270 Claudius II Gothicus Proclaimed emperor by the army August 270 to September 270 Quintillus Proclaimed himself emperor; cause of death unclear August 270 to 275 Aurelian Proclaimed emperor by army; murdered by the Praetorian Guard 271 to 271 Septimius Usurper; proclaimed emperor in Dalmatia ; killed by his own soldiers November/December 275 to July 276 Tacitus Appointed emperor by the Senate; possibly assassinated July 276 to September 276 Florianus Brother of Tacitus , proclaimed emperor by the western army; murdered by his troops July 276 to lateSeptember 282 Probus Proclaimed emperor by the eastern army; murdered by his own soldiers in favour of Carus 280 Julius Saturninus Usurper; proclaimed emperor by his troops; then killed by them 280 Proculus Usurper; proclaimed himself emperor at the request of the people of Lugdunum ; executed by Probus 280 Bonosus Usurper; proclaimed himself emperor; defeated by Probus and committed suicide September 282 to July/August 283 Carus Proclaimed emperor by Praetorian guard spring 283 to summer 285 Carinus Son of Carus; co-emperor with Numerian ; fate unclear July/August 283 to November 284 Numerian Son of Carus; co-emperor with Carinus ; probably murdered Gallic Empire 260 to 274 Reign Incumbent Notes 260 to 268 Postumus Declared himself emperor after Valerian 's death; killed by his own troops 268 to 268 Laelianus Proclaimed himself emperor in opposition to Postumus; defeated and killed by Postumus 269 to 269 Marius Proclaimed himself emperor after Postumus's death 269 to 271 Victorinus Proclaimed emperor after Marius's death 270 to 271 Domitianus Proclaimed himself emperor of the Gallic Empire 271 to 274 Tetricus I Nominated heir to Victorinus Britannic Empire 286 to 297 Reign Incumbent Notes 286 to 293 Carausius Declared himself emperor; assassinated by Allectus 293 to 297 Allectus Declared himself emperor after Carausius 's death; defeated by Constantius Chlorus Dominate Tetrarchy and Constantinian dynasty Reign Incumbent Notes 20 November 284 to 1 May 305 Diocletian Declared emperor by the army after Numerian's death; Abdicated 1 April 286 to 1 May 305 Maximian Made co-emperor ('Augustus') with Diocletian ; abdicated 1 May 305 to 25 July 306 Constantius I Chlorus Made junior co-emperor ('Caesar') under Maximian ; became Augustus after his abdication 1 May 305 to May 311 Galerius Made junior co-emperor ('Caesar') under Diocletian ; became Augustus after his abdication August 306 to 16 September 307 Severus II Made junior co-emperor ('Caesar') under Constantius Chlorus ; became Augustus after his death; executed by Maxentius 28 October 306 to 28 October 312 Maxentius Son of Maximian ; proclaimed Augustus by Praetorian Guard ; defeated in battle by Constantine I de jure: 307, de facto 312 to 22 May 337 Constantine I Son of Constantius Chlorus ; proclaimed Augustus by army 308 -309?/311? Domitius Alexander Proclaimed emperor in Africa; defeated in battle by Maxentius 11 November 308 to 18 September 324 Licinius Appointed Augustus by Galerius ; deposed by Constantine I and executed 1 May 311 to July/August 313 Maximinus Daia Made junior co-emperor ('Caesar') under Galerius ; became Augustus after his death; defeated in battle by Licinius and committed suicide December 316 to 1 March 317 Valerius Valens Appointed co-Augustus by Licinius ; executed by Licinius July to 18 September 324 Martinianus Appointed co-Augustus by Licinius ; deposed by Constantine I and executed 337 to 340 Constantine II Son of Constantine I ; co-emperor with his brothers; killed in battle 337 to 361 Constantius II Son of Constantine I ; co-emperor with his brothers 337 to 350 Constans I Son of Constantine I ; co-emperor with his brothers, killed by Magnentius January 350 to 11 August 353 Magnentius Usurper; proclaimed emperor by the army; defeated by Constantius II and committed suicide c. 350 Vetranio Proclaimed himself emperor against Magnentius ; recognized by Constantius II but then deposed c. 350 Nepotianus Proclaimed himself emperor against Magnentius , defeated and executed by Magnentius November 361 to June 363 Julian Cousin of Constantius II ; made Caesar by Constantius, then proclaimed Augustus by the army; killed in battle 363 to 17 February 364 Jovian Proclaimed emperor by the army after Julian 's death Valentinian dynasty Reign Incumbent Notes 26 February 364 to 17 November 375 Valentinian I Valentinian I Coins.htm Proclaimed emperor by the army after Jovian 's death 28 March 365 to 9 August 378 Valens Made co-emperor in the east by his brother Valentinian I ; killed in battle September 365 to 27 May 366 Procopius Usurper; Proclaimed himself emperor; defeated and executed by