Dewey Crumpler African American Artist Lithograph 20 X 25 3/4 San Francisco

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Seller: collectiblecollectiblecollectible (686) 100%, Location: Ann Arbor, Michigan, Ships to: US & many other countries, Item: 333312802005 DEWEY CRUMPLER AFRICAN AMERICAN ARTIST LITHOGRAPH MEASURING 20 X 25 3/4 INCHES LIMITED AND NUMBERED 37/100 and handsigned by Dewey Crumpler. Crumpler, Dewey S. (b. Magnolia, AZ, 1949; active San Francisco, CA, 2015) Bibliography and Exhibitions MONOGRAPHS AND SOLO EXHIBITIONS: Los Angeles (CA). California African American Museum.Of Tulips and Shadows: The Visual Metaphors of DEWEY CRUMPLER.October 9, 2008-May 17, 2009.64 pp. exhib. cat., illus. Solo exhibition of paintings, sculpture, videos and installation work from the past 15 years. 4to, wraps. San Francisco (CA). African American Art & Culture Complex, Main Public Library.DEWEY CRUMPLER: A Celebration of African and African American Artists.1993.Mural on East wall of the Center, created by artist Dewey Crumpler, sponsored by the Mayor's Office of Community Development. Created with the assistance of Kermit Amenophis, Bonnie Long, and Sandra Roberts. 45 x 131 ft.; acrylic on concrete. GENERAL BOOKS AND GROUP EXHIBITIONS: ALBRIGHT, THOMAS.Art in the San Francisco Bay Area 1945-1980, An Illustrated History.Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.349 pp., color and b&w illus., biogs. in substantial appendix of Bay Area artists. Includes: Cleveland Bellow, John Britton, Arthur Carraway, Robert Colescott, Dewey Crumpler, Doyle Foreman, Joseph Geran, Russell T. Gordon, Robert Henry, Oliver Jackson, Ted Joans, Marie Johnson-Calloway, Sargent Johnson, Phillip Lindsay Mason, Aaron Miller, Arthur Monroe, Mary Lovelace O'Neal, Joe Overstreet, Henry Rollins, Raymond Saunders, Horace Washington, and many others. 4to, cloth, d.j. ATLANTA (GA). Atlanta Life Insurance Co.The Tenth Annual Atlanta Life National Art Competition and Exhibition.February-March, 1990.Group exhibition. Jurors: Camille Billops, Curtis Patterson, Elizabeth Catlett (appointed but too ill to serve), Jesse Hill, Jr. Artists exhibited included: Amalia Amaki, William Anderson (purchase award), Kwabena Ampofo-Anti, Joy Ballard-Peters (purchase award), Garry Biggs, Jacqueline Bontemps, Willie Buchanan (purchase award), Harriet Buckley, Michael Bynum, Anthony Cammack, Carol Carter, April Chartrand, Kevin Cole, William Cooper, Andy Cunningham, Jr., Walt Davis, Willis [Bing] Davis, Louis Delsarte, Robert Dilworth, Chuck Douglas, William Duffy (purchase award), Ed Dwight, Herbert Edwards, Kenneth Falana (printmaking purchase award), Robert Foster, Devery Freeman (purchase award), Eddie Granderson, Karl Hall, Reynaldo Hernandez, Vandorn Hinnant (purchase award), Raymond Holbert, Robin Holder (purchase award), Charnelle Holloway, Charles Holmes (purchase award), Stefanie Jackson, Walter James, Rosalyn Johnson, Ted Jones, Carolyn Martin, Robert Martin, Toby Martin (purchase award), Valerie Maynard (purchase award), Oscar McNary, Jerome Meadows, Ben Mercer, Eleanor Merritt, Gary L. Moore, Velma Morris (purchase award), Freddy Norman, Joseph Norman (purchase award), James Padgett, T. Maurice Pennington, Lonnie Powell, Valerie Respress, John Riddle, Jr., Hilda Robinson, Laverne Ross, Thom Shaw, Mariah Spann, Robert Spencer, Roy Vinson Thomas, Darlene Tyree (purchase award), Lamonte Westmoreland (purchase award), Cynthia White, Lavon Van Williams, Jr., Gilberto Wilson, Winston Wingo, Aundreta Wright, Theresa Young. Listings for Current Art Collection by year of acquisition include: 1980--Jerome B. Meadows, Elizabeth Catlett, William Duffy, James B. Pasley, George Balams, Phillip Hampton, Tina Dunkley, Michael Cummings, Thom Shaw, Robert Martin, Mark Herring; 1980-81, Maurice Pennington, Lev Mills, Freddie Styles, John Riddle; 1981-- Arturo Lindsay, Geraldine McCullough, Kathy E. Harper, Lethia Robertson, Tina Dunkley, Bisa Washington, Terry Hunter (2), Leroy Porter, James B. Pasley, Rudolph Robinson, Roger Murphy, Ben Jones, John Riddle; 1981-82, Paul Goodnight, Robert Dilworth, Phoebe Beasley, Lev Mills, Ted Jones (2), Bing Davis, Ayokunle Odeleye; 1982--Hale Woodruff, Thom Shaw, James E. Pate, Mark E. Morse, R. Martin, Michael Harris, John T. Scott, Freddie Styles, Lamerol A. Gatewood, Robert Peppers, Evelyn Terry, Tarrance Corbin, Richard Jordan, Carlton Thornton, Geraldine McCullough; 1984--Terry Adkins, Clemon Smith (2), Ellsworth Ausby, James E. Duprée, Charles Joyner, Carol A. Carter, Joyce Wellman, William Moore, George Balams, Willie Birch, Freddie Styles, Sana Musasama, Stanley Wilson, Scott; 1985: April M Chartrand, Carol Carter, Arthur Carraway, Cynthia Hawkins, Michael D. Harris, Shaw, Leroy Johnson, Tyrone Geter, Adger Cowans, Robert Martin, Lev Mills, Walter Jackson, Andrew Cunningham, Jr., Sidney V. Barkley, Frank Toby Martin, Jewel Simon (2) [plus listed as 1981 acquisition]; 1986: Harvey L. Johnson, Gall Shaw Clemons, Allen B. Poindexter, Michael Ellison, Kenneth Falana, Kevin Hamilton, Bertrand D. Phillips, Bob Helton, John H. Brown, Susan Thompson, Tina Dunkley, Louis J. Delsarte, Robert Martin, Lamonte Westmoreland, Kevin E. Cole, Debra D. Pressley, Ulysses Marshall, Ed Hamilton, Frank Toby Martin, Sana Musasama; 1987--Carlos F. Peterson (sc), Michael Ellison, Robert Spencer, Ted Jones, Lawrence Huff, William Anderson, Otis G. Sanders, James Green (fiber artist), Pat Ward Williams, James Maceo Rodgers, Robert Martin, Roy Vinson Thomas, Dewey Crumpler, Martin Payton, Curtis Tucker; 1988--Hilda C. Robinson, James E. Pate, Louis Delsarte, Falana, Stefanie Jackson, Holder, Wadsworth Jarrell, R. V. Thomas, Floyd E. Newsum, Angela Franklin, James E. Duprée, Robin M. Chandler, Jesse Guinyard, Jr., Dewey E. Crumpler, Charnelle Holloway; 1989 -- Louis Delsarte, Chuck Douglas, Ken Falana (3) MacArthur Goodwin, Calvin Hooks, Charnelle Holloway, Stephanie Jackson, Wadsworth Jarrell, Kazi Lawrence, James Pate, Robert (Bobby) Scroggins, Vincent Smith, Richard Watson, Gloria Williams. 8vo, wraps. BARNETT, ALAN W.Community Murals: The People's Art.Philadelphia: Art Alliance Press, 1984.516 pp., color and b&w illus., index of artists and titles. Numerous Chicano, Latino and African American artists included. Excellent survey and important record, particularly of those murals that have been destroyed. Among the African American artists mentioned are Sylvia Abernathy, Charles Alston, Art Workers Coalition, Curtis Barnes, Romare Bearden, John Biggers, David P. Bradford, Bruce Brice, James Brown, Jr., Mitchell Caton, Elizabeth Catlett, Dana Chandler, Dewey Crumpler, Alonzo Davis, Charles Davis, Justine DeVan, Aaron Douglas, Emory Douglas, Sharon Dunn, Eugene Eda, Vanita Green, David Hammons, Nathan Hoskins, Truman Johnson, Calvin Jones, Jack Jordan, Jacob Lawrence, Samella Lewis, Don McIlvaine, Lev Mills, Arthur Monroe, John Outterbridge, James Padgett, Elliott Pinkney, Gary Rickson, John Riddle, Nelson Stevens, Richard Thomas, William Walker, Horace Washington, Charles White, Hale Woodruff, Clarence Wood. Stout 4to, cloth, d.j. First ed. COCKCROFT, EVA, JAMES COCKCROFT and JOHN PITMAN WEBER.Toward a People's Art: The Contemporary Mural Movement.New York: E.P. Dutton, 1998.xxviii, 292 pp., 114 b&w illus., 23 color plates, bibliog., index. Foreword to 1977 edition by Jean Charlot; foreword to 1998 edition by Lucy R. Lippard; intro. Ben Keppel; new author's foreword; afterword Timothy W. Drescher. Excellent survey of the contemporary mural movement in the early '70s written by two artists and a sociologist. An important record of the history of community involved art in America. Much of the work discussed is by African American, Latino and Chicano artists. African American artists include: John Pitman Weber, William Walker, Mitchell Caton, Justine DeVan, Eugene Eda, Doug Williams, Vanita Green, Turtel Onli, Robert Sengstacke, Adele Seronde, Dana Chandler, Gary Rickson, Al Smith, Chuck Milles, James Brown, Roy Cato, Jr., Sharon Dunn, Jim Higgins, Faith Ringgold, Nelson Stevens, Dewey Crumpler, Janet Henry, Keithen Carter, John Robinson, William T. Williams, Clarence Wood, Donald McIlvaine, Mirna Weaver, Eliot Hunter, Jeff Donaldson, Edward Christmas, Carolyn Lawrence, Roy Lewis, Wadsworth Jarrell, Wyatt T. Walker, Will Hancock, Florence Hawkins, Barbara Jones, Darryl Colror, Billy Abernathy, Jr., Norman Perris. Brett Cook-Dizney, Calvin Jones, Clement Roach, Clarence Talley, Sylvia Abernathy, Carleton Baxter, Marie Burton, Elaine Jarrell, Noni Olabisi. 8vo, wraps. Reprint of 1977 ed. with additional foreword. HAMPTON (VA). Hampton University.The International Review of African American Art Vol. 17, no. 3 (1998).2000.This issue focuses on collectors, including former and current NBA players and musicians who are art collectors. Obituary for John T. Biggers. Images of wrok by: Phoebe Beasley (cover), Jacob Lawrence, John Biggers, Norman Lewis, Benny Andrews, Elizabeth Catlett, Charles White, Luther Hampton, Robert Colescott, John Wesley Hardrick, Kevin Cole, Charles Alston, Sam Gilliam, Vincent Smith, Alvin Loving; Jr., Edward Clark, Nanette Carter, Leroy Campbell, Dewey Crumpler, Mildred Howard, José Bedia, Edgar Arceneaux, David Newton, Whitfield Lovell, Hughie Lee-Smith, Robert Tomlin, John Henry Adams, Laura W. Waring, Clementine Hunter, Charles E. Porter, Aaron Douglas, Philemonia Williamson, Hale Woodruff, Ann Tanksley, Jonathan Green, Romare Bearden, Ernie Barnes, Tom Miller, Faith Ringgold, Ernest Crichlow, Ayokunle Odeleye, Amalia Amaki, Mary Jane McKnight, Howardena Pindell, William Carter, Margaret Burroughs, white artist Charles Cullen, J. Clinton Devillis, Meta Vaux Fuller, Samuel O. Collins, Nina Buxenbaum, Larry Walker; photographs listed by an unidentifiable artist listed as "Van Dyke Brown"(?) which is a photo process; plus documentary photographs of collectors and artists. 4to, wraps. HARRIS, MICHAEL D.Urban Totems: The Communal Spirit of Black Murals..Extensive essay on different periods of public mural activity. Mentions precedents by Aaron Douglas, Charles White, Charles Alston, Hale Woodruff, and John Biggers; the Wall of Respect by Jeff Donaldson, Wadsworth Jarrell, Barbara Jones, and Carolyn Lawrence (four of the founding members of AfriCobra) as well as Norman Parish, Eliot Hunter, William Walker (members of the newly formed Organization of Black American Culture (OBAC, pronounced Obasi); the Wall of Truth across from it (1969); the Wall of Dignity (Detroit, 1968), the Wall of Respect (Atlanta, c. 1974); Don McIlvaine's Black Man's Dilemma (Chicago, 1970), and Dana Chandler's Knowledge is Power, Stay is School (Boston, 1972); Nelson Stevens and Dana Chandler's Work to Unify African People (Boston, 1973); Dana Chandler's The Black Worker; Leroy Foster's Life and Times of Frederick Douglass (1972, installed Detroit Public Library, 1973); a Wall of Respect (St. Louis); Bernard Young's Wall of Consciousness (Philadelphia, 1972); Arnold Hurley's Frederick Douglass mural (Boston, 1972). The collaboration of Pontella Mason (black) and James Voshell (white) on a Baltimore mural of a young boy watching two men play checkers; Menelek's Malcolm X at Brooklyn' s Public School 262; William Walker's St. Martin Luther King (Chicago, 1977); Nelson Steven's interior mural Centennial Vision (Tuskegee, 1980) assisted by John Kendrick and John Sims; Mitchell Caton and Calvin Jones's Ceremonies for Heritage Now (Westside Association for Community Action, Chicago) and their collaboration on Another Time's Voice Remembers My Passions Humanity (Chicago, 1979) and Builders of the Cultural Present (1981); Paul Goodnight's Jazz History/Tribute to Black Classical Music (Boston, 1982) HILO (HI). Campus Center Gallery, University of Hawaii at Hilo.International Invitational Works on Paper 2003.February 10-April 15, 2003.Exhib. cat., illus. Group exhibition. Works on paper by six artists from the United States, Asia, and Europe. Included: Dewey Crumpler, Leon Hicks. LEWIS, SAMELLA S. and RUTH G. WADDY, eds.Black Artists on Art Vol. 1 [Revised ed.].Los Angeles: Contemporary Crafts, Inc., 1976.141 pp., b&w and color illus., biographies of all artists. 18 artists who were in the first edition are omitted; others are added. Includes: Ron Adams, Jene Ballentine, Arthur Berry, Camille Billops, David Bradford, Arthur Britt, Fred Brown, Calvin Burnett, Cecil Burton, Arthur Carraway, Bernie Casey, Dana Chandler, Irene Clark, Donald Coles, Dan Concholar, Marva Cremer, Dewey Crumpler, Samuel Curtis, William Curtis, J. Brooks Dendy, Robert D'Hue, David Driskell, Marion Epting, Mikele Fletcher, Ibibio Fundi, Joseph Geran, Eugene Grisby, Wesley Hall, David Hammons, Phillip Hampton, Ben Hazard, Leon Hicks, Raymond Howell, Manuel Hughes, Margo Humphrey, Avotcja Jiltonilro, Marie Johnson, Sargent Johnson, Lois Jones, Jack Jordan, Cliff Joseph, L. Compton Kolawole, Raymond Lark, Samella Lewis, Juan Logan, Willie Longshore, Lawrence McGough, Karl McIntosh, David Mann, Phillip Mason, William Maxwell, Yvonne Meo, Lev Mills, James Mitchell, Arthur Monroe, Evangeline Montgomery, Constance Okwumabua, Hayward Oubré, John Outterbridge, Lorenzo Pace, James Parks, William Pajaud, Michael Perry, Bertrand Phillips, Elliott Pinkney, Gary Rickson, Malkia (Lucille) Roberts, Brenda Rogers, Charles Rogers, Arthur Rose, Betye Saar, Robert Sengstacke, Kenn Simpson, Jewel Simon, Damballah Smith, Henry O. Tanner, Della Taylor, Evelyn Terry, Elaine Towns, Royce Vaughn, Ruth Waddy, Larry Walker, Bobby Walls, Mary Washington, James Watkins, Roland Welton, Amos White, Charles White, Dan Williams, Bernard Young. 4to, cloth, d.j. Revised ed. Lewis, Samella, ed.Black Art: an international quarterly Vol. 2, No. 1 (Fall 1977).1977.68 pp., b&w and color illus. Articles include: Themes of Alvin C. Hollingsworth (by John H. Hewitt); Charles White Retrospective (by Bert Hammond); Ruth Lucetty Bell: Folk Artist (by Mati Robinson); Black Heritage In the Theatre Arts; Profile on arts commissioner E.J. Montgomery; Review of the play Our Lan' (by James V. Hatch); Post-World War I art developments and artists; Fashion and textile design; The Artist in the Market Place; Art news. Artwork by: Dewey Crumpler, Alvin C. Hollingsworth, Charles White, Ruth Lucetty Bell, Aaron Douglas, Jacob Lawrence, Dana Chandler, Howard Smith, Elizabeth Catlett, Camille Billops, plus documentary photography. 4to, wraps. LOS ANGELES (CA). California African American Museum.No Justice, No Peace? Resolutions.....October 3, 1992-July 5, 1993.52 pp. exhib. cat., b&w and color illus. Curated by Lizzetta Lefalle Collins; text by Halford M. Fairchild. Artists included: Nathaniel Bustion, Portia Cobb, Robert Colescott, Dewey Crumpler, Darryl Evers, Charles Gaines, Masud Kordofan (a.k.a. Greg Pitts), Joe Lewis, O. Funmilayo Makarah, Willie Middlebrook, Peter Miro, Alfonzo Moret, Mary Lovelace O'Neal, Sandra Rowe, Matthew Thomas, Carrie Mae Weems, René Westbrook, Pat Ward Williams, Richard Wyatt. [Review: Daniel Veneciano, New Art Examiner, February, 1993.] 4to (28 cm.), wraps. First ed. LOS ANGELES (CA). California African American Museum.Our Love of JOHN T. SCOTT.March 25-October 31, 2010.Group exhibition including Scott and the artists he influenced: Dewey Crumpler, Ellis Marsalis, William Pajaud, Richard Wyatt. LOS ANGELES (CA). Louis Stern Fine Arts.American Color: A Late 20th Century Perspective.April 22-June 7, 1995.Group exhibition. Included: Dewey Crumpler, Sam Gilliam, Russell T. Gordon, David Hammons, Marvin Harden, Mildred Howard, Oliver Jackson, Jacob Lawrence, John Outterbridge, Adrian Piper, Martin Puryear, Alison Saar, Betye Saar, Lezley Saar, Raymond Saunders, John Scott, Lorna Simpson, Renée Stout. [Also exhibited at Porter Troupe Gallery, San Diego, perhaps with slightly different roster of artists.) PHILADELPHIA (PA). Afro-American Historical and Cultural Museum.The People's Art: Black Murals, 1967-1978.N.d. (1986).Unpag. (39 pp.) exhib. cat., 15 illus. in color and sepia, bibliog., list of works (mostly in Chicago, Philadelphia and Boston). Texts by Reginald Butler, Jeff Donaldson and Geneva Smitherman Donaldson, Ronald G. Walters. Information on murals made by: William Walker, Mitchell Caton, Sylvia Abernathy, Mirna Weaver, Eliot Hunter, Jeff Donaldson, Edward Christmas, Carolyn Lawrence, Roy Lewis, Norman Parish, Wadsworth Jarrell, Wyatt T. Walker, Will Hancock, Florence Hawkins, Barbara Jones-Hogu, Darryl Colror, Willy Abernathy, Jr., Robert Sengstacke, Curly Elison (a.k.a. Maurice Ellison?), Darrell Cowherd, Eugene Eda, John Weber, Calvin Jones, Justine DeVan, Dewey Crumpler, Sharon Dunn, Richard Watson, Nelson Stevens, Babatunde, Walter Edmonds, Elliott Knight, Dana Chandler. Oblong 4to (23 x 31 cm.), stapled wraps. PRIGOFF, JAMES and ROBIN J. DUNITZ.Walls of Heritage, Walls of Pride: African American Murals.San Francisco: Pomegranate Communications, 2003.242 pp., approx. 