Israel JANE EYRE Movie FILM POSTER Hebrew ORSON WELLES Elizabeth TAYLOR Fontaine

$154.13 Buy It Now or Best Offer 18d 12h, $24.12 Shipping, 30-Day Returns, eBay Money Back Guarantee

Seller: Top-Rated Seller judaica-bookstore (2,055) 100%, Location: TEL AVIV, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 283446388674 DESCRIPTION : Here for sale is an EXCEPTIONALY RARE and ORIGINAL almost 40 years old POSTER for the ISRAEL re-release of the ORSON WELLES film " JANE EYRE" , Based on the CHARLOTTE BRONTE novel, in the small rural town of NATHANYA in ISRAEL. Starring KORSON WELLES, JOAN FONTAINE and ELIZABETH TAYLOR . The cinema-movie hall " CINEMA SHARON" , A local Israel;i version of "Cinema Paradiso" was printing manualy its own posters , And thus you can be certain that this surviving copy is ONE OF ITS KIND. The poster also advertises the spaghetti western "FOR A FEW DOLLARS MORE " with Clint Eastwood in a matinee show. Fully DATED 1967 . Text in HEBREW and ENGLISH . GIANT size around 28" x 38" ( not accurate ) . Printed in red and blue . The condition is very good . 2 folds . ( Pls look at scan for accurate AS IS images ) Poster will be sent rolled in a special protective rigid sealed tube. PAYMENTS : Payment method accepted : Paypal . SHIPPMENT : SHIPP worldwide via registered airmail is $18. Poster will be sent rolled in a special protective rigid sealed tube. Handling within 3-5 days after payment. Estimated duration 14 days. Jane Eyre is an American film adaptation of Charlotte Brontë's 1847 novel of the same name, released by 20th Century Fox. It was directed by Robert Stevenson and produced by William Goetz, Kenneth Macgowan, and Orson Welles (uncredited). The film stars Welles and Joan Fontaine. Elizabeth Taylor made an early, uncredited appearance as Helen Burns. The screenplay was written by John Houseman, Aldous Huxley, Henry Koster, and Robert Stevenson, based on a radio adaptation of the novel presented on The Mercury Theatre on the Air, on which John Houseman collaborated. The music score was by Bernard Herrmann and the cinematography by George Barnes. Contents 1 Plot2 Cast3 Production4 Home media5 References6 External links Plot Orphaned, unloved, and unwanted ten-year-old Jane Eyre (Peggy Ann Garner) lives with her cruel and selfish, uncaring paternal aunt, Mrs. Reed (Agnes Moorehead) of Gateshead Hall. Jane is ecstatic when Mrs. Reed, eager to be rid of the child, arranges for Jane to be sent to Lowood Institution, a charity boarding school for young girls, run by the disciplinarian Reverend Brocklehurst (Henry Daniell). Based on what Mrs. Reed has told him, Mr. Brocklehurst labels Jane a liar in front of her inmates and orders her to stand on a stool for hours on her first day of attendance. She is comforted and befriended by another student, Helen Burns (Elizabeth Taylor). Later, Jane protests when Brocklehurst orders that Helen's naturally curling hair be cut. Both are punished by being forced to walk circles in a courtyard during a downpour. Dr. Rivers (John Sutton), a sympathetic physician who periodically checks on the students, brings them inside, but it is too late for Helen, who dies that night. Ten years later, in 1840, 20-year-old Jane (Joan Fontaine) turns down Brocklehurst's offer of a teaching position. She advertises for and accepts a job as governess for a young girl named Adele (Margaret O'Brien). When she arrives at Thornfield, a gloomy, isolated mansion, she initially thinks her employer is Mrs. Fairfax (Edith Barrett), who is only the housekeeper for the absent master. Jane goes for a walk one night, only to startle a horse into throwing and slightly injuring its rider, Edward Rochester (Orson Welles)—who she doesn't realize is her employer. When Jane arrives back at Thornfield, she discovers this fact, and Rochester calls her into his library to interview her. That night, Jane is awakened by strange laughter. She investigates, and discovers that Mr. Rochester's bed curtains are on fire. She rouses the sleeping man and they extinguish the fire without rousing anyone. Rochester bids her wait while he goes to another wing of the house, where mysterious seamstress Grace Poole (an uncredited Ethel Griffies) keeps to herself. When he returns, he tells Jane nothing other than that the matter is under control. The next morning, he leaves Thornfield. A winter and spring go by before he returns with a large group of guests. Jane is greatly saddened when Mrs. Fairfax discloses that everyone expects Rochester to marry Blanche Ingram (Hillary Brooke). However, Rochester confides to Jane his conviction that Miss Ingram is attracted only by his wealth. When a man named Mason (an uncredited John Abbott) of Spanish Town, Jamaica, arrives at Thornfield, Jane sees that Rochester is disturbed. That night, a scream awakens everyone. Rochester assures