HUGE Ancient Earrings Jewelry 600 Color Pix Egypt Rome Greece Byzantine Medieval

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Seller: ancientgifts ✉️ (5,282) 100%, Location: Lummi Island, Washington, US, Ships to: WORLDWIDE, Item: 124180685496 HUGE Ancient Earrings Jewelry 600 Color Pix Egypt Rome Greece Byzantine Medieval. Earrings: From Antiquity to the Present by Daniela Mascetti and Amanda Triossi. NOTE: We have 75,000 books in our library, almost 10,000 different titles. Odds are we have other copies of this same title in varying conditions, some less expensive, some better condition. We might also have different editions as well (some paperback, some hardcover, oftentimes international editions). If you don’t see what you want, please contact us and ask. We’re happy to send you a summary of the differing conditions and prices we may have for the same title. DESCRIPTION: Hardback with Dust Jacket: 224 pages. Publisher: Rizzoli (1990). Size: 12¼ x 9½ x 1 inch; 3½ pounds.There is an inexplicable magic about earrings, unmatched by any other kind of jewelry. Uniquely, they move with a life of their own, voluptuous yet pure, cold yet provocative. Earrings have been worn since prehistoric times; ancient civilizations offered earrings to their goddesses, and today they remain the most demanding and rewarding exercises of the jeweler's art. Daniela Mascetti and Amanda Triossi, both experts from Sotheby's, are themselves under the spell of earrings, and their erudition does not disguise that this book is as much a romance as a fine piece of art-historical research. The authors relate how the fashion of wearing precious earrings spread from ancient Egypt to the Classical Greek and Roman worlds to Byzantium. Techniques in the cutting of gemstones and diamonds, perfected in the eighteenth century, allowed earring design to evolve towards its most stylish and glamorous. Extraordinary and imaginative revivals of Classical and Roman motifs are here. The opulence of exquisitely crafted creations of gold and precious stones, the bold lines of Art Deco, and a rich proliferation of modern designs, from the most traditional to the most innovative, created by leading European and American designers. The book covers every period and style up to the present. The great names among designers and international jewelry houses; Cartier, Boucheron, Mellerio, Van Cleef & Arpels, Verdura, Andrew Grima, Merina B., David Webb, Harry Winston, Graff and Bulgari, are all represented in dazzling displays of precious and semi-precious earrings. Illustrations range from Rococo flowers and long, heavy girondoles thick with diamonds and emeralds to chaste Neoclassical disks and the delicate nodding sprays of the late nineteenth century. A wide-ranging study that will be a rich source of inspiration and delight for collectors, designers, and fashion lovers, this is a feast for the eye and a revelation of the wonders that artistry can create. CONDITION: LIKE NEW. HUGE (12x9 inch) hardcover w/dustjacket. Rizolli (1990) 224 pages. I'd guess first 15-20 pages were read, remainder of book flipped through, then put away never to be actually "read". At worst it's been read once by someone with an exceedingly light "hand". Pages are clean, crisp, unmarked, unmutilated, tightly bound, and beyond the first 15-20 pages, seemingly unread (perhaps merely flipped through once or twice), or at worst, lightly read (i.e., once). From outside dustjacket+full-cloth covers evidence only very mild edge+corner shelfwear. Dustjacket spine head and "tips" (open corners of top edge of dustjacket, front and back) evidence slight crinkling or "rubbing". This does include a 1/4 inch closed, neatly mended edge tear at the dustjacket spine head. We carefully repaired the closed edge tear from the underside of the dustjacket, consequently it is not a prominent blemish (in fact it is hard to spot even when you know it is there). Beneath dustjacket full-cloth covers are clean ande without blemish. Except for the fact that the first 15-20 pages of book have clearly been read, and it is possible that the entire book may have been read, albeit by someone with a very "light hand", the overall condition of book is not too far removed from what might otherwise pass as "new", but "shop worn" stock from an open-shelf book store (such as Barnes & Noble, or B. Dalton, for instance) wherein patrons are permitted to browse open stock, and so otherwise "new" books often might evidence minor blemishes and/or show handling/shelf/browsing wear. Satisfaction unconditionally guaranteed. In stock, ready to ship. No disappointments, no excuses. PROMPT SHIPPING! HEAVILY PADDED, DAMAGE-FREE PACKAGING! Selling rare and out-of-print ancient history books on-line since 1997. We accept returns for any reason within 14 days! #1373.1c. PLEASE SEE IMAGES BELOW FOR SAMPLE PAGES FROM INSIDE OF BOOK. PLEASE SEE PUBLISHER, PROFESSIONAL, AND READER REVIEWS BELOW. PUBLISHER REVIEW: REVIEW: Daniella Mascetti, Deputy Director of Southeby's jewelry department in London, was trained as an archaeologist in Milan, taking part in several excavations in Southern Italy. In 1980 she began to work for Southeby's in Milan, where she started the jewelry department. In 1983 she moved to Southeby's jewelry department in London where she works as a jewelry expert, lecturer, and cataloguer. She has written tow books in Italian on eighteenth and nineteenth century jewelry, and is co-author with David Bennett of "Understanding Jewelry", published in 1989. Amanda Triossi was born and educated in Rome, afterwards reading History of Art at Cambridge. Here she developed her interest in jewelry, and wrote a dissertation on jewels in fifteenth century Florentine painting. She joined Southeby's jewelry department in 1986, and is also currently a jewelry consultant to Southeby's in Geneva, Amsterdam, and Tel-Aviv. Since 1986 she has been lecturing regularly on jewelry at the Instituto Europa del Design in Milan, and at Southeby's Works of Art courses in London. Both authors are fellows of the Gemological Association of Great Britain. PROFESSIONAL REVIEWS: REVIEW: The styles and value of earrings, whether shaped like starbursts, beetles or baskets, may have changed since this accessory's beginnings in 3000 B.C. But what has remained constant is the willingness of women to subject themselves, for the sake of fashion, to the painful piercing of their lobes. Indeed, this initiatory rite proclaims, for many, passage into womanhood. The history of the ornaments fabricated to hug or hang, sometimes with great weight, is here related scrupulously by two representatives of Sotheby's London jewelry division. Mascetti and Triossi's account, augmented by 600 illustrations including sketches and sharply reproduced color and black-and-white photos, chronicles earring design from the basic hoop and disc of the Egyptians through the mini-chandelier-like girandoles and pendelogues popular from the 17th century on. Whether the raw materials were egg-size diamonds, matched pearls, gemstones, gold, silver or platinum, the skilled hands of master artisans like Fontenay and Lalique have earned their