225 color plates throughout, notes, bibliog., artist biogs., index. Texts by Floyd Coleman and Michael D. Harris. Covers the African American mural movement from the 1967 Wall of Respect (Chicago), Wall of Dignity (1968, Detroit) to the 1990s, representing over 200 urban murals from New York to Los Angeles, Milwaukee to Atlanta. (Obviously many communities' murals were omitted.) Photographers include Robert A. Sengstacke, et al. Artists include: A One, Darrell Anderson, Dietrich Adonis, Ta-Coumba Aiken, Marcus Akinlana, Charles Alston, Apex, Jean Michel Basquiat, John Biggers, Romare Bearden, Brad Bernard, John T. Biggers, Willie Birch, Blade, Betty Blayton, Edythe Boone, Michael Borders, David Bradford, Bruce Brice, Elmer Brown, Carole Byard, Carla Carr, Alvin Carter, Mitchell Caton, Dana Chandler, Edward Christmas, Chris Clark, Melvin W. Clark, Kevin Cole, Houston Conwill, Brett Cook-Dizney, Anthony Cox, Dewey S. Crumpler, Adrienne Cruz, Alonzo Davis, Charles Vincent Davis, Charles Davis, Senay Dennis, Justine Devan, Therman Dillard, Jeff Donaldson, Aaron Douglas, Robert Duncanson, Sharon Dunn, Eugene Eda, Eddie Edwards, Melvin Edwards, John Feagin, John Fisher, Leroy Foster, Walker Foster, Franco [Franklin Gaskin], Charles Freeman, Robert Gayton, Stephanie George, Jimmie James Greene, Paul Goodnight, Bernard Goss, Edwin A. Harleston, Michael D. Harris, Vertis Hayes, Jessie Holliman, Nathan Hoskins, John W. Howard, Jean Paul Hubbard, Henry Hudson, Clementine Hunter, Eliot Hunter, Arnold Hurley, Wadsworth Jarrell, Amos Johnson, Jerome Johnson, Sargent Johnson, Calvin Jones, Frederick D. Jones, Lawrence A. Jones, Seitu Jones, Napoleon Jones-Henderson, Barbara Jones-Hogu, Jack Jordan, Akinsanya Kambon, Kase2, John A. Kendrick, Shyaam Khufu, Doyle Lane, Jacob Lawrence, Charlotte Lewis, Samella Lewis, Jon Onye Lockard, John Lutz, Pontella Mason, Alvin McCray, Charles W. McGee, Allie McGhee, Don McIlvaine, Willie Middlebrook, Aaron D. Miller, Don Miller, Bernice Montgomery, Archibald Motley, Noe (Melvin Henry Samuels, Jr.), Ras Ammar Nsoroma, Noni Olabisi, Maude Owens, James Padgett, Jameel Parker, Vera Parks, James Pate, Alice Patrick, James Phillips, Howardena Pindell, Elliott Pinkney, Arleen Polite, Georgette Powell, Refa (Senay Dennis), Toby Richards, Earle Richardson, Gary Rickson, John Riddle, John A. Robinson (same as John N.), Sano I (Ayumi Chisolm), John T. Scott, William Edouard Scott, Charles Searles, Isaka Shamsud-Din, Mel Simmons, John Sims, Kiela Songhay Smith, Vincent Smith, Nina Smoot-Cain, Spon, Charles Stallings, A. G. Joe Stephenson, Nelson Stevens, Roderick Sykes, Dorian Sylvain, Spencer Taylor, Richard C. Thomas, Louis Vaughn, Vulcan, William (Bill) Walker, WANE, Horace Washington, Richard Watson, C. Siddha Sila Webber, Charles White, Ian White, Bernard Williams, Caleb Williams, Keith Williams, William T. Williams, Hale Woodruff, John Yancey, Terrance Yancey, Bernard Young, et al. (Originally exhibited at the University Art Gallery, California State University, Dominguez Hills, CA, the exhibition as presented in the CAC Gallery, Cambridge City Hall Annex, Cambridge, MA included several Boston muralists not in the original exhibition: Dana Chandler, Paul Goodnight, Jameel Parker, and Gary Rickson.]. Oblong 4to (9.3 x 12.25 in.), cloth, d.j. with CD-ROM. Enlarged edition. ROBERTSON, JACK.Twentieth-Century Artists on Art. An Index to Artists' Writings, Statements, and Interviews.Boston: G.K. Hall & Co., 1985.Useful reference work; includes numerous African American artists: Ron Adams, Charles Alston, Charlotte Amevor, Benny Andrews, Dorothy Atkins, Casper Banjo, Ellen Banks, Romare Bearden, Ed Bereal, Arthur Berry, John Biggers, Betty Blayton, Gloria Bohanon, Shirley Bolton, David Bradford, Arthur Britt, Frederick Brown, Kay Brown, Winifred Brown, Vivian Browne, Calvin Burnett, Margaret Burroughs, Cecil Burton, Sheryle Butler, Carole Byard, Arthur Carraway, Bernie Casey, Yvonne Catchings, Mitchell Caton, Elizabeth Catlett, Dana Chandler, Barbara Chase-Riboud, Claude Clark Jr., Irene Clark, Donald Coles, Robert Colescott, Dan Concholar, Eldzier Cortor, Marva Cremer, Doris Crudup, Dewey Crumpler, Emilio Cruz, Samuel Curtis, William Curtis, Alonzo Davis, Bing Davis, Dale Davis, Roy DeCarava, Beauford Delaney, Brooks Dendy, Murry DePillars, Robert D'Hue, Kenneth Dickerson, Leo Dillon, Aaron Douglas, Emory Douglas, David Driskell, Eugenia Dunn, Annette Ensley, Eugene Eda, Melvin Edwards, Marion Epting, Minnie Evans, Frederick Eversley, Tom Feelings, Mikele Fletcher, Moses O. Fowowe, Miriam Francis, Ibibio Fundi, Alice Gafford, West Gale, Joseph Geran, Sam Gilliam, Robert Glover, Wilhelmina Godfrey, Rex Goreleigh, Robert H. Green, Donald O. Greene, Ron Griffin, Eugene Grigsby. Horathel Hall, Wes Hall, David Hammons, Philip Hampton, Marvin Harden, John T. Harris, William Harris, Kitty Hayden, Ben Hazard, Napoleon Jones-Henderson (as Henderson), William H. Henderson, Ernest Herbert, Leon Hicks, Candace Hill-Montgomery, Alfred Hinton, Al Hollingswoth, Earl Hooks, Raymond Howell, Margo Humphrey, Richard Hunt, Bill Hutson, Suzanne Jackson, Walter Jackson, Rosalind Jeffries, Marie Johnson, Ben Jones, Laura Jones, Lois Mailou Jones, Jack Jordan, Cliff Joseph, Gwendolyn Knight, Larry Compton Kolawole, Raymond Lark, Jacob Lawrence, Flora Lewis, James E. Lewis, Norman Lewis, Samella Lewis, Tom Lloyd, Juan Logan, Willie Longshore, Ed Love, Al Loving, Philip Mason, Richard Mayhew, Valerie Maynard, Karl McIntosh, William McNeil, Yvonne Meo, Sam Middleton, Onnie Millar, Eva H. Miller, Sylvia Miller, Lev Mills, James Mitchell, Arthur Monroe, Evangeline Montgomery, Ron Moore, Norma Morgan, Jimmie Mosely, Otto Neals, Trudell Obey, Kermit Oliver, Haywood Oubré, John Outterbridge, Lorenzo Pace, William Pajaud, Denise Palm, James Parks, Angela Perkins, Howardena Pindell, Elliott Pinkney, Adrian Piper, Horace Pippin, Leslie Price, Noah Purifoy, Martin Puryear, Roscoe Reddix, Jerry Reed, Robert G. Reid, William Reid, John Rhoden, Gary Rickson, John Riddle, Faith Ringgold, Haywood Rivers, Lethia Robertson, Brenda Rogers, Charles D. Rogers, Bernard Rollins, Arthur Rose, John Russell, Betye Saar, Raymond Saunders, Charles Shelton, Thomas Sills, Jewel Simon, Merton Simpson, Van Slater, Alfred James Smith, Arenzo Smith, Arthur Smith, Damballah Smith, George Smith, Howard Smith. Greg Sparks, Sharon Spencer, Nelson Stevens, James Tanner, Della Taylor, Rod Taylor, Evelyn Terry, Alma Thomas, James "Son Ford" Thomas, Bob Thompson. John Torres, Elaine Towns, Curtis Tucker, Yvonne Tucker, Charlene Tull, Leo Twiggs, Alfred Tyler, Anna Tyler, Bernard Upshur, Florestee Vance, Royce Vaughn, Ruth Waddy, Larry Walker, William Walker, Bobby Walls, Carole Ward, Pecolia Warner, Mary Washington, James Watkins, Roland Welton, Amos White, Charles White, Tim Whiten, Acquaetta Williams, Chester Williams, Daniel Williams, Laura Williams, William T. Williams, Luster Willis, Fred Wilson, John Wilson, Stanley Wilson, Bernard Wright, Richard Wyatt, Bernard Young, Charles Young, Milton Young. 4to, cloth. SACRAMENTO (CA). Slant Gallery.Five Contemporary Black Artists.January 7-30, 1988.Group exhibition. Included: Dewey Crumpler, Marion Epting, JoeSam., Stephen Von Mason, Horace Washington. SAN FRANCISCO (CA). BlackMan's Art Gallery.The Best of Black - First Birthday Celebration.October 5-November 17, 1968.Group exhibition. Organized by W.O. "Bill" Thomas. Included work by 23 artists who had shown at the gallery throughout the year: Richard Allen, Aum [Don Patton], Francis Anastasis, Charles Bible, Courtney Bowie, John Britton, Fred Brown, Montford Cardwell, Bernard Catchings, Dewey Crumpler, O.L. Daniels, Joseph Geran, Robert Henry, Kwasi Jayourba, Marie Johnson [Calloway], Nat Knighton, E. E. Mays, Melvin Pierre, William Morris, Jr., Ben Hundine, Roho, Michael S. Thomas, Royce Vaughn. Tri-fold mimeograph brochure, 8 1/2 x 11 in. (21.59 x 27.94 cm). SAN FRANCISCO (CA). Fine Arts Gallery, San Francisco State University.Black Power, Black Art...and the struggle continues: political imagery from the Black Arts Movement of the 1960s and 1970s.September 19-October 21, 1994.6 color thumbnail illus., b&w raised fist logo on cover, list of artists with biog notes, prograam schedule, brief bibliog. introduction, essay. Project Director: Joe Louis Moore. Curated by Samella Lewis and Mary Jane Hewitt. Artists included: Benny Andrews, Kofi Bailey, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, John Biggers, Bob Black, David Bradford, Elizabeth Catlett, Dana Chandler, Floyd Coleman, Dewey Crumpler, Murray DePillars, Emory Douglas, Melvin Edwards, Malaika Favorite, Hal Franklin, Claude Fiddler, Reginald Gammon, Ron Griffin, David Hammons, Ben Hazard, Mike Henderson, Barbara Hogu-Jones, Lois Mailou Jones, Artis Lane, Jacob Lawrence, Samella Lewis, Philip Mason, Joe Moore, Howardena Pindell, Faith Ringgold, Betye Saar, Raymond Saunders, Clarissa Sligh, Ruth Waddy, William Walker, Charles White. [Review: Bruce Nixon, "Aftershock. Black Power/Black Art at San Francisco State University," Artweek 25 (Oct. 20, 1994):16.] 10-panel folded brochure, 12.25 x 3.75 in., wraps. SAN FRANCISCO (CA). Fine Arts Gallery, San Francisco State University.Hybrid: Digital Analog Printmaking.February 22-March 27, 2003.Group exhibition. Included: Dewey Crumpler. SAN FRANCISCO (CA). Luggage Store.ReHistoricizing the Time Around Abstract Expressionism in the San Francisco Bay Area, 1950s-1960s.June 4-July 30, 2010.Group exhibition. Curated by Carlos Villa. Included: Robert Colescott, Dewey Crumpler, Allen Gordon, Oliver Jackson, Arthur Monroe, and Joe Overstreet. SAN FRANCISCO (CA). Museum of the African Diaspora (MoAD).Choose Paint! Choose Abstraction!.March 22-September 23, 2012.Group exhibition of Bay Area artists who purportedly, over several decades, chose abstraction over figuration as their preferred approach to art-making. Curated by Lizzetta Le-Falle Collins. Included: Robert Colescott, Mary Lovelace O’Neal, Mike Henderson, Dewey Crumpler, Arthur Monroe, Leslie Kenneth Price. A puzzling show that for some reason includes a substantial percentage of white artists; and contains artists such as Robert Colescott who chose figuration every day of the week. SAN FRANCISCO (CA). San Francisco African American Historical & Cultural Society.Prints & Drawings 1977.1977.20 pp. exhib. cat., b&w illus., biogs., checklist of work. Included: Casper Banjo, Cleveland Bellow, David Bradford, Arthur Carraway, Claude Clark, Sr., Robert Colescott, Dewey Crumpler, Mike Greene, Ray Holbert. Oliver Jackson, Marie Johnson, Margo Humphrey, Mary Lovelace O'Neal, Leslie Price, Jim Reed, Carole Ward, Horace Washington, Caleb Williams. 8vo, stapled wraps. SAN FRANCISCO (CA). San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (SFMOMA).Cleveland Bellow, Marva Cremer, Dewey S. Crumpler.1977.6 pp. exhib. cat. Three-person exhibition. SPRADLING, MARY MACE.In Black and White: Afro-Americans in Print.Kalamazoo: Kalamazoo Public Library, 1980.2 vols. 1089 pp. Includes: John H. Adams, Ron Adams, Alonzo Aden, Muhammad Ali, Baba Alabi Alinya, Charles Alston, Charlotte Amevor, Benny Andrews, Ralph Arnold, William Artis, Ellsworth Ausby, Jacqueline Ayer, Calvin Bailey, Jene Ballentine, Casper Banjo, Henry Bannarn, Edward Bannister, Dutreuil Barjon, Ernie Barnes, Carolyn Plaskett Barrow, Richmond Barthé, Beatrice Bassette, Ad Bates, Romare Bearden, Phoebe Beasley, Roberta Bell, Cleveland Bellow, Ed Bereal, Arthur Berry, DeVoice Berry, Cynthia Bethune, Charles Bible, John Biggers, Camille Billops, Bob Blackburn, Irving Blaney, Bessie Blount, Gloria Bohanon, Leslie Bolling, Shirley Bolton, Charles Bonner, Michael Borders, John Borican, Earl Bostic, Augustus Bowen, David Bowser, David Bradford, Edward Brandford, Brumsic Brandon, William Braxton, Arthur Britt Sr., Benjamin Britt, Sylvester Britton, Elmer Brown, Fred Brown, Kay Brown, Margery Brown, Richard L. Brown, Samuel Brown, Vivian E. Browne, Henry Brownlee, Linda Bryant, Starmanda Bullock, Juana Burke, Selma Burke, Eugene Burkes, Viola Burley, Calvin Burnett, John Burr, Margaret Burroughs, Nathaniel Bustion, Sheryle Butler, Elmer Simms Campbell, Thomas Cannon, Nick Canyon, Edward Carr, Art Carraway, Ted Carroll, Joseph S. Carter, William Carter, Catti, George Washington Carver, Yvonne Catchings, Elizabeth Catlett, Mitchell Caton, Dana Chandler, Kitty Chavis, George Clack, Claude Clark, Ed Clark, J. Henrik Clarke, Leroy Clarke, Ladybird Cleveland, Floyd Coleman, Donald Coles, Margaret Collins, Paul Collins, Sam Collins, Dan Concholar, Arthur Coppedge, Wallace X. Conway, Leonard Cooper, William A. Cooper, Art Coppedge, Eldzier Cortor, Samuel Countee, Harold Cousins, William Craft, Cleo Crawford, Marva Cremer, Ernest Crichlow, Allan Crite, Jerrolyn Crooks, Harvey Cropper, Doris Crudup, Robert Crump, Dewey Crumpler, Frank E. Cummings, William Curtis, Mary Reed Daniel, Alonzo Davis, Charles Davis, Willis "Bing" Davis, Dale Davis, Charles C. Dawson, Juette Day, Thomas Day, Roy DeCarava, Paul DeCroom, Avel DeKnight, Beauford Delaney, Joseph Delaney, Richard Dempsey, Murry DePillars, Robert D'Hue, Kenneth Dickerson, Leo Dillon, Raymond Dobard, Vernon Dobard, Jeff Donaldson, Aaron Douglas, Emory Douglas, Robert Douglass, Glanton Dowdell, David Driskell, Yolande Du Bois, Robert Duncanson, Eugenia Dunn, John Dunn, Adolphus Ealey, Eugene Eda, Melvin Edwards, Gaye Elliington, Annette Ensley, Marion Epting, Minnie Evans, Frederick Eversley, James Fairfax, Kenneth Falana, Allen Fannin, John Farrar, William Farrow, Elton Fax, Muriel Feelings, Tom Feelings, Frederick Flemister, Mikelle Fletcher, Curt Flood, Thomas Floyd, Doyle Foreman, Mozelle Forte (costume and fabric designer), Amos Fortune, Mrs. C.R. Foster, Inez Fourcard (as Fourchard), John Francis, Miriam Francis, Allan Freelon, Meta Warrick Fuller, Stephany Fuller, Gale Fulton-Ross, Ibibio Fundi, Alice Gafford, Otis Galbreath, West Gale, Reginald Gammon, Jim Gary, Herbert Gentry, Joseph Geran, Jimmy Gibbez, Sam Gilliam, Robert Glover, Manuel Gomez, Russell Gordon, Rex Goreleigh, Bernard Goss, Samuel Green, William Green, Donald Greene, Joseph Grey, Ron Griffin, Eugene Grigsby, Henry Gudgell, Charles Haines, Clifford Hall, Horathel Hall, Wesley Hall, David Hammons, James Hampton, Phillip Hampton, Lorraine Hansberry, Marvin Harden, Arthur Hardie, Inge Hardison, John Hardrick, Edwin Harleston, William A. Harper, Gilbert Harris, John Harris, Maren Hassinger, Isaac Hathaway, Frank Hayden, Kitty Hayden, Palmer Hayden, Vertis Hayes, Wilbur Haynie, Dion Henderson, Ernest Herbert, Leon Hicks, Hector Hill, Tony Hill, Geoffrey Holder, Al Hollingsworth, Varnette Honeywood, Earl Hooks, Humbert Howard, James Howard, Raymond Howell, Julien Hudson, Manuel Hughes, Margo Humphrey, Thomas Hunster, Richard Hunt, Clementine Hunter, Norman Hunter, Orville Hurt, Bill Hutson, Nell Ingram, Tanya Izanhour, Ambrose Jackson, Earl Jackson, May Jackson, Nigel Jackson, Suzanne Jackson, Walter Jackson, Louise Jefferson, Ted Joans, Daniel Johnson, Lester L. Johnson, Jr., Malvin Gray Johnson, Marie Johnson, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Joshua Johnston, Barbara Jones, Ben Jones, Calvin Jones, Frederick D. Jones Jr., James Arlington Jones, Lawrence Jones, Lois Mailou Jones, Eddie Jack Jordan, Ronald Joseph, Lemuel Joyner, Paul Keene, Elyse J. Kennart, Joseph Kersey, Gwendolyn Knight, Lawrence Compton Kolawole, Oliver LaGrone, Artis Lane, Doyle Lane, Raymond Lark, Lewis H. Latimer, Jacob Lawrence, Clarence Lawson, Bertina Lee, Joanna Lee, Peter Lee, Hughie Lee-Smith, Leon Leonard, Curtis Lewis, Edmonia Lewis, James Edward Lewis, Norman Lewis, Samella Lewis, Charles Lilly, Henri Linton, Jules Lion, Romeyn Lippman, Tom Lloyd, Jon Lockard, Juan Logan, Willie Longshore, Ed Loper, Ed Love, Al Loving, Geraldine McCullough, Lawrence McGaugh, Charles McGee, Donald McIlvaine, James McMillan, William McNeil, Lloyd McNeill, David Mann, William Marshall, Helen Mason, Philip Mason, Winifred Mason, Calvin Massey, Lester (Nathan) Mathews, William Maxwell, Richard Mayhew, Valerie Maynard, Yvonne Meo, Sam Middleton, Onnie Millar, Aaron Miller, Eva Miller, Lev Mills, P'lla Mills, Evangeline J. Montgomery, Arthur Monroe, Frank Moore, Ron Moore, Scipio Moorhead, Norma Morgan, Ken Morris, Calvin Morrison, Jimmie Mosely, Leo Moss, Lottie Moss, Archibald Motley, Hugh Mulzac, Frank Neal, George Neal, Otto Neals, Shirley Nero, Effie Newsome, Nommo, George Norman, Georg Olden, Ademola Olugebefola, Conora O'Neal (fashion designer), Cora O'Neal, Lula O'Neal, Pearl O'Neal, Ron O'Neal, Hayward Oubré, John Outterbridge, Carl Owens, Lorenzo Pace, Alvin Paige, Robert Paige, William Pajaud, Denise Palm, Norman Parish, Jules Parker, James Parks, Edgar Patience, Angela Perkins, Marion Perkins, Michael Perry, Jacqueline Peters, Douglas Phillips, Harper Phillips, Delilah Pierce, Howardena Pindell, Horace Pippin, Julie Ponceau, James Porter, Leslie Price, Ramon Price, Nelson Primus, Nancy Prophet, Noah Purifoy, Teodoro Ramos Blanco y Penita, Otis Rathel, Patrick Reason, William Reid, John Rhoden, Barbara Chase-Riboud, William Richmond, Percy Ricks, Gary Rickson, John Riddle, Gregory Ridley, Faith Ringgold, Malkia Roberts, Brenda Rogers, Charles Rogers, George Rogers, Arthur Rose, Nancy Rowland, Winfred Russell, Mahler Ryder, Betye Saar, Charles Sallee, Marion Sampler, John Sanders, Walter Sanford, Raymond Saunders, Augusta Savage, William E. Scott, Charles Sebree, Thomas Sills, Carroll Simms, Jewel Simon, Walter Simon, Merton Simpson, William H. Simpson, Louis Slaughter, Gwen Small, Albert A. Smith, Alvin Smith, Hughie Lee-Smith, John Henry Smith, Jacob Lawrence, John Steptoe, Nelson Stevens, Edward Stidum, Elmer C. Stoner, Lou Stovall, Henry O. Tanner, Ralph Tate, Betty Blayton Taylor, Della Taylor, Bernita Temple, Herbert Temple, Alma Thomas, Elaine Thomas, Larry Thomas, Carolyn Thompson, Lovett Thompson, Mildred Thompson, Mozelle Thompson, Robert (Bob) Thompson, Dox Thrash, Neptune Thurston, John Torres, Nat Turner, Leo Twiggs, Bernard Upshur, Royce Vaughn, Ruth Waddy, Anthony Walker, Earl Walker, Larry Walker, William Walker, Daniel Warburg, Eugene Warburg, Carole Ward, Laura Waring, Mary P. Washington, James Watkins, Lawrence Watson, Edward Webster, Allen A. Weeks, Robert Weil, James Wells, Pheoris West, Sarah West, John Weston, Delores Wharton, Amos White, Charles White, Garrett Whyte, Alfredus Williams, Chester Williams, Douglas R. Williams, Laura Williams, Matthew Williams, Morris Williams, Peter Williams, Rosetta Williams (as Rosita), Walter Williams, William T. Williams, Ed Wilson, Ellis Wilson, Fred Wilson, John Wilson, Stanley Wilson, Vincent Wilson, Hale Woodruff, Bernard Wright, Charles Young, Kenneth Young, Milton Young. [Note the 3rd edition consists of two volumes published by Gale Research in 1980, with a third supplemental volume issued in 1985.] Large stout 4tos, red cloth. 