his guests it is just a servant's reaction to a nightmare, but after he sends them back to their rooms, he has Jane secretly tend a bleeding Mason, while he fetches a doctor. Jane assumes Grace is responsible. Rochester has the doctor take Mason away. Rochester has a private conversation with Blanche, in which he bluntly asserts that she is a gold-digger. Offended, she and the guests leave. Unaware of this development, Jane broaches the topic of her future employment elsewhere after Rochester gets married. He reveals to Jane that he intends to marry her. During the wedding ceremony, an attorney intervenes and announces that Rochester has a wife named Bertha, who is mentally ill and deranged. This is confirmed by Mason, Bertha's elder brother. Rochester calls off the marital ceremony and takes them back to Thornfield to reveal his insane spouse, who lives in a tower cell, guarded by Grace Poole. Jane rejects Rochester's offer to leave England together. She departs Thornfield. With her funds exhausted, she returns to Gateshead. She discovers that her aunt has suffered a stroke, caused by worry over the ruinous gambling habits of her son, who it is revealed has committed suicide. There is a reconciliation. After Mrs. Reed dies, Jane ponders what to do next, when she hears an anguished and beloved male voice from thin air calling her name. She travels to Thornfield, which she finds in ruins. Mrs. Fairfax informs her that the lunatic escaped, set the place on fire, and fled to the roof. When Rochester tried to rescue her, she jumped and was killed. He was blinded when the burning stairway collapsed underneath him. With no other impediments, Jane joyfully returns to him. She narrates that, when their son was born, her husband's vision was sufficiently restored for him to see their child. Cast Orson Welles as Edward RochesterJoan Fontaine as Jane EyreMargaret O'Brien as Adele VarensPeggy Ann Garner as Jane Eyre as a childJohn Sutton as Dr. RiversSara Allgood as Bessie, Mrs. Reed's servant, whom Jane is saddened to leaveHenry Daniell as Henry BrocklehurstAgnes Moorehead as Mrs. ReedAubrey Mather as Colonel DentEdith Barrett as Mrs. Alice FairfaxBarbara Everest as Lady IngramHillary Brooke as Blanche IngramElizabeth Taylor as Helen Burns (uncredited)Barry Macollum as a trustee (uncredited) Production The movie was developed by David O. Selznick who sold it as a package to William Goetz at 20th Century Fox, which Goetz was running in the absence of Darryl F. Zanuck.[2] Jane Eyre premiered in New York February 4, 1944.[5] According to TCM, although the film had its British premiere in late December 1943, "it was a 1944 U.S. release and bears a 1944 copyright in its on-screen credits, so it's officially considered a 1944 picture."[6] The film was acclaimed for its recreation of the Yorkshire Moors. It was actually filmed entirely in Hollywood on a heavily disguised sound stage. The long shadows and heavy fog, which added the air of a Gothic novel lacking in so many remakes, were rumored to have been the brainchild of Orson Welles. He was offered a producer's credit as thanks for his contribution but declined the offer, believing that a person who is not a director shouldn't be "just" a producer.[citation needed] Bernard Herrmann was the second choice for the composer. Igor Stravinsky was originally approached by Welles, and he even got so far as writing music for a hunting scene, which he later used in his Ode for orchestra, premiered in 1943.[7] The score for Jane Eyre is based on the score Herrmann wrote for the December 9, 1938, broadcast of Rebecca, the first episode of Orson Welles's radio series, The Campbell Playhouse.[8]:67 During his scoring of the film, Herrmann started working on his opera Wuthering Heights, based on the novel of the same name by Charlotte Brontë's sister Emily. He quoted some themes from the Jane Eyre score (and others of his earlier scores) in the opera.[citation needed] Home media 1993: Fox Video, VHS (1247), ISBN 978-0-7939-1247-6, 19932007: 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment, Region 1 DVD, UPC 024543425748, 2007. Special features theatrical trailer and production stills; audio commentary by Joseph McBride and Margaret O'Brien; audio commentary by Nick Redman, Steven C. Smith and Julie Kirgo; isolated music track; "Know Your Ally Britain", directed by Robert Stevenson; "Locked in the Tower: The Men Behind Jane Eyre" (2006), written and directed by John Cork, with commentary by Scott McIsaac, Simon Callow, Bob Thomas, Hugh Stevenson, Venetia Stevenson and Ursula Henderson.2013: Twilight Time, Screen Archives Entertainment, Blu-ray Disc (limited edition of 3,000), November 12, 2013. Includes special features in 2007 DVD release. Critic Glenn Erickson wrote, "Bernard Herrmann fans will be interested in the film's isolated 'M&E' (music and sound effects) track, which makes this disc a dynamite soundtrack experience as well."