creations the respectful title of haute joaillerie. And with good reason, as this glittering book proves. REVIEW: In spirited and informed prose, the authors take us on a historical tour of one of the oldest of human ornaments. The earliest archaeological evidence for earrings indicates an origin in Western Asia perhaps 5000 years ago. They remained a constant in fashion for women (and now and then for men) until the 11th century. Medieval fashion in hairdressing and clothing obscured the ear, so earrings virtually disappeared in Europe until the 17th century. Beginning with elegant pearl drops, earrings reappeared then and have remained a favorite form of jewelry ever since. Color and black-and-white photographs and renderings comprise perhaps half the book: clear, plentiful, gorgeous, and carefully keyed to the text. This is museum-quality work, no funky plastic baubles here (although the Victorian fishbowls, complete with fish, give one pause). It is all enchanting, the more so because the styles and shapes are so recognizably familiar over the many centuries. READER REVIEWS: REVIEW: Beautiful book with very pretty pictures! I was very pleased when I received it and I highly recommend it to antique jewelry fans! It is a presentation of the history of earrings from prehistory to modern times. It relates how the fashion of wearing precious earrings spread through the Mediterranean region and illustrates earrings covering every period and style from rococo flowers to chaste neoclassical discs. REVIEW: This book was recommended to me by my antique jewelry dealer. It is a treasure-trove of historical information with fabulous pictures and descriptions. Whether you are a collector or simply an admirer, you will not be disappointed in this well-researched book. VINTAGE JEWELRY: How vintage jewelry brings old-time glamour to the red carpet. Among all the gemstones paraded on the red carpets of Cannes, Venice, Hollywood and New York, some pieces leave an indelible impression. At this year’s Manus X Machina-themed Met Gala, the award for best supporting accessory went to a majestic diamond peacock, its tail curving over one strap of Uma Thurman’s custom-made Ralph Lauren ivory gown. Created as a special order by Cartier in 1948 and comprising 83.89ct of diamonds, the brooch demonstrated the power of vintage when it comes to making a statement on the red carpet. "Vintage jewelry brings character and a sense of nostalgia to a look," says LA-based British stylist Tanya Gill, who dresses stars such as Kate Winslet, Julie Christie and Jane Fonda. "I love the craftsmanship, the history and the patina. Sometimes I’ll build characters through the jewelry as though I am creating a look for a film." Gill was responsible for the eye-catching vintage Bulgari bib necklace that Minnie Driver wore to the Vanity Fair Oscars party in 2014. Made in 1965, the necklace caught Gill’s eye at Bulgari’s Decades of Glamour pre-Oscar event. "It struck me as so exquisite in design and colour, with the craftsmanship of the turquoise, cabochon emeralds, cabochon amethysts and diamonds, that it would be a unique statement for the right personality," she says. "It was perfect for the statuesque beauty of Minnie Driver." It’s not only Hollywood’s grandes dames who carry off vintage glamour. At the Met Gala, Anna Wintour’s 29-year-old daughter, Bee Shaffer, was every inch the ingénue in 19th-century diamond chandelier earrings and a slim diamond headband by the New York-based vintage-jewelry specialist Fred Leighton, while at the reopening of Cartier’s Fifth Avenue mansion in September, Sienna Miller accessorised a fresh, floaty Valentino dress with a suite of diamond and emerald Cartier jewels from the 1920s. The trend for vintage jewelry on the red carpet was kick-started in 1996, when Prada borrowed a 19th-century opal choker from Fred Leighton for a then-29-year-old Nicole Kidman. "It was a wonderful moment for us," recalls Rebecca Selva, Fred Leighton’s chief creative officer and public relations director. "It commanded tremendous attention because it was so different." The collaboration sparked a long-term relationship with Kidman and began two decades of "beautiful and iconic moments" for Fred Leighton. Selva cites Charlize Theron’s appearance at the Vanity Fair Oscars party in 2000 as one of her favorites: clasped to the 25-year-old’s tangerine Vera Wang dress were two art-deco diamond clips. "Vera fell in love with the clips and then created the dress around them," says Selva. "The whole image was beautiful; it was Hollywood glamour in the most sophisticated and refined way." Nowadays, as celebrity outfits are dissected on social media in real time, red-carpet appearances have even more effect on what used to be a very private, elitist market. "The internet has been great in spreading the message about vintage jewelry," says Selva. "There’s so much to discover – people realise it’s not what they thought it was. It’s not your grandmother’s jewelry, and nothing is so rarefied that it can’t be worn. Even our tiaras can be worn as headbands." For Selva, increased visibility helps to dispel the myth that antique jewelry is outdated. "We have an unbelievable 19th-century diamond snake necklace that looks like the coolest piece anyone could wear, yet it’s almost 120 years old," she says. "It’s waiting for its red carpet moment." Vintage jewelry’s reputation in the fashion world has been elevated further by Fred Leighton’s collaboration with Net-a-Porter, which began in 2014. Both antique jewels and new pieces from the Fred Leighton Collection (which are inspired by vintage designs) are available online, with prices ranging from £1,500 for a simple pair of drop earrings to tens of thousands for signed vintage pieces by the likes of Cartier, David Webb or Buccellati. "We’ve had a really positive response, with jewelry often selling out within minutes," says Sophie Quy, fine-jewelry buyer at Net-a-Porter, who travels to the Fred Leighton store in New York up to four times a year to look for pieces. Diamonds, pearls and turquoise are bestsellers, along with chunky gold chain bracelets that customers wear stacked with modern designs. The site also works with Fred Leighton to source vintage pieces on demand. Antique jewelry has also found a place in uber-fashionable department store Dover Street Market, which carries a selection of vintage rings and Victorian and Georgian tiaras by British jeweler Bentley & Skinner alongside its roster of modern brands. This departure from the notion of dusty vintage emporiums reflects an increasing desire to own something one-of-a-kind. "Vintage jewelry is much more interesting than anything you can buy now," says Max Michelson of the London vintage specialist SJ Phillips. "Instead of being tied to this year’s range, we have 400 years’ worth of ranges, so you’ll always find something that fits." He says 20th-century pieces are far and away the most popular. "Everyone wants art deco because it’s stylish and nicely made, and being set in platinum it looks closer to modern jewelry than earlier pieces, which are set in silver. There’s also interest in bold pieces from