Valens 24 August 367 to 383 Gratian Gratian Coins.htm Son of Valentinian I ; assassinated 375 to 392 Valentinian II Valentinian II Coins.htm Son of Valentinian I ; deposed by Arbogast and died in suspicious circumstances 383 to 388 Magnus Maximus Magnus Maximus Coins.htm Usurper; proclaimed emperor by troops; at one time recognized by Theodosius I , but then deposed and executed c.386 to 388 Flavius Victor Flavius Victor Coins.htm Son of Magnus Maximus, executed on orders of Theodosius I 392 to 394 Eugenius Eugenius Coins.htm Usurper; proclaimed emperor by army under Arbogast ; defeated in battle by Theodosius I Theodosian dynasty Reign Incumbent Notes 379 to 17 January 395 Theodosius I Theodosius I Coins.htm Made co-emperor for the east by Gratian 383 to 408 EAST Arcadius Arcadius Coins.htm Appointed co-emperor with his father Theodosius I ; sole emperor for the east from January 395 23 January 393 to 15 August 423 WEST Honorius Honorius Coins.htm Appointed Augustus for the west by his father Theodosius I 407 to 411 WEST Constantine III Constantine III Coins.htm Usurper; proclaimed emperor in Britain; defeated by Constantius III 409 to 411 WEST Constans II Constans II Coins.htm Usurper; made emperor by his father Constantine III ; killed in battle 409 and 414 to 415 WEST Priscus Attalus Priscus Attalus Coins.htm Usurper; twice proclaimed emperor by Visigoths under Alaric and twice deposed by Honorius 409 to 411 WEST Maximus Maximus Coins.htm Usurper; proclaimed emperor in Spain; abdicated 411 to 413 WEST Jovinus Jovinus Coins.htm Usurper; proclaimed emperor after Constantine III 's death, executed by Honorius 412 to 413 WEST Sebastianus Sebastianus Coins.htm Usurper; appointed co-emperor by Jovinus , executed by Honorius 408 to 450 EAST Theodosius II Theodosius II Coins.htm Son of Arcadius 421 to 421 WEST Constantius III Constantius III Coins.htm Son-in-law of Theodosius I ; appointed co-emperor by Honorius 423 to 425 WEST Joannes Johannes Coins.htm Proclaimed western emperor, initially undisputed; defeated and executed by Theodosius II in favour of Valentinian III 425 to 16 March 455 WEST Valentinian III Valentinian III Coins.htm Son of Constantius III ; appointed emperor by Theodosius II ; assassinated Western Roman Empire Reign Incumbent Notes 17 March 455 to 31 May 455 Petronius Maximus Petronius Maximus Coins.htm Proclaimed himself emperor after Valentinian III 's death; murdered June 455 to 17 October 456 Avitus Avitus Coins.htm Proclaimed emperor by the Visigoth king Theoderic II ; deposed by Ricimer 457 to 2 August 461 Majorian Majorian Coins.htm Appointed by Ricimer ; deposed and executed by Ricimer 461 to 465 Libius Severus Libius Severus Coins.htm Appointed by Ricimer ; deposed and executed by Ricimer 12 April 467 to 11 July 472 Anthemius Anthemius Coins.htm Appointed by Ricimer ; deposed and executed by Ricimer July 472 to 2 November 472 Olybrius Olybrius Coins.htm Appointed by Ricimer 5 March 473 to June 474 Glycerius Glycerius Coins.htm Appointed by Gundobad ; deposed by Julius Nepos June 474 to 25 April 480 Julius Nepos Julius Nepos Coins.htm Appointed by eastern emperor Leo I ; deposed in Italy by Orestes in 475; continued to be recognised as lawful emperor in Gaul and Dalmatia until his murder in 480 31 October 475 to 4 September 476 Romulus Augustus (Romulus Augustulus) Romulus Augustus Coins.htm Son of Orestes ; deposed by Odoacer ; fate unknown Further information: Barbarian kings of Italy Eastern Roman Empire For the rulers of the Eastern Roman Empire (also known as the Byzantine Empire ) after Theodosius II , see: List of Byzantine Emperors Theodosian dynasty (395–457) See also: Theodosian dynasty Name Reign Comments Theodosius I "the Great" (Θεοδόσιος Α' ο Μέγας, Flavius Theodosius)Theodosius I Coins.htm 19 January 379 – 17 January 395 Born on 11 January 347. Aristocrat and military leader, brother-in-law of Gratian, who appointed him as emperor of the East. From 392 until his death sole Roman emperor Arcadius (Αρκάδιος, Flavius Arcadius)Arcadius Coins.htm 17 January 395 – 1 May 408 Born in 377/378, the eldest son of Theodosius I. Succeeded upon the death of his father Theodosius II (Θεοδόσιος Β', Flavius Theodosius) Theodosius II Coins.htm 1 May 408 – 28 July 450 Born on 10 April 401, the only son of Arcadius. Succeeded upon the death of his father. As a minor, the praetorian prefect Anthemius was regent in 408–414. He died in a riding accident Marcian (Μαρκιανός, Flavius Valerius Marcianus) Marcian Coins.htm 450 – January 457 Born in 396. A soldier and politician, he became emperor after being wed by the Augusta Pulcheria , Theodosius II's sister, following the latter's