3rd revised expanded edition. TAHA, HALIMA.Collecting African American Art: Works on Paper and Canvas.New York: Crown, 1998.xvi, 270 pp., approx. 150 color plates, brief bibliog., index, appendices of art and photo dealers, museums and other resources. Intro. by Ntozake Shange. Forewords by Dierdre Bibby and Samella Lewis. Text consists of a few sentences at best on most of the hundreds of listed artists. Numerous typos and other errors and misinformation throughout. 4to (29 cm.), laminated papered boards, d.j. THOMISON, DENNIS.The Black Artist in America: An Index to Reproductions.Metuchen: Scarecrow Press, 1991.Includes: index to Black artists, bibliography (including doctoral dissertations and audiovisual materials.) Many of the dozens of spelling errors and incomplete names have been corrected in this entry and names of known white artists omitted from our entry, but errors may still exist in this entry, so beware: Jesse Aaron, Charles Abramson, Maria Adair, Lauren Adam, Ovid P. Adams, Ron Adams, Terry Adkins, (Jonathan) Ta Coumba T. Aiken, Jacques Akins, Lawrence E. Alexander, Tina Allen, Pauline Alley-Barnes, Charles Alston, Frank Alston, Charlotte Amevor, Emma Amos (Levine), Allie Anderson, Benny Andrews, Edmund Minor Archer, Pastor Argudin y Pedroso [as Y. Pedroso Argudin], Anna Arnold, Ralph Arnold, William Artis, Kwasi Seitu Asante [as Kwai Seitu Asantey], Steve Ashby, Rose Auld, Ellsworth Ausby, Henry Avery, Charles Axt, Roland Ayers, Annabelle Bacot, Calvin Bailey, Herman Kofi Bailey, Malcolm Bailey, Annabelle Baker, E. Loretta Ballard, Jene Ballentine, Casper Banjo, Bill Banks, Ellen Banks, John W. Banks, Henry Bannarn, Edward Bannister, Curtis R. Barnes, Ernie Barnes, James MacDonald Barnsley, Richmond Barthé, Jean-Michel Basquiat, Daniel Carter Beard, Romare Bearden, Phoebe Beasley, Falcon Beazer, Arthello Beck, Sherman Beck, Cleveland Bellow, Gwendolyn Bennett, Herbert Bennett, Ed Bereal, Arthur Berry, Devoice Berry, Ben Bey, John Biggers, Camille Billops, Willie Birch, Eloise Bishop, Robert Blackburn, Tarleton Blackwell, Lamont K. Bland, Betty Blayton, Gloria Bohanon, Hawkins Bolden, Leslie Bolling, Shirley Bolton, Higgins Bond, Erma Booker, Michael Borders, Ronald Boutte, Siras Bowens, Lynn Bowers, Frank Bowling, David Bustill Bowser, David Patterson Boyd, David Bradford, Harold Bradford, Peter Bradley, Fred Bragg, Winston Branch, Brumsic Brandon, James Brantley, William Braxton, Bruce Brice, Arthur Britt, James Britton, Sylvester Britton, Moe Brooker, Bernard Brooks, Mable Brooks, Oraston Brooks-el, David Scott Brown, Elmer Brown, Fred Brown, Frederick Brown, Grafton Brown, James Andrew Brown, Joshua Brown, Kay Brown, Marvin Brown, Richard Brown, Samuel Brown, Vivian Browne, Henry Brownlee, Beverly Buchanan, Selma Burke, Arlene Burke-Morgan, Calvin Burnett, Margaret Burroughs, Cecil Burton, Charles Burwell, Nathaniel Bustion, David Butler, Carole Byard, Albert Byrd, Walter Cade, Joyce Cadoo, Bernard Cameron, Simms Campbell, Frederick Campbell, Thomas Cannon (as Canon), Nicholas Canyon, John Carlis, Arthur Carraway, Albert Carter, Allen Carter, George Carter, Grant Carter, Ivy Carter, Keithen Carter, Robert Carter, William Carter, Yvonne Carter, George Washington Carver, Bernard Casey, Yvonne Catchings, Elizabeth Catlett, Frances Catlett, Mitchell Caton, Catti, Charlotte Chambless, Dana Chandler, John Chandler, Robin Chandler, Barbara Chase-Riboud, Kitty Chavis, Edward Christmas, Petra Cintron, George Clack, Claude Clark Sr., Claude Lockhart Clark, Edward Clark, Irene Clark, LeRoy Clarke, Pauline Clay, Denise Cobb, Gylbert Coker, Marion Elizabeth Cole, Archie Coleman, Floyd Coleman, Donald Coles, Robert Colescott, Carolyn Collins, Paul Collins, Richard Collins, Samuel Collins, Don Concholar, Wallace Conway, Houston Conwill, William A. Cooper, Arthur Coppedge, Jean Cornwell, Eldzier Cortor, Samuel Countee, Harold Cousins, Cleo Crawford, Marva Cremer, Ernest Crichlow, Norma Criss, Allan Rohan Crite, Harvey Cropper, Geraldine Crossland, Rushie Croxton, Doris Crudup, Dewey Crumpler, Emilio Cruz, Charles Cullen (White artist), Vince Cullers, Michael Cummings, Urania Cummings, DeVon Cunningham, Samuel Curtis, William Curtis, Artis Dameron, Mary Reed Daniel, Aaron Darling, Alonzo Davis, Bing Davis, Charles Davis, Dale Davis, Rachel Davis, Theresa Davis, Ulysses Davis, Walter Lewis Davis, Charles C. Davis, William Dawson, Juette Day, Roy DeCarava, Avel DeKnight, Beauford Delaney, Joseph Delaney, Nadine Delawrence, Louis Delsarte, Richard Dempsey, J. Brooks Dendy, III (as Brooks Dendy), James Denmark, Murry DePillars, Joseph DeVillis, Robert D'Hue, Kenneth Dickerson, Voris Dickerson, Charles Dickson, Frank Dillon, Leo Dillon, Robert Dilworth, James Donaldson, Jeff Donaldson, Lillian Dorsey, William Dorsey, Aaron Douglas, Emory Douglas, Calvin Douglass, Glanton Dowdell, John Dowell, Sam Doyle, David Driskell, Ulric S. Dunbar, Robert Duncanson, Eugenia Dunn, John Morris Dunn, Edward Dwight, Adolphus Ealey, Lawrence Edelin, William Edmondson, Anthony Edwards, Melvin Edwards, Eugene Eda [as Edy], John Elder, Maurice Ellison, Walter Ellison, Mae Engron, Annette Easley, Marion Epting, Melvyn Ettrick (as Melvin), Clifford Eubanks, Minnie Evans, Darrell Evers, Frederick Eversley, Cyril Fabio, James Fairfax, Kenneth Falana, Josephus Farmer, John Farrar, William Farrow, Malaika Favorite, Elton Fax, Tom Feelings, Claude Ferguson, Violet Fields, Lawrence Fisher, Thomas Flanagan, Walter Flax, Frederick Flemister, Mikelle Fletcher, Curt Flood, Batunde Folayemi, George Ford, Doyle Foreman, Leroy Foster, Walker Foster, John Francis, Richard Franklin, Ernest Frazier, Allan Freelon, Gloria Freeman, Pam Friday, John Fudge, Meta Fuller, Ibibio Fundi, Ramon Gabriel, Alice Gafford, West Gale, George Gamble, Reginald Gammon, Christine Gant, Jim Gary, Adolphus Garrett, Leroy Gaskin, Lamerol A. Gatewood, Herbert Gentry, Joseph Geran, Ezekiel Gibbs, William Giles, Sam Gilliam, Robert Glover, William Golding, Paul Goodnight, Erma Gordon, L. T. Gordon, Robert Gordon, Russell Gordon, Rex Goreleigh, Bernard Goss, Joe Grant, Oscar Graves, Todd Gray, Annabelle Green, James Green, Jonathan Green, Robert Green, Donald Greene, Michael Greene, Joseph Grey, Charles Ron Griffin, Eugene Grigsby, Raymond Grist, Michael Gude, Ethel Guest, John Hailstalk, Charles Haines, Horathel Hall, Karl Hall, Wesley Hall, Edward Hamilton, Eva Hamlin-Miller, David Hammons, James Hampton, Phillip Hampton, Marvin Harden, Inge Hardison, John Hardrick, Edwin Harleston, William Harper, Hugh Harrell, Oliver Harrington, Gilbert Harris, Hollon Harris, John Harris, Scotland J. B. Harris, Warren Harris, Bessie Harvey, Maren Hassinger, Cynthia Hawkins (as Thelma), William Hawkins, Frank Hayden, Kitty Hayden, Palmer Hayden, William Hayden, Vertis Hayes, Anthony Haynes, Wilbur Haynie, Benjamin Hazard, June Hector, Dion Henderson, Napoleon Jones-Henderson, William Henderson, Barkley Hendricks, Gregory A. Henry, Robert Henry, Ernest Herbert, James Herring, Mark Hewitt, Leon Hicks, Renalda Higgins, Hector Hill, Felrath Hines, Alfred Hinton, Tim Hinton, Adrienne Hoard, Irwin Hoffman, Raymond Holbert, Geoffrey Holder, Robin Holder, Lonnie Holley, Alvin Hollingsworth, Eddie Holmes, Varnette Honeywood, Earl J. Hooks, Ray Horner, Paul Houzell, Helena Howard, Humbert Howard, John Howard, Mildred Howard, Raymond Howell, William Howell, Calvin Hubbard, Henry Hudson, Julien Hudson, James Huff, Manuel Hughes, Margo Humphrey, Raymond Hunt, Richard Hunt, Clementine Hunter, Elliott Hunter, Arnold Hurley, Bill Hutson, Zell Ingram, Sue Irons, A. B. Jackson, Gerald Jackson, Harlan Jackson, Hiram Jackson, May Jackson, Oliver Jackson, Robert Jackson, Suzanne Jackson, Walter Jackson, Martha Jackson-Jarvis, Bob James, Wadsworth Jarrell, Jasmin Joseph [as Joseph Jasmin], Archie Jefferson, Rosalind Jeffries, Noah Jemison, Barbara Fudge Jenkins, Florian Jenkins, Chester Jennings, Venola Jennings, Wilmer Jennings, Georgia Jessup, Johana, Daniel Johnson, Edith Johnson, Harvey Johnson, Herbert Johnson, Jeanne Johnson, Malvin Gray Johnson, Marie Johnson-Calloway, Milton Derr (as Milton Johnson), Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Joshua Johnston, Ben Jones, Calvin Jones, Dorcas Jones, Frank A. Jones, Frederick D. Jones, Jr. (as Frederic Jones), Henry B. Jones, Johnny Jones, Lawrence Arthur Jones, Leon Jones, Lois Mailou Jones, Nathan Jones, Tonnie Jones, Napoleon Jones-Henderson, Barbara Jones-Hogu, Jack Jordan, Cliff Joseph, Ronald Joseph, Lemuel Joyner, Edward Judie, Michael Kabu, Arthur Kaufman, Charles Keck, Paul Keene, John Kendrick, Harriet Kennedy, Leon Kennedy, Joseph Kersey; Virginia Kiah, Henri King, James King, Gwendolyn Knight, Robert Knight, Lawrence Kolawole, Brenda Lacy, (Laura) Jean Lacy, Roy LaGrone, Artis Lane, Doyle Lane, Raymond Lark, Carolyn Lawrence, Jacob Lawrence, James Lawrence, Clarence Lawson, Louis LeBlanc, James Lee, Hughie Lee-Smith, Lizetta LeFalle-Collins, Leon Leonard, Bruce LeVert, Edmonia Lewis, Edwin E. Lewis, Flora Lewis, James E. Lewis, Norman Lewis, Roy Lewis, Samella Lewis, Elba Lightfoot, Charles Lilly [as Lily], Arturo Lindsay, Henry Linton, Jules Lion, James Little, Marcia Lloyd, Tom Lloyd, Jon Lockard, Donald Locke, Lionel Lofton, Juan Logan, Bert Long, Willie Longshore, Edward Loper, Francisco Lord, Jesse Lott, Edward Love, Nina Lovelace, Whitfield Lovell, Alvin Loving, Ramon Loy, William Luckett, John Lutz, Don McAllister, Theadius McCall, Dindga McCannon, Edward McCluney, Jesse McCowan, Sam McCrary, Geraldine McCullough, Lawrence McGaugh, Charles McGee, Donald McIlvaine, Karl McIntosh, Joseph Mack, Edward McKay, Thomas McKinney, Alexander McMath, Robert McMillon, William McNeil, Lloyd McNeill, Clarence Major, William Majors, David Mann, Ulysses Marshall, Phillip Lindsay Mason, Lester Mathews, Sharon Matthews, William (Bill) Maxwell, Gordon Mayes, Marietta Mayes, Richard Mayhew, Valerie Maynard, Victoria Meek, Leon Meeks, Yvonne Meo, Helga Meyer, Gaston Micheaux, Charles Mickens, Samuel Middleton, Onnie Millar, Aaron Miller, Algernon Miller, Don Miller, Earl Miller, Eva Hamlin Miller, Guy Miller, Julia Miller, Charles Milles, Armsted Mills, Edward Mills, Lev Mills, Priscilla Mills (P'lla), Carol Mitchell, Corinne Mitchell, Tyrone Mitchell, Arthur Monroe, Elizabeth Montgomery, Ronald Moody, Ted Moody, Frank Moore, Ron Moore, Sabra Moore, Theophilus Moore, William Moore, Leedell Moorehead, Scipio Moorhead, Clarence Morgan, Norma Morgan, Sister Gertrude Morgan, Patricia Morris, Keith Morrison, Lee Jack Morton, Jimmie Mosely, David Mosley, Lottie Moss, Archibald Motley, Hugh Mulzac, Betty Murchison, J. B. Murry, Teixera Nash, Inez Nathaniel, Frank Neal, George Neal, Jerome Neal, Robert Neal, Otto Neals, Robert Newsome, James Newton, Rochelle Nicholas, John Nichols, Isaac Nommo, Oliver Nowlin, Trudell Obey, Constance Okwumabua, Osira Olatunde, Kermit Oliver, Yaounde Olu, Ademola Olugebefola, Mary O'Neal, Haywood Oubré, Simon Outlaw, John Outterbridge, Joseph Overstreet, Carl Owens, Winnie Owens-Hart, Lorenzo Pace, William Pajaud, Denise Palm, James Pappas, Christopher Parks, James Parks, Louise Parks, Vera Parks, Oliver Parson, James Pate, Edgar Patience, John Payne, Leslie Payne, Sandra Peck, Alberto Pena, Angela Perkins, Marion Perkins, Michael Perry, Bertrand Phillips, Charles James Phillips, Harper Phillips, Ted Phillips, Delilah Pierce, Elijah Pierce, Harold Pierce, Anderson Pigatt, Stanley Pinckney, Howardena Pindell, Elliott Pinkney, Jerry Pinkney, Robert Pious, Adrian Piper, Horace Pippin, Betty Pitts, Stephanie Pogue, Naomi Polk, Charles Porter, James Porter, Georgette Powell, Judson Powell, Richard Powell, Daniel Pressley, Leslie Price, Ramon Price, Nelson Primus, Arnold Prince, E. (Evelyn?) Proctor, Nancy Prophet, Ronnie Prosser, William Pryor, Noah Purifoy, Florence Purviance, Martin Puryear, Mavis Pusey, Teodoro Ramos Blanco y Penita, Helen Ramsaran, Joseph Randolph; Thomas Range, Frank Rawlings, Jennifer Ray, Maxine Raysor, Patrick Reason, Roscoe Reddix, Junius Redwood, James Reed, Jerry Reed, Donald Reid, O. Richard Reid, Robert Reid, Leon Renfro, John Rhoden, Ben Richardson, Earle Richardson, Enid Richardson, Gary Rickson, John Riddle, Gregory Ridley, Faith Ringgold, Haywood Rivers, Arthur Roach, Malkia Roberts, Royal Robertson, Aminah Robinson, Charles Robinson, John N. Robinson, Peter L. Robinson, Brenda Rogers, Charles Rogers, Herbert Rogers, Juanita Rogers, Sultan Rogers, Bernard Rollins, Henry Rollins, Arthur Rose, Charles Ross, James Ross, Nellie Mae Rowe, Sandra Rowe, Nancy Rowland, Winfred Russsell, Mahler Ryder, Alison Saar, Betye Saar, Charles Sallee, JoeSam., Marion Sampler, Bert Samples, Juan Sanchez, Eve Sandler, Walter Sanford, Floyd Sapp, Raymond Saunders, Augusta Savage, Ann Sawyer, Sydney Schenck, Vivian Schuyler Key, John Scott (Johnny) , John Tarrell Scott, Joyce Scott, William Scott, Charles Searles, Charles Sebree, Bernard Sepyo, Bennie Settles, Franklin Shands, Frank Sharpe, Christopher Shelton, Milton Sherrill, Thomas Sills, Gloria Simmons, Carroll Simms, Jewell Simon, Walter Simon, Coreen Simpson, Ken Simpson, Merton Simpson, William Simpson, Michael Singletary (as Singletry), Nathaniel Sirles, Margaret Slade (Kelley), Van Slater, Louis Sloan, Albert A. Smith, Alfred J. Smith, Alvin Smith, Arenzo Smith, Damballah Dolphus Smith, Floyd Smith, Frank Smith, George Smith, Howard Smith, John Henry Smith, Marvin Smith, Mary T. Smith, Sue Jane Smith, Vincent Smith, William Smith, Zenobia Smith, Rufus Snoddy, Sylvia Snowden, Carroll Sockwell, Ben Solowey, Edgar Sorrells, Georgia Speller, Henry Speller, Shirley Stark, David Stephens, Lewis Stephens, Walter Stephens, Erik Stephenson, Nelson Stevens, Mary Stewart, Renée Stout, Edith Strange, Thelma Streat, Richard Stroud, Dennis Stroy, Charles Suggs, Sharon Sulton, Johnnie Swearingen, Earle Sweeting, Roderick Sykes, Clarence Talley, Ann Tanksley, Henry O. Tanner, James Tanner, Ralph Tate, Carlton Taylor, Cecil Taylor, Janet Taylor Pickett, Lawrence Taylor, William (Bill) Taylor, Herbert Temple, Emerson Terry, Evelyn Terry, Freida Tesfagiorgis, Alma Thomas, Charles Thomas, James "Son Ford" Thomas, Larry Erskine Thomas, Matthew Thomas, Roy Thomas, William Thomas (a.k.a. Juba Solo), Conrad Thompson, Lovett Thompson, Mildred Thompson, Phyllis Thompson, Bob Thompson, Russ Thompson, Dox Thrash, Mose Tolliver, William Tolliver, Lloyd Toone, John Torres, Elaine Towns, Bill Traylor, Charles Tucker, Clive Tucker, Yvonne Edwards Tucker, Charlene Tull, Donald Turner, Leo Twiggs, Alfred Tyler, Anna Tyler, Barbara Tyson Mosley, Bernard Upshur, Jon Urquhart, Florestee Vance, Ernest Varner, Royce Vaughn, George Victory, Harry Vital, Ruth Waddy, Annie Walker, Charles Walker, Clinton Walker, Earl Walker, Lawrence Walker, Raymond Walker [a.k.a. Bo Walker], William Walker, Bobby Walls, Daniel Warburg, Eugene Warburg, Denise Ward-Brown, Evelyn Ware, Laura Waring, Masood Ali Warren, Horace Washington, James Washington, Mary Washington, Timothy Washington, Richard Waters, James Watkins, Curtis Watson, Howard Watson, Willard Watson, Richard Waytt, Claude Weaver, Stephanie Weaver, Clifton Webb, Derek Webster, Edward Webster, Albert Wells, James Wells, Roland Welton, Barbara Wesson, Pheoris West, Lamonte Westmoreland, Charles White, Cynthia White, Franklin White, George White, J. Philip White, Jack White (sculptor), Jack White (painter), John Whitmore, Jack Whitten, Garrett Whyte, Benjamin Wigfall, Bertie Wiggs, Deborah Wilkins, Timothy Wilkins, Billy Dee Williams, Chester Williams, Douglas Williams, Frank Williams, George Williams, Gerald Williams, Jerome Williams, Jose Williams, Laura Williams, Matthew Williams, Michael K. Williams, Pat Ward Williams, Randy Williams, Roy Lee Williams, Todd Williams, Walter Williams, William T. Williams, Yvonne Williams, Philemona Williamson, Stan Williamson, Luster Willis, A. B. Wilson, Edward Wilson, Ellis Wilson, Fred Wilson, George Wilson, Henry Wilson, John Wilson, Stanley C. Wilson, Linda Windle, Eugene Winslow, Vernon Winslow, Cedric Winters, Viola Wood, Hale Woodruff, Roosevelt Woods, Shirley Woodson, Beulah Woodard, Bernard Wright, Dmitri Wright, Estella Viola Wright, George Wright, Richard Wyatt, Frank Wyley, Richard Yarde, James Yeargans, Joseph Yoakum, Bernard Young, Charles Young, Clarence Young, Kenneth Young, Milton Young. Dewey Crumpler is Associate Professor of Painting at the San Francisco Art Institute. His current work examines issues of globalization and cultural co-modification through the integration of digital imagery, Video and traditional painting techniques. His work has been exhibited nationally and internationally, and is featured in the permanent collections of the Oakland Museum of California; the Triton Museum of art, Santa Clara, California; and the California African American Museum, Los Angeles. Crumpler has received a Flintridge Foundation award, National Endowment for the Arts Fellowship Grant, and the Fleishhacker Foundation, Eureka Fellowship. Selected Exhibitions: of tulips and shadows, California African American Museum, Los Angeles, CA, 2009 (Solo)Bay Area Master: Untitled, The Triton Museum, Santa Clara, CA, 1999 (Solo)Selected Publications: "Studios and workspaces of Black American Artist” D. Forbes Pub. 2008of tulips and shadows catalog, CAAM, 2009Visual Artist Awards Catalog, Flintridge Foundation, 2005California Art: 450 Years of Painting & Other Media, Dustin Publications, Los Angeles, 1998Education: MFA, Mills College, 1989MA, San Francisco State University, 1974BFA San Francisco Art Institute, 1972 Early in his career, Dewey Crumpler painted murals focusing on African American social and political issues. His skill at structuring dynamic wall-sized compositions was honed from studies with Pablo O’Higgins and David Alfaro Siqueiros in Mexico City. But Crumpler was increasingly drawn to the expressive possibilities—visual and emotional—of abstract images, which he has pursued in paint, prints and sculpture for nearly 30 years. He will investigate an image relentlessly—such as the bulbous shape of a tulip or Monet’s lily pond at Giverny, France—and extend the form into myriad directions and mediums. Thematically, Crumpler has sought to address the history of slavery in America and explore how Africans “transformed their experience of subjugation into … cultural self-fulfillment and spiritual development.” The concept of metamorphosis becomes actual practice through his artmaking. Crumpler takes shapes derived from instruments of torture—leg irons, neck collars, and chains—and employs them “as abstracted vehicles that become transmuted into organic materials like tulip flowers and other malleable substances.” This symbolic conversion is most apparent in the decorative wood sculptures he calls Meta Objects. These are life-sized transfigurations of slave collars. Echoes of this form appear in Crumpler’s latest paintings and drawings. Born in 1949, Crumpler is a Professor of Art and Art History at San Francisco Art Institute, where he has taught since 1990 The name could have been lost in the back pages of an Elmore Leonard novel. Instead it hangs above the best art show currently in Los Angeles. A modest wing of the California African American Museum is packed with paintings, sculptures, etchings, videos, and installations. Curator Mar Hollingsworth was attracted by one piece in the museum’s permanent collection, “A Day in the Park, #4”. When she went fishing to see what else the artist was up to she came across this body of work: the equivalent of getting a nibble and being swallowed by a whale. “A Day in the Park, #4” is a painted sculpture—a Monet painting stripped of sensation to reveal the architecture and guts below. Scribbled greens and casual swirls of blues sit nonchalantly on a system of pipes, glass, and wood. The dressed-down colors rest like sweat pants on an avid jogger. It sits in the same room with a mixed media piece, “Untitled” 1996. A fluttering gold depth spotted by pink petal shapes and sutured with pink spray paint gives birth to an arc of flower buds, skidding broadside toward your eyes. The ragged family portrait of flowers assembles and disbands joined by a handful of heads—art historical cutouts—who might have married in. Sleeping below “Untitled” is Crumpler’s sketchbook, under glass for our safety. Splayed open like a bear trap, two collages sprout tulips in every direction. There’s a photo of Eric Satie and one tulip grows from his head. Listen closely and it’s a piece by Satie playing underneath the video interview of Crumpler behind you. In it he’ll explain his attraction to the tulip as his metaphor of choice, but that will do you little good in understanding how he puts it to use. His interview sits in the percussion section, and while his words thump out a rhythm all the meaning is stuffed into the silence between beats. Eight great paintings await, braided together by the twisting stems and suggestive petals of tulips. But there is a hiccup of sculptures before you get there: fantastic figurative pieces (“Torso”, 1, 2, and 3) of found wood, half painted, and decorated by tiny pins. They are relatively small and compact but their size has no relation to the scale of how they are experienced. Keep moving. The next room of paintings is astonishing. Each is generously sized, just beyond the fingertips. Figures fall and swim with twisting tulips. These and a catalogue of other forms scatter and bend through space. Space itself shifts, sometimes literally pinned down, but most often breathing, and sometimes smashing passages of form. Add to the mess a range of lights: flat frontal light, streaks of neon, glowing after images, and in the case of “The Cup” four or five gaslamps. The paintings have power, vocabulary, and techniques extending into too many distinct directions to summarize. By the time you see the squiggly heart dangling toward the edge of “Tulipism” you’re left with the impression that the artist will do whatever he damn well pleases. A bed of pale mint green stretches from the top left corner toward the other three corners, threatening to eclipse the piece in its sensuality. A bouquet of tulips rises to meet it from below. Not without a struggle, however, as a jealous light casts a silver, medusa-like shadow above the flowers—a net to drag them back down to a mean and common reality. Then the artist squirts out a heart or two off and up to the right. The tulip is Crumpler’s Trojan horse, or noble lie (Plato comes later in the show). Its suggestiveness and sheer flexibility allow Crumpler to do whatever he wants. In the next room a handful of wood sculptures of tulips hang on narrow panels. Remembering the “Torsos” one is inclined to grab Kippenberger by the ear and show him how a painter should sculpt. Surrounding the tulip sculptures are reckless works on paper. Among them is “Untitled” 1995, that features the bottom of a tulip that doubles as a blue asteroid. Its stem sucks from a small mess of paint clutching a latex glove like a used prophylactic (“Call me…”). The glove and mess are resurrected and redeemed by a shadow puppet behind and to the right. Crumpler’s other visual mantra makes an appearance: a ceremonial African neck piece that was used as an instrument to call the spirits. It was appropriated by slave owners as a surveillance device. Crumpler takes it back and plugs it into chic paintings, a brilliant arts and craft outing, and the centerpiece for an installation. There are two problems with the show; one the museum’s and one the artist’s. His glass etchings need to be rescued from their installation. They make a room for them and place them as small windows, arranged melodically throughout. But it’s confusing to look at these subtle pieces while trying to ignore what’s seen behind them. The catalogue shows these pieces individually, and one is left with the hunger to see them in person the same way to register their silence and the game of shadows. The artist’s mistake is a corner installation of paintings. “Narrative 3” has a phantom hooded figure strolling through pages of art history. Embedded are brilliant moments, but taken as a whole the piece falls victim to artful arrangement, clear thoughts, and technical virtuosity. The installation “Narrative 4” sits in an oval room near the end of the show (followed by a denoument of more, great works on paper). The shackle form lifts up or tilts down as an alien microscope peering in on a small garden of artificial tulips lit cinematically. A video projection of the ocean sits nearby on the floor—surrounded by the curves of an oval room, the tulips, the rounded shackle, and the shackle’s corrugated white plastic casing, the edges of the projection look especially sharp. There are three different sound pieces dropping down from speakers placed in the wall. The sounds of water fall from the two at the ends, and the sound of gospel humming comes from the middle speaker. A walk through and around the installation leaves you shifted and slightly transformed, your mind plucked and replanted. Give the museum a lot of credit here. They locked in this show long before “transformational figure” became a hip endorsement. Let’s be clear what Crumpler would do with the tag. He would snap it, chew it up, twist it, and put it at the disposal of one of his various compulsions. A black president just shows that politics is always leagues behind when changing the supposed rules of culture—race included. I’m reminded of the bittersweet tears of Jesse Jackson on election night. The dream had arrived, but it didn’t look like he expected (in his case the mirror). Crumpler thwarts expectations in exchange for new visions. The intensity of Crumpler’s art—its sheer energy and multiple valences—transcends the pursuit and capture of personal liberty. “Certain blacks dig thay freedum” is literally pinned on one of the torso sculptures. But the phrase is neither ironic nor declarative. It operates as a quote. The method distances the artist from the power of the piece. He’s getting out of its way. Simone Veil discussed political rights as a sucker’s bet, as if the Devil was negotiating a better price for your soul. Crumpler’s works escapes various traps of expression, choice, and ‘freedum’ by plunging headlong into the demands of each piece. Surface as the fire of self-immolation. EDUCATION 1989 - Master of Fine Arts, Mills College, Oakland, CA 1974 - Master of Arts, San Francisco State University, SF, CA 1972 - Bachelor of Fine Arts, San Francisco Art Institute, SF, CA 1970 - Studied Mural Painting, Pablo O’Higgins & David Siquieros, Mexico City 1967 - Balboa High School, SF, CA WORK AND TEACHING EXPERIENCE 1990 - Associate Professor, San Francisco Art Institute, SF, CA 1998-97 - Lecturer, Art Dept., Stanford University Palo Alto, CA 1998-96 - Lecturer, Art Dept., University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 1994-89 - Lecturer, Art Dept., San Francisco State University, SF, CA 1994-85 - Lecturer, Ethnic Studies Dept., SF State University, SF, CA 1980-78 - Director, African American Historical & Cultural Society, SF, CA 1978-77 - Curriculum Specialist, ESAA Project, SFUSD, SF, CA 1977-74 - Art Consultant, Arts Commission, Mural Program, San Francisco, CA Painting Instructor, Californian College Arts & Crafts, Oakland, CA Art Consultant, Ravenswood City School District, Palo Alto, CA 1974-72 - Artist Intern, San Francisco State University, SF, CA EXHIBITIONS 2017 “Soul of a Nation” (Digital Mural Image) Tate Modern, London England. 2012 “Choose Paint! Choose Abstraction” Museum of the African Diaspora, San Francisco CA 2010 “Rehistoricizing Abstract Expressionism” Luggage Store Gallery, San Francisco CA 2008-09 “of Tulips & Shadows” Calif. African American Museum, Los Angeles CA. 2004 “Shakespeare as Muse”, Schneider Museum of Art, Southern Oregon Univ 2002-03 “Pacific States Biennial National Print Exhibition”, University of Hawaii, Hilo, Hawaii 2001 - “Winter Works”, Triton Museum of Art, Santa Clara, CA 2000 - “Nature Books”, Gallery Route One, Pt.Reyes, CA Paintings & Works on Paper, Dominican College, San Rafael, CA (Solo) 1999 - “Vision 2000”, Vorpal Gallery, SF, CA Untitled, Triton Museum of Art, Santa Clara, CA (Solo) - “Freedom or Slavery, The Paul Robenson Portfolio”, Alliance Press, Berkeley, CA (Traveling) 1998 - “California Landscape: An Urban/Rural Dialog”, Triton Museum of Art, Santa Clara, CA - “Bay Area Artists”, Triton Museum of Art, Santa Clara, CA 1997 - “American Color”, Louie Stern Gallery, Los Angeles, CA - “Recent Paintings”, Porter Randall Gallery, La Jolla, CA (solo) 1994 - “Visual Encounters”, Galerie Reshe, Paris, France (group show) - “I Remember”, Sarah Campbell Gallery, University of Houston, TX (group show) - “Works on Paper”, University of Hawaii Hilo, Hilo, Hawaii (group show) 1993 - “Twelve Bay Area Painters: Eureka Fellowship Winners”, Museum of Art, San Jose, CA (group show) - “I Remember”, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, DC (group) - “Recent Works”, Sacramento State University, Else Gallery (solo) Sacramento, CA 1992 - “Why Painting?”, Susan Cummins Gallery, Mill Valley, CA - “Communal Sources”, Richmond Art Center, Richmond, CA 1991 - “Nommo: Spirit of the Word”, Bomani Gallery, SF, CA (solo) - “Paintings”, Plaza Gallery, Bank of America, SF, CA (solo) - Pro-Arts Annual Juried Exhibition, Oakland, CA (group) - “Giverney #6”, Public Art Works Installation, Fillmore Center, SF, CA 1990 - “Introduction ’90: Two Artists”, William Sawyer Gallery, SF, CA 1989 - “New Genre: In Dissidence of Tradition”, Berkeley Art Center, Berkeley, CA - “Paintings & Works on Paper”, Somar Gallery, SF, CA (solo) - “Two Bay Area Artists”, Gallery I, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA - M.F.A. Graduate Exhibition, Mills College, Art Gallery, Oakland, CA 1987 - “Contemporary Black Artists, Slant Gallery, Sacramento, CA - “Ethnic Notions”, Berkeley Art Center, Berkeley, CA - “Black, White & Color in Three Dimensions”, Berkeley Art Center 1978 - 7th Annual Art Exhibition, Atlantic Life Insurance, Atlanta, GA - “Points of Views – New Perspectives”, Center of Visual Arts, Oakland, CA - “Out of Context: The Mural Project”, Emanuel Walter & Atholl McBean Galleries, San Francisco Art Institute, SF, CA - “Continuity & Change-Emerging Afro-American Artists, California Afro-American Museum, Los Angeles, CA (catalog) - “Artist Select – Contemporary Perspectives”, Arizona Western College, Yuma, AZ & Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (catalog) - “Works of Art on Paper”, TEMPO Gallery, Crocker Art Museum, Sacramento, CA (brochure) 1985 - “New Art in the West”, Vorpal Gallery, SF, CA (brochure) 1984 - “Bay Area Black Artists”, Sargeant Johnson Gallery, SF, CA 1982 - “Visual Music”, Grand Oak Gallery, Oakland, CA (solo) 1977 - Capricorn Asunder Art Gallery, San Francisco Arts Commission, SF, CA - “Portraits”, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, SF, CA (brochure) 1975 - “People’s Murals”, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, SF, CA COMMISSIONS 1984 - Mural (4500 sq.ft.), Western Addition Cultural Center, Mayor’s Office of Community Development, SF, CA 1977 - “Fire Next Time”, Mural (5500 sq.ft.), Joseph Lee Center, Arts Commission, SF, CA 1977 - “Fire Next Time”, Mural (3500 sq.ft.), Joseph Lee Center, Arts Commission, SF, CA 1976 - “People’s Murals, Mural (8’ x 20’), Museum of Modern Art, S.F. 1977 - “Certain Unalienable Rights” (6 panels), Bicentennial American Issue Forum, California Historical Society, SF, CA 1972 - Untitled Mural (1500 sq.ft.), Hunters Point School #2, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, SF, CA 1971 - Untitled Murals (3 panels), George Washington High School, SFUSD, SF, CA 1968 - Mural, Children’s Health Center #2, Arts Commission, SF, CA 1967 - Mural, Commissioned by Smokey Robinson, Motown Record Company, Detroit, MI LECTURES-RESIDENCIES 2002 - Visiting Artist, University of Hawaii at Hilo, Hilo, Hawaii 2001 - Artist in Residence, E.N.S.C.I. Les Atelir, Paris, France 2000 - Artist in Residence, La Villette, Paris, France 1999 - Artist in Residence, Ecole des Beaux Arts, Aix, France 1998-7 - Artist Forum Series, Ann Kohes and Associates, SF, CA 1994 - Visual Encounter, Palais du Luxembourg, Paris, France Artist and Community, College Art Association Conference, New York, NY AWARDS 2005-06 Visual Artist Award, Flintridge Foundation, Pasadena, CA. 1995 - Fellowship Grant Award, National Endowment for the Arts 1992 - Eureka Fellowship Award, Fleishhacker Foundation, Eureka, CA 1991 - Honored Artist Award, Pro Art Annual Exhibition, Oakland, CA 1985-82 Grant Award, California Arts Council, Artist In-Residence Program 1978-77 Purchase Award, Airports Commission, SF, CA - Purchase Award, Fillmore-Fell Gallery, SF, CA 1975 - Outstanding Achievement Award, National Conference of Artists 1969 - Purchase Award, Arts Commission, SF, CA 1967 - Honorary Resolution Award, Mayor’s Office, SF, CA - Honorary Citation, California State Assembly, Sacramento, CA Dewey Crumpler is Associate Professor of Painting at the San Francisco Art Institute. His current work examines issues of globalization and cultural co-modification through the integration of digital imagery, Video and traditional painting techniques. His work has been exhibited nationally and internationally, and is featured in the permanent collections of the Oakland Museum of California; the Triton Museum of art, Santa Clara, California; and the California African American Museum, Los Angeles. Crumpler has received a Flintridge Foundation award, National Endowment for the Arts Fellowship Grant, and the Fleishhacker Foundation, Eureka Fellowship. Selected Exhibitions: of tulips and shadows, California African American Museum, Los Angeles, CA, 2009 (Solo)Bay Area Master: Untitled, The Triton Museum, Santa Clara, CA, 1999 (Solo)Selected Publications: "Studios and workspaces of Black American Artist” D. Forbes Pub. 2008of tulips and shadows catalog, CAAM, 2009Visual Artist Awards Catalog, Flintridge Foundation, 2005California Art: 450 Years of Painting & Other Media, Dustin Publications, Los Angeles, 1998Education: MFA, Mills College, 1989MA, San Francisco State University, 1974BFA San Francisco Art Institute, 1972 Collapse is an ongoing series of paintings made by Dewey Crumpler, a Bay Area-based artist and painting professor at the San Francisco Art Institute (SFAI), which has been brought to Seattle University’s Hedreen Gallery by guest curator Sampada Aranke.1 Together, the five untitled, large canvases in the series consider “the beauty and terror