GODDESS BLESSED Chakra Gemstone Set Polished Selenite Rainbow Crystal Healing

$18.74 Buy It Now or Best Offer 5d 6h, $18.07 Shipping, 30-Day Returns, eBay Money Back Guarantee

Seller: Top-Rated Seller callistodesigns (37,346) 99.9%, Location: Tucson, Arizona, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 392266670262 When ordering from the US, parcels may be subject to import tax and duty charges, which the buyer is responsible to pay. I'm selling this goddess blessed crystal healing set of chakra Gemstones. There are 7 gorgeous polished stones to represent every chakra as well as a totally natural, Polished, gorgeous, clear crystal shaped slab of selenite for the base and generator crystal. This is perfect for doing laying on of stones and crystal healing sessions. Selenite is one of the most popular stones for crystal healing. It is also just gorgeous and perfect for any gem and mineral collection. The stones included in this set are 7th chakra - crown chakra - chevron amethyst 6th third eye chakra - lapis lazuli 5th throats chakra - aventurine 4th heart chakra - tiger's eye 3rd solar plexus chakra - red jasper 2nd sacral chakra - carnelian 1st root chakra - hematite This lot is 8 total healing stones also come with an ID card to identify all the stones for you as well. These have been created and blessed by me - a official Melody crystal healer. Melody herself only taught the crystal healing to 7 people and those 7 people passed the craft onto only a rare few. I was honored to apprentice with one of the only 7 teachers she personally taught. This is really really rare. I hope these go to good homes. They are really gorgeous. These specimens are all 100% natural. It has not been altered in anyway except for being polished to make them shiny and the selenite has been shaped ini a crystal form (it is normally flat blind on the ends). I got these gorgeous pieces at the Tucson gem and mineral show. I found some really amazing treasures there. The selenite is from Morocco and weighs 3-5 ounces. There are several reasons why selenite is popular for crystal healers and I've put all that info below with the Wikipedia article about this Mineral. I offer a shipping discount for customers who combine their payments for multiple purchases into one payment!The discount is regular shipping price for the first item and just 50 cents for each additional item!To be sure you get your shipping discount just make sure all the items you want to purchase are in your cart.Auctions you win are added to your cart automatically.For any "buy it now" items or second chance offers, be sure to click the "add to cart" button, NOT the "buy it now" button.Once all of your items are in your cart just pay for them from your cart and the combined shipping discount should be applied automatically. I offer a money back guarantee on every item I sell.If you are not 100% happy with your purchase just send me a message to let me knowand I will buy back the item for your full purchase price. Selenite is one of the most powerful stones of the New Age. It brings light into the energetic bodies and instantly clears all chakras. It is one of the few stones that does not ever need to be cleansed. It can be used to cleanse other stones as well. Katrina Raphaell, in her Crystal Trilogy writes extensively about the benefits of using selenite in crystal healing, and in The Crystalline Transmission states that this crystal is endowed with a special ability to alter the very nature of physical matter. Judy Hall, in her latest book, 101 Power Crystals, The Ultimate Guide to Magical Crystals,Gems, and Stones for Healing and Transformation, states "Selenite stands at the threshold between spirit and matter". A Kabbalistic creation myth tells us that before the universe existed, God was everywhere, but he had to inhale to create space for our world. Realizing he was not present in creation, he fashioned vessels of divine light to populate the universe, but they shattered. Carrying that light, Selenite's task is to reunite the shards of the divine with their source. Relative to Transformational Power, she states that "Selenite accesses angelic consciousness and brings divine light into everything it touches" and "It also facilitates female rites of passage, such as puberty and menopause, encouraging reconnection to the wise feminine divine power." She recommends to re-empower [selenite] in moonlight.We recommend recharging it in sunlight periodically for short periods. Selenite (mineral) Not to be confused with Selenite (ion).Selenite, satin spar, desert rose, and gypsum flower are four varieties of the mineral gypsum; all four varieties show obvious crystalline structure. The four "crystalline" varieties of gypsum are sometimes grouped together and called selenite.SeleniteCategorySulfate mineralFormula(repeating unit)CaSO4·2H2OCrystal systemMonoclinic (2/m) Space Group: A2/aIdentificationFormula mass172.17ColorBrown green, Brownish yellow, Greenish, Gray green, Gray whiteCrystal habitEarthy – Dull, clay-like texture with no visible crystalline affinities, (e.g. howlite).Cleavage[010] Perfect, [100] Distinct, [011] DistinctFractureFibrous – Thin, elongated fractures produced by crystal forms or intersecting cleavages (e.g. asbestos).Mohs scale hardness2LusterPearlyStreakwhiteSpecific gravity2.9Optical propertiesBiaxial (-) 2V=58Refractive indexnα=1.519-1.521, nβ=1.522-1.523, nγ=1.529-1.53Birefringenceδ =0.0090-0.0100Other characteristicsnon-radioactive, non-magnetic, Fluorescent.References[1]All varieties of gypsum, including selenite and alabaster, are composed of calcium sulfatedihydrate (meaning that it has two molecules of water), with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O. Selenite contains no significant selenium; the similarity of names comes from both substances being named from the Ancient Greek word for the Moon.Some of the largest crystals ever found are selenite crystals – the largest specimen found in the Naica Mine's Cave of the Crystals is 12 metres long and weighs 55 tons. History and etymologyThe etymology of selenite is through Middle English selinete, from Latin selenites, from Greek selēnitēs (lithos), literally, moonstone or stone of the moon, from selēnē (Moon). The ancients had a belief that certain transparent crystals waxed and waned with the moon. From the 15th century, "selenite" has referred specifically to the variety of gypsum that occurs in transparent crystals or crystalline masses.