the 1950s and ’60s." Unlike its American counterpart, SJ Phillips doesn’t shout about red-carpet appearances. "That type of advertising works in the States but not here," Michelson says. "Even if a piece has been worn by someone famous, we don’t tell people." While signed vintage pieces carry a price premium, there are smart buys to be found. "There are some under-appreciated American makers such as Raymond Yard," says Michelson. "But there are also unsigned pieces that are a match to the big names but half the price." The main thing is that it speaks to the wearer. "We never claim that anything is going to be a good investment. It might be, but we’re not an investment broker." Rebecca Selva agrees: "If jewelry is fine and fabricated beautifully, it will hold its value, but I would certainly never sell it as an investment. It’s more about the joy you get from it." [Telegraph (UK)]. VINTAGE JEWELRY: Dust off your old jewelry boxes and open-up the family vault because you might just be sitting on a fortune. That’s the message from London auctioneer Bonhams this week, as they announced new figures showing the soaring value of vintage jewels. Bonhams say the value of antique and period jewelry has increased by over 80% in the last decade - outdoing average house prices in England, which increased by 47% over the same period. Estimates have been abandoned on auction days, as items have been fetching double, sometimes triple, their predictions amid fierce bidding wars. And it’s prompted the auctioneer to launch a campaign urging the public to seek valuations for any forgotten gems they might have stashed away. “An Art Deco Cartier emerald and diamond bracelet that we sold in December was estimated at £80,000-£100,000 and it made £210,000,” says Jean Ghika, head of jewelry at Bonhams UK and Europe. “These types of instances are our key indicators of a gain in momentum. It’s the quality of craftsmanship that is resonating with buyers, the types of stones that were used back then, compared to a modern piece, are special.” Vogue’s jewelry editor Carol Woolton isn’t surprised by the jewelry market’s strength in the current economic climate. “There are so few investments that are reliable right now - stocks are in a state of insecurity, but gold and diamonds will never be a risky purchase for a rich person trying to maintain their wealth,” she says. “There are limited resources in the world, mines will run out and there is a finite number of precious stones - that’s what gives it a rarity value.” Even if you haven’t got a spare Cartier brooch in the attic to auction off, it’s worth noting that the trend described extends beyond designer names, and applies to specific stones, metals and eras, too. If the catwalks are revisiting silhouettes from a particular decade, the interest will echo through the jewelry world. “Signed items from the Art Deco period and antiques over 100 years old will always be in demand,” says Ghika. “But we’re now seeing post-war period, 1950s jewelry, as well as pieces from the 1960s and 1970s really performing well too.” The thing that often prevents people from having their jewelry valued is the assumption that family heirlooms have been set aside because they’re no longer fashionable won’t be worth anything. “People often look at their items without understanding their importance in the context of jewelry history,” says Ghika. “We recently discovered a wonderful and rare Chanel Twist necklace, which a client had brought to a valuation day, but had thought it was just a piece of costume jewelry. But Chanel did make real jewelry as well as pieces in non-precious materials.” This 1950s necklace had a discreet engraving on the inside, indicating that it was actually designed by Coco herself, and it subsequently smashed its estimate of £6,000, fetching £68,500 on auction day. So how can you tell if something is valuable when digging through an old jewelry stash? Start with the logos and hallmarks, suggests Ghika, noting that the big names (Cartier, Tiffany, Bulgari, Boucheron and Van Cleef and Arpels) will always be winners, but that key names from modern eras (like Andrew Grima of the 1960s, or John Donald of the 1970s) will have equally held their value. Next you should assess the piece’s construction; do the stones have rough edges, are they generously packed in, or was its maker trying to scrimp by using more metal, less diamonds? Even the battered and broken is not entirely beyond hope. “It’s not necessarily the end of the world if something has had some damage,” says Ghika. “Professional repairs, if done well, can be discreet. We have had items come into us in two pieces before and, after it is mended, it hasn’t greatly impacted on the value.” The best way to truly know what something might be worth is, of course, to get it valued by a professional. Because it is unlikely that you will be able to tell that the sapphires in granny’s heirloom ring were super-desirable specimens from the Kashmir region or the product of a rare mining community that was only operational for a ten years at the end of the 19th Century. “The Bonhams website offers the option to submit photos if you want to get an initial impression from our experts, then we hold regular valuation days all over the UK,” advises Ghika. What you can do for yourself, though, is take care of the stocks you’ve got - whether you’re ready to sell them or not. “If you ever think you might sell jewelry on, then you must keep the boxes,” urges Woolton. “The boxes and the paperwork for stones will really add to their value and save a lot of confusion as to what something is when you sell.” The worst thing you can do is to let your old jewelry rattle around in a disorganised box. “Don’t over-clean old pieces,” Ghika also warns. “Part of the history is the pattern that it has and if it’s stripped off then it lacks some of its soul.” Other expert tips include not keeping hard and soft stones together to prevent erosion, wiping pearls with a cloth after every wear to remove any oils or perfume, and even splitting pairs of earrings into individual soft pouches so that they don’t rub together. If you’re keen to run with 'gems over property’ as your new investment mantra, the experts say you may have to wait a while for the dividends if you choose more recent pieces. “jewelry takes a long time to appreciate,” says Ghika, who suggests buying classics distinct to particular makers, like Cartier’s Panthère collection. Woolton, meanwhile, tips Dior’s fine jeweler Victoire de Castellane as one who will create the “masterpieces of our time.” One thing all experts agree on however, is that primarily jewelry should be worn and enjoyed, with any increase in value seen as an added bonus. “It’s all very well owning these wonderful things,” says Woolton. “But if investors lock them away and don’t wear them then you have to ask; where’s the fun in that?” [Telegraph (UK)]. VINTAGE JEWELRY: The rise of online vintage jewelry auctions. As the Blue Moon diamond gets set for auction, our expert has the lowdown on the growing popularity of online sales which is making it easier than ever to bid for precious pieces. The