of financial systems and their ecological, social, and aesthetic impacts” by “rendering the container as the locus of awe, wonder, destruction, and fear.”2 Collapse is a truly awesome—meant both in the godly and colloquial senses of the word—body of work, and marks a new phase in the septuagenarian artist’s prolific career while serving as a reconfirmation of his deep commitments to art, visual sovereignty, and abstraction. Dewey Crumpler. Untitled 1, 2017; acrylic and mixed media on canvas; 74 x 74 inches. Courtesy of Hedreen Gallery, Seattle, WA. Photo: Yosef Chaim Kalinko, Seattle University.On the street-facing white wall of the gallery, a triptych introduces us to the immediate aftermath of collapse. The flanking panels overwhelm with excess: mountains of shoes and endless clusters of bananas spill from their containers and onto the beaches and shorelines of undisclosed Pacific Rim locations. Untitled 2 (2017), which features the shoes, is drenched in shades of red with silver foil shadows; it depicts a scarred and burned sky and sea, the 21st-century burning bush or an end-of-days punishment meted on false prophets and sinners. Untitled 3 (2017), which shows the bananas, is livelier. Among the unnatural additions to the seemingly barren landscape are scavengers of the crustacean and marine variety—sea turtles and crabs play about, one with a small Lego as its treasure. There is some hope in this painting, which is absent in the others; here, imported and discarded fruits have a better chance of being absorbed by the ecosystem. This load is far better than the usual Great Pacific Garbage Patch’s flotsam and jetsam of plastics and fishing ropes, which make their way to Hawaiian and British Columbian shores.3 Dewey Crumpler. Untitled 2, Untitled 4, Untitled 3, 2017 (installation view); acrylic and mixed media on canvas; 60 x 74 inches each. Courtesy of Hedreen Gallery, Seattle, WA. Photo: Yosef Chaim Kalinko, Seattle University. Dewey Crumpler. Untitled 4, 2017 (installation view); acrylic and mixed media on canvas; 60 x 74 inches. Courtesy of Hedreen Gallery, Seattle, WA. Photo: Yosef Chaim Kalinko, Seattle University. Dewey Crumpler. Untitled 5 and Untitled 1, 2017 (installation view); acrylic and mixed media on canvas; 60 x 74 inches (Untitled 5) and 74 x 74 inches (Untitled 1). Courtesy of Hedreen Gallery, Seattle, WA. Photo: Yosef Chaim Kalinko, Seattle University.prevnextThe centerpiece on this wall is Untitled 4 (2017), which captures a freighter having nearly completed an untimely plunge into the ocean’s depths. From this impossible angle, the gray and red underbelly of the ship evokes an effaced Japanese flag: empire at its sunset. The disordering of perspective and stylization of the containers make Untitled 4 into a bridge between the relative realism of Untitled 2 and 3 and Untitled 1 and 5 (which are tucked into a darkly painted corner of the gallery that, rather than dimming the paintings, allows their gold and saturated colors to become transcendent). Untitled 1 and 5 are abstracted, a tidily considered juxtaposition within the strategy of such a survey. Together, Untitled 5 and Untitled 1 dazzle us in gold, red, and blue. Untitled 1, however, is the revelation; it is the alpha and omega of the series. In it, a bone floats above the scene, à la Stanley Kubrick’s 2001: A Space Odyssey, though it’s unclear if we are witnessing the end or beginning of the world. The containers are locked together like Transformers, rising out of the primordial gold where sky and sea have become one. Formally, Collapse brings together Crumpler’s dual interests in what curator Aranke calls the “crazy rendering skills” found in his drawing practice, with the “acute attention to abstraction…through non-linear perspective” seen throughout his paintings and mixed-media artworks.4 While Collapse is a striking departure from Crumpler’s previous work (as seen in his last solo show in 2008–2009 at the California African American Museum in Los Angeles, Of Tulips and Shadows: The Visual Metaphors of Dewey Crumpler),5 I hesitate to claim that he has returned to realism in this latest stage of his career. Even though Seattle’s resident critic, Charles Mudede, believes that Collapse represents “the way things are actually now,”6 I would argue that what is more compelling is what these paintings refuse to show about the economic, ecological, and social conditions we find ourselves in today. Crumpler repurposes the visual signifiers of wealth and status in the financial and art worlds—the gold and silver foil, the visibility of the artist’s hand, the illusion of heft and importance through scale and size—and dazzles the viewer through phantasmagoria, or by making the horrors wrought upon humankind and the rest of the natural world seductive. He forces the viewer to look away from this spectacle in order to truly reckon with the human costs of catastrophe. As Crumpler said in another context: “the thing not seen is the thing.”7 As a primary example, in the piles of shoes in Untitled 2 we encounter a proxy for the thousands of lives lost through murderous sweatshop labor around the Pacific Rim, or the tsunami and the subsequent nuclear reactor meltdown in Fukushima, rather than seeing depictions of the corpses themselves. The painting gestures towards devastation elliptically through its massive accumulation of the detritus of what environmental literature scholar Rob Nixon calls “slow violence,” or "a violence of delayed destruction that is dispersed across time and space, and attritional violence that is typically not viewed as violence at all,” with casualties both human and environmental.8 Collapse registers these decades-long holocausts with shoes and other material evidence, which are, significantly, empty of life. The work becomes a late-capitalist memorial that startlingly echoes the visual language of Christian Boltanski’s Monuments series, or the curatorial strategies of the United States Holocaust Museum. Collapse, while retaining elements of the real, thus remains relentlessly abstracted—a commitment that links Crumpler’s recent endeavors to his creative output of over half a century. Dewey Crumpler. Untitled 2, 2017; acrylic and mixed media on canvas; 60 x 74 inches. Courtesy of Hedreen Gallery, Seattle, WA. Photo: Yosef Chaim Kalinko, Seattle University.What is most compelling about Crumpler’s artistic praxis and pedagogy is what has hindered its inclusion into the canon of modern and contemporary Black art on a national and international scale. In part, it is a question of geography: many of Crumpler’s closest interlocutors move within Bay Area arts institutions and art worlds, and are significantly removed from New York and Los Angeles’ particular histories of Black assemblage artists and conceptual artists, who have been the subject of renewed interest in scholarly texts like Kellie Jones’s South of Pico (2017), or the Brooklyn Museum’s recently mounted exhibition, We Wanted A Revolution, co-curated by Rujeko Hockley and Catherine Morris. More so, it is a question of philosophical and pedagogical outlook. Eschewing the representational imperatives of the Black Panther Party, and the wider Black Arts Movement, Crumpler left behind a burgeoning start as a political muralist and went to study at SFAI and San Francisco State University in the 1970s, and then, a decade later, at Mills College at the urging of Jay DeFeo. He has been teaching at SFAI ever since, instructing generations of young painters like Kehinde Wiley, while also producing artworks across media and genre that he has refused to categorize as only or even Black art. Like his close compatriot, the late Filipino-American artist Carlos Villa, Crumpler has insisted through the decades that artists of color should not be burdened by the crisis of representation, and that there should be consideration of the ways that the categories of “Black art” and “political art” constrain and conceal as much as they offer possibility to whom they claim to represent.9 Let me be clear: Crumpler’s commitment to visual sovereignty is an expression of his deep commitment to full Black and Brown liberation, and it is a continued failure of our political imagination and artistic vocabulary if we understand this as an antagonism. In his personal practice, it is evident that Crumpler is an artist’s artist; he knows how to look, how to listen, and how to devour the world of signs and symbols in order to remix, rework, and reanimate them into something wholly original. His influences in Collapse run the spectrum between high and low, and cut across all color lines—the venerational paintings of the Catholic church; pop culture icons, including Bart Simpson; and the monumental scale of works by Raymond Saunders (Crumpler’s close friend of fifty years) and Kehinde Wiley, which are obliquely and explicitly referenced across these five paintings. There are shades of Richard Diebenkorn’s Berkeley No. 57 (1955) in Untitled 5—splashes of mint-green and pastel-pink mixed with goldenrod, contained forms which could be either architectural or natural features of the landscape—serving as a reminder of the deep impact the Bay Area Abstract Expressionists had on the development of SFAI and its students and faculty, of which Crumpler has been both. Viewers expecting transparency may be frustrated by this eclecticism, though perhaps they will be too delighted by the images to realize what they do not know; deep attention will reward with new revelations at every return. Collapse is a master work, exemplifying the alpha and omega of Crumpler’s career. It is, as the kids say, everything. The name could have been lost in the back pages of an Elmore Leonard novel. Instead it hangs above the best art show currently in Los Angeles. A modest wing of the California African American Museum is packed with paintings, sculptures, etchings, videos, and installations. Curator Mar Hollingsworth was attracted by one piece in the museum’s permanent collection, “A Day in the Park, #4”. When she went fishing to see what else the artist was up to she came across this body of work: the equivalent of getting a nibble and being swallowed by a whale. “A Day in the Park, #4” is a painted sculpture—a Monet painting stripped of sensation to reveal the architecture and guts below. Scribbled greens and casual swirls of blues sit nonchalantly on a system of pipes, glass, and wood. The dressed-down colors rest like sweat pants on an avid jogger. It sits in the same room with a mixed media piece, “Untitled” 1996. A fluttering gold depth spotted by pink petal shapes and sutured with pink spray paint gives birth to an arc of flower buds, skidding broadside toward your eyes. The ragged family portrait of flowers assembles and disbands joined by a handful of heads—art historical cutouts—who might have married in. Sleeping below “Untitled” is Crumpler’s sketchbook, under glass for our safety. Splayed open like a bear trap, two collages sprout tulips in every direction. There’s a photo of Eric Satie and one tulip grows from his head. Listen closely and it’s a piece by Satie playing underneath the video interview of Crumpler behind you. In it he’ll explain his attraction to the tulip as his metaphor of choice, but that will do you little good in understanding how he puts it to use. His interview sits in the percussion section, and while his words thump out a rhythm all the meaning is stuffed into the silence between beats. Eight great paintings await, braided together by the twisting stems and suggestive petals of tulips. But there is a hiccup of sculptures before you get there: fantastic figurative pieces (“Torso”, 1, 2, and 3) of found wood, half painted, and decorated by tiny pins. They are relatively small and compact but their size has no relation to the scale of how they are experienced. Keep moving. The next room of paintings is astonishing. Each is generously sized, just beyond the fingertips. Figures fall and swim with twisting tulips. These and a catalogue of other forms scatter and bend through space. Space itself shifts, sometimes literally pinned down, but most often breathing, and sometimes smashing passages of form. Add to the mess a range of lights: flat frontal light, streaks of neon, glowing after images, and in the case of “The Cup” four or five gaslamps. The paintings have power, vocabulary, and techniques extending into too many distinct directions to summarize. By the time you see the squiggly heart dangling toward the edge of “Tulipism” you’re left with the impression that the artist will do whatever he damn well pleases. A bed of pale mint green stretches from the top left corner toward the other three corners, threatening to eclipse the piece in its sensuality. A bouquet of tulips rises to meet it from below. Not without a struggle, however, as a jealous light casts a silver, medusa-like shadow above the flowers—a net to drag them back down to a mean and common reality. Then the artist squirts out a heart or two off and up to the right. The tulip is Crumpler’s Trojan horse, or noble lie (Plato comes later in the show). Its suggestiveness and sheer flexibility allow Crumpler to do whatever he wants. In the next room a handful of wood sculptures of tulips hang on narrow panels. Remembering the “Torsos” one is inclined to grab Kippenberger by the ear and show him how a painter should sculpt. Surrounding the tulip sculptures are reckless works on paper. Among them is “Untitled” 1995, that features the bottom of a tulip that doubles as a blue asteroid. Its stem sucks from a small mess of paint clutching a latex glove like a used prophylactic (“Call me…”). The glove and mess are resurrected and redeemed by a shadow puppet behind and to the right. Crumpler’s other visual mantra makes an appearance: a ceremonial African neck piece that was used as an instrument to call the spirits. It was appropriated by slave owners as a surveillance device. Crumpler takes it back and plugs it into chic paintings, a brilliant arts and craft outing, and the centerpiece for an installation. There are two problems with the show; one the museum’s and one the artist’s. His glass etchings need to be rescued from their installation. They make a room for them and place them as small windows, arranged melodically throughout. But it’s confusing to look at these subtle pieces while trying to ignore what’s seen behind them. The catalogue shows these pieces individually, and one is left with the hunger to see them in person the same way to register their silence and the game of shadows. The artist’s mistake is a corner installation of paintings. “Narrative 3” has a phantom hooded figure strolling through pages of art history. Embedded are brilliant moments, but taken as a whole the piece falls victim to artful arrangement, clear thoughts, and technical virtuosity. The installation “Narrative 4” sits in an oval room near the end of the show (followed by a denoument of more, great works on paper). The shackle form lifts up or tilts down as an alien microscope peering in on a small garden of artificial tulips lit cinematically. A video projection of the ocean sits nearby on the floor—surrounded by the curves of an oval room, the tulips, the rounded shackle, and the shackle’s corrugated white plastic casing, the edges of the projection look especially sharp. There are three different sound pieces dropping down from speakers placed in the wall. The sounds of water fall from the two at the ends, and the sound of gospel humming comes from the middle speaker. A walk through and around the installation leaves you shifted and slightly transformed, your mind plucked and replanted. Give the museum a lot of credit here. They locked in this show long before “transformational figure” became a hip endorsement. Let’s be clear what Crumpler would do with the tag. He would snap it, chew it up, twist it, and put it at the disposal of one of his various compulsions. A black president just shows that politics is always leagues behind when changing the supposed rules of culture—race included. I’m reminded of the bittersweet tears of Jesse Jackson on election night. The dream had arrived, but it didn’t look like he expected (in his case the mirror). Crumpler thwarts expectations in exchange for new visions. The intensity of Crumpler’s art—its sheer energy and multiple valences—transcends the pursuit and capture of personal liberty. “Certain blacks dig thay freedum” is literally pinned on one of the torso sculptures. But the phrase is neither ironic nor declarative. It operates as a quote. The method distances the artist from the power of the piece. He’s getting out of its way. Simone Veil discussed political rights as a sucker’s bet, as if the Devil was negotiating a better price for your soul. Crumpler’s works escapes various traps of expression, choice, and ‘freedum’ by plunging headlong into the demands of each piece. Surface as the fire of self-immolation. African-American topicsAfrican AmericaHistory (timeline)[show]Culture[show]Religion[show]Political movements[show]Civic / economic groups[show]Sports[show]Ethnic subdivisions[show]Languages[show]Diaspora[show]Lists[show]Category: African-American societyAmericaAfrica.svg African American portalvteAfrican-American art is a broad term describing the visual arts of the American black community (African Americans). Influenced by various cultural traditions, including those of Africa, Europe and the Americas, traditional African-American art forms include the range of plastic arts, from basket weaving, pottery, and quilting to woodcarving and painting. Contents1History1.1Pre-colonial, Antebellum and Civil War eras1.2Post-Civil War1.3The Harlem Renaissance to contemporary art1.3.1Mid-20th century2See also3References4Sources5External linksHistoryPre-colonial, Antebellum and Civil War eras This is the carved powder horn by carver John Bush from around 1754. Harriet Powers, Bible quilt, Mixed Media. 