[2] Identification of crystals as gypsumAll varieties of gypsum are very soft minerals(hardness: 2 on Mohs Scale). This is the most important identifying characteristic of gypsum, as any variety of gypsum can be easily scratched with a fingernail. Also, because gypsum has natural thermal insulating properties, all varieties feel cold to the touch.VarietiesThough sometimes grouped together as "selenite", the four crystalline varieties have differences. General identifying descriptions of the related crystalline varieties are:Selenite* most often transparent and colorless: it is named after Greek σεληνη "the moon".* if selenite crystals show translucency, opacity, and/or color, it is caused by the presence of other minerals, sometimes in druse* druse is the crust of tiny, minute, or micro crystals that form or fuse either within or upon the surface of a rock vug, geode, or another crystalSatin spar* most often silky, fibrous, and translucent (pearly, milky); can exhibit some coloration* the satin spar name can also be applied to fibrous calcite (a related calcium mineral) – calcite is a harder mineral – and feels greasier, waxier, or oilier to the touch.Desert rose* rosette shaped gypsum with outer druse of sand or with sand throughout – most often sand colored (in all the colors that sand can exhibit)* the desert rose name can also be applied to barite desert roses (another related sulfate mineral) – barite is a harder mineral with higher densityGypsum flower* rosette shaped gypsum with spreading fibers – can include outer druse* the difference between desert roses and gypsum flowers is that desert roses look like roses, whereas gypsum flowers form a myriad of shapes Use and historyVarieties of gypsum known as "satin spar" and "alabaster" are used for a variety of ornamental purposes.[3] But also because of the long history of the commercial value and use of both gypsum and alabaster, the four crystalline varieties have been somewhat ignored, except as a curiosity or as rock collectibles (not commonly used).Crystal habit refers to the shapes that crystals exhibit.[4]Selenite crystals commonly occur as tabular, reticular, and columnar crystals, often with no imperfections or inclusions, and thereby can appear water or glass-like. Many collectible selenite crystals have interesting inclusions such as, accompanying related minerals, interior druse, dendrites, and fossils. In some rare instances, water was encased as a fluid inclusion when the crystal formed (see Peñoles Mine reference in external links).Selenite crystals sometimes form in thin tabular or mica-like sheets and have been used as glass panes[5][6] as at Santa Sabina in Rome.Selenite crystals sometimes will also exhibit bladed rosette habit (usually transparent and like desert roses) often with accompanying transparent, columnar crystals. Selenite crystals can be found both attached to a matrix or base rock, but can commonly be found as entire free-floating crystals, often in clay beds (and as can desert roses).Satin spar is almost always prismatic and fibrous in a parallel crystal habit. Satin spar often occurs in seams, some of them quite long, and is often attached to a matrix or base rock.Desert roses are most often bladed, exhibiting the familiar shape of a rose, and almost always have an exterior druse. Desert roses are almost always unattached to a matrix or base rock.Gypsum flowers are most often acicular, scaly, stellate, and lenticular. Gypsum flowers most often exhibit simple twinning (known as contact twins); where parallel, long, needle-like crystals, sometimes having severe curves and bends, will frequently form “ram’s horns”, "fishtail", "arrow/spear-head", and "swallowtail" twins. Selenite crystals can also exhibit “arrow/spear-head” as well as “duck-bill” twins. Both selenite crystals and gypsum flowers sometimes form quite densely in acicular mats or nets; and can be quite brittle and fragile. Gypsum flowers are usually attached to a matrix (can be gypsum) or base rock.ColorGypsum crystals are colorless (most often selenite), white (or pearly – most often satin spar), gray, brown, beige, orange, pink, yellow, light red, and green. Colors are caused by the presence of other mineral inclusions such as, copper ores, sulfur and sulfides, silver, ironores, coal, calcite, dolomite, and opal.TransparencyGypsum crystals can be transparent (most often selenite), translucent (most often satin spar but also selenite and gypsum flowers), and opaque (most often the rosettes and flowers). Opacity can be caused by impurities, inclusions, druse, and crust, and can occur in all four crystalline varieties.LusterBoth selenite and satin spar are often glassy or vitreous, pearly, and silky – especially on cleavage surfaces. Luster is not often exhibited in the rosettes, due to their exterior druse; nevertheless, the rosettes often show glassy to pearly luster on edges. Gypsum flowers usually exhibit more luster than desert roses.Play of colorFibrous satin spar exhibits chatoyancy (cat’s eye effect).When cut across the fibers and polished on the ends, satin spar exhibits an optical illusionwhen placed on a printed or pictured surface: print and pictures appear to be on the surface of the sample. It is often called and sold as the “television stone” (as is ulexite).