global reach of the internet has raised the profiles of local salerooms and consumer confidence with it. When I was an auctioneer for Sotheby’s it was a one-person show; quite the adrenaline rush, the aim was to keep the “room” engaged in enthusiastic bidding. Today, with online sales increasing, auctions are just as busy but with fewer people actually in the room. Some of the thrill has gone but the benefit of online auctions is that they’ve boosted the profile of provincial salerooms, making them a force to be reckoned with. At Woolley & Wallis Salisbury Salerooms, for instance, an Art Nouveau Lalique haircomb came up for auction last year. The piece was notable for two reasons: highly collectable names such as Lalique were once the preserve of well-known auction houses. Now, the global reach of the internet has raised the profiles of local salerooms and consumer confidence with it. But the haircomb made a particular impact because it had previously been bought at an auction in Wellington, New Zealand, where it was erroneously catalogued as plastic and sold for around £2,000. Woolley & Wallis’s sale attributed its genuine provenance as horn, and sold it for £29,000. Here’s my guide to noted provincial auction houses which also offer online auctions. According to Jonathan Edwards, associate director at Woolley & Wallis auctioneers in Wiltshire, underbidders are making a big impact on prices being realized at auction today. There is also the fact that bids are coming not only from the UK but internationally, too. In May last year a natural pearl necklace was sold to an online bidder at the Wiltshire auctioneers for a staggering £89,000, against an estimate of £50,000-70,000. It is the highest-priced jewel sold online at Woolley & Wallis to date. Fellows auctioneers, which offers more than 40 specialist jewelry sales a year, is witnessing a substantial annual increase in its online sales, which represents around 45 per cent of its turnover now. “Rare pieces are going out to a global marketplace and there is no snobbery about which auction house you bid in any more,” says Geoff Whitefield, insurance manager at Fellows. A client who thought a pair of earrings were costume jewelry was staggered when they went under the hammer for £25,000 this year. Fellows is holding jewelry auctions throughout November and December Bellmans recently sold a pair of Twenties French platinum-and-diamond bracelets, which linked together to also form a necklace, for £14,000. Jonathan Pratt, managing director at Bellmans, advises that anyone considering buying from an online auction should first check the saleroom’s professional accreditation. “Look for trade-association endorsement, such as the Society of Fine Art Auctioneers and Valuers (SOFAA), and the Association of Accredited Auctioneers (AAA),” he says. It’s also worth checking that auction jewelry specialists are qualified and have obtained a recognized gemological certificate. Bellmans is holding a jewelry auction on 4 December The-saleroom.com started its live webcast auctions in 2006. Visitors to the site can browse auction catalogues and place bids over the internet in real time, with live audio and video feeds direct from the auction rooms. The site hosts jewelry auctions throughout the year, so if you are looking for a particular item, simply type keywords into the search engine and it will list suitable lots. The most important sales are still the preserve of international auction houses Sotheby’s, Christie’s and Bonhams, not least because of their global reach and relationships with leading collectors and dealers. These are the sales where you will see jewels that will take your breath away, including the Blue Moon diamond going on sale at Sotheby’s Geneva on 11 November. The largest fancy vivid blue, internally flawless 12.03ct diamond ever to come up for auction, with an estimate of US$35-55million, looks likely to break all previous records. “Auctioneers have adapted quickly to the demand for online bidding,” says Keith Penton, head of Christie’s London jewelry department. “It brings added interest and excitement to the atmosphere of the saleroom, particularly when the prospective buyer’s location is revealed to be in a far-flung location; it’s not unusual nowadays to hear: ‘sold to you on the internet in Bogota’.” (Note: Sotheby’s, Christie’s and Bonhams are not part of a sourcing portal platform so you will need to go to the individual websites to watch live auctions.) For Bonhams, which last year conducted 43 jewelry sales around the world, online bidding has encouraged a new clientele. “It’s about bringing the auction experience to millions of people who have never set foot in a saleroom before,” explains Matthew Girling, global CEO and director of jewelry. Online bidders accounted for more than £5m of Bonhams jewelry sales in 2014. This is also reinforced by the increase in volume of registrations it is seeing at Bonhams monthly Knightsbridge jewelry sales. Sotheby’s has also witnessed an increase in the number of online buyers participating in their worldwide jewelry sales over the past five years. In a 12-month period between 2013 and 2014, it saw a staggering 42 per cent increase in online bidding. So when that “Blue Moon” diamond goes up for auction at Sotheby’s Geneva, make sure you switch on your computer, get out the champagne, and witness a unique gem making history. Anyone can listen to or watch a live auction by simply clicking on “view as a guest”, although for data protection reasons you will not be able to see anyone bidding in the room. At Sotheby’s and Christie’s major Geneva, New York and Hong Kong sales, both auction houses have their own facility where you need to register on the website to follow the action, which can make for compulsive viewing. If you want to register to bid, you’ll be required to answer a series of security questions and, ultimately, it is still the individual auction houses that will accept your application if you’re registering interest through a sourcing portal. Once you’ve bid you have entered a binding contract with the auction house and if you are bidding via a sourcing portal such as thesaleroom.com there is a 3 per cent handling charge added to the final price after the buyer’s premium. Make sure you take a good hard look at all the images – including at the reverse image – as well as at the hallmarks. If the auctioneer has stipulated what the item is, then that is their guarantee. Also make sure you’ve checked dimensions so that there are no surprises when your item arrives and is much smaller or bigger than you’d hoped. View the items first and build a relationship with the auction house: it is always reassuring if you know who you are talking to at the other end of the phone when advice is needed. [Telegraph (UK)]. ANCIENT JEWELRY: The art of the jeweler. Metalsmiths' shops were the training schools for many of the great artists of the Renaissance. Brunelleschi, Botticelli, Verrocchio, Ghi-berti, Pollaiuolo, and Luca della Robbia all were trained as goldsmiths before they embarked upon the higher arts. The goldsmith made silver vases for the dinner tables of