Seller: tomi.knezevic (64) 100%, Location: Kaštel Novi, Splitsko-Dalmatinska županija, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 322208655532 Scorpion II (Ancient Egyptian: possibly Selk or Weha), also known as King Scorpion, refers to the second of two kings or chieftains of that name during the Protodynastic Period of Upper Egypt. King Scorpion's name and title are of great dispute in modern Egyptology. His name is often introduced by a six- or seven-leafed, golden rosette or flower(?)-sign. This emblem can be found on numerous objects from dynasty 0 and dynasty 1; it vanishes until the end of the 3rd dynasty, when it re-appears under high-ranked officials, such as Khabawsokar and A'a-akhty (both dated to the end of 3rd dynasty). Its precise meaning has been intensely discussed; the most common interpretation is that of an emblem meaning 'nomarch' or 'high lord'. During the protodynastic and early dynastic eras, it was evidently used as a designation for kings; in much later periods, it was bestowed on high-ranked officials and princes, especially on those who served as priests for the goddess Seshat. Thus, the golden rosette became an official emblem of Seshat. The reading of the rosette sign is also disputed. Most linguists and Egyptologists read it Neb (for 'lord') or Nesw (for 'king'), and they are convinced that the golden rosette was some kind of forerunner to the later serekh. The scorpion fetish, which underlies the name of Scorpion II, is generally linked to the later-introduced goddess Selket. But Egyptologists and linguists such as L.D. Morenz, H. Beinlich, Toby Wilkinson and Jan Assmann have pointed out that the goddess was introduced no earlier than the late Old Kingdom period. In this view, the scorpion fetish of the protodynastic period should not be associated with Selket. Morenz points out that, in cases where a fetish animal is included in a ruler's name, the animal generally has a different, rather cultic and political meaning. The scorpion animal commonly stood for dangerous things, such as 'poison' and 'illness', but it could also mean 'bad breath', in military contexts 'storm' and 'attack', or 'gale whiff'[ambiguous]. Since it is unclear what actual meaning was reserved for the serekh animal of Scorpion II, scholars usually refer to him as 'King Scorpion II'. There are several theories regarding his identity and chronological position. Some Egyptologists, such as Bernadette Menu, argue that, because Egyptian kings of the First Dynasty seem to have had multiple names, Scorpion was the same person as Narmer, simply with an alternative name, or additional title. They also argue that the artistic style seen on the macehead of Scorpion II shows conspicuous similarities to that on the famous Narmer macehead. Other scholars, including T.H. Wilkinson, Renée Friedman and Bruce Trigger, have identified king Scorpion II as the 'Gegenkönig' (opponent ruler) of Narmer and Ka (or Sekhen). At the time of Scorpion II, Egypt was divided into several minor kingdoms that were fighting each other. It is likewise conjectured that Narmer simply conquered the realms of Ka and Scorpion II, thus unifying the whole of Egypt for the first time. The only pictorial evidence of his existence is the so-called Scorpion Macehead, which was found in the Main deposit by archeologists James E. Quibell and Frederick W. Green in a temple at Nekhen (Hierakonpolis) during the dig season of 1897–1898. It is currently on display at the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. The stratigraphy of this macehead was lost due to the methods of its excavators, but its style seems to date it to the very end of the Predynastic Period. Head of king Scorpion on his mace head The Scorpion Macehead depicts a single, large figure wearing the White Crown of Upper Egypt. He holds a hoe, which has been interpreted as a ritual either involving the pharaoh ceremonially cutting the first furrow in the fields, or opening the dikes to flood them. The use and placement of the iconography is similar to the depiction of the pharaoh Narmer on the obverse side of the Narmer Palette. The king is preceded by servants, the first in row seems to throw seeds from a basket into the freshly hacked ground. A second servant (his depiction is partially damaged) wears a huge bundle of grain sheafs, which strengthens the interpretation of a seed sowing ceremony, possibly connected to the Sed festival or a founding ceremony. Maybe Scorpion II was the founder of Nekhen or Buto, which would explain why the macehead was found in Hierakonpolis. Above the servants, a row of standard bearers, who carry the same standards as seen on the Narmer palette, precede the king. Below the royal servants, a road and a landscape with people and houses is preserved. Behind the king (on the left side) two fan bearers follow the king. Left of the fan bearer, bundles of papyrus groves are depicted. Behind these, in the upper section, a group of dancers and a priest are visible; the priest guards a Repw.t-palanquin. The lower section is lost due to damage. Interestingly, the festive parade looks into the opposite direction of the king and his standard bearers - an outstretched complete view reveals that both processions meet each other in the center of the whole macehead relief scene. In this very center, scholars such as K. M. Ciałowicz, E.J. Baumgärtel and T.H. Wilkinson believe that they see the tiny traces of the feet and the coil of the Red Crown; a second golden rosette is clearly visible. The traces strengthen the presumption that the scene on the Scorpion macehead once contained the depiction of a second figure of the king, wearing the Red Crown of Lower Egypt. In this case, the Scorpion macehead would show king Scorpion II as the ruler of the whole of Egypt. The uppermost scene on the macehead shows a row of divine standards. Each standard is surmounted by a god (Set, Min and Nemty, for example) or nome crest. The original number of standards is unknown, but it is clearly visible that one half shows hanged lapwings, the other shows hanged hunting bows. Both standard rows faces each other. Lapwings stood for 'Lower Egyptian folks' or 'common folks' and the bows stood for 'folk of archers', pointing to hostile Asian tribes. Their hanging is interpreted as evidence that Scorpion II began the attacks on Lower Egypt and Egyptian enemies at the border lands, which eventually resulted in Narmer's victory and unification of the country. Numerous small ivory tags showing the depiction of a scorpion were found. They come from Abydos, Minshat Abu Omar and Tarkhan. Some of them show the scorpion holding the hieroglyphic sign for "nome/garden/land" (Gardiner sign N24) and it is disputed, if this clear sign combination has a deeper meaning: the scorpion could represent king Scorpion II in his role as a ruler of a certain (but unnamed) nome. Some other tags show the scorpion close over a swallow sign, which reads 'the scorpion is great'. One unique tag shows the scorpion holding a long stick, smiting an enemy. Since many of the tags show a shrine with a heron on the roof at the backsite, it is thought that Scorpion II originated from Buto. At Tarkhan and Minshat Abu Omar, several stone- and clay vessels were found. They have royal serekhs incarved at their bellies and the reading of the name inside is disputed. Several Egyptologists (including Thomas Schneider, Dietrich Wildung and Herman TeVelde) are convinced that the serekhs present a strongly stylized figure of a scorpion. Others, such as Günter Dreyer and Wolfgang Helck, are not so sure and read it as a sloppy drawn version of the name of king Ka. At the second cataract of the Nile, not far from the Nasser-reservoire at Gebel Sheikh Suliman (Sudan), a large rock cutting depicts a big scorpion figure striding over killed enemies. Their death is demonstrated by depicting them standing upside-down and being hit by arrows, two further figures are still holding their own bows and shooting. Thanks to the ostrich feathers and the bows the enemies can be identified as Nubians, since ostrich feather and bow were the typical attributes for the Egyptians to mark the Nubians. The scorpion faces a human figure with an artificial beard and ceremonial knife in a belt, the figure holds a long cord, to which captured Nubians are tied. The whole scene is interpreted as representing king Scorpion II celebrating his victory against the hostile Nubians.