[9] Jane Eyre (1943): The Smoldering Orson Welles Shortly after watching (and reviewing) the 2011 movie Jane Eyre, I wanted to compare its somewhat slapdash treatment of the story to previous film versions. Where better to start than with the classic 1943 rendition, starring major actors Orson Welles and Joan Fontaine? It is, of course, a bit of a period piece. Films in those days typically contained a high level of drama, in many ways: dramatic contrasts in lighting, dramatic swells of music at key moments, and highly dramatic delivery of dialogue, in which each character replied immediately and powerfully to what another had just said. Jane Eyre is no exception to any of those trends. One trend it didn't follow was Hollywood's growing use of color. Coming four years after the garishly hued The Wizard of Oz, this film was made in black and white, probably to conform to both the era in which it took place and the stark, austere environments (physical and emotional) that it featured. Since many of us assume that "old" movies are in black and white, it's important to realize that it was a conscious choice for this film. Clocking in at just an hour and 37 minutes, this atmospheric depiction couldn't possibly hold nearly all of Charlotte Bronte's story lines and character developments. However, given the restricted time, the producers made many shrewd decisions about what had to be included and what could be reduced or overlooked. (Interesting note: one of the three screenwriters was famed author Aldous Huxley, best known for his book Brave New World.) The first major "skip" was young Jane's time being raised (and ill-treated) at Gateshead Hall. The film opens with a voice reading lines that appear onscreen as if they are drawn directly from the book, which they are not. We immediately find the Reverend Brocklehurst talking with Jane about attending his Lowood School, as Mrs. Reed looks on approvingly while cuddling her bloated and cowardly son John. Jane (portrayed by Peggy Ann Garner, a later role player in countless TV series) has the right mixture of feistiness and vulnerability. Brocklehurst delivers most of his lines with a delicious malevolence. While Mrs. Reed has little screen time, her portrayer, Agnes Moorehead, would go on to great fame as the witch Endora on TV's "Bewitched." Early parts of Jane's Lowood ordeal are bypassed; almost as soon as she arrives, Brocklehurst is instructing her schoolmates to shun her company, for she is ... a liar! Gratifyingly, many of his lines are drawn almost verbatim from the book, as is much later dialogue. It is poignant to see a very young (and achingly beautiful) Elizabeth Taylor playing Helen Burns, the angelic but doomed student who takes Jane under her wing. One small sour note comes in an invented scene when Jane has matured. Brocklehurst tries to bully her into becoming a teacher at Lowood, an "honor" she declines. In the book, she did teach there for two years before heading out into the world. Next thing we know, she has accepted the governess position at Thornfield Hall, caused a passing rider to fall from his horse, and discovered that he is Mr. Rochester, the Hall's master. Orson Welles plays Rochester to the hilt, spewing lines of deep-voiced arrogance and glowering at all and sundry, before gradually coming to realize that the new governess is unfazed by his bluster. His performance is a bit over the top, yet still remarkable for its intensity. (At times, Welles's speech quality suddenly alters, suggesting dubbing; a note at the start of the DVD said this film had been reconstructed as well as possible from old prints, so age may have contributed to the inconsistency.) Joan Fontaine, the prominent actress who plays Jane, does a mostly admirable job. There is a vague air of glamour about her appearance; one gets the feeling the makeup artists had to work to make her appear plain. However, she is believably passionate, chastened, firm, desperate, and loving, as called for in each scene. It's still not fully clear (due to the shortened story) why Jane falls so heavily for Rochester ... but neither is it a complete mystery, as his finer aspects occasionally shine forth from beneath his dark veneer. Enough time is spent on the fine society people, and on Blanche Ingram in particular, that we can see why Jane sinks into jealousy and despair. However, another unnecessarily added scene shows Welles ridiculing and disdaining Blanche to her face; in the book, Rochester merely alluded to planting the idea that he was less wealthy, which made Blanche lose interest in him. Bertha, Rochester's attic-imprisoned mad wife, makes a couple of appearances: once watching out a window, later trying to throttle Rochester when he brings people to "meet" her after