death. Died of gangrene Leonid dynasty (457–518) See also: House of Leo Name Reign Comments Leo I "the Thracian" (Λέων Α' ο Θράξ, Flavius Valerius Leo) Leo I Coins.htm 7 February 457 – 18 January 474 Born in Dacia in 401. A common soldier, he was chosen by Aspar , commander-in-chief of the army. Died of dysentery Leo II (Λέων Β', Flavius Leo) Leo II Coins.htm 18 January – 17 November 474 Born in 467, the grandson of Leo I. Succeeded upon the death of Leo I. Died of an unknown disease, possibly poisoned Zeno (Ζήνων, Flavius Zeno) Zeno Coins.htm 17 November 474 – 9 April 491 Born c.425 at Zenonopolis , Isauria , originally named Tarasicodissa. Son-in-law of Leo I, he was bypassed in the succession because of his barbarian origin. Named co-emperor by his son on 9 February 474, he succeeded upon the death of Leo II. Deposed by Basiliscus, brother-in-law of Leo, he fled to his native country and regained the throne in August 476. Basiliscus (Βασιλίσκος, Flavius Basiliscus) Basiliscus Coins.htm 9 January 475 – August 476 General and brother-in-law of Leo I, he seized power from Zeno but was again deposed by him. Died in 476/477 Anastasius I (Αναστάσιος Α', Flavius Anastasius) BYZANTINE - Anastasius Coins.htm 11 April 491 – 9 July 518 Born c. 430 at Dyrrhachium , Epirus nova . A palace official (silentiarius) and son-in-law of Leo I, he was chosen as emperor by empress-dowager Ariadne Justinian Dynasty Main article: Justinian Dynasty Portrait Name Born Reigned Succession Died Justin I FLAVIVS IVSTINVS AVGVSTVS c. 450 AD, Naissus July 9, 518 AD – August 1, 527 AD Commander of the palace guard under Anastasius I) ; elected as emperor with support of army August 1, 527 AD Natural causes Justinian I FLAVIVS PETRVS SABBATIVS IVSTINIANVS AVGVSTVS c. 482 AD, Tauresium , Dardania August 1, 527 AD – 13/14 November 565 AD Nephew and nominated heir of Justin I 13/14 November 565 AD Natural causes Justin II FLAVIVS IVSTINIVS IVNIOR AVGVSTVS c. 520 AD, ? 13/14 November 565 AD – 578 AD Nephew of Justinian I 578 AD Became insane; Tiberius II Constantine ruled as regent from December 574 and became emperor on Justin's death in 578 Roman Late Monogram Coins.htm Roman AE4 Coins.htm See also Roman Republic Roman Empire Western Roman Empire Byzantine Empire Britannic Empire Gallic Empire List of Roman usurpers Roman usurper Thirty Tyrants (Roman) Frequently Asked Questions How long until my order is shipped? Depending on the volume of sales, it may take up to 5 business days for shipment of your order after the receipt of payment. How will I know when the order was shipped? After your order has shipped, you will be left positive feedback, and that date should be used as a basis of estimating an arrival date. After you shipped the order, how long will the mail take? USPS First Class mail takes about 3-5 business days to arrive in the U.S., international shipping times cannot be estimated as they vary from country to country. I am not responsible for any USPS delivery delays, especially for an international package. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? Each of the items sold here, is provided with a Certificate of Authenticity, and a Lifetime Guarantee of Authenticity, issued by a world-renowned numismatic and antique expert that has identified over 10000 ancient coins and has provided them with the same guarantee. You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Compared to other certification companies, the certificate of authenticity is a $25-50 value. So buy a coin today and own a piece of history, guaranteed. Is there a money back guarantee? I offer a 30 day unconditional money back guarantee. I stand behind my coins and would be willing to exchange your order for either store credit towards other coins, or refund, minus shipping expenses, within 30 days from the receipt of your order. My goal is to have the returning customers for a lifetime, and I am so sure in my coins, their authenticity, numismatic value and beauty, I can offer such a guarantee. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? You can contact me directly via ask seller a question and request my telephone number, or go to my About Me Page to get my contact information only in regards to items purchased on eBay. When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. Please don't leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. Also, if you sent an email, make sure to check for my reply in your messages before claiming that you didn't receive a response. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. Ruler: Commodus son of Marcus Aurelius, Composition: Silver

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