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EGYPT ÄGYPTEN 1903 RARE LETTER GIVE Berlin Museum THE REST OF 2 obelisks 1842

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Seller: tarekmmm (3,901) 100%, Location: 32111, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 202296604959 EGYPT ÄGYPTEN 1903 RARE LETTER GIVE Berlin Museum THE REST OF 2 obelisks 1842 Description: EGYPT ÄGYPTEN 1903 RARE LETTER GIVE Berlin Museum THE REST OF 2 obelisks WHICH WERE GIVEN TO KING OF BROSIA 1842VERY IMPORTANT NOTE : Shipping to United States & Australia takes up to 2 months shipping. Other countries 7 to 15 days ObeliskFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaFor other uses, see Obelisk (disambiguation).One of the two Luxorobelisks, in the Place de la Concorde in Paris; a red granite monolithiccolumn, 23 metres (75 feet) high, including the base, which weighs over 250 metric tons (280 short tons).An obelisk (UK: /ˈɒbəlɪsk/; US: /ˈɑːbəlɪsk/, from Ancient Greek: ὀβελίσκος obeliskos;[1][2] diminutive of ὀβελός obelos, "spit, nail, pointed pillar"[3]) is a tall, four-sided, narrow tapering monument which ends in a pyramid-like shape or pyramidion at the top. These were originally called tekhenu by their builders, the Ancient Egyptians. The Greeks who saw them used the Greek term 'obeliskos' to describe them, and this word passed into Latin and ultimately English.[4] Ancient obelisks are monolithic; that is, they consist of a single stone. Most modern obelisks are made of several stones; some, like the Washington Monument, are buildings.The term stele is generally used for other monumental, upright, inscribed and sculpted stones.Contents [hide] 1Ancient obelisks1.1Egyptian1.2Assyrian1.3Axumite (Ethiopia)1.4Ancient Roman1.5Byzantine1.6Pre-Columbian2Modern obelisks2.117th century2.218th century2.319th century2.420th century2.521st century3Erection experiments4See also5Notes6References7Further reading8External linksAncient obelisks[edit]Egyptian[edit]See also: List of obelisks in RomePylon of the Temple of Luxor with the remaining obelisk (of two) in front (the second is in the Place de la Concorde in Paris).Obelisk of Pharaoh Senusret I, Al-Maalla area of Al-Matariyyah district in modern Heliopolis.Obelisks were prominent in the architecture of the ancient Egyptians, who placed them in pairs at the entrance of temples. The word "obelisk" as used in English today is of Greek rather than Egyptian origin because Herodotus, the Greek traveller, was one of the first classical writers to describe the objects. A number of ancient Egyptian obelisks are known to have survived, plus the "Unfinished Obelisk" found partly hewn from its quarry at Aswan. These obelisks are now dispersed around the world, and fewer than half of them remain in Egypt.The earliest temple obelisk still in its original position is the 68-foot (20.7 m) 120-metric-ton (130-short-ton)[5] red granite Obelisk of Senusret Iof the XIIth Dynasty at Al-Matariyyah in modern Heliopolis.[6]The obelisk symbolized the sun god Ra, and during the brief religious reformation of Akhenaten was said to be a petrified ray of the Aten, the sundisk. It was also thought that the god existed within the structure.Benben was the mound that arose from the primordial waters Nu upon which the creator god Atum settled in the creation story of the Heliopolitan creation myth form of Ancient Egyptian religion. The Benben stone (also known as a pyramidion) is the top stone of the Egyptian pyramid. It is also related to the Obelisk.It is hypothesized by New York University Egyptologist Patricia Blackwell Gary and Astronomy senior editor Richard Talcott that the shapes of the ancient Egyptian pyramid and obelisk were derived from natural phenomena associated with the sun (the sun-god Ra being the Egyptians' greatest deity).[7] The pyramid and obelisk might have been inspired by previously overlooked astronomical phenomena connected with sunrise and sunset: the zodiacal light and sun pillars respectively.The Ancient Romans were strongly influenced by the obelisk form, to the extent that there are now more than twice as many obelisks standing in Rome as remain in Egypt. All fell after the Roman period except for the Vatican obelisk and were re-erected in different locations.The largest standing and tallest Egyptian obelisk is the Lateran Obelisk in the square at the west side of the Lateran Basilica in Rome at 105.6 feet (32.2 m) tall and a weight of 455 metric tons (502 short tons).