his wedding to Jane is prevented. We also hear sound effects of her presence — hysterical laughter, bloodcurdling screams — earlier in the film, building tension nicely. While she is not shown tearing Jane's wedding veil, Bertha's presence is substantial, though we never see a front view of her. The largest script changes come near the end, as if the screenwriters or producers are trying to wrap the story up quickly. When Jane leaves Thornfield (after learning of Bertha), she does not encounter cruel villagers or the sympathetic Rivers family; instead, she flies to the dying Mrs. Reed's bedside (which happened earlier in the book). There, she hears Rochester's voice on the wind calling her name. Returning to Thornfield, she finds Mrs. Fairfax still attending to the blind Rochester in the Hall's ruins (rather than his being helped only by a pair of servants in a small house). He recognizes her voice and touch; they kiss fervently; violins shrill with joy. Fortunately, Jane has a concluding voice-over, in which she mentions Rochester regaining his eyesight and their son's birth (though not their marriage, which can be inferred). After the story had led viewers along strangely altered plotlines, at least they are brought to a realistic conclusion. Despite its plot changes and highly dramatic tendencies, I enjoyed this version of Jane Eyre. Fine (if sometimes overdone) acting and frequent fidelity to Bronte's language are its strong points. Current audiences should ignore its archaic touches and spend 97 minutes with this powerful black-and-white achievement. Summary STRENGTHS Welles radiates star quality, even if his acting borders on overplaying Stark use of black-and-white imagery adds power Inclusion of most of the vital plot elements, despite the short run time Frequent use of Bronte's original dialogue Unseen elements build tension nicely WEAKNESSES Movie inevitably appears old-fashioned / dated Images of a "book" being read as a voice-over mislead the viewer Some invented scenes alter the story arc Premature ending, with major plot developments left unrealized Director Robert Stevenson collaborated with novelist Aldous Huxley and theatrical-producer John Houseman on the screenplay for this 1944 adaptation of Charlotte Bronte's gothic romance Jane Eyre. After several harrowing years in an orphanage, where she was placed by a supercilious relative for exhibiting the forbidden trait of "willfulness," Jane Eyre (Joan Fontaine) secures work as a governess. Her little charge, French-accented Adele (Margaret O'Brien), is pleasant enough. But Jane's employer, the brooding, tormented Edward Rochester (Orson Welles), terrifies the prim young governess. Under Jane's gentle influence, Rochester drops his forbidding veneer, going so far as to propose marriage to Jane. But they are forbidden connubial happiness when it is revealed that Rochester is still married to a gibbering lunatic whom he is forced to keep locked in his attic. Rochester reluctantly sends Jane away, but she returns, only to find that the insane wife has burned down the mansion and rendered Rochester sightless. In the tradition of Victorian romances, this purges Rochester of any previous sins, making him a worthy mate for the loving Jane. The presence of Orson Welles in the cast (he receives top billing), coupled with the dark, Germanic style of the direction and photography, has led some impressionable cineasts to conclude that Welles, and not Stevenson, was the director. To be sure, Welles contributed ideas throughout the filming; also, the script was heavily influenced by the Mercury Theater on the Air radio version of Jane Eyre, on which Welles, John Houseman and musical director Bernard Herrmann all collaborated. But Jane Eyre was made at 20th Century-Fox, a studio disinclined to promote the auteur theory; like most Fox productions, this is a work by committee rather than the product of one man. This in no way detracts from the overall excellence of the film; of all adaptations of Jane Eyre (it had previously been filmed in 1913, 1915 and 1921, and has been remade several times since), this 1943 version is one of the best. Keep an eye out for an uncredited Elizabeth Taylor as the consumptive orphanage friend of young Jane Eyre (played as child by Peggy Ann Gardner). Joan Fontaine's recent death at the age of 96, on Dec. 15, 2013, has prompted renewed interest in her career, and by coincidence a great example of her work was recently issued for the first time on Blu-ray: Jane Eyre (1944). Fontaine made it hot on the heels of the three films for which she received Oscar nominations -- Rebecca (1940), Suspicion (1941, for which she won), and The Constant Nymph (1943) -- and her performance as Charlotte Bronte's famous heroine is certainly of a piece with what's considered to be her screen persona: shy, vulnerable, nervