EGYPT 1891 LETTER SIGNED BY UK ENGLISH Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener

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Seller: tarekmmm (3,962) 100%, Location: 32111, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 193171410397 Description: EGYPT 1891 LETTER SIGNED BY UK ENGLISH Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchenerthe paper has some cuts from back and repaired by firm as shown in the scanPLEASE SEE SCANVERY IMPORTANT NOTE : Shipping to United States takes up to 2 months cost $10.00 registered mail via United Arab Emirates or $37.71 via Fedex. Other countries 15 to 21 days Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl KitchenerFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to navigationJump to searchField Marshal His Excellency The Right Honourable The Earl Kitchener KG, KP, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, PCHerbert Kitchener in full dress uniform (July 1910)Secretary of State for WarIn office 5 August 1914 – 5 June 1916MonarchGeorge VPrime MinisterH. H. AsquithPreceded byH. H. AsquithSucceeded byDavid Lloyd GeorgeConsul-General in EgyptIn office 1911–1914Personal detailsBorn24 June 1850 Ballylongford, County Kerry, IrelandDied5 June 1916 (aged 65) HMS Hampshire, west of Orkney, ScotlandRelationsThe 2nd Earl Kitchener Sir Walter KitchenerMilitary serviceAllegianceUnited KingdomBranch/serviceBritish ArmyYears of service1871–1916RankField MarshalCommandsCommander-in-Chief, India (1902–09) British Forces in South Africa (1900–02) Egyptian Army (1892–99)Battles/warsFranco-Prussian War Mahdist War:Battle of FerkehBattle of AtbaraBattle of OmdurmanSecond Boer War:Battle of PaardebergFirst World WarAwardsKnight of the Order of the Garter Knight of the Order of St Patrick Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath Member of the Order of Merit Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian EmpireField Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, KG, KP, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, PC (/ˈkɪtʃɪnər/; 24 June 1850 – 5 June 1916) was a senior British Army officer and colonial administrator who won notoriety for his imperial campaigns, most especially his scorched earth policy against the Boers and his establishment of concentration camps during the Second Boer War,[1] and later played a central role in the early part of the First World War.Kitchener was credited in 1898 for winning the Battle of Omdurman and securing control of the Sudan for which he was made Earl Kitchener of Khartoum. As Chief of Staff (1900–1902) in the Second Boer War he played a key role in Lord Roberts' conquest of the Boer Republics, then succeeded Roberts as commander-in-chief – by which time Boer forces had taken to guerrilla fighting and British forces imprisoned Boer civilians in concentration camps. His term as Commander-in-Chief (1902–09) of the Army in India saw him quarrel with another eminent proconsul, the Viceroy Lord Curzon, who eventually resigned. Kitchener then returned to Egypt as British Agent and Consul-General (de facto administrator).In 1914, at the start of the First World War, Kitchener became Secretary of State for War, a Cabinet Minister. One of the few to foresee a long war, lasting for at least three years, and with the authority to act effectively on that perception, he organised the largest volunteer army that Britain had seen, and oversaw a significant expansion of materials production to fight on the Western Front. Despite having warned of the difficulty of provisioning for a long war, he was blamed for the shortage of shells in the spring of 1915 – one of the events leading to the formation of a coalition government – and stripped of his control over munitions and strategy.On 5 June 1916, Kitchener was making his way to Russia on HMS Hampshire to attend negotiations with Tsar Nicholas II when the ship struck a German mine 1.5 miles (2.4 km) west of the Orkneys, Scotland, and sank. Kitchener was among 737 who died.Contents1Early life2Survey of western Palestine3Egypt4Sudan and Khartoum5Anglo-Boer War5.1Court-martial of Breaker Morant6India7Return to Egypt8First World War8.119148.1.1Raising the New Armies8.1.2Deploying the BEF8.1.3Meeting with Sir John French8.219158.2.1Strategy8.2.2Reduction in powers8.319168.3.1Russian mission8.3.2Death8.3.3Conspiracy theories9Legacy10Memorials11Debate on Kitchener's sexuality12Honours and decorations12.1Decorations12.2Honorary regimental appointments12.3Honorary degrees and offices13See also14References15Sources16Further reading17External linksEarly life[edit]Kitchener on his mother's lap, with his brother and sisterKitchener was born in Ballylongford near Listowel, County Kerry, in Ireland, son of army officer Henry Horatio Kitchener (1805–1894) and Frances Anne Chevallier (d. 1864; daughter of John Chevallier, a priest, of Aspall Hall, and his third wife, Elizabeth, née Cole).[2]His father had only recently bought land in Ireland, under a scheme to encourage the purchase of land, after selling his commission.[3] They then moved to Switzerland where the young Kitchener was educated at Montreux, then at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich.[3] Pro-French and eager to see action, he joined a French field ambulance unit in the Franco-Prussian War.[3] His father took him back to Britain after he caught pneumonia while ascending in a balloon to see the French Army of the Loire in action.[3] Commissioned into the Royal Engineers on 4 January 1871,[4] his service in France had violated British neutrality, and he was reprimanded by the Duke of Cambridge, the commander-in-chief.[3] He served in Palestine, Egypt and Cyprus as a surveyor, learned Arabic, and prepared detailed topographical maps of the areas.[2] His brother, Lt. Gen. Sir Walter Kitchener, had also entered the army, and was Governor of Bermuda from 1908 to 1912.[5]Survey of western Palestine[edit]In 1874, aged 24, Kitchener was assigned by the Palestine Exploration Fund to a mapping-survey of the Holy Land, replacing Charles Tyrwhitt-Drake, who had died of malaria.[6] By then an officer in the Royal Engineers, Kitchener joined fellow officer Claude R. Conder; between 1874 and 1877 they surveyed Palestine, returning to England only briefly in 1875 after an attack by locals at Safed, in Galilee.[6]Conder and Kitchener's expedition became known as the Survey of Western Palestine because it was largely confined to the area west of the Jordan River. The survey collected data on the topography and toponymy of the area, as well as local flora and fauna.[7]The results of the survey were published in an eight-volume series, with Kitchener's contribution in the first three tomes (Conder and Kitchener 1881–1885). This survey has had a lasting effect on the Middle East for several reasons:It serves as the basis for the grid system used in the modern maps of Israel and Palestine;The data compiled by Conder and Kitchener are still consulted by archaeologists and geographers working in the southern Levant;The survey itself effectively delineated and defined the political borders of the southern Levant. For example, the modern border between Israel and Lebanon is established at the point in upper Galilee where Conder and Kitchener's survey stopped.[6]In 1878, having completed the survey of western Palestine, Kitchener was sent to Cyprus to undertake a survey of that newly acquired British protectorate.[3] He became vice-consul in Anatolia in 1879.[8]Egypt[edit]Kitchener was initiated into Freemasonry in 1883 in the Italian-speaking La Concordia Lodge No. 1226, which met in Cairo.[9] In November 1899 he was appointed the first District Grand Master of the District Grand Lodge of Egypt and the Sudan, under the United Grand Lodge of England.[10][11]On 4 January 1883 Kitchener was promoted to captain,[12] given the Turkish rank bimbashi (major), and dispatched to Egypt where he took part in the reconstruction of the Egyptian Army.[3]Egypt had recently become a British puppet state, its army led by British officers, although still nominally under the sovereignty of the Khedive (Egyptian monarch) and his nominal overlord the (Ottoman) Sultan of Turkey. Kitchener became second-in-command of an Egyptian cavalry regiment[13] in February 1883, and then took part in the failed expedition to relieve Charles George Gordon in the Sudan in late 1884.[3] Fluent in Arabic, Kitchener preferred the company of the Egyptians over the British, and the company of no-one over the Egyptians, writing in 1884 that: "I have become such a solitary bird that I often think I were happier alone".[14] Kitchener spoke Arabic so well that he was able to effortlessly adopt the dialects of the different Bedouin tribes of Egypt and the Sudan.[15] Promoted to brevet major on 8 October 1884[16] and to brevet lieutenant-colonel on 15 June 1885,[17] he became the British member of the Zanzibar boundary commission in July 1885.[18] He became Governor of the Egyptian Provinces of Eastern Sudan and Red Sea Littoral (which in practice consisted of little more than the Port of Suakin) in September 1886, and led his forces in action against the followers of the Mahdi at Handub in January 1888, when he was injured in the jaw.[19]Kitchener was promoted to brevet colonel on 11 April 1888[20] and to the substantive rank of major on 20 July 1889[21] and led the Egyptian cavalry at the Battle of Toski in August 1889. At the beginning of 1890 he was appointed Inspector General of the Egyptian police[22] before moving to the position of Adjutant-General of the Egyptian Army in December of the same year[19] and Sirdar (Commander-in-Chief) of the Egyptian Army with the local rank of brigadier in April 1892.[19]Kitchener was worried that, although his moustache was bleached white by the sun, his blond hair refused to turn grey, making it harder for Egyptians to take him seriously. His appearance added to his mystique: his long legs made him appear taller, whilst a cast in his eye made people feel he was looking right through them.[23] Kitchener, at 6'2", towered over most of his contemporaries.[24] Sir Evelyn Baring, the de facto British ruler of Egypt, thought Kitchener “the most able (soldier) I have come across in my time”.