[7]Some selenite and satin spar specimens exhibit fluorescence or phosphorescence.TenacityAll four crystalline varieties are slightly flexible, though will break if bent significantly. They are not elastic, meaning they can be bent, but will not bend back on their own.All four crystalline varieties are sectile in that they can be easily cut, will peel (particularly selenite crystals that exhibit mica-like properties), and like all gypsum varieties, can be scratched by a fingernail (hardness: 2 on Mohs Scale). The rosettes are not quite as soft due to their exterior druse; nevertheless, they too can be scratched.Selenite crystals that exhibit in either reticular or acicular habits, satin spar, in general (as fibrous crystals are thin and narrow), desert roses that are thinly bladed, and gypsum flowers, particularly acicular gypsum flowers, can be quite brittle and easily broken.Gypsum occurs on every continent and is the most common of all the sulfate minerals.Gypsum is formed as an evaporative mineral, frequently found in alkaline lake muds, clay beds, evaporated seas, salt flats, salt springs, and caves. Gypsum, also, is frequently found in conjunction with other minerals such as, copper ores, sulfur and sulfides, silver, iron ores, coal, calcite, dolomite, limestone, and opal. Gypsum has been dated to almost every geologic age since the Silurian Period 443.7 ± 1.5 Ma.[9]In dry, desert conditions and arid areas, sand may become trapped both on the inside and the outside of gypsum crystals as they form. Interior inclusion of sand can take on shapes such as an interior hourglass shape common to selenite crystals of the ancient Great Salt Plains Lake bed, Oklahoma, US.[10] Exterior inclusion (druse) occurs as embedded sand grains on the surface such as, commonly seen in the familiar desert rose.When gypsum dehydrates severely, anhydrite is formed. If water is reintroduced, gypsum can and will reform – including as the four crystalline varieties. An example of gypsum crystals reforming in modern times is found at Philips Copper Mine (closed and abandoned), Putnam County, New York, US where selenite micro crystal coatings are commonly found on numerous surfaces (rock and otherwise) in the cave and in the dump.[11]Whereas geology, mineralogy, and rockhounding groups, clubs, and societies as well as museums usually date (of find and geologic), photograph, and note location of minerals, much of the retail mineral and jewellery trade can be somewhat casual about dates, locations, and descriptive claims. GypsumFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaThis article is about the mineral. For other uses, see Gypsum (disambiguation).GypsumGips - Lubin, Poland..jpgGeneralCategory Sulfate mineralsFormula(repeating unit) CaSO4·2H2OStrunz classification 7.CD.40Crystal system MonoclinicCrystal class Prismatic (2/m)H-M symbol: (2/m)Space group MonoclinicSpace group: I2/aUnit cell a = 5.679(5), b = 15.202(14)c = 6.522(6) [Å]; β = 118.43°; Z = 4IdentificationColor Colorless to white; may be yellow, tan, blue, pink, brown, reddish brown or gray due to impuritiesCrystal habit Massive, flat. Elongated and generally prismatic crystalsTwinning Very common on {110}Cleavage Perfect on {010}, distinct on {100}Fracture Conchoidal on {100}, splintery parallel to [001]Tenacity Flexible, inelasticMohs scale hardness 1.5–2 (defining mineral for 2)Luster Vitreous to silky, pearly, or waxyStreak WhiteDiaphaneity Transparent to translucentSpecific gravity 2.31–2.33Optical properties Biaxial (+)Refractive index nα = 1.519–1.521nβ = 1.522–1.523nγ = 1.529–1.530Birefringence δ = 0.010Pleochroism None2V angle 58°Fusibility 5Solubility Hot, dilute HClReferences [1][2][3]Major varietiesSatin spar Pearly, fibrous massesSelenite Transparent and bladed crystalsAlabaster Fine-grained, slightly coloredGypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.[3] It is widely mined and is used as a fertilizer, and as the main constituent in many forms of plaster, blackboard chalk and wallboard. A massive fine-grained white or lightly tinted variety of gypsum, called alabaster, has been used for sculpture by many cultures including Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Ancient Rome, the Byzantine Empire and the Nottingham alabasters of Medieval England. Mohs scale of mineral hardness, based on scratch Hardness comparison, defines hardness value 2 as gypsum. It forms as an evaporite mineral and as a hydration product of anhydrite. Contents [hide] 1 Etymology and history2 Physical properties3 Crystal varieties4 Occurrence5 Mining6 Synthesis7 Occupational safety7.1 United States8 Uses9 Gallery10 See also11 References12 External linksEtymology and history[edit]The word gypsum is derived from the Greek word γύψος (gypsos), "plaster".[4] Because the quarries of the Montmartre district of Paris have long furnished burnt gypsum (calcined gypsum) used for various purposes, this dehydrated gypsum became known as plaster of Paris. Upon addition of water, after a few tens of minutes plaster of Paris becomes regular gypsum (dihydrate) again, causing the material to harden or "set" in ways that are useful for casting and construction. Gypsum was known in Old English as spærstān, "spear stone", referring to its crystalline projections. (Thus, the word spar in mineralogy is by way of comparison to gypsum, referring to any non-ore mineral or crystal that forms in spearlike projections). Gypsum may act as a source of sulfur for plant growth, which was discovered by J. M. Mayer, and in the early 19th century, it was regarded as an almost miraculous fertilizer. American farmers were so anxious to acquire it that a lively smuggling trade with Nova Scotia evolved, resulting in the so-called "Plaster War" of 1820.[5] In the 19th century, it was also known as lime sulfate or sulfate of lime. Physical properties[edit] Gypsum crystals are plastic enough to bend under pressure of the hand. Sample on display at Musée cantonal de géologie de Lausanne.Gypsum is moderately water-soluble (~2.0–2.5 g/l at 25 °C)[6] and, in contrast to most other salts, it exhibits retrograde solubility, becoming less soluble at higher temperatures. When gypsum is heated in air it loses water and converts first to calcium sulfate hemihydrate, (bassanite, often simply called "plaster") and, if heated further, to anhydrous calcium sulfate (anhydrite). As for anhydrite, its solubility in saline solutions and in brines is also strongly dependent on NaCl (common table salt) concentration.[6] Gypsum crystals are found to contain anion water and hydrogen bonding.[7] Crystal varieties[edit]Main article: Selenite (mineral)Gypsum occurs in nature as flattened and often twinned crystals, and transparent, cleavable masses called selenite. Selenite contains no significant selenium; rather, both substances were named for the ancient Greek word for the Moon. Selenite may also occur in a silky, fibrous form, in which case it is commonly called "satin spar". Finally, it may also be granular or quite compact. In hand-sized samples, it can be anywhere from transparent to opaque. A very fine-grained white or lightly tinted variety of gypsum, called alabaster, is prized for ornamental work of various sorts. In arid areas, gypsum can occur in a flower-like form, typically opaque, with embedded sand grains called desert rose. It also forms some of the largest crystals found in nature, up to 12 m (39 ft) long, in the form of selenite.[8] Occurrence[edit]Gypsum is a common mineral, with thick and extensive evaporite beds in association with sedimentary rocks. Deposits are known to occur in strata from as far back as the Archaean eon.[9] Gypsum is deposited from lake and sea water, as well as in hot springs, from volcanic vapors, and sulfate solutions in veins. Hydrothermal anhydrite in veins is commonly hydrated to gypsum by groundwater in near-surface exposures. It is often associated with the minerals halite and sulfur. Gypsum is the most common sulfate mineral.[10] Pure gypsum is white, but other substances found as impurities may give a wide range of colors to local deposits. Because gypsum dissolves over time in water, gypsum is rarely found in the form of sand. However, the unique conditions of the White Sands National Monument in the US state of New Mexico have created a 710 km2 (270 sq mi) expanse of white gypsum sand, enough to supply the construction industry with drywall for 1,000 years.[11] Commercial exploitation of the area, strongly opposed by area residents, was permanently prevented in 1933 when president Herbert Hoover declared the gypsum dunes a protected national monument. Gypsum is also formed as a by-product of sulfide oxidation, amongst others by pyrite oxidation, when the sulfuric acid generated reacts with calcium carbonate. Its presence indicates oxidizing conditions. Under reducing conditions, the sulfates it contains can be reduced back to sulfide by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Electric power stations burning coal with flue gas desulfurization produce large quantities of gypsum as a byproduct from the scrubbers. Orbital pictures from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) have indicated the existence of gypsum dunes in the northern polar region of Mars,[12] which were later confirmed at ground level by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity.[13] Gypsum crystals in the Cave of the Crystals in Mexico. Note person for scale Veins of gypsum in the silts/marls of the Tea Green and Grey Marls, Blue Anchor, Somerset, UK Veins of gypsum in Caprock Canyons State Park, TexasMining[edit]Estimated production of Gypsum in 2015(thousand metric tons)[14]Country Production Reserves China 132,000 N/A Iran 22,000 1,600 Thailand 12,500 N/A USA 11,500 700,000 Turkey 10,000 N/A Spain 6,400 N/A Mexico 5,300 N/A Japan 5,000 N/A Russia 4,500 N/A Italy 4,100 N/A India 3,500 39,000 Australia 3,500 N/A Oman 3,500 N/A Brazil 3,300 290,000 France 3,300 N/A Canada 2,700 450,000 Saudi Arabia 2,400 N/A Algeria 2,200 N/A Germany 1,800 450,000 Argentina 1,400 N/A Pakistan 1,300 N/A United Kingdom 1,200 55,000Other countries 15,000 N/AWorld total 258,000 N/ACommercial quantities of gypsum are found in the cities of Araripina and Grajaú in Brazil; in Pakistan, Jamaica, Iran (world's second largest producer), Thailand, Spain (the main producer in Europe), Germany, Italy, England, Ireland, Canada[15] and the United States. Large open pit quarries are located in many places including Plaster City, California, United States, and East Kutai, Kalimantan, Indonesia. Several small mines also exist in places such as Kalannie in Western Australia, where gypsum is sold to private buyers for additions of calcium and sulfur as well as reduction of aluminum toxicities on soil for agricultural purposes. Crystals of gypsum up to 11 m (36 ft) long have been found in the caves of the Naica Mine of Chihuahua, Mexico. The crystals thrived in the cave's extremely rare and stable natural environment. Temperatures stayed at 58 °C (136 °F), and the cave was filled with mineral-rich water that drove the crystals' growth. The largest of those crystals weighs 55 tons and is around 500,000 years old.[16] Golden gypsum crystals from Winnipeg Gypsum sand from White Sands National Monument, New MexicoSynthesis[edit]Synthetic gypsum is recovered via flue-gas desulfurization at some coal-fired power plants. It can be used interchangeably with natural gypsum in some applications. Gypsum also precipitates onto brackish water membranes, a phenomenon known as mineral salt scaling, such as during brackish water desalination of water with high concentrations of calcium and sulfate. Scaling decreases membrane life and productivity. This is one of the main obstacles in brackish water membrane desalination processes, such as reverse osmosis or nanofiltration. Other forms of scaling, such as calcite scaling, depending on the water source, can also be important considerations in distillation, as well as in heat exchangers, where either the salt solubility or concentration can change rapidly. A new study has suggested that the formation of gypsum starts as tiny crystals of a mineral called bassanite (CaSO4·0.5H2O).