1898.Prior to the 20th century, African-American art existed during the French and Indian War. John Bush was a powder horn carver and soldier with the Massachusetts militia fighting with the British. His work has toured throughout Canada and the US.[1][2] His powder horn of 1756 has been part of a travelling exhibition throughout Canada and US.[3][4] Art continued in subsequent slave communities, through the end of the 20th century, African-American art has made a vital contribution to the art of the United States.[5] During the period between the 17th century and the early 19th century art took the form of small drums, quilts, wrought-iron figures and ceramic vessels in the southern United States; these artifacts have similarities with comparable crafts in West and Central Africa. In contrast, black artisans like the New England–based engraver Scipio Moorhead and the Baltimore portrait painter Joshua Johnson created art that was conceived in a western European fashion for their local markets.[6] Many of Africa’s most skilled artisans were enslaved in the Americas, while others learned their trades or crafts as apprentices to African or white skilled workers. It was often the practice for slave owners to hire out skilled artisans. With the consent of their masters, some slave artisans also were able to keep a small percentage of the wages earned in their free time and thereby save enough money to purchase their, and their families', freedom.[7] G. W. Hobbs, Patrick H. Reason, Joshua Johnson, and Scipio Moorhead were among the earliest known portrait artists, from the period of 1773–1887. Patronage by some white families allowed for private tutorship in special cases. Many of these sponsoring whites were abolitionists. The artists received more encouragement and were better able to support themselves in cities, of which there were more in the North and border states. Harriet Powers (1837–1910) was an African-American folk artist and quilt maker from rural Georgia, United States, born into slavery. Now nationally recognized for her quilts, she used traditional appliqué techniques to record local legends, Bible stories, and astronomical events on her quilts. Only two of her late quilts have survived: Bible Quilt 1886 and Bible Quilt 1898. Her quilts are considered among the finest examples of 19th-century Southern quilting,.[8][9] Like Powers, the women of Gee's Bend developed a distinctive, bold, and sophisticated quilting style based on traditional American (and African-American) quilts, but with a geometric simplicity. Although widely separated by geography, they have qualities reminiscent of Amish quilts and modern art. The women of Gee's Bend passed their skills and aesthetic down through at least six generations to the present.[10] At one time scholars believed slaves sometimes utilized quilt blocks to alert other slaves about escape plans during the time of the Underground Railroad,[11] but most historians do not agree. Quilting remains alive as form of artistic expression in the African-American community. Post-Civil WarAfter the Civil War, it became increasingly acceptable for African American-created works to be exhibited in museums, and artists increasingly produced works for this purpose. These were works mostly in the European romantic and classical traditions of landscapes and portraits. Edward Mitchell Bannister, Henry Ossawa Tanner and Edmonia Lewis are the most notable of this time. Others include Grafton Tyler Brown, Nelson A. Primus and Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller. The goal of widespread recognition across racial boundaries was first eased within America's big cities, including Philadelphia, Boston, Chicago, New York, and New Orleans. Even in these places, however, there were discriminatory limitations. Abroad, however, African Americans were much better received. In Europe — especially Paris, France — these artists could express much more freedom in experimentation and education concerning techniques outside traditional western art. Freedom of expression was much more prevalent in Paris as well as Munich and Rome to a lesser extent. The Harlem Renaissance to contemporary art Sand Dunes at Sunset, Atlantic City by Henry Ossawa Tanner is in the collection of the White House, and hangs in the Green Room. Acquired during the Clinton administration with funds from the White House Acquisition Trust, it is the first artwork in the White House by an African American.The Harlem Renaissance was one of the most notable movements in African-American art. Certain freedoms and ideas that were already widespread in many parts of the world at the time had begun to spread into the artistic communities United States during the 1920s. During this period notable artists included Richmond Barthé, Aaron Douglas, Lawrence Harris, Palmer Hayden, William H. Johnson, Sargent Johnson, John T. Biggers, Earle Wilton Richardson, Malvin Gray Johnson, Archibald Motley, Augusta Savage, Hale Woodruff, and photographer James Van Der Zee. The establishment of the Harmon Foundation by art patron William E. Harmon in 1922 sponsored many artists through its Harmon Award and annual exhibitions. As it did with many such endeavors, the 1929 Great Depression largely ended funding for the arts for a time. While the Harmon Foundation still existed in this period, its financial support toward artists ended. The Harmon Foundation, however, continued supporting artists until 1967 by mounting exhibitions and offering funding for developing artists such as Jacob Lawrence.[12] Midnight Golfer by Eugene J. Martin, mixed media collage on rag paper. Kara Walker, Cut, Cut paper and adhesive on wall, Brent Sikkema NYC.The US Treasury Department's Public Works of Art Project ineffectively attempted to provide support for artists in 1933. In 1935, President Franklin D. Roosevelt created the Works Progress Administration (WPA). The WPA provided for all American artists and proved especially helpful to African-American artists. Artists and writers both gained work that helped them survive the Depression. Among them were Jacob Lawrence and Richard Wright. Politics, human and social conditions all became the subjects of accepted art forms. Important cities with significant black populations and important African-American art circles included Philadelphia, Boston, San Francisco and Washington, D.C. The WPA led to a new wave of important black art professors. Mixed media, abstract art, cubism, and social realism became not only acceptable, but desirable. Artists of the WPA united to form the 1935 Harlem Artists Guild, which developed community art facilities in major cities. Leading forms of art included drawing, sculpture, printmaking, painting, pottery, quilting, weaving and photography. By 1939, the costly WPA and its projects all were terminated. In 1943, James A. Porter, a professor in the Department of Art at Howard University, wrote the first major text on African-American art and artists, Modern Negro Art. Mid-20th centuryIn the 1950s and 1960s, few African-American artists were widely known or accepted. Despite this, The Highwaymen, a loose association of 26 African-American artists from Fort Pierce, Florida, created idyllic, quickly realized images of the Florida landscape and peddled some 200,000 of them from the trunks of their cars. In the 1950s and 1960s, it was impossible to find galleries interested in selling artworks by a group of unknown, self-taught African Americans,[13] so they sold their art directly to the public rather than through galleries and art agents. Rediscovered in the mid-1990s, today they are recognized as an important part of American folk history.[14][15] The current market price for an original Highwaymen painting can easily bring in thousands of dollars. In 2004 the original group of 26 Highwaymen were inducted into the Florida Artists Hall of Fame.[16] Currently 8 of the 26 are deceased, including A. Hair, H. Newton, Ellis and George Buckner, A. Moran, L. Roberts, Hezekiah Baker and most recently Johnny Daniels. The full list of 26 can be found in the Florida Artists Hall of Fame, as well as various highwaymen and Florida art websites. Jerry Harris, Dogon mother and child, constructed and carved wood with found objects, laminated clay (Bondo), and wooden dowels.After the Second World War, some artists took a global approach, working and exhibiting abroad, in Paris, and as the decade wore on, relocated gradually in other welcoming cities such as Copenhagen, Amsterdam, and Stockholm: Barbara Chase-Riboud, Edward Clark, Harvey Cropper, Beauford Delaney, Herbert Gentry,[17] Bill Hutson, Clifford Jackson,[18] Sam Middleton,[19] Larry Potter, Haywood Bill Rivers, Merton Simpson, and Walter Williams.[20][21] Some African-American artists did make it into important New York galleries by the 1950s and 1960s: Horace Pippin, Romare Bearden, Jacob Lawrence, William T. Williams, Norman Lewis, Thomas Sills,[22] and Sam Gilliam were among the few who had successfully been received in a gallery setting. The Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s and 1970s led artists to capture and express the times and changes. Galleries and community art centers developed for the purpose of displaying African-American art, and collegiate teaching positions were created by and for African-American artists. Some African-American women were also active in the feminist art movement in the 1970s. Faith Ringgold made work that featured black female subjects and that addressed the conjunction of racism and sexism in the U.S., while the collective Where We At (WWA) held exhibitions exclusively featuring the artwork of African-American women.[23] By the 1980s and 1990s, hip-hop graffiti became predominate in urban communities. Most major cities had developed museums devoted to African-American artists. The National Endowment for the Arts provided increasing support for these artists. Important collections of African-American art include the Walter O. Evans Collection of African American Art, the Paul R. Jones collections at the University of Delaware and University of Alabama, the David C. Driskell Art collection, the Harmon and Harriet Kelley Collection of African American Art, the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, and the Mott-Warsh collection. Kara Walker, a contemporary American artist, is known for her exploration of race, gender, sexuality, violence and identity in her artworks. Walker's silhouette images work to bridge unfinished folklore in the Antebellum South and are reminiscent of the earlier work of Harriet Powers. Her nightmarish yet fantastical images incorporate a cinematic feel. In 2007, Walker was listed among Time Magazine's "100 Most Influential People in The World, Artists and Entertainers".[24] Textile artists are part of African-American art history. According to the 2010 Quilting in America industry survey, there are 1.6 million quilters in the United States.[25] Influential contemporary artists include Larry D. Alexander, Laylah Ali, Amalia Amaki, Emma Amos, Jean-Michel Basquiat, Dawoud Bey, Camille Billops, Mark Bradford, Edward Clark, Willie Cole, Robert Colescott, Louis Delsarte, David C. Driskell, Leonardo Drew, Mel Edwards, Ricardo Francis, Charles Gaines, Ellen Gallagher, Herbert Gentry, Sam Gilliam, David Hammons, Jerry Harris, Joseph Holston, Richard Hunt, Martha Jackson-Jarvis, Katie S. Mallory, M. Scott Johnson, Rashid Johnson, Joe Lewis, Glenn Ligon, James Little, Edward L. Loper, Sr., Alvin D. Loving, Kerry James Marshall, Eugene J. Martin, Richard Mayhew, Sam Middleton, Howard McCalebb, Charles McGill, Thaddeus Mosley, Sana Musasama, Senga Nengudi, Joe Overstreet, Martin Puryear, Adrian Piper, Howardena Pindell, Faith Ringgold, Gale Fulton Ross, Alison Saar, Betye Saar, John Solomon Sandridge, Raymond Saunders, John T. Scott, Joyce Scott, Gary Simmons, Lorna Simpson, Renee Stout, Kara Walker, Carrie Mae Weems, Stanley Whitney, William T. Williams, Jack Whitten, Fred Wilson, Richard Wyatt, Jr., Richard Yarde, and Purvis Young, Kehinde Wiley, Mickalene Thomas, Barkley Hendricks, Jeff Sonhouse, William Walker, Ellsworth Ausby, Che Baraka, Emmett Wigglesworth, Otto Neals, Dindga McCannon, Terry Dixon (artist), Frederick J. Brown, and many others. Artists Scipio Moorhead, Portrait of poet Phillis Wheatley, 1773, in the frontispiece to her book Poems on Various Subjects Edward Mitchell Bannister, Driving Home the Cows 1881 Harriet Powers, Bible quilt, mixed media, 1886 Henry Ossawa Tanner, Gateway, Tangier, 1912, oil on canvas, 18 7/16" × 15 5/16", St. Louis Art Museum Charles Alston, Again The Springboard Of Civilization, 1943 (WWII African American soldier) Larry D. Alexander,Greenville Courthouse, 1998A–BTerry Adkins (1953–2014), artist[1]Mequitta Ahuja (born 1976), painter, installation artistLarry D. Alexander (born 1953), painterLaylah Ali (born 1968), painterJules T. Allen (born 1947), photographerTina Allen (1949–2008), sculptorCharles Alston (1907–1977), painter[2][1]Amalia Amaki (born 1959), artistEmma Amos (born 1938), painter[2]Benny Andrews (1930–2006), painter[2][1]Edgar Arceneaux (born 1972), drawing artistRadcliffe Bailey (born 1968) collage, sculpture[3][4]Kyle Baker (born 1965), cartoonistMatt Baker (1921–1959), comic book artistJames Presley Ball (1825–1904), photographerAlvin Baltrop (1948-2004), photographerHenry Bannarn (1910–1965), painter[1]Edward Mitchell Bannister (1828–1901), painter[2][1]Ernie Barnes (1938–2009), neo-Mannerist artist[2]Richmond Barthé (1901–1989), sculptor[2][1]Jean-Michel Basquiat (1960–1988), painter[2]C. M. Battey (1873–1927), photographerRomare Bearden (1911–1988), painter[2][1]Arthello Beck (1941–2004), painterArthur P. Bedou (1882–1966), photographerDarrin Bell (born 1975), cartoonistMary A. Bell (1873–1941)Dawoud Bey (born 1953), photographer[2]John T. Biggers (1924–2001), muralist[2][1]Sanford Biggers (born 1970), interdisciplinaryGene Bilbrew (1923–1974), cartoonist and fetish artistMcArthur Binion (born 1946), painterRobert Blackburn (1920–2003), printmaker[2][1]Thomas BlackshearBetty Blayton (born 1937), painter, printmaker[1]Chakaia Booker (born 1953), sculptor[2]Edythe Boone (born 1938), muralistCharles Boyce (born 1949), cartoonistTina Williams Brewer, fiber artist[5]Michael Bramwell (born 1953), conceptual artistMark Bradford (born 1961)Elenora "Rukiya" Brown, doll creatorFrank J. Brown (born 1956), sculptorFrederick J. Brown (1945–2012), painter[2]Larry Poncho BrownManuelita Brown, sculptorRobert Brown (c. 1936–2007), cartoonistBeverly Buchanan (born 1940), painter, sculptor[1]Selma Burke (1900–1995), sculptor[1]Calvin Burnett (1921–2007), book illustrator[1]Pauline Powell Burns (1872–1912), painterJohn Bush (? - 1754), powder horn carverRobert Butler (1943–2014), painterC–DFrank Calloway (born 1915)E. Simms Campbell (1906–1971), cartoonist[1]Fred Carter (born 1938), cartoonistBernie Casey (born 1939), painter[1]Elizabeth Catlett (1915–2012), sculptor and printmaker[2][1]Nick Cave (born 1959), performance artistMichael Ray Charles (born 1967), painter[2]Barbara Chase-Riboud (born 1936), sculptor[1]Jamour Chames (born 1989), painterDon Hogan Charles (1938–2017), photographerClaude Clark (1915–2001), painter and printmaker[2]Edward Clark (born 1926), painterSonya Clark (born 1967), textile and multimedia artistWillie Cole (born 1955), painter[2]Robert Colescott (1925–2009), painter[2]Kennard Copeland (born 1966), ceramic sculptures [2]Eldzier Cortor (1916–2015), artist and printmaker[1]Ernest Crichlow (1914–2005), social realist artist[1]Allan Crite (1910–2007), painter[2] [1]Emilio Cruz (1938–2004), painter[2]Frank E. Cummings III (born 1938), woodworkerMichael Cummings (born 1945), textile artistUlysses Davis (1913–1990), sculptor[2]Bing Davis (born 1937), potter and graphic artist[1]Roy DeCarava (1919–2009), photographer[2]Beauford Delaney (1901–1979), painter[6]Joseph Delaney (1904–1991)[2]Louis Delsarte (born 1944), artist[1]J Rodney Dennis[7][8] painterJoseph Clinton Devillis (1878-1912), painterThornton Dial (1928–2016)[2]Terry Dixon (born 1969), painter and multimedia artistJeff Donaldson (born 1932), painter and criticAaron Douglas (1899–1979), painter[2][1]Emory Douglas (born 1943), Black Panther artistJohn E. Dowell Jr. (born 1941), printmaker, etcher, lithographer, and painterDavid C. Driskell (born 1931), artist and scholarRobert Scott Duncanson (1821–1872), Hudson River School[2][1]E–HWilliam Edmondson (1874–1951), folk art sculptor[2][1]Mel Edwards (born 1937), sculptor[2][1]Walter Ellison (1899–1977), painter[2]Minnie Evans (1892–1987), folk artist[2] [1]Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller (1877–1968), artist[2][1]Ellen Gallagher (born 1965)[2]Theaster Gates (born 1973), sculptor, ceramicist, and performance artist [Reginald K (Kevin) Gee (born 1964), painterHerbert Gentry (1919–2003), painterWilda Gerideau-Squires (born 1946), photographerRobert A. Gilbert (c. 1870-1942), nature photographer[9]Leah Gilliam (born 1967), media artist and filmmakerSam Gilliam (born 1933), painter[2] [1]Russell T. Gordon (born 1936), printmaker[2]Billy Graham (1935–1999), comic book artistLonnie Graham, photographer and installation artistDeborah Grant (born 1968), painterTodd Gray (born 