ISTROS Thrace 300-100BC Helios Eagle Dolphin Authentic Ancient Greek Coin i51070

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Seller: Top-Rated Seller highrating_lowprice (21,438) 100%, Location: Rego Park, New York, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 321974594809 Item: i51070 Authentic Ancient Coin of: Greek city of Istros in Thrace Bronze 12mm (2.01 grams) Struck circa 300-100 B.C. Reference: Moushmov 152 Radiate head of Helios facing. ΙΣΤΡΙ, Sea-eagle standing left on dolphin which it attacks with its beak. A Milesian colony, its large output of silver coiange in the first half of the 4th Century suggests that it was a palce of commercial importance. You are bidding on the exact item pictured, provided with a Certificate of Authenticity and Lifetime Guarantee of Authenticity. Helios was the personification of the Sun in Greek mythology . Homer often calls him Titan or Hyperion , while Hesiod (Theogony 371) and the Homeric Hymn separate him as a son of the Titans Hyperion and Theia (Hesiod) or Euryphaessa (Homeric Hymn) and brother of the goddesses Selene , the moon, and Eos, the dawn. Ovid also calls him Titan. Helios was imagined as a handsome god crowned with the shining aureole of the Sun, who drove the chariot of the sun across the sky each day to earth-circling Oceanus and through the world-ocean returned to the East at night. Homer described Helios's chariot as drawn by solar steeds (Iliad xvi.779); later Pindar described it as drawn by "fire-darting steeds" (Olympian Ode 7.71). Still later, the horses were given fiery names: Pyrois , Aeos , Aethon , and Phlegon . As time passed, Helios was increasingly identified with the god of light, Apollo . However, in spite of their syncretism, they were also often viewed as two distinct gods (Helios was a Titan , whereas Apollo was an Olympian ). The equivalent of Helios in Roman mythology was Sol , specifically Sol Invictus . Etymology The Greek masculine theonym Ἥλιος (Helios) is derived from the noun ἥλιος, "Sun" in ancient Greek. The ancient Greek word derives from Proto-Indo-European . Cognate with Latin sol, Sanskrit surya , Old English swegl (sky-heavens) Germanic sunna . The female offspring of Helios were called Heliades . Greek mythology The best known story involving Helios is that of his son Phaëton , who attempted to drive his father's chariot but lost control and set the earth on fire. Solar Apollo with the radiant halo of Helios in a Roman floor mosaic, El Djem , Tunisia, late 2nd century In one Greek vase painting, Helios appears riding across the sea in the cup of the Delphic tripod which appears to be a solar reference. Athenaeus in Deipnosophistae relates that, at the hour of sunset, Helios climbed into a great golden cup in which he passes from the Hesperides in the farthest west to the land of the Ethiops, with whom he passes the dark hours. While Heracles traveled to Erytheia to retrieve the cattle of Geryon , he crossed the Libyan desert and was so frustrated at the heat that he shot an arrow at Helios, the Sun. Almost immediately, Heracles realized his mistake and apologized profusely, in turn and equally courteous, Helios granted Heracles the golden cup which he used to sail across the sea every night, from the west to the east because he found Heracles' actions immensely bold. Heracles used this golden cup to reach Erytheia. By the Oceanid Perse, Helios became the father of Aeëtes , Circe , and Pasiphaë . His other children are Phaethusa ("radiant") and Lampetia ("shining"). Helios and Apollo Helios is sometimes identified with Apollo: "Different names may refer to the same being," Walter Burkert observes, "or else they may be consciously equated, as in the case of Apollo and Helios." In Homer , Apollo is clearly identified as a different god, a plague-dealer with a silver (not golden) bow and no solar features. The earliest certain reference to Apollo identified with Helios appears in the surviving fragments of Euripides ' play Phaethon in a speech near the end (fr 781 N²), Clymene , Phaethon's mother, laments that Helios has destroyed her child, that Helios whom men rightly call Apollo (the name Apollo is here understood to mean Apollon "Destroyer"). By Hellenistic times Apollo