[17] This process occurs via a three-stage pathway: homogeneous nucleation of nanocrystalline bassanite;self-assembly of bassanite into aggregates, andtransformation of bassanite into gypsum.Occupational safety[edit]People can be exposed to gypsum in the workplace by breathing it in, skin contact, and eye contact. United States[edit]The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set the legal limit (permissible exposure limit) for gypsum exposure in the workplace as TWA 15 mg/m3 for total exposure and TWA 5 mg/m3 for respiratory exposure over an 8-hour workday. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has set a recommended exposure limit (REL) of TWA 10 mg/m3 for total exposure and TWA 5 mg/m3 for respiratory exposure over an 8-hour workday.[18] Uses[edit] Gypsum works, Valencian Museum of Ethnology.Gypsum is used in a wide variety of applications: Gypsum board[19] is primarily used as a finish for walls and ceilings, and is known in construction as drywall, wallboard, sheetrock or plasterboard.Gypsum blocks are used like concrete blocks in building construction.Gypsum mortar is an ancient mortar used in building construction.Plaster ingredients are used in surgical splints, casting moulds and modeling.Fertilizer and soil conditioner: In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, Nova Scotia gypsum, often referred to as plaster, was a highly sought fertilizer for wheat fields in the United States. It is also used in ameliorating high-sodium soils.[20]A binder in fast-dry tennis court clayAs alabaster, a material for sculpture, it was used especially in the ancient world before steel was developed, when its relative softness made it much easier to carve.A wood substitute in the ancient world: For example, when wood became scarce due to deforestation on Bronze Age Crete, gypsum was employed in building construction at locations where wood was previously used.[21]A tofu (soy bean curd) coagulant, making it ultimately a major source of dietary calcium, especially in Asian cultures which traditionally use few dairy productsAdding hardness to water used for brewing[22]Used in baking as a dough conditioner, reducing stickiness, and as a baked-goods source of dietary calcium.[23] The primary component of mineral yeast food.[24]A component of Portland cement used to prevent flash setting of concreteSoil/water potential monitoring (soil moisture)A common ingredient in making meadIn the medieval period, scribes and illuminators mixed it with lead carbonate (powdered white lead) to make gesso, which was applied to illuminated letters and gilded with gold in illuminated manuscripts.In foot creams, shampoos and many other hair productsA medicinal agent in traditional Chinese medicine called shi gaoImpression plasters in dentistryUsed in mushroom cultivation to stop grains from clumping togetherTests have shown that gypsum can be used to remove pollutants such as lead[25] or arsenic[26][27] from contaminated waters. Chakras Wikipedia article link stripped Chakras (Sanskrit: चक्र, IAST: cakra, Pali: cakka, lit. wheel, circle) are the various focal points in the subtle body used in a variety of ancient meditation practices, collectively denominated as Tantra, or the esoteric or inner traditions of Indian religion, Chinese Taoism, Tibetan Buddhism, as well as Japanese Esoteric Buddhism, and in postmodernity, in new age medicine, and originally psychologically adopted to the western mind through the assistance of Carl G. Jung.[2][3][4] The concept is found in the early traditions of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. They are treated as focal points, or putative nodes in the subtle body of the practitioner.[5] These theories differ between the Indian religions, with many esoteric Buddhist texts consistently mentioning five Chakras, while separate esoteric Hindu sources will offer six, or even seven.[2][3] They are believed to be embedded within the actual physical body, whilst also originating within the context of mental and spiritual fields, or complexes of electromagnetic variety, the precise degree and variety of which directly arise from a synthetic average of all positive and negative so-called "fields", this eventuating the complex Nadi.[6][3] Within kundalini yoga breath exercises, visualizations, mudras, bandhas, kriyas, and mantras are focused on transmuting subtle energy through "chakras".[5][7] The very concept of the so-called chakra, etymologically originates directly from the Sanskrit root चक्र. The "tsschakra" remained in virtual linguistic conformity throughout possible adaptations throughout the relative temporal and linguist adversity of two thousand years. At heart, the chakra denotes a "wheel", a "circle", and a "cycle". [8][2][3] One of the Hindu scriptures Rigveda mentions Chakra with the meaning of "wheel", with ara (spokes). According to Frits Staal, Chakra has Indo-European roots, is "related to Greek Kuklos (from which comes English cycle), Latin circus, Anglo-Saxon hveohl and English wheel."[9] However, the Vedic period texts use the same word as a simile in other contexts, such as the "wheel of time" or "wheel of dharma", such as in Rigveda hymn verse 1.164.11.[10][11] In Buddhism generally and Theravada specifically, the Pali noun cakka connotes "wheel".