cardinals; knights sent sword blades to be mounted in rich hilts; ladies came to have their jewels set; princes needed medals to commemorate their victories; popes and bishops wished to place chased reliquaries on the altars of their patron saints; and men of fashion ordered medallions to wear upon their hats. Although many materials-including iron-have been used for jewelry, gold is by far the most satisfactory. One could not expect the same results from any other metal, for the durability and the extraordinary ductility and pliancy of gold and its property of being readily drawn out or flattened into wire or leaf of almost infinite fineness have led to its being used for works in which minute-ness and delicacy of execution were required. Gold may be soldered, it may be cast, and any kind of surface, from the rough to the highest possible polish, given to it. It is the best of all metals upon which to enamel. Gold was easily retrieved from the gravel of river beds, where it was washed from the eroded rocks; hence it is one of the oldest metals known. Unlike most metals, gold does not tarnish on exposure to the air but remains brilliant. Pure gold is too soft for general use, but it can be hardened and toughened by alloying with most of the other metals. Color is one of its important qualities. When the metal is pure, it is nearly the orange-yellow of the solar spectrum. When it contains a little silver, it is pale yellow, or greenish yellow; and when alloyed with a little copper, it takes a reddish tinge-all so effective in varicolored jewelry. These alloys have an ancient history, electrum, an alloy of gold and silver which assured beautiful hues, having been used by the Egyptians, Greeks, and other ancient peoples. The ancients, from the most remote times, were acquainted with the art of beating gold into thin leaves, and this leaf was used for other purposes besides personal adornment. Gold leaf was used in buildings for gilding wood, and Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans were adepts in applying it. It was no great departure to introduce gilded backgrounds to paintings or figures in mosaic and finally to illuminated manuscripts. In the use of gold Byzantium went beyond Rome or Athens. When more skill was attained by painters, backgrounds in perspective took the place of those in gold. Early examples of leaf work in this exhibition may be seen in the headdress and jewelry of Queen Shubad's ladies-in-waiting from the excavations of the royal tombs at Ur in Mesopotamia. They date from a period between 3500 and 2800 B.C. A second step was the cutting of gold leaf into thin strips to make wire. It is still a question whether the art of wire-drawing was known to the ancients. Plaited wire-work, as used in many places and over a wide period of time, is well represented in ancient history. Fusing and soldering are also ancient techniques. Granular work, the soldering of minute grains of gold one beside the other in a line or disposed ornamentally over a surface, was known to the ancient Egyptian jewelers, as well as to the classical, oriental, and barbarian gold-smiths. This traditional technique can be traced through the centuries, splendid granular work of the ancient and modern civilizations being well represented in archaeological finds. Filigree, the arranging of wires in patterns, usually soldered to a base, is often associated with granular work. The oriental nations, especially the Moors, knew how to execute filigree with rare delicacy and taste, this technique adapting itself particularly to their designs. Embossing and chasing are techniques of widespread use. The relief effect of embossing is produced by various means. A thin pliable sheet of metal may be pressed into molds, between dies, or over stamps, or it may be molded free hand. An excellent example of an embossed gold sheet which was pressed or hammered may be seen in the Greek sword sheath from South Russia. In handwork the sheet of metal is placed against a ground with a yielding surface and the design is raised from the back by a series of punches. The work of the chaser is closely related to that of the sculptor, the ornament on the face of a casting or an embossed work being finished with chisels or chasing tools. Jewelry was often enriched by stamping, a simple process by which a design is made in depression with a punch., and the gold fixed by heating to redness; and the surface finally burnished. In all countries the work of the lapidary was combined with that of the goldsmith. Much jewelry depended for its splendor of effect chiefly upon its inlay of brilliantly colored stones, jaspers, agates, lapis lazuli. Much of the commoner kinds of jewelry, such as buckles for the belts of warriors or brooches for the vestments of ecclesiastics too poor to buy silver or gold, were made of bronze, enameled and mercury-gilded. Mercury-gilding is a process of great antiquity. The object was first carefully polished and rubbed with mercury; thin gold was then laid on and pressed down, the mercury being subsequently volatilized, and so forth, or upon colored glass inlays. The Egyptians and Greeks were incomparable artists in intaglio (cutting concave designs or figures) in gold, and one notes with astonishment the mastery they possessed over the stubborn hard stones, including the sapphire. A Greek gold ring with an intaglio engraving of a girl stretching herself is one of the finest in ancient history. The engraver's art both in cameo and in intaglio attained a high degree of excellence about 500 B.C., which lasted until about the third or fourth century A.D. The classical artists used rich and warm-tinted oriental stones, the increased intercourse with the East after the death of Alexander the Great having a marked influence on the development of the art. In gem-engraving the ancients used essentially the same principle that is in use today, that is, drilling with a revolving tool. They also used a sapphire or diamond point set in a handle and applied like a graver. In early medieval times gem-engraving was little practiced, but antique cameos were held in peculiar veneration on ac-count of the belief, then universal, in their potency as medicinal charms. With the Renaissance, the art of gem-engraving was revived, and engravers from that time onward have produced results equal to the best ancient work. Glass in ancient times was so precious that some nations demanded tribute in this fragile material instead of gold. It is said that a citizen invented a method for making malleable glass and was invited to visit the Roman Emperor Tiberius. He brought a vase, which was thrown to the ground but only dented. A hammer again rounded it into shape. Tiberius then asked whether any other man knew the secret of manufacture. The artisan answered no, whereupon the emperor ordered him beheaded. Glass inlay, widely used from Egyptian times, is often wrongly called enamel. It is not enamel, which, although a vitreous material, is employed in the powdered state and always fused into position by heat, whereas the glass inlay was always cut or molded and cemented into position. This glass inlay is