1954), photographer, installation and performance artistLeamon Green (born 1959)Renee Green (born 1959), installation artist[2]Mario Gully, comic book artistTyree Guyton (born 1955)[2]Ed Hamilton (born 1947), sculptorPatrick Earl Hammie (born 1981), painterDavid Hammons (born 1943), artist[2]Trenton Doyle Hancock (born 1974)[2]Edwin Harleston (1882–1931), painterElise Forrest Harleston (1891–1970), photographerKira Lynn Harris (born 1963), multidisciplinary[10]John Wesley Hardrick (1891–1948), painter[2] [1]Jerry Harris (born 1945), sculptorLawrence Harris, painterMarren Hassenger (born 1947), sculptor, installation, performance[11]Palmer Hayden (1893–1973), painter[2][1]Barkley Hendricks (1945–2017), painterGeorge Herriman (1880–1944), cartoonist[2]Alvin Hollingsworth (1928–2000), illustrator, painterWilliam Howard (active 19th century), American woodworker and craftsmanBryce Hudson (born 1979), painter, sculptor[2]Julien Hudson (1811–1844), painter, sculptor[2]David Huffman (born 1963), painter[12]Richard Hunt (born 1935), sculptor[2][1]Clementine Hunter (1886/7–1988), folk artist[2][1]J–OSteffani Jemison (born 1981), performance artist, video artistWadsworth Jarrell (born 1929), painter, sculptorAnnette P. Jimerson (born 1966), painterJoshua Johnson (c.1763–c.1824), portrait painter and folk artist[2][1]Malvin Gray Johnson (1896–1934), painter[1]Rashid Johnson (born 1977), conceptual artistSargent Johnson (1888–1967), sculptor[2] [1]William H. Johnson (1902–1970)[2][1]Calvin B. Jones (1934–2010), painter, muralistJennie C. Jones (born 1968), multidisciplinaryLois Mailou Jones (1905–1998), painter[2][1]Titus Kaphar (born 1976), painter[13]Gwendolyn Knight (1914–2005), artist[1]Jacob Lawrence (1917–2000), painter[2][1]Deana Lawson (born 1979), photographer[14]Hughie Lee-Smith (1915–1999), artist[2][1]Edmonia Lewis (c. 1843–1879), artist[2][1]Norman Lewis (1909–1979), painter[2][1]Glenn Ligon (born 1960), painter[2]Llanakila, artist, painter, digital illustrator, and digital artistEdward L. Loper, Sr. (1916–2011), painterWhitfield Lovell (born 1960), artistAlvin D. Loving (1935-2005) artistGwendolyn Ann Magee (1943–2011), artist, quilter[15]Clarence Major (born 1936), painterKerry James Marshall (born 1955), painter[2]Eugene J. Martin (1938–2005), painterRichard Mayhew (born 1934), Afro-Native American, landscape painter[16]Valerie Maynard (born 1937), sculptor, printmaker, painterEaly Mays (born 1959), painterHoward McCalebb (born 1947), artistCorky McCoy, illustratorCharles McGee, (born 1924) painterCharles McGill (born 1964), artist, educatorJulie Mehretu (born 1970), painter, printmakerNicole Miller (born 1982), video artistDean Mitchell (born 1957), painterScipio Moorhead (active 1770s), painter[1]Archibald Motley (1891–1981), painter[2][1]Gus Nall (1919-1995), painterHarold Newton (1934–1994), artistLorraine O'Grady (born 1934), conceptual artistTurtel Onli (born 1952), cartoonistJackie Ormes (1911–1985), cartoonistJohn Outterbridge (born 1933), assemblage artist[2][1]Joe Overstreet (born 1933), artist[1]P–SGordon Parks (1912–2006), photographer, director[2][1]Cecelia Pedescleaux (born 1945), quilterDelilah Pierce (1904–1992), artistEarle M. Pilgrim (1923–1976), artistHowardena Pindell (born 1943), painter[2]Jerry Pinkney (born 1939), illustrator[2]Adrian Piper (born 1948), conceptual artist[2]Rose Piper (1917–2005), painter and textile designer[17]Horace Pippin (1888–1946), painter[2][1]Rae Pleasant (born 1985), illustrator[18][19]P. H. Polk (1898–1984), photographerCarl Robert Pope (born 1961), photographer[2]William Pope.L (born 1955) conceptual artistHarriet Powers (1837–1910), folk artist[2]Martin Puryear (born 1941), sculptor[2][1]Patrick H. Reason (1816–1898)Earle Wilton Richardson (1912–1935), artist[1]Faith Ringgold (born 1930), painter[2][1]Haywood Rivers (1922–2001), painterArthur Rose Sr. (1921–1995), multidisciplinaryBayeté Ross Smith (born 1976), photographerAlison Saar (born 1956), artist[2][1]Betye Saar (born 1926), artist[2][1]Charles Sallee (1923–2006), painter[2][20]Reginald Sanders (1921–2001), visual artistRaymond Saunders, painter[1]Augusta Savage (1892–1962), sculptor[2][1]John T. Scott (1940–2007), artistJoyce J. Scott (born 1948), sculptor[2]Lorenzo Scott (born 1934), painterWilliam Edouard Scott (1884–1964), painter[2][1]Charles Sebree (1914–1985), painter[2][1]Ed Sherman (born 1945), photographerThomas Sills (1914–2000), painterGary Simmons (born 1964), artistLorna Simpson (born 1960), artist[2]Merton Simpson (1928–2013), painterWilliam Simpson (1818–1872), portrait painter[1]Cauleen Smith (born 1967), filmmakerLeslie Smith III (born 1985), painterVincent D. Smith (1929–2003), painter and printmaker[21][22]Gilda Snowden (1954–2014)[2]Mitchell Squire (born 1958), American installation artist, sculptor and performance artistRaymond Steth (1916–1997)[2]Renee Stout (born 1958), artist[2]Martine Syms (born 1988), artistT–ZHenry Ossawa Tanner (1859–1937), artist[2][1]Margaret Taylor-Burroughs (1915–2010)[2][1]Alma Thomas (1891–1978), painter[2] [1]Hank Willis Thomas (born 1976), photographerMickalene Thomas (born 1971), painter and installation artistBob Thompson (1937–1966), painter[2][1]Mildred Thompson (1935–2003), abstract painter, printmaker and sculptorDox Thrash (1892–1962), printmaker, sculptor[2] [1]Bill Traylor (1856–1949)[2][1]Henry Taylor (born 1958) painterMorrie Turner (1923–2014), cartoonistJames Van Der Zee (1886–1983), photographer[2] [1]Kara Walker (born 1969), artist[2] [1]William Walker (1927–2011), Chicago muralistLaura Wheeler Waring (1887–1948), painter[2][1]E. M. Washington (born 1962), printmaker and counterfeiterJames W. Washington, Jr. (1908–2000), painter and sculptor[1]Carrie Mae Weems (born 1953), photographer[2]Pheoris WestCharles Wilbert White (1918–1979), muralist[2][1]Jack Whitten (1939-2018), painterKehinde Wiley (born 1977), painterGerald Williams (artist) (Born 1941) painterWilliam T. Williams (born 1942), painter[1]Deborah Willis (born 1948), photographerEllis Wilson (1899–1977), painter[2][1]Fred Wilson (born 1954), conceptual artistJohn Woodrow Wilson (1922–2015), sculptor[2][1]Beulah Woodard (1895–1955), sculptorHale Woodruff (1900–1980), painter[2][1]Richard Wyatt, Jr., (born 1955), painter, muralistRichard Yarde (1939–2011), watercoloristJoseph Yoakum (1890–1972), self-taught landscape artistPurvis Young (1943–2010), artistArtist groupsThe HighwaymenAfriCOBRAWhere We AtNational Conference of ArtistsSpiral (arts alliance) African-American topicsAfrican AmericaHistory (timeline)[show]Culture[show]Religion[show]Political movements[show]Civic / economic groups[show]Sports[show]Ethnic subdivisions[show]Languages[show]Diaspora[show]Lists[show]Category: African-American societyAmericaAfrica.svg African American portalvte This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. 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(June 2007) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)The Black Arts Movement, Black Aesthetics Movement or BAM is the artistic outgrowth of the Black Power movement that was prominent in the 1960s and early 1970s.[1][2][3] Time magazine describes the Black Arts Movement as the "single most controversial movement in the history of African-American literature – possibly in American literature as a whole."[4] The Black Arts Repertory Theatre/School (BARTS), founded in Harlem in 1965 by LeRoi Jones (later known as Amiri Baraka) is a key institution of the Black Arts Movement.[5] Contents1Overview1.1Influence2History2.1Authors2.2Locations3The Black Aesthetic4Major works4.1Black Art4.2"The Revolutionary Theatre"5Effects on society6Associated writers and thinkers7Related exhibitions and conferences8See also9References10External linksOverviewThe movement has been seen as one of the most important times in African-American literature. It inspired black people to establish their own publishing houses, magazines, journals and art institutions. It led to the creation of African-American Studies programs within universities.[6] The movement was triggered by the assassination of Malcolm X.[7] Among the well-known writers who were involved with the movement are Nikki Giovanni, Sonia Sanchez, Maya Angelou, Hoyt W. Fuller, and Rosa Guy.[8][9] Although not strictly part of the Movement, other notable African-American writers such as novelists Toni Morrison and Ishmael Reed share some of its artistic and thematic concerns. Although Reed is neither a movement apologist nor advocate, he said: I think what Black Arts did was inspire a whole lot of Black people to write. Moreover, there would be no multiculturalism movement without Black Arts. Latinos, Asian Americans, and others all say they began writing as a result of the example of the 1960s. Blacks gave the example that you don't have to assimilate. You could do your own thing, get into your own background, your own history, your own tradition and your own culture. I think the challenge is for cultural sovereignty and Black Arts struck a blow for that.[10] BAM influenced the world of literature with the portrayal of different ethnic voices. Before the movement, the literary canon lacked diversity, and the ability to express ideas from the point of view of racial and ethnic minorities, which was not valued by the mainstream at the time. InfluenceTheatre groups, poetry performances, music and dance were centered on this movement, and therefore African Americans gained social and historical recognition in the area of literature and arts. Due to the agency and credibility given, African Americans were also able to educate others through different types of expressions and media outlets about cultural differences. The most common form of teaching was through poetry reading. African-American performances were used for their own political advertisement, organization, and community issues. The Black Arts Movement was spread by the use of newspaper advertisements.[11] The first major arts movement publication was in 1964. "No one was more competent in [the] combination of the experimental and the vernacular than Amiri Baraka, whose volume Black Magic Poetry 1961–1967 (1969) is one of the finest products of the African-American creative energies of the 1960s."[4] HistoryThe beginnings of the Black Arts Movement may be traced to 1965, when Amiri Baraka, at that time still known as Leroi Jones, moved uptown to establish the Black Arts Repertory Theatre/School (BARTS) following the assassination of Malcolm X.[4] Rooted in the Nation of Islam, the Black Power Movement and the Civil Rights Movement, the Black Arts Movement grew out of a changing political and cultural climate in which Black artists attempted to create politically engaged work that explored the African American cultural and historical experience.[4] Black artists and intellectuals such as Baraka made it their project to reject older political, cultural, and artistic traditions.[12] Although the success of sit-ins and public demonstrations of the Black student movement in the 1960s may have "inspired black intellectuals, artists, and political activists to form politicized cultural groups,"[12] many Black Arts activists rejected the non-militant integrational ideologies of the Civil Rights Movement and instead favored those of the Black Liberation Struggle, which emphasized "self-determination through self-reliance and Black control of significant businesses, organization, agencies, and institutions."[13] According to the Academy of American Poets, "African American artists within the movement sought to create politically engaged work that explored the African American cultural and historical experience." The importance that the movement placed on Black autonomy is apparent through the creation of institutions such as the Black Arts Repertoire Theatre School (BARTS), created in the spring of 1964 by Baraka and other Black artists. The opening of BARTS in New York City often overshadow the growth of other radical Black Arts groups and institutions all over the United States. In fact, transgressional and international networks, those of various Left and nationalist (and Left nationalist) groups and their supports, existed far before the movement gained popularity.[12] Although the creation of BARTS did indeed catalyze the spread of other Black Arts institutions and the Black Arts movement across the nation, it was not solely responsible for the growth of the movement. Although the Black Arts Movement was a time filled with black success and artistic progress, the movement also faced social and racial ridicule. The leaders and artists involved called for Black Art to define itself and speak for itself from the security of its own institutions. For many of the contemporaries the idea that somehow black people could express themselves through institutions of their own creation and with ideas whose validity was confirmed by their own interests and measures was absurd.[14] While it is easy to assume that the movement began solely in the Northeast, it actually started out as "separate and distinct local initiatives across a wide geographic area," eventually coming together to form the broader national movement.[12] New York City is often referred to as the "birthplace" of the Black Arts Movement, because it was home to many revolutionary Black artists and activists. However, the geographical diversity of the movement opposes the misconception that New York (and Harlem, especially) was the primary site of the movement.[12] In its beginning states, the movement came together largely through printed media. Journals such as Liberator, The Crusader, and Freedomways created "a national community in which ideology and aesthetics were debated and a wide range of approaches to African-American artistic style and subject displayed."[12] These publications tied communities outside of large Black Arts centers to the movement and gave the general black public access to these sometimes exclusive circles. As a literary movement, Black Arts had its roots in groups such as the Umbra Workshop. Umbra (1962) was a collective of young Black writers based in Manhattan's Lower East Side; major members were writers Steve Cannon,[15] Tom Dent, Al Haynes, David Henderson, Calvin C. Hernton, Joe Johnson, Norman Pritchard, Lennox Raphael, Ishmael Reed, Lorenzo Thomas, James Thompson, Askia M. Touré (Roland Snellings; also a visual artist), Brenda Walcott, and musician-writer Archie Shepp. Touré, a major shaper of "cultural nationalism," directly influenced Jones. Along with Umbra writer Charles Patterson and Charles's brother, William Patterson, Touré joined Jones, Steve Young, and others at BARTS. Umbra, which produced Umbra Magazine, was the first post-civil rights Black literary group to make an impact as radical in the sense of establishing their own voice distinct from, and sometimes at odds with, the prevailing white literary establishment. The attempt to merge a black-oriented activist thrust with a primarily artistic orientation produced a classic split in Umbra between those who wanted to be activists and those who thought of themselves as primarily writers, though to some extent all members shared both views. Black writers have always had to face the issue of whether their work was primarily political or aesthetic. Moreover, Umbra itself had evolved out of similar circumstances: in 1960 a Black nationalist literary organization, On Guard for Freedom, had been founded on the Lower East Side by Calvin Hicks. Its members included Nannie and Walter Bowe, Harold Cruse (who was then working on The Crisis of the Negro Intellectual, 1967), Tom Dent, Rosa Guy, Joe Johnson, LeRoi Jones, and Sarah E. Wright, among others. On Guard was active in a famous protest at the United Nations of the American-sponsored Bay of Pigs Cuban invasion and was active in support of the Congolese liberation leader Patrice Lumumba. From On Guard, Dent, Johnson, and Walcott along with Hernton, Henderson, and Touré established Umbra. AuthorsAnother formation of black writers at that time was the Harlem Writers Guild, led by John O. Killens, which included Maya Angelou, Jean Carey Bond, Rosa Guy, and Sarah Wright among others. But the Harlem Writers Guild focused on prose, primarily fiction, which did not have the mass appeal of poetry performed in the dynamic vernacular of the time. Poems could be built around anthems, chants, and political slogans, and thereby used in organizing work, which was not generally the case with novels and short stories. Moreover, the poets could and did publish themselves, whereas greater resources were needed to publish fiction. That Umbra was primarily poetry- and performance-oriented established a significant and classic characteristic of the movement's aesthetics. When Umbra split up, some members, led by Askia Touré and Al Haynes, moved to Harlem in late 1964 and formed the nationalist-oriented Uptown Writers Movement, which included poets Yusef Rahman, Keorapetse "Willie" Kgositsile from South Africa, and Larry Neal. Accompanied by young "New Music" musicians, they performed poetry all over Harlem. Members of this group joined LeRoi Jones in founding BARTS. Jones's move to Harlem was short-lived. In December 1965 he returned to his home, Newark (N.J.), and left BARTS in serious disarray. BARTS failed but the Black Arts center concept was irrepressible, mainly because the Black Arts movement was so closely aligned with the then-burgeoning Black Power movement. The mid-to-late 1960s was a period of intense revolutionary ferment. Beginning in 1964, rebellions in Harlem and Rochester, New York, initiated four years of long hot summers. Watts, Detroit, Newark, Cleveland, and many other cities went up in flames, culminating in nationwide explosions of resentment and anger following Martin Luther King, Jr.'s April 1968 assassination. Nathan Hare, author of The Black Anglo-Saxons (1965), was the founder of 1960s Black Studies. Expelled from Howard University, Hare moved to San Francisco State University, where the battle to establish a Black Studies department was waged during a five-month strike during the 1968–69 school year. As with the establishment of Black Arts, which included a range of forces, there was broad activity in the Bay Area around Black Studies, including efforts led by poet and professor Sarah Webster Fabio at Merrit College. The initial thrust of Black Arts ideological development came from the Revolutionary Action Movement (RAM), a national organization with a strong presence in New York City. Both Touré and Neal were members of RAM. After RAM, the major ideological force shaping the Black Arts movement was the US (as opposed to "them") organization led by Maulana Karenga. Also ideologically important was Elijah Muhammad's Chicago-based Nation of Islam. These three formations provided both style and conceptual direction for Black Arts artists, including those who were not members of these or any other political organization. Although the Black Arts Movement is often considered a New York-based movement, two of its three major forces were located outside New York City. LocationsAs the movement matured, the two major locations of Black Arts' ideological leadership, particularly for literary work, were California's Bay Area because of the Journal of Black Poetry and The Black Scholar, and the Chicago–Detroit axis because of Negro Digest/Black World and Third World Press in Chicago, and Broadside Press and Naomi Long Madgett's Lotus Press in Detroit. The only major Black Arts literary publications to come out of New York were the short-lived (six issues between 1969 and 1972) Black Theatre magazine, published by the New Lafayette Theatre, and Black Dialogue, which had actually started in San Francisco (1964–68) and relocated to New York (1969–72). Although the journals and writing of the movement greatly characterized its success, the movement placed a great deal of importance on collective oral and performance art. Public collective performances drew a lot of attention to the movement, and it was often easier to get an immediate response from a collective poetry reading, short play, or street performance than it was from individual performances.