[12] Within the central "Tripitaka", the Buddha variously references the "dhammacakka", or "wheel of dharma", connoting that his dharma, universal in its advocacy, should bear the marks which bear the very characteristic of any temporal dispensation. While further, it should be added that the Buddha himself insinuated freedom from cycles in and of themselves - sui generis - be they karmic, reincarnative, liberative, cognitive or emotional.[13] In Jainism, the term Chakra also means "wheel" and appears in various context in its ancient literature.[14] Like other Indian religions, Chakra in esoteric theories in Jainism such as those by Buddhisagarsuri means yogic-energy centers.[15] The term Chakra appears to first emerge within the Vedas, the most authoritative Hindu text, though not precisely in the sense of psychic energy centers, rather as chakravartin or the king who "turns the wheel of his empire" in all directions from a center, representing his influence and power.[16] The iconography popular in representing the Chakras, states White, trace back to the five symbols of yajna, the Vedic fire altar: "square, circle, triangle, half moon and dumpling".[17] The hymn 10.136 of the Rigveda mentions a renunciate yogi with a female named kunamnama. Literally, it means "she who is bent, coiled", representing both a minor goddess and one of many embedded enigmas and esoteric riddles within the Rigveda. Some scholars, such as David Gordon White and Georg Feuerstein interpret this might be related to kundalini shakti, and an overt overature to the terms of esotericism that would later emerge in Post-Aryan Bramhanism. the Upanishad.[18][19][20] Breath channels (nāḍi) of Yoga practices are mentioned in the classical Upanishads of Hinduism dated to 1st millennium BCE,[21][22] but not psychic-energy Chakra theories. The latter, states White, were introduced about 8th-century CE in Buddhist texts as hierarchies of inner energy centers, such as in the Hevajra Tantra and Caryāgiti.[21][23] These are called by various terms such as cakka, padma (lotus) or pitha (mound).[21] These medieval Buddhist texts mention only four chakras, while later Hindu texts such as the Kubjikāmata and Kaulajñānanirnaya expanded the list to many more.[21] In contrast to White, according to Feuerstein, early Upanishads of Hinduism do mention cakra in the sense of "psychospiritual vortices", along with other terms found in tantra: prana or vayu (life energy) along with nadi (energy carrying arteries).[19] According to Galvin Flood, the ancient texts do not present chakra and kundalini-style yoga theories although these words appear in the earliest Vedic literature in many contexts. The chakra in the sense of four or more vital energy centers appear in the medieval era Hindu and Buddhist texts.[24][21] Chakra is a part of the esoteric medieval era theories about physiology and psychic centers that emerged across Indian traditions.[21][26] The theory posited that human life simultaneously exists in two parallel dimensions, one "physical body" (sthula sarira) and other "psychological, emotional, mind, non-physical" it is called the "subtle body" (suksma sarira).[27][note 1] This subtle body is energy, while the physical body is mass. The psyche or mind plane corresponds to and interacts with the body plane, and the theory posits that the body and the mind mutually affect each other.[4] The subtle body consists of nadi (energy channels) connected by nodes of psychic energy it called chakra.[2] The theory grew into extensive elaboration, with some suggesting 88,000 cakras throughout the subtle body. The chakra it considered most important varied between various traditions, but they typically ranged between four and seven.[2][3] The seven Chakras are arranged along the spinal cord, from bottom to top: 1. Muladhara 2. Svadhisthana 3. Nabhi-Manipura 4. Anahata 5. Vishuddhi 6. Ajna 7. Sahasrara.[3] The important chakras are stated in Buddhist and Hindu texts to be arranged in a column along the spinal cord, from its base to the top of the head, connected by vertical channels.[4][5] The tantric traditions sought to master them, awaken and energize them through various breathing exercises or with assistance of a teacher. These chakras were also symbolically mapped to specific human physiological capacity, seed syllables (bija), sounds, subtle elements (tanmatra), in some cases deities, colors and other motifs.[2][4][29] The chakra theories of Buddhism and Hinduism differs from the historic Chinese system of meridians in acupuncture.[5] Unlike the latter, the chakra relates to subtle body, wherein it has a position but no definite nervous node or precise physical connection. The tantric systems envision it as a continually present, highly relevant and a means to psychic and emotional energy. It is useful in a type of yogic rituals and meditative discovery of radiant inner energy (prana flows) and mind-body connections.[5][30] The meditation is aided by extensive symbology, mantras, diagrams, models (deity and mandala). The practitioner proceeds step by step from perceptible models, to increasingly abstract models where deity and external mandala are abandoned, inner self and internal mandalas are awakened.[31][32] These ideas are not unique to Buddhist and Hindu traditions. Similar and overlapping concepts emerged in other cultures in the East and the West, and these are variously called by other names such as subtle body, spirit body, esoteric anatomy, sidereal body and etheric body.[33][34][28] According to Geoffrey Samuel and Jay Johnston, professors of Religious studies known for their studies on Yoga and esoteric traditions: Ideas and practices involving so-called 'subtle bodies' have existed for many centuries in many parts of the world. (...) Virtually all human cultures known to us have some kind of concept of mind, spirit or soul as distinct from the physical body, if only to explain experiences such as sleep and dreaming. (...) An important subset of subtle-body practices, found particularly in Indian and Tibetan Tantric traditions, and in similar Chinese practices, involves the idea of an internal 'subtle physiology' of the body (or rather of the body-mind complex) made up of channels through which substances of some kind flow, and points of intersection at which these channels come together. In the Indian tradition the channels are known as nadi and the points of intersection as cakra. — Geoffrey Samuel and Jay Johnston, Religion and the Subtle Body in Asia and the West: Between Mind and Body [35] Contrast with classical yogaEdit Chakra and related theories have been important to the esoteric traditions, but they are not directly related to mainstream yoga. According to Edwin Bryant and other scholars, the goals of classical yoga such as spiritual liberation (freedom, self-knowledge, moksha) is "attained entirely differently in classical yoga, and the cakra / nadi / kundalini physiology is completely peripheral to it."[36][37] The classical eastern traditions, particularly those that developed in India during the 1st millennium AD, primarily describe nadi and cakra in a "subtle body" context.[38] To them, they are the parallel dimension of psyche-mind reality that is invisible yet real. In the nadi and cakra flow the prana (breath, life energy).[38][39] The concept of "life energy" varies between the texts, ranging from simple inhalation-exhalation to far more complex association with breath-mind-emotions-sexual energy.[38] This essence is what vanishes when a person dies, leaving a gross body. Some of it, states this subtle body theory, is what withdraws within when one sleeps. All of it is believed to be reachable, awake-able and important for an individual's body-mind health, and how one relates to other people in one's life.[38] This subtle body network of nadi and chakra is, according to some later Indian theories and many new age speculations, closely associated with emotions.[38][40] Hindu TantraEdit Main article: Kundalini energy Different esoteric traditions in Hinduism mention numerous numbers and arrangements chakras, of which a classical system of seven is most prevalent.[2][3][4] This seven-part system, central to the core texts of hatha yoga, is one among many systems found in Hindu tantric literature. These texts teach many different Chakra theories.[41] The Chakra methodology is extensively developed in the goddess tradition of Hinduism called Shaktism. It is an important concept along with yantras, mandalas and kundalini yoga in its practice. Chakra in Shakta tantrism means circle, an "energy center" within, as well as being a term of group rituals such as in chakra-puja (worship within a circle) which may or may not involve tantra practice.[42] The cakra-based system is one part of the meditative exercises that came to be known as laya yoga.[43] Beyond its original Shakta milieu, various sub-traditions within the Shaiva and Vaishnava schools of Hinduism also developed texts and practices on Nadi and Chakra systems. Certain modern Hindu groups also utilize a technique of circular energy work based on the chakras known as kriya yoga. Followers of this practice include the Bihar School of Yoga and Self Realization Fellowship, and practitioners are known as kriyaban. Although Paramahansa Yogananda claimed this was the same technique taught as kriya yoga by Patañjali in the Yoga Sūtras and by Krishna in the Bhagavad Gita (as karma yoga), Swami Satyananda of the Bihar school disagreed with this assessment and acknowledged the similarities between kriya and taoist inner orbit practices. Both schools claim the technique is taught in every age by an avatar of god known as Babaji. The historicity of its techniques in India prior to the early twentieth century are not well established. It believed by its practitioners to activate the chakras and stimulate faster spiritual development. Buddhist Tantra Edit Main article: Vajrayana The esoteric traditions in Buddhism generally teach five chakras.[2] It must be noted, that is possible that a system of Manipura, Anahata, Visuddha and the Usnisa Kamala chakras was absorbed into Tibetan thought, yet any source which alleges the employment of 3rd or manipura, chakra, within the context of thousand year history of broad Tantric monasticism, is here, not only conceptually inadequate, but technically misguided.[44] In one development within the Nyingma lineage of the Mantrayana of Tibetan Buddhism a popular conceptualization of chakras in increasing subtlety and increasing order is as follows: Nirmanakaya (gross self), Sambhogakaya (subtle self), Dharmakaya (causal self), and Mahasukhakaya (non-dual self), each vaguely - yet by no means directly - corresponding to the categories within the Shaiva Mantramarga universe, i.e., Svadhisthana, Anahata, Visuddha, Sahasrara, etc. [45] However, depending on the meditational tradition, these vary between three and six.[44] Chakras clearly play a key role in Tibetan Buddhism, and are considered to be the pivotal providence of Tantric thinking. And, the precise use of the chakras across the gamete of tantric sadhanas gives little space to doubt the primary efficacy of Tibetan Buddhism as distinct religious agency, that being that precise revelation that, without Tantra there would be no Chakras, but more importantly, without Chakras, there is no Tibetan Buddhism. The highest practices in Tibetan Buddhism point to the ability to bring the subtle pranas of an entity into alignment with the central channel, and to thus penetrate the realisation of the ultimate unity, namely, the "organic harmony" of one's individual consciousness of Wisdom with the co-attainment of All-embracing Love, thus synthesizing a direct cognition of absolute Buddhahood.