[25] In 1890, a War Office evaluation of Kitchener concluded: "A good brigadier, very ambitious, not popular, but has of late greatly improved in tact and manner...a fine gallant soldier and good linguist and very successful in dealing with Orientals" [in the 19th century, Europeans called the Middle East the Orient].[26]Sudan and Khartoum[edit]See also: Anglo-Egyptian invasion of SudanKitchener, Commander of the Egyptian Army (centre right), 1898In 1896, the British Prime Minister, Lord Salisbury, was concerned with keeping France out of the Horn of Africa. A French expedition under the command of Jean-Baptiste Marchand had left Dakar in March 1896 with the aim of conquering the Sudan, seizing control of the Nile as it flowed into Egypt, and forcing the British out of Egypt; thus restoring Egypt to the place within the French sphere of influence that it had had prior to 1882. Salisbury feared that if the British did not conquer the Sudan, the French would.[27] He had supported Italy's ambitions to conquer Ethiopia in the hope that the Italians would keep the French out of Ethiopia. The Italian attempt to conquer Ethiopia, however, was going very badly by early 1896, and ended with the Italians being annihilated at the Battle of Adowa in March 1896.[28] In March 1896, with the Italians visibly failing and the Mahdiyah state threatening to conquer Eritrea, Salisbury ordered Kitchener to invade northern Sudan, ostensibly for the purpose of distracting the Ansar (whom the British called "Dervishes") from attacking the Italians.[28]Kitchener won victories at the Battle of Ferkeh in June 1896 and the Battle of Hafir in September 1896, earning him national fame in the United Kingdom and promotion to major-general on 25 September 1896.[29] Kitchener's cold personality and his tendency to drive his men hard made him widely disliked by his fellow officers.[30] One officer wrote about Kitchener in September 1896: "He was always inclined to bully his own entourage, as some men are rude to their wives. He was inclined to let off his spleen on those around him. He was often morose and silent for hours together...he was even morbidly afraid of showing any feeling or enthusiasm, and he preferred to be misunderstood rather than be suspected of human feeling."[31] Kitchener had served on the Wolseley expedition to rescue General Gordon at Khartoum, and was convinced that the expedition failed because Wolseley had used boats coming up the Nile to bring his supplies.[32] Kitchener wanted to build a railroad to supply the Anglo-Egyptian army, and assigned the task of constructing the Sudan Military Railroad to a Canadian railroad builder, Percy Girouard, for whom he had specifically asked.[33]Kitchener achieved further successes at the Battle of Atbara in April 1898, and then the Battle of Omdurman in September 1898.[19] After marching to the walls of Khartoum, he placed his army into a crescent shape with the Nile to the rear, together with the gunboats in support. This enabled him to bring overwhelming firepower against any attack of the Ansar from any direction, though with the disadvantage of having his men spread out thinly, with hardly any forces in reserve. Such an arrangement could have proven disastrous if the Ansar had broken through the thin khaki line.[34] At about 5 a.m. on 2 September 1898, a huge force of Ansar, under the command of the Khalifa himself, came out of the fort at Omdurman, marching under their black banners inscribed with Koranic quotations in Arabic; this led Bennet Burleigh, the Sudan correspondent of The Daily Telegraph, to write: "It was not alone the reverberation of the tread of horses and men's feet I heard and seemed to feel as well as hear, but a voiced continuous shouting and chanting-the Dervish invocation and battle challenge "Allah e Allah Rasool Allah el Mahdi!" they reiterated in vociferous rising measure, as they swept over the intervening ground".[35] Kitchener had the ground carefully studied so that his officers would know the best angle of fire, and had his army open fire on the Ansar first with artillery, then machine guns and finally rifles as the enemy advanced.[36] A young Winston Churchill, serving as an army officer, wrote of what he saw: "A ragged line of men were coming on desperately, struggling forward in the face of the pitiless fire- black banners tossing and collapsing; white figures subsiding in dozens to the ground...valiant men were struggling on through a hell of whistling metal, exploding shells, and spurting dust—suffering, despairing, dying".[37] By about 8:30 a.m., much of the Dervish army was dead; Kitchener ordered his men to advance, fearing that the Khalifa might escape with what was left of his army to the fort of Omdurman, forcing Kitchener to lay siege to it.[38] t Feed back I will place feedback to the buyer after the complete of the transaction successfully. Please, If you are happy with the transaction post me +ve feedback and I will do the same. If not contact me first so we can solve the problem Contact Us: If you have any questions please contact us Condition: EGYPT 1891 LETTER SIGNED BY UK ENGLISH Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, Material: Paper, Provenance: Ownership History Not Available

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