often referred to as paste, which in the modern sense means glass with a high refractive index and high luster employed to imitate the diamond. Good examples of paste may be seen in some eighteenth-century English and French. For centuries Egypt was the “promised land” of the ancient civilized world, for the Pharaohs had at their disposal enormous stores of gold. The Egyptians excelled in metal-work, especially in gold, and many techniques employed by goldsmiths today can be seen in ancient Egyptian jewelry, particularly for instance the treasure of el LThuin, which was recovered in its entirety and in nearly the same perfect condition in which it had been placed in the tomb; or the jewelry which had once graced the person of the Princess Sit Hathor Yuinet, daughter of King Se'n-Wosret II, who reigned from 1906 to 1887 B.C. and near whose pyramid, at el Lahfin, she was buried. Her girdle, one of the outstanding pieces of ancient jewelry, is of amethyst beads and hollow gold panther-head ornaments, inside which pellets tinkled whenever the wearer moved. From the same treasure there is the neck-lace with a pectoral of King Se'n-Wosret II. On either side of the pectoral the hawk of the god Horus supports the cartouche of the king and a group of hieroglyphics which signify, "May King Se'n-Wosret II live many hundreds of thousands of years." The pectoral is gold inlaid with lapis lazuli, car-nelian, and turquoise, and the eyes of the shape made of actual flowers, fruits, and leaves, which were presented to guests to wear at banquets and other festivities. Brilliant color is one of the most attractive characteristics of Egyptian jewelry. It had its origin in the beads, both of semi-precious stones and of faience, which were widely worn during the Old Kingdom (2800-2270 B.C.). Beads of faience of different colors were also in fashion during the XVIII Dynasty. The composition of the broad collars of faience of this period was derived from ornaments of the same engraving, soldering, and metal intaglio. The Greek jeweler, like the Egyptian, excelled in the arts of embossing and chasing. Greece had little access to precious stones before Alexander's Eastern conquests, and so from the sixth to the fourth century B.C. the jeweler specialized in metalwork. He was a master of both granulated and filigree decoration, and he did exquisite work in plaiting gold into chains and in modeling it into little figures, both human and animal. Much of the best of Greek jewelry is sculpture in little. Ornamental goldwork naturally required more minute workman ship than sculpture in bronze and marble, and excellent modeling often makes little objects impressive as well as intricate. A few famous examples of ancient Greek jewelry, such as an earring in the form of a siren, is a charming example of Greek jeweler's modeling. Other examples include a pair of earrings of the fourth century B.C. from Madytos on the Hellespont, as well as an eagle and a palmette made of hammered gold sheets; the feathers of the eagle are incised; each leaf is edged with beaded wire; and the fruit is covered with granulation. Another example might be a bracelet, of rock crystal, with gold finials, each finely embossed with a ram's head, which shows skillfully modeled figures, as well as plaited chains, and filigree and granular work of rare minuteness. The Ganymede jewelry, made soon after 350 B.C., is one of the most precious sets that have come out of antiquity. Most techniques are represented on the earrings, bracelets, brooches, necklace, and emerald ring. On the earrings the figures of Ganymede are solid castings; Ganymede's drapery, the wings and tail. The technique of Etruscan goldwork is much the same as that of the Greek. The metal is thin, it is pressed or beaten out in designs in low relief, and it is further decorated by the surface application of filigree and small granules of gold. Several molds of stone have been discovered, and it is probable that the thin gold was pressed into the mold by means of a metal or agate style, solder being used to fix the separate pieces of gold together whenever necessary. Some of the granulated work is so fine that without a magnifying glass it is almost impossible to believe that the patterns are actually laid on with an infinite number of minute spherical grains. The burial chamber of an Etruscan lady, near Vulci, opened over a century ago, yielded a rich parure. Archaeologists have recovered several headdresses reflecting the custom Chinese women had of decking their hair with floral ornaments. These are richly colored, and some of the materials used in them, besides gold, are amber, coral, seed pearls, and an exclusively Chinese material-bright blue kingfisher feathers. In Chinese jewelry the art of the metal-worker achieves an exquisite delicacy. A famous golden phoenix crown shows perhaps most clearly of all the works in the exhibition the ability of the goldsmith to take infinite pains. It has more than thirty separate ornaments, made of different con-formations of gold wire and decorated with pearls and other stones. Many of the ornaments are set on tiny springs so that they quiver with the slightest movement. jade, exquisitely carved. With the exception of pearls, the Chinese did not use precious stones. The prettiness and color of Chinese jewelry tempt one to describe it at length, but according to a Chinese proverb, "A thousand words do not compare with one look." The Japanese also rank high as metalworkers, their sword furniture, the jewelry of the Japanese nobleman, especially showing the subtle skill of the artist in manipulating hard and soft metals. In enriching the fittings many processes of metal ornamentation-relief carving, relief inlay or applique, overlay, incised and recessed carving-are employed. It is the combination of techniques and alloys which makes their work of outstanding interest to jewelers as well as to the amateur. Today these fittings are often worn as jewelry in the West. In Japan sword furniture is frequently signed by masters as well known as famous painters. The Greek jeweler, like the Egyptian, excelled in the arts of embossing, chasing, A glance at the magnificent weapons from Persia, Turkey, and India will remove any impression that the love of personal adornment is a purely feminine attribute. Orientals often wear daggers embellished with silver and semiprecious stones even over their most ragged clothes, which shows that they take life with a gesture. In India perhaps more than anywhere else, jewelry has played a vital role in the life of the people, from the lowest rank to the highest. Although none of the Indian jewelry is much older than the eighteenth century, it represents designs and methods of decoration that go back to much earlier periods, some of them reflecting the influence of Hellenistic civilization. Some pieces are made of gold or silver alone, others are richly set with diamonds, rubies, and emeralds or decorated with enamel. The Greek jeweler, like the Egyptian, excelled in the arts of embossing, chasing, Much of this jewelry was made in Jaipur, which was particularly famous for its enamelwork. A gold