had become closely connected with the Sun in cult . His epithet Phoebus, Phoibos "shining", drawn from Helios, was later also applied by Latin poets to the sun-god Sol. Coin of Roman Emperor Constantine I depicting Sol Invictus /Apollo with the legend SOLI INVICTO COMITI, c. 315. The identification became a commonplace in philosophic texts and appears in the writing of Parmenides , Empedocles , Plutarch and Crates of Thebes among others, as well as appearing in some Orphic texts. Pseudo-Eratosthenes writes about Orpheus in Catasterismi , section 24: "But having gone down into Hades because of his wife and seeing what sort of things were there, he did not continue to worship Dionysus , because of whom he was famous, but he thought Helios to be the greatest of the gods, Helios whom he also addressed as Apollo. Rousing himself each night toward dawn and climbing the mountain called Pangaion, he would await the sun's rising, so that he might see it first. Therefore Dionysus, being angry with him, sent the Bassarides, as Aeschylus the tragedian says; they tore him apart and scattered the limbs." Dionysus and Asclepius are sometimes also identified with this Apollo Helios. Classical Latin poets also used Phoebus as a byname for the sun-god, whence come common references in later European poetry to Phoebus and his car ("chariot") as a metaphor for the sun. But in particular instances in myth, Apollo and Helios are distinct. The sun-god, the son of Hyperion, with his sun chariot, though often called Phoebus ("shining") is not called Apollo except in purposeful non-traditional identifications. Despite these identifications, Apollo was never actually described by the Greek poets driving the chariot of the sun, although it was common practice among Latin poets.. Therefore, Helios is still known as the 'sun god' - the one who drives the sun chariot across the sky each day. Bust of Alexander the Great as Helios (Musei Capitolini) Cult of Helios L.R. Farnell assumed "that sun-worship had once been prevalent and powerful among the people of the pre-Hellenic culture , but that very few of the communities of the later historic period retained it as a potent factor of the state religion." Our largely Attic literary sources tend to give us an unavoidable Athenian bias when we look at ancient Greek religion, and "no Athenian could be expected to worship Helios or Selene," J. Burnet observes, "but he might think them to be gods, since Helios was the great god of Rhodes and Selene was worshiped at Elis and elsewhere." James A. Notopoulos considers Burnet's an artificial distinction: "To believe in the existence of the gods involves acknowledgment through worship, as Laws 87 D, E shows" (note, p. 264). Aristophanes ' Peace (406-13) contrasts the worship of Helios and Selene with that of the more essentially Greek Twelve Olympians , as the representative gods of the Achaemenid Persians ; all the evidence shows that Helios and Selene were minor gods to the Greeks. Colossus of Rhodes "The island of Rhodes is almost the only place where Helios enjoys an important cult ", Burkert asserts (p 174), instancing a spectacular rite in which a quadriga , a chariot drawn by four horses, is driven over a precipice into the sea, with its overtones of the plight of Phaethon noted. There annual gymnastic tournaments were held in his honor. The Colossus of Rhodes was dedicated to him. Helios also had a significant cult on the acropolis of Corinth on the Greek mainland. The tension between the mainstream traditional religious veneration of Helios, which had become enriched with ethical values and poetical symbolism in Pindar , Aeschylus and Sophocles , and the Ionian proto-scientific examination of Helios the Sun, a phenomenon of the study Greeks termed meteora, clashed in the trial of Anaxagoras ca 450 BC, a forerunner of the culturally traumatic trial of Socrates for irreligion, in 399. In Plato 's Republic (516B), Helios, the Sun, is the symbolic offspring of the idea of the Good. Usil, the Etruscan Helios The Etruscan god of the Sun, equivalent to Helios, was Usil. His name appears on the bronze liver of Piacenza , next to Tiur, the moon. He appears, rising out of the sea, with a fireball in either outstretched