[8]Not all the Egyptian obelisks in the Roman Empire were set up at Rome. Herod the Great imitated his Roman patrons and set up a red granite Egyptian obelisk in the hippodrome of his new city Caesarea in northern Judea. This one is about 40 feet (12 m) tall and weighs about 100 metric tons (110 short tons).[9] It was discovered by archaeologists and has been re-erected at its former site.In Constantinople, the Eastern Emperor Theodosius shipped an obelisk in AD 390 and had it set up in his hippodrome, where it has weathered Crusaders and Seljuks and stands in the Hippodrome square in modern Istanbul. This one stood 95 feet (29 m) tall and weighing 380 metric tons (420 short tons). Its lower half reputedly also once stood in Istanbul but is now lost. The Istanbul obelisk is 65 feet (20 m) tall.[10]Rome is the obelisk capital of the world.[citation needed] The most well-known is probably the 25 metres (82 ft), 331-metric-ton (365-short-ton) obelisk at Saint Peter's Square in Rome.[8] The obelisk had stood since AD 37 on its site on the wall of the Circus of Nero, flanking St Peter's Basilica:"The elder Pliny in his Natural History refers to the obelisk's transportation from Egypt to Rome by order of the Emperor Gaius (Caligula) as an outstanding event. The barge that carried it had a huge mast of fir wood which four men's arms could not encircle. One hundred and twenty bushels of lentils were needed for ballast. Having fulfilled its purpose, the gigantic vessel was no longer wanted. Therefore, filled with stones and cement, it was sunk to form the foundations of the foremost quay of the new harbour at Ostia."[11]Re-erecting the obelisk had daunted even Michelangelo, but Sixtus V was determined to erect it in front of St Peter's, of which the nave was yet to be built. He had a full-sized wooden mock-up erected within months of his election. Domenico Fontana, the assistant of Giacomo Della Porta in the Basilica's construction, presented the Pope with a little model crane of wood and a heavy little obelisk of lead, which Sixtus himself was able to raise by turning a little winch with his finger. Fontana was given the project.The obelisk, half-buried in the debris of the ages, was first excavated as it stood; then it took from 30 April to 17 May 1586 to move it on rollers to the Piazza: it required nearly 1000 men, 140 carthorses, and 47 cranes. The re-erection, scheduled for 14 September, the Feast of the Exaltation of the Cross, was watched by a large crowd. It was a famous feat of engineering, which made the reputation of Fontana, who detailed it in a book illustrated with copperplate etchings, Della Trasportatione dell'Obelisco Vaticano et delle Fabriche di Nostro Signore Papa Sisto V (1590),[12][13] which itself set a new standard in communicating technical information and influenced subsequent architectural publications by its meticulous precision.[14] Before being re-erected the obelisk was exorcised. It is said that Fontana had teams of relay horses to make his getaway if the enterprise failed. When Carlo Maderno came to build the Basilica's nave, he had to put the slightest kink in its axis, to line it precisely with the obelisk.Three more obelisks were erected in Rome under Sixtus V: the one behind Santa Maria Maggiore (1587), the giant obelisk at the Lateran Basilica (1588), and the one at Piazza del Popolo (1589).[15]An obelisk stands in front of the church of Trinità dei Monti, at the head of the Spanish Steps. Another obelisk in Rome is sculpted as carried on the back of an elephant. Rome lost one of its obelisks, the Boboli obelisk which had decorated the temple of Isis, where it was uncovered in the 16th century. The Medici claimed it for the Villa Medici, but in 1790 they moved it to the Boboli Gardens attached to the Palazzo Pitti in Florence, and left a replica in its stead.Several more Egyptian obelisks have been re-erected elsewhere. The best-known examples outside Rome are the pair of 21-metre (69 ft) 187-metric-ton (206-short-ton) Cleopatra's Needles in London (21 metres or 69 feet) and New York City (21 metres or 70 feet) and the 23-metre (75 ft) 227-metric-ton (250-short-ton) obelisk at the Place de la Concorde in Paris.