bracelet with dragon-head terminals is an outstanding example of combined jeweled and enameled work. The backs of jeweled ornaments were often enameled with fine patterns, so that the reverse of a necklace or pendant would be as fine in effect as the right side. The jewelry of the nomadic Iranian tribes is represented by a few choice pieces cast in gold and chased. These include many Scythian ornaments, winged griffins, stags, and rosettes, which were used as decoration on clothing; and two clasps of about the first century A.D., Sarmatian and Parthian in origin. The Middle Ages are perhaps best represented by an extensive collection of jewelry from the Morgan collection, of the period of the barbarian migrations and of the Byzantine period. The gold ornaments in the Albanian Treasure (seventh-ninth century) are thought to be the work of nomad craftsmen in the train of barbarian tribes migrating through the Balkans from Central Asia. The splendid collections of Gallo-Roman, Germanic, and Merovingian jewelry, distinctive features of which are the colored glass inlays and the filigree and beaded work in gold, need only be mentioned, for they have been described and illustrated in the catalogues of Seymour de Ricci. They were made from the fourth to the eighth century A.D., the latest probably not exceeding the reign of Charlemagne (742- 814). It was Charlemagne who stopped the custom of burying the dead with their weapons and jewelry because all the wealth was going into the ground instead of into the treasury. The result is that much fine jewelry was melted down. The Eastern influence which had come westwards after the year 330, when Constantine transferred his court from Rome to Byzantium (Constantinople), is seen in many pieces of ancient jewelry. The goldsmiths followed the Emperor Constantine to Byzantium, and from there came many marvels of art and beauty as presents to the Western churches. The jewelry in the treasure (sixth century) found on the island of Cyprus is in the Eastern style. It was probably buried during the Arab invasion of the island. About the beginning of the eleventh century the Byzantine influence had been largely spent, and new styles were introduced. Families of monks, animated by one spirit and educated in the same way, lived in monasteries which were schools of ecclesiastical goldsmiths. They built and adorned their churches; they hammered, chased, and enameled gold, silver, and bronze. Altar fronts, pyxes, lamps, patens, chalices, crosses, candlesticks, and reliquaries were made, and most of their motives of design, methods of working, and chemical processes were the common property of the abbeys. Lay craftsmen, too, devoted more of their energies than previously to building cathedrals and creating ecclesiastical art, and there is consequently a close connection between the work of the architect and the mediaeval goldsmith. This ecclesiastical influence is seen in a late eleventh-century book cover of silver-gilt, ivory, cabochons, and enamel, from the cathedral of Jaca. Before the multiplication of books by printing, their covers had more to do with the goldsmith's art than with that of the binder. Architectural influence is shown in the French thirteenth-century reliquary of Saint Margaret. Reliquaries like this were master-pieces of work in precious metals. They were built up of innumerable plates soldered together, with buttresses, pinnacles, and traceried windows, like little models of churches or small chapels. During the Renaissance, During the Renaissance, everything that could be gold was gold, not only jewelry but plate; and dresses for men and women and even horse trappings were made of cloth of gold. It was an age when the setting of a gem or the molding of a goblet was a matter that would occupy a grave potentate to the exclusion of affairs of state. In order to satisfy the demands of the time Columbus set out not to discover another continent but to find a convenient route to India, the land of gold, pearls, and spices. The Renaissance goldsmiths made the most of the mediaeval tradition in technique and in due course they developed perfection in workmanship. The rich and varied pendants are splendid examples of the renaissance jeweler’s art. This type of ornament originated in devotional usage, and during the Middle Ages its decoration was almost always of religious significance. The pendant was a conspicuous ornament and was usually of fine workmanship. Portrait medallions, especially those of historical personages, were made by distinguished masters. A splendid pendant, representing Bona Sforza, Queen of Poland, is signed by Jacobus Veron (Gian Jacopo Caraglio) and is dated 1554. The cameo portrait of the queen is sardonyx, her chain and hair ornament gold. The Visconti-Sforza arms on the reverse are enameled gold. Among the enseignes, ornaments worn on the turned-back brim of the hat or cap, one superb historical example is one in gold skillfully embossed. Cellini, in his “Treatise on Goldsmithing,” explains how such embossing was done. In principle, a sheet of gold is beaten from the back with punches until it is bossed up much like the wax model. He completes the explanation by telling of a visit to his workshop by Michelangelo, who complimented him on a gold medal embossed in high relief. Michelangelo reputedly said: “If this work were made in great, whether of marble or of bronze, and fashioned with as exquisite design as this, it would astonish the world; and even in its present size it seems to me so beautiful that I do not think ever a goldsmith of the ancient world fashioned aught to come up to it!” Another technique explained by Cellini is the “beautiful art of enameling.” A splendid example of this technique may be seen on a fine cups, of red jasper mounted with enameled gold and precious stones. It should be compared with the Cellini cup in the Altman collection. Personal jewelry of the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries can be characterized by snuffboxes and carnets de bal (dance programs), precisely executed, showing the quality of the era’s workmanship. Such boxes, of varicolored gold, jeweled, and set with miniature portraits of their donors, were the favorite gifts of kings and princes. They were enormously costly in their day and they have always been precious collectors’ items. Some of them be- longed to persons famous in history, some are signed by famous jewelers, and all illustrate the extravagant vanities of the time. During the seventeenth century, there developed an increasing fondness for faceted gems set close together to produce glittering masses. Gradually the setting was subordinated to the precious stones, and this is the modern style. NEANDERTHAL JEWELRY: Did Neanderthals make jewelry 130,000 years go? Eagle claws provide clues. Krapina Neanderthals may have manipulated white-tailed eagle talons to make jewelry 130,000 years ago, before the appearance of modern human in Europe, according to a study published March 11, 2015 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by David Frayer from University of Kansas and colleagues from Croatia. Researchers describe eight mostly complete white-tailed eagle talons from the Krapina Neanderthal site in present-day Croatia, dating to approximately 130,000 years ago. These white-tailed eagle bones, discovered more than 100 years ago, all derive from a single time period at Krapina. Four talons bear multiple edge-smoothed cut marks, and eight show polishing facets or abrasion. Three of the largest talons have small notches at roughly the same place along the plantar surface. The authors suggest these features may be part of a jewelry assemblage, like mounting the talons in a necklace or bracelet. Some have argued that Neanderthals lacked symbolic ability or copied this behavior from modern humans, but the presence of the talons indicates that the Krapina Neanderthals may have acquired eagle talons for some kind of symbolic purpose. They also demonstrate that the Krapina Neanderthals may have made jewelry 80,000 years before the appearance of modern humans in Europe. “It's really a stunning discovery. It's one of those things that just appeared out of the blue. It's so unexpected and it's so startling because there's just nothing like it until very recent times to find this kind of jewelry,” David Frayer said. [AncientOrigins.net]. SHIPPING & RETURNS/REFUNDS: We always ship books domestically (within the USA) via USPS INSURED media mail (“book rate”). Most international orders cost an additional $13.49 to $41.99 for an insured shipment in a heavily padded mailer. However this book is quite heavy, and it is too large to fit into a flat rate mailer. Therefore the shipping costs are somewhat higher than what is otherwise ordinary. There is also a discount program which can cut postage costs by 50% to 75% if you’re buying about half-a-dozen books or more (5 kilos+). Our postage charges are as reasonable as USPS rates allow. ADDITIONAL PURCHASES do receive a VERY LARGE discount, typically about $5 per book (for each additional book after the first) so as to reward you for the economies of combined shipping/insurance costs. Your purchase will ordinarily be shipped within 48 hours of payment. We package as well as anyone in the business, with lots of protective padding and containers. All of our shipments are fully insured against loss, and our shipping rates include the cost of this coverage (through stamps.com, Shipsaver.com, the USPS, UPS, or Fed-Ex). International tracking is provided free by the USPS for certain countries, other countries are at additional cost. We do offer U.S. Postal Service Priority Mail, Registered Mail, and Express Mail for both international and domestic shipments, as well United Parcel Service (UPS) and Federal Express (Fed-Ex). Please ask for a rate quotation. We will accept whatever payment method you are most comfortable with. If upon receipt of the item you are disappointed for any reason whatever, I offer a no questions asked 30-day return policy. Send it back, I will give you a complete refund of the purchase price; 1) less our original shipping/insurance costs, 2) less non-refundable PayPal/eBay payment processing fees. Please note that PayPal does NOT refund fees. Even if you “accidentally” purchase something and then cancel the purchase before it is shipped, PayPal will not refund their fees. So all refunds for any reason, without exception, do not include PayPal/eBay payment processing fees (typically between 3% and 5%) and shipping/insurance costs (if any). If you’re unhappy with PayPal and eBay’s “no fee refund” policy, and we are EXTREMELY unhappy, please voice your displeasure by contacting PayPal and/or eBay. We have no ability to influence, modify or waive PayPal or eBay policies. ABOUT US: Prior to our retirement we used to travel to Europe and Central Asia several times a year. Most of the items we offer came from acquisitions we made in Eastern Europe, India, and from the Levant (Eastern Mediterranean/Near East) during these years from various institutions and dealers. Much of what we generate on Etsy, Amazon and Ebay goes to support The Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, as well as some other worthy institutions in Europe and Asia connected with Anthropology and Archaeology. Though we have a collection of ancient coins numbering in the tens of thousands, our primary interests are ancient jewelry and gemstones. Prior to our retirement we traveled to Russia every year seeking antique gemstones and jewelry from one of the globe’s most prolific gemstone producing and cutting centers, the area between Chelyabinsk and Yekaterinburg, Russia. From all corners of Siberia, as well as from India, Ceylon, Burma and Siam, gemstones have for centuries gone to Yekaterinburg where they have been cut and incorporated into the fabulous jewelry for which the Czars and the royal families of Europe were famous for. My wife grew up and received a university education in the Southern Urals of Russia, just a few hours away from the mountains of Siberia, where alexandrite, diamond, emerald, sapphire, chrysoberyl, topaz, demantoid garnet, and many other rare and precious gemstones are produced. Though perhaps difficult to find in the USA, antique gemstones are commonly unmounted from old, broken settings – the gold reused – the gemstones recut and reset. Before these gorgeous antique gemstones are recut, we try to acquire the best of them in their original, antique, hand-finished state – most of them centuries old. We believe that the work created by these long-gone master artisans is worth protecting and preserving rather than destroying this heritage of antique gemstones by recutting the original work out of existence. That by preserving their work, in a sense, we are preserving their lives and the legacy they left for modern times. Far better to appreciate their craft than to destroy it with modern cutting. Not everyone agrees – fully 95% or more of the antique gemstones which come into these marketplaces are recut, and the heritage of the past lost. But if you agree with us that the past is worth protecting, and that past lives and the produce of those lives still matters today, consider buying an antique, hand cut, natural gemstone rather than one of the mass-produced machine cut (often synthetic or “lab produced”) gemstones which dominate the market today. We can set most any antique gemstone you purchase from us in your choice of styles and metals ranging from rings to pendants to earrings and bracelets; in sterling silver, 14kt solid gold, and 14kt gold fill. When you purchase from us, you can count on quick shipping and careful, secure packaging. We would be happy to provide you with a certificate/guarantee of authenticity for any item you purchase from us. There is a $3 fee for mailing under separate cover. I will always respond to every inquiry whether via email or eBay message, so please feel free to write. Condition: LIKE NEW. Seemingly only partly read, with very mild shelfwear. See detailed condition description below., Material: Paper, Publisher: Rizzoli (1990), Format: Oversized hardcover with dustjacket, Length: 224 pages, Dimensions: 12¼ x 9½ x 1 inch; 3½ pounds

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