[12] The people involved in the Black Arts Movement used the arts as a way to liberate themselves. The movement served as a catalyst for many different ideas and cultures to come alive. This was a chance for African Americans to express themselves in a way that most would not have expected. In 1967 LeRoi Jones visited Karenga in Los Angeles and became an advocate of Karenga's philosophy of Kawaida. Kawaida, which produced the "Nguzo Saba" (seven principles), Kwanzaa, and an emphasis on African names, was a multifaceted, categorized activist philosophy. Jones also met Bobby Seale and Eldridge Cleaver and worked with a number of the founding members of the Black Panthers. Additionally, Askia Touré was a visiting professor at San Francisco State and was to become a leading (and long-lasting) poet as well as, arguably, the most influential poet-professor in the Black Arts movement. Playwright Ed Bullins and poet Marvin X had established Black Arts West, and Dingane Joe Goncalves had founded the Journal of Black Poetry (1966). This grouping of Ed Bullins, Dingane Joe Goncalves, LeRoi Jones, Sonia Sanchez, Askia M. Touré, and Marvin X became a major nucleus of Black Arts leadership.[16] As the movement grew, ideological conflicts arose and eventually became too great for the movement to continue to exist as a large, coherent collective. The Black AestheticMany discussions of the Black Arts movement posit it as the "aesthetic and spiritual sister of the Black Power concept."[17] The Black Aesthetic refers to ideologies and perspectives of art that center on Black culture and life. This Black Aesthetic encouraged the idea of Black separatism, and in trying to facilitate this, hoped to further strengthen black ideals, solidarity, and creativity.[18] In his well-known essay on the Black Arts Movement, Larry Neal attests: "When we speak of a 'Black aesthetic' several things are meant. First, we assume that there is already in existence the basis for such an aesthetic. Essentially, it consists of an African-American cultural tradition. But this aesthetic is finally, by implication, broader than that tradition. It encompasses most of the usable elements of the Third World culture. The motive behind the Black aesthetic is the destruction of the white thing, the destruction of white ideas, and white ways of looking at the world."[17] Major worksBlack ArtAmiri Baraka's poem "Black Art" serves as one of his most controversial, yet poetically profound supplements to the Black Arts Movement. In this piece, Baraka merges politics with art, criticizing poems that are not useful to or adequately representative of the Black struggle. First published in 1966, a period particularly known for the Civil Rights Movement, the political aspect of this piece underscores the need for a concrete and artistic approach to the realistic nature involving racism and injustice. Serving as the recognized artistic component to and having roots in the Civil Rights Movement, the Black Arts Movement aims to grant a political voice to black artists (including poets, dramatists, writers, musicians, etc.). Playing a vital role in this movement, Baraka calls out what he considers to be unproductive and assimilatory actions shown by political leaders during the Civil Rights Movement. He describes prominent Black leaders as being "on the steps of the white house...kneeling between the sheriff's thighs negotiating coolly for his people."[19] Baraka also presents issues of euro-centric mentality, by referring to Elizabeth Taylor as a prototypical model in a society that influences perceptions of beauty, emphasizing its influence on individuals of white and black ancestry.[19] Baraka aims his message toward the Black community, with the purpose of coalescing African Americans into a unified movement, devoid of white influences. "Black Art" serves as a medium for expression meant to strengthen that solidarity and creativity, in terms of the Black Aesthetic. Baraka believes poems should "shoot…come at you, love what you are" and not succumb to mainstream desires.[19] He ties this approach into the emergence of hip-hop, which he paints as a movement that presents "live words…and live flesh and coursing blood."[19] Baraka's cathartic structure and aggressive tone are comparable to the beginnings of hip-hop music, which created controversy in the realm of mainstream acceptance, because of its "authentic, un-distilled, unmediated forms of contemporary black urban music."[20] Baraka believes that integration inherently takes away from the legitimacy of having a Black identity and Aesthetic in an anti-Black world. Through pure and unapologetic blackness, and with the absence of white influences, Baraka believes a black world can be achieved. Though hip-hop has been serving as a recognized salient musical form of the Black Aesthetic, a history of unproductive integration is seen across the spectrum of music, beginning with the emergence of a newly formed narrative in mainstream appeal in the 1950s. Much of Baraka's cynical disillusionment with unproductive integration can be drawn from the 50s, a period of rock and roll, in which "record labels actively sought to have white artists "cover" songs that were popular on the rhythm-and-blues charts"[20] originally performed by African-American artists. The problematic nature of unproductive integration is also exemplified by Run-DMC, an American hip-hop group founded in 1981, who became widely accepted after a calculated collaboration with the rock group Aerosmith on a remake of the latter's "Walk This Way" took place in 1986, evidently appealing to young white audiences.[20] Hip-hop emerged as an evolving genre of music that continuously challenged mainstream acceptance, most notably with the development of rap in the 1990s. A significant and modern example of this is Ice Cube, a well-known American rapper, songwriter, and actor, who introduced subgenre of hip-hop known as "gangsta rap," merged social consciousness and political expression with music. With the 1960s serving as a more blatantly racist period of time, Baraka notes the revolutionary nature of hip-hop, grounded in the unmodified expression through art. This method of expression in music parallels significantly with Baraka's ideals presented in "Black Art," focusing on poetry that is also productively and politically driven. "The Revolutionary Theatre""The Revolutionary Theatre" is a 1965 essay by Baraka that was an important contribution to the Black Arts Movement, discussing the need for change through literature and theater arts. He says: "We will scream and cry, murder, run through the streets in agony, if it means some soul will be moved, moved to actual life understanding of what the world is, and what it ought to be." Baraka wrote his poetry, drama, fiction and essays in a way that would shock and awaken audiences to the political concerns of black Americans, which says much about what he was doing with this essay.[21] It also did not seem coincidental to him that Malcolm X and John F. Kennedy had been assassinated within a few years, since Baraka believed that every voice of change in America had been murdered, which led to the writing that would come out of the Black Arts Movement. In his essay, Baraka says: "The Revolutionary Theatre is shaped by the world, and moves to reshape the world, using as its force the natural force and perpetual vibrations of the mind in the world. We are history and desire, what we are, and what any experience can make us." With his thought-provoking ideals and references to a euro-centric society, he imposes the notion that black Americans should stray from a white aesthetic in order to find a black identity. In his essay, he says: "The popular white man's theatre like the popular white man's novel shows tired white lives, and the problems of eating white sugar, or else it herds bigcaboosed blondes onto huge stages in rhinestones and makes believe they are dancing or singing." This, having much to do with a white aesthetic, further proves what was popular in society and even what society had as an example of what everyone should aspire to be, like the "bigcaboosed blondes" that went "onto huge stages in rhinestones". Furthermore, these blondes made believe they were "dancing and singing" which Baraka seems to be implying that white people dancing is not what dancing is supposed to be at all. These allusions bring forth the question of where black Americans fit in the public eye. Baraka says: "We are preaching virtue and feeling, and a natural sense of the self in the world. All men live in the world, and the world ought to be a place for them to live." Baraka's essay challenges the idea that there is no space in politics or in society for black Americans to make a difference through different art forms that consist of, but are not limited to, poetry, song, dance, and art. Effects on societyAccording to the Academy of American Poets, "many writers--Native Americans, Latinos/as, gays and lesbians, and younger generations of African Americans have acknowledged their debt to the Black Arts Movement."[4] The movement lasted for about a decade, through the mid-1960s and into the 1970s. This was a period of controversy and change in the world of literature. One major change came through in the portrayal of new ethnic voices in the United States. English-language literature, prior to the Black Arts Movement, was dominated by white authors.[22] African Americans became a greater presence not only in the field of literature but in all areas of the arts. Theater groups, poetry performances, music and dance were central to the movement. Through different forms of media, African Americans were able to educate others about the expression of cultural differences and viewpoints. In particular, black poetry readings allowed African Americans to use vernacular dialogues. This was shown in the Harlem Writers Guild, which included black writers such as Maya Angelou and Rosa Guy. These performances were used to express political slogans and as a tool for organization. Theater performances also were used to convey community issues and organizations. The theaters, as well as cultural centers, were based throughout America and were used for community meetings, study groups and film screenings. Newspapers were a major tool in spreading the Black Arts Movement. In 1964, Black Dialogue was published, making it the first major Arts movement publication. The Black Arts Movement, although short, is essential to the history of the United States. It spurred political activism and use of speech throughout every African-American community. It allowed African Americans the chance to express their voices in the mass media as well as become involved in communities. It can be argued that "the Black Arts movement produced some of the most exciting poetry, drama, dance, music, visual art, and fiction of the post-World War II United States" and that many important "post-Black artists" such as Toni Morrison, Ntozake Shange, Alice Walker, and August Wilson were shaped by the movement.[12] The Black Arts Movement also provided incentives for public funding of the arts and increased public support of various arts initiatives.[12] Associated writers and thinkersDon EvansMari EvansSarah Webster FabioHoyt W. FullerNikki GiovanniRosa GuyHarlem Writers GuildDavid HendersonAudre LordeDudley RandallSonia SanchezRelated exhibitions and conferencesThe Arts Council of England's (ACE) Decibel initiative produced a summary in 2003 in association with The Guardian newspaper.[23][24] An international exhibition, Back to Black — Art, Cinema and the Racial Imaginary, was held at the Whitechapel Gallery in 2005.[25] A 2006 major conference Should Black Art Still Be Beautiful?, organized by OOM Gallery and Midwest, examined the development of contemporary Black cultural practice and its future in Britain. On April 1, 2006, New Art Gallery, Walsall, UK, held a conference in honour of the late Donald Rodney. Gallery 32 and Its Circle, a 2009 art exhibition hosted at Loyola Mount University's Laband Art Gallery,[26] featured artwork displayed the eponymous gallery, which featured black artists in the Los Angeles area and played an integral role in the Black Arts movement in the area.[27] A recently redeveloped African and Asian Visual Arts Archive is located at the University of East London (UEL).[28]While African American art of the 18th and 19th centuries continued to reflect African artistic traditions, the earliest fine art made by professional African American artists was in an academic Western style. Among the leading black sculptors of the 19th century were Eugene Warbourg and Mary Edmonia Lewis, the first professional African American sculptor. The most distinguished African American artist who worked in the 19th century was Henry Ossawa Tanner, who painted African American genre subjects and reflects the realist tradition. In the early 20th century, the most important aesthetic movement in African American art was the Harlem Renaissance or the ‘New Negro’ movement of the 1920s. The Harlem district of New York became the ‘cultural capital of black America’. Practicing in New York, Stuart Davis was heavily influenced by African American culture and jazz music, though he was not an African American. Aaron Douglas consciously incorporated African imagery into his work. The most important African American photographer of that period was James Van Der Zee, who photographed people and scenes in Harlem for more than 50 years. During and immediately after World War II there arose to prominence a new school of African American artists, many of whom were the so-called ‘children of the Harlem Renaissance’. During the 1950s African American art was dominated by Abstract Expressionism and realism; their significant practitioners included Charles Alston, Romare Bearden and James Wells. In the 1960s and 1970s new classifications appeared in African American art based on continuing developments in abstract art and the rise of the figurative style known as Black Expressionism. The most prominent African American abstract painter was Sam Gilliam, based in Washington, DC. Martin Puryear emerged during the 1980s as a leading African American abstract sculptor. In the 1980s African American art was the subject of a number of pioneering exhibitions, such as Black Art—Ancestral Legacy: The African Impulse in African American Art (Dallas Museum of Art, 1989), that brought together the works of African, Caribbean and African American academic and folk artists. Today’s artists, such as Kara Walker and Fred Wilson, continue to grapple with the complex issues of African American history and identity in contemporary visual art. Size: Medium (up to 36in.), edition size: 100, Artist: DEWEY CRUMPLER, Listed By: Dealer or Reseller, Medium: Lithograph, Features: Signed, Width (Inches): 25 3/4, Originality: Limited Edition Print, Height (Inches): 20

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