hand, on an engraved Etruscan bronze mirror in late Archaic style, formerly on the Roman antiquities market. On Etruscan mirrors in Classical style, he appears with a halo . Helios Megistos In Late Antiquity a cult of Helios Megistos ("Great Helios") (Sol Invictus) drew to the image of Helios a number of syncretic elements, which have been analysed in detail by Wilhelm Fauth by means of a series of late Greek texts, namely: an Orphic Hymn to Helios; the so-called Mithras Liturgy , where Helios rules the elements; spells and incantations invoking Helios among the Greek Magical Papyri ; a Hymn to Helios by Proclus ; Julian 's Oration to Helios, the last stand of official paganism; and an episode in Nonnus ' Dionysiaca . Consorts and children By Aegle the Naiad The Charites (who are otherwise called daughters of Eurynome with Zeus or of Aphrodite with Dionysus): Aglaea "splendor" Euphrosyne "mirth" Thalia "flourishing" By Clymene, the Oceanid daughter of Oceanus and Tethys The Heliades , mostly represented as poplars mourning Phaëton's death beside the river Eridanos , weeping tears of amber: Aetheria Helia Merope Phoebe Dioxippe Phaëton , the son who borrowed the chariot of Helios, but lost control and plunged into the river Eridanos Astris , wife of the river-god Hydaspes in India, mother of Deriades By Neaera the nymph, two daughters - guardians of the cattle of Thrinacia : Phaethusa Lampetia (other sources list these two among the children of Clymene) By Rhode , the Oceanid daughter of Oceanus and Tethys The Heliadae , expert seafarers and astrologers from Rhodes: Tenages Macareus Actis Triopas Candalus Ochimus Cercaphus Auges Thrinax Electryone By Perse or Perseis, the Oceanid daughter of Oceanus and Tethys: Aega Aeëtes , ruler over Colchis Circe , the minor magicians' goddess Pasiphaë , wife of King Minos of Crete Perses By Ocyrrhoe the Oceanid : Phasis , a river-god in Colchis By Leucothoe, daughter of Eurynome and Orchamus : Thersanon By Nausidame, daughter of Amphidamas of Elis : Augeas , one of the Argonauts By Gaia Bisaltes By Selene The Horae (possibly; more commonly known as daughters of Zeus ) By unknown mothers: Aegiale , possible mother to Alcyone Aithon, who chopped Demeter's sacred grove and was forever famished for that (compare the myth of Erysichthon ) Aix, a nymph with a beautiful body and a horrible face Aloeus , ruler over Asopia Camirus, founder of Camira , a city in Rhodes Mausolus Phorbas , father of Ambracia Notes Listed above are the most common versions of the myths considering mothers of Helios' children; other ones are known as well, for instance: Rhode or the Nereid Prote were possible mothers of Phaethon Ephyra, of Aeetes Antiope, of Aeetes and Aloeus Asterope, of Aeetes and Circe Crete , of Pasiphae Hyrmine , of Augeas According to Ovid's Metamorphoses, Clytie , sister of Leucothoe, also loved Helios, but didn't have her feelings answered Anaxibia , an Indian Naiad, was lusted after by Helios according to Pseudo-Plutarch Horses of Helios Some lists, cited by Hyginus , of the names of horses that pulled Helios' chariot, are as follows. According to Eumelus of Corinth - Eous; by him the sky is turned. Aethiops, as if faming, parches the grain. These trace-horses are male. The female are yoke-bearers: Bronte , whom we call Thunder, and Sterope , whom we call Lightning. According to Homer, the names are : Abraxas , *Therbeeo. According to Ovid: Pyrois , Eous , Aethon , and Phlegon ". In Greek mythology , the sun was personified as Helios. Homer often calls him simply Titan or Hyperion , while Hesiod (Theogony 371) and the Homeric Hymn separate him as a son of the Titans Hyperion and Theia (Hesiod) or Euryphaessa (Homeric Hymn) and brother of the goddesses Selene , the moon, and Eos , the dawn. The names of these three were also the common Greek words for sun, moon and dawn. Helios was imagined as a handsome god crowned with the shining aureole of the sun, who drove the chariot of the sun across the sky each day to earth-circling Oceanus and through the world-ocean returned to the East at night. Homer described Helios's chariot as drawn by solar steeds (Iliad xvi.779); later Pindar described it as drawn by "fire-darting steeds" (Olympian Ode 7.71). Still later, the horses were given fiery names: Pyrois , Aeos , Aethon , and Phlegon . As time passed, Helios was increasingly identified with the god of light, Apollo . However, in spite of their syncretism, they were also often viewed as two distinct gods (Helios was a Titan , whereas Apollo was an Olympian ). The equivalent of Helios in Roman mythology was Sol , specifically Sol Invictus . Ancient Histria or Istros, was a Greek colony or polis on the Black Sea coast, established by Milesian settlers to trade with the native Getae . It became the first Greek town on the present day Romanian territory. Scymnus of Chios (ca 110 BC), the Greek geographer and poet, dated it to 630 BC. Eusebius of Caesarea , some centuries later, dated its founding to 657 – 656 BC, at the time of the 33rd Olympic Games . The earliest documented currency on Romanian territory was an 8-gram silver drachma , issued in Histria in the year 480 BC. Archaeological evidence seems to confirm that all trade with the interior followed the foundation of Histria. Traders reached the interior via Histria and the Danube valley, demonstrated by finds of Attic black-figure pottery , coins, ornamental objects, an Ionian lebes and many fragments of amphoras . Amphoras have been found in great quantity at Histria, some imported but some local. Local pottery was produced following establishment of the colony and certainly before mid-6th century. During the archaic and classical periods, when Histria flourished, it was situated near fertile arable land. It served as a port of trade soon after its establishment, with fishing and agriculture as additional sources of income. By 100 AD, however, fishing was almost the sole remaining source of Istrian revenue. Roman town. During the Roman period from the 1st to 3rd centuries AD, temples were built for the Roman gods, besides a public bath and houses for the wealthy. Altogether, it was in continuous existence for some 14 centuries, starting with the Greek period up to the Roman-Byzantine period. The Halmyris bay where was the city founded was closed by sand deposits and access to the Black Sea gradually was cut. Trade continued until the 6th century AD. The invasion of the Avars and the Slavs in the 7th century AD almost entirely destroyed the fortress, and the Istrians dispersed; the name and the city disappeared. Geographic setting Ancient Histria was situated on a peninsula, about 5 kilometres (3 mi) east of the modern Romanian commune of Istria , on the Dobruja coast. The ancient seashore has since been transformed into the western shore of Sinoe Lake , as the Danube's silt deposits formed a shoal which closed off the ancient coastline. The current Sinoe Lake was at the time the open northern bay, while another bay on the southern shore served as the port. The acropolis with sanctuaries was established on the highest point of the coastal plain. The settlement itself, erected in the 6th century, was 1/2 mile (800 meters) to the west of the acropolis. The settlement had stone paved streets and was protected by strong wall. Water was collected along 12.5 mile (20 km) long aqueducts. Archaeology The ruins of the settlement were first identified in 1868 by French archaeologist Ernest Desjardins. Archaeological excavations were started by Vasile Pârvan in 1914, and continued after his death in 1927 by teams of archaeologists led successively by Scarlat and Marcelle Lambrino (1928–1943), Emil Condurachi (1949–1970), Dionisie Pippidi, Petre Alexandrescu and Alexandru Suceveanu. The Histria Museum, founded in 1982, exhibits some of these finds. The excavation project and site also features prominently in the film The Ister .. (demonym Thracian / ənθreɪʃⁱˈ/; Bulgarian : Тракия, Trakiya, Greek : Θράκη, Thráki, Turkish : Trakya) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe . As a geographical concept, Thrace designates a region bounded by the Balkan Mountains on the north, Rhodope Mountains and the Aegean Sea on the south, and by the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara on the east. The areas it comprises are southeastern Bulgaria (Northern Thrace), northeastern Greece (Western Thrace), and the European part of Turkey (Eastern Thrace). The biggest part of Thrace is