[16]Tip of Hatshepsut's fallen obelisk, Karnak Temple Complex, Luxor, EgyptThe Obelisk of Tuthmosis III, Istanbul, TurkeyThe Dutch Golden Age painter Bartholomeus Breenbergh placed an obelisk in the background of his 1655 painting Joseph Sells GrainThere are ancient Egyptian obelisks in the following locations:Egypt – 8Pharaoh Thutmosis I, Karnak Temple, LuxorPharaoh Ramses II, Luxor TemplePharaoh Hatshepsut, Karnak Temple, LuxorPharaoh Senusret I, Al-Masalla area of Al-Matariyyah district in Heliopolis, CairoPharaoh Ramses III, Luxor MuseumPharaoh Ramses II, Gezira Island, Cairo, 20.4 m (67 ft)[17]Pharaoh Ramses II, Cairo International Airport, 16.97 m (55.7 ft)Pharaoh Seti II, Karnak Temple, Luxor, 7 m (23 ft)France – 1Pharaoh Ramses II, Luxor Obelisk, in Place de la Concorde, ParisIsrael – 1Caesarea obeliskItaly – 13 (includes the only one located in the Vatican City)Rome — 8 ancient Egyptian obelisks (see List of obelisks in Rome)Piazza del Duomo, Catania (Sicily)Benevento, two obelisksBoboli Obelisk (Florence)UrbinoPoland – 1Ramses II, Poznań Archaeological Museum, Poznań (on loan from Ägyptisches Museum und Papyrussammlung, Berlin)[18]Turkey – 1Pharaoh Tuthmosis III, the Obelisk of Theodosius in the Hippodrome, Istanbul, along with the Byzantine Walled Obelisk and the Serpent ColumnUnited Kingdom – 4Pharaoh Tuthmosis III, "Cleopatra's Needle", on Victoria Embankment, LondonPharaoh Amenhotep II, in the Oriental Museum, University of DurhamPharaoh Ptolemy IX, Philae obelisk, at Kingston Lacy, near Wimborne Minster, DorsetPharaoh Nectanebo II, British Museum, London (pair of obelisks)United States – 1Pharaoh Tuthmosis III, "Cleopatra's Needle", in Central Park, New YorkAssyrian[edit]Obelisk monuments are also known from the Assyrian civilization, where they were erected as public monuments that commemorated the achievements of the Assyrian king.The British Museum possesses four Assyrian obelisks:The White Obelisk of Ashurnasirpal I (named due to its colour), was discovered by Hormuzd Rassam in 1853 at Nineveh. The obelisk was erected by either Ashurnasirpal I (1050–1031 BC) or Ashurnasirpal II (883–859 BC). The obelisk bears an inscription that refers to the king’s seizure of goods, people and herds, which he carried back to the city of Ashur. The reliefs of the Obelisk depict military campaigns, hunting, victory banquets and scenes of tribute bearing.The Rassam Obelisk, named after its discoverer Hormuzd Rassam, was found on the citadel of Nimrud (ancient Kalhu). It was erected by Ashurnasirpal II, though only survives in fragments. The surviving parts of the reliefs depict scenes of tribute bearing to the king from Syria and the west.[19]The Black Obelisk was discovered by Sir Austen Henry Layard in 1846 on the citadel of Kalhu. The obelisk was erected by Shalmaneser III and the reliefs depict scenes of tribute bearing as well as the depiction of two subdued rulers, Jehu the Israelite and Sua the Gilzanean, giving gestures of submission to the king. The reliefs on the obelisk have accompanying epigraphs, but besides these the obelisk also possesses a longer inscription that records one of the latest versions of Shalmaneser III’s annals, covering the period from his accessional year to his 33rd regnal year.The Broken Obelisk, that was also discovered by Rassam at Nineveh. Only the top of this monolith has been reconstructed in the British Museum. The obelisk is the oldest recorded obelisk from Assyria, dating to the 11th century BC.[20]Axumite (Ethiopia) EGYPTIAN Antiquities Service French Directors Auguste Mariette (1858-1881) Gaston Maspero (1881-1886) Eugène Grébaut (1886-1892) Jacques de Morgan (1892-1897) Victor Loret (1897-1899) Gaston Maspero (1899-1914) Pierre Lacau (1914-1936) Étienne Drioton (1936-1952 PLEASE SEE SCAN Payment: - I ONLY accept the following methods PayPal, Skrill and Domestic checks (inside Egypt) - Pay safety by your Visa credit card on line through www.skrill.com - Payment should be within 7 days from the end of end date, Personal Cheques not accepted - For other Payment methods, please contact me first. Shipping: Item will send only By registered mail Terms of Sale: Feed back I will place feedback to the buyer after the complete of the transaction successfully. Please, If you are happy with the transaction post me +ve feedback and I will do the same. If not contact me first so we can solve the problem Contact Us: If you have any questions please contact us Condition: EGYPT ÄGYPTEN 1903 RARE LETTER GIVE Berlin Museum THE REST OF 2 obelisks 1842, Material: Paper

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