[46] According to Geoffrey Samuel, the buddhist esoteric systems developed cakra and nadi as "central to their soteriological process".[47] The theories were sometimes, but not always, coupled with a unique system of physical exercises, called yantra yoga or 'phrul 'khor. The Chakras in the Tibetan practice are considered psycho-spiritual constituents, each bearing meaningful correspondences to cosmic processes and their postulated buddha counterpart.[48][44] Chakras, according to the Bon tradition, ennable the gestalt of experience, with each of the five major chakras, being psychologically linked with the five experiential qualities of unenlightened consciousness, the six realms of woe.[49] The tsa lung practice embodied in the Trul khor lineage, unbaffles the primary channels, thus activating and circulating liberating prana. Yoga awakens the deep mind, thus bringing forth positive attributes, inherent gestalts, and virtuous qualities. In a computer analogy, the screen of one's consciousness is slated and a attribute-bearing file is called up that contains necessary positive or negative, supportive qualities. [50][51] Tantric practice is said to eventually transform all experience into clear light. The practice aims to liberate from all negative conditioning, and the deep cognitive salvation of freedom from control and unity of perception and cognition.[50] QigongEdit Qigong (氣功) also relies on a similar model of the human body as an esoteric energy system, except that it involves the circulation of qì (氣, also ki) or life-energy.[52][53] The qì, equivalent to the Hindu prana, flows through the energy channels called meridians, equivalent to the nadi, but two other energies are also important: jīng, or primordial essence, and shén, or spirit energy. In the principle circuit of qì, called the microcosmic orbit, energy rises up a main meridian along the spine, but also comes back down the front torso. Throughout its cycle it enters various dantian (elixir fields) which act as furnaces, where the types of energy in the body (jing, qi and shen) are progressively refined.[54] These dantian play a very similar role to that of chakras. The number of dantian varies depending on the system; the navel dantian is the most well-known, but there is usually a dantian located at the heart and between the eyebrows.[55] The lower dantian at or below the navel transforms essence, or jīng, into qì. The middle dantian in the middle of the chest transforms qì into shén, or spirit, and the higher dantian at the level of the forehead (or at the top of the head), transforms shen into wuji, infinite space of void.[56] SilatEdit Traditional spirituality in the Malay Archipelago borrows heavily from Hindu-Buddhist concepts. In Malay and Indonesian metaphysical theory, the chakras' energy rotates outwards along diagonal lines. Defensive energy emits outwards from the centre line, while offensive energy moves inwards from the sides of the body. This can be applied to energy-healing, meditation, or martial arts. Silat practitioners learn to harmonise their movements with the chakras, thereby increasing the power and effectiveness of attacks and movements.[57] In 1918, the translation of two Indian texts: the Ṣaṭ-Cakra-Nirūpaṇa and the Pādukā-Pañcaka, by Sir John Woodroffe, alias Arthur Avalon, in a book titled The Serpent Power introduced the shakta theory of seven main chakras in the West.[69] This book is extremely detailed and complex, and later the ideas were developed into the predominant Western view of the chakras by C. W. Leadbeater in his book The Chakras. Many of the views which directed Leadbeater's understanding of the chakras were influenced by previous theosophist authors, in particular Johann Georg Gichtel, a disciple of Jakob Böhme, and his book Theosophia Practica (1696), in which Gichtel directly refers to inner force centres, a concept reminiscent of the chakras.[70] HesychasmEdit A completely separate contemplative movement within the Eastern Orthodox Church is Hesychasm, a form of Christian meditation. Comparisons have been made between the Hesychastic centres of prayer and the position of the chakras.[71] Particular emphasis is placed upon the heart area. However, there is no talk about these centres as having any sort of metaphysical existence. Far more than in any of the cases discussed above, the centres are simply places to focus the concentration during prayer. In Anatomy of the Spirit (1996), Caroline Myss describes the function of chakras as follows: "Every thought and experience you've ever had in your life gets filtered through these chakra databases. Each event is recorded into your cells...".[72] The chakras are described as being aligned in an ascending column from the base of the spine to the top of the head. New Age practices often associate each chakra with a certain colour. In various traditions, chakras are associated with multiple physiological functions, an aspect of consciousness, a classical element, and other distinguishing characteristics. They are visualised as lotuses or flowers with a different number of petals in every chakra. The chakras are thought to vitalise the physical body and to be associated with interactions of a physical, emotional and mental nature. They are considered loci of life energy or prana (which New Age belief equates with shakti, qi in Chinese, ki in Japanese, koach-ha-guf[73] in Hebrew, bios in Greek, and aether in both Greek and English), which is thought to flow among them along pathways called nadi. The function of the chakras is to spin and draw in this energy to keep the spiritual, mental, emotional and physical health of the body in balance.[citation needed] Rudolf Steiner considered the chakra system to be dynamic and evolving. He suggested Type Selenite Modified Item No Condition: New, Product Type: Selenite, Modified Item: No

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