part of present-day Bulgaria. In Turkey, it is also called Rumelia . The name comes from the Thracians , an ancient Indo-European people inhabiting Southeastern Europe. The historical boundaries of Thrace have varied. Noteworthy is the fact that, at an early date, the ancient Greeks employed the term "Thrace" to refer to all of the territory which lay north of Thessaly inhabited by the Thracians , a region which "had no definite boundaries" and to which other regions (like Macedonia and even Danube Scythia on the north, by the Euxine Sea (Black Sea) on the east, by northern Macedonia in the south and by the Illyrian lands (i.e. Illyria ) to the west. This largely coincided with the Thracian Odrysian kingdom , whose borders varied in time. During this time, specifically after the Macedonian conquest, the region's old border with Macedonia was shifted from the Struma River to the Mesta River . This usage lasted until the Roman conquest. Henceforth, (classical) Thrace referred only to the tract of land largely covering the same extent of space as the modern geographical region. In its early period, the Roman province of Thrace was of this extent, but after the administrative reforms of the late 3rd century, Thracia's much reduced territory became the six small provinces which constituted the Diocese of Thrace . The medieval Byzantine theme of Thrace contained only what today is Eastern Thrace . The largest cities of Thrace are: İstanbul (European side), Plovdiv , Burgas , Stara Zagora , Haskovo , Edirne , Çorlu and Tekirdag . Most of the Bulgarian and Greek population are Christians, while most of the Turkish inhabitants of Thrace are Muslims. Thrace in ancient Greek mythology Ancient Greek mythology provides them with a mythical ancestor, named Thrax , son of the war-god Ares, who was said to reside in Thrace. The Thracians appear in Homer 's Iliad as Trojan allies, led by Acamas and Peiros . Later in the Iliad, Rhesus , another Thracian king, makes an appearance. Cisseus , father-in-law to the Trojan elder Antenor , is also given as a Thracian king. Homeric Thrace was vaguely defined, and stretched from the River Axios in the west to the Hellespont and Black Sea in the east. The Catalogue of Ships mentions three separate contingents from Thrace: Thracians led by Acamas and Peiros, from Aenus ; Cicones led by Euphemus , from southern Thrace, near Ismaros ; and from the city of Sestus , on the Thracian (northern) side of the Hellespont, which formed part of the contingent led by Asius . Greek mythology is replete with Thracian kings, including Diomedes , Tereus , Lycurgus , Phineus , Tegyrius , Eumolpus , Polymnestor , Poltys , and Oeagrus (father of Orpheus ). In addition to the tribe that Homer calls Thracians, ancient Thrace was home to numerous other tribes, such as the Edones , Bisaltae , Cicones , and Bistones .. Thrace is also mentioned in Ovid's Metamorphoses in the episode of Philomela , Procne, and Tereus . Tereus, the King of Thrace, lusts after his sister-in-law, Philomela. He kidnaps her, holds her captive, rapes her, and cuts out her tongue. Philomela manages to get free, however. She and her sister, Procne, plot to get revenge, by killing Itys (son of Tereus and Procne) and serving him to his father for dinner. At the end of the myth, all three turn into birds—Procne, a swallow; Philomela, a nightingale; and Tereus, a hoopoe . History Ancient history Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak The indigenous population of Thrace was a people called the Thracians , divided into numerous tribal groups. Thracian troops were known to accompany neighboring ruler Alexander the Great when he crossed the Hellespont which abuts Thrace, and took on the Persian Empire of the day. The Thracians did not describe themselves as such and Thrace and Thracians are simply the names given them by the Greeks.[5] Divided into separate tribes, the Thracians did not manage to form a lasting political organization until the Odrysian state was founded in the 4th century BC. Like Illyrians , Thracian tribes of the mountainous regions fostered a locally ruled warrior tradition, while the tribes based in the plains were purportedly more peaceable. Recently discovered funeral mounds in Bulgaria suggest that Thracian kings did rule regions of Thrace with distinct Thracian national identity. During this period, a subculture of celibate ascetics called the Ctistae lived in Thrace, where they served as philosophers, priests and prophets.. Medieval history Roman Empire in the Balkans, the Byzantine Empire , retained control over Thrace until the 8th century when the northern half of the entire region was incorporated into the First Bulgarian Empire . Byzantium regained Thrace in the late 10th century and administered it as a theme , until the Bulgarians regained control of the northern half at the end of the 12th century. Throughout the 13th century and the first half of the 14th century, the region was changing in the hands of the Bulgarian and the Byzantine Empire(excl. Constantinopole). In 1265 the area suffered a Mongol raid from the Golden Horde , led by Nogai Khan . In 1352, the Ottoman Turks conducted their first incursion into the region subduing it completely within a matter of two decades and occupying it for five centuries. Modern history With the Congress of Berlin in 1878, Northern Thrace was incorporated into the semi-autonomous Ottoman province of Eastern Rumelia , which united with Bulgaria in 1885. The rest of Thrace was divided among Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey at the beginning of the 20th century, following the Balkan Wars , World War I and the Greco-Turkish War . Today Thracian is a strong regional identity in Greece, Turkey, Bulgaria and other neighbouring countries. Famous Thracians and people from Thrace Mehmed II Ottoman Sultan, born at Edirne in Thrace; he was the Sultan who conquered Constantinople, marking the end of the Middle Ages. Bayezid II Ottoman Sultann Spartacus was a Thracian auxiliary soldier in the Roman army who deserted but was captured and then enslaved by the Romans. He led a large slave uprising in what is now Italy in 73–71 BC. His army of escaped gladiators and slaves defeated several Roman legions in what is known as the Third Servile War Belisaurius , one of the most successful Generals of the Roman Empire , was born in the borderlands between Thrace and Illyria . In Ancient Greek mythology , Orpheus was the chief representative of the art of song and playing the lyre . Democritus was a Greek philosopher and mathematician from Abdera, Thrace (c. 460–370 BC.) His main contribution is the atomic theory , the belief that all matter is made up of various imperishable indivisible elements which he called atoms . Herodicus was a Greek physician of the fifth century BC who is considered the founder of sports medicine . He is believed to have been one of Hippocrates' tutors. Protagoras was a Greek philosopher from Abdera, Thrace (c. 490–420 BC.) An expert in rhetorics and subjects connected to virtue and political life, often regarded as the first sophist . He is known primarily for three claims (1) that man is the measure of all things, often interpreted as a sort of moral relativism , (2) that he could make the "worse (or weaker) argument appear the better (or stronger)" (see Sophism ) and (3) that one could not tell if the gods existed or not (see Agnosticism ). A number of Roman emperors of the 3rd-5th century were of Thraco-Roman backgrounds (Maximinus Thrax, Licinius , Galerius , Aureolus , Leo the Thracian , etc.). These emperors were elevated via a military career, from the condition of common soldiers in one of the Roman legions to the foremost positions of political power Frequently Asked Questionss How long until my order is shipped? Depending on the volume of sales, it may take up to 5 business days for shipment of your order after the receipt of payment. How will I know when the order was shipped?: After your order has shipped, you will be left positive feedback, and that date should be used as a basis of estimating an arrival date. USPS First Class mail takes about 3-5 business days to arrive in the U.S., international shipping times cannot be estimated as they vary from country to country. I am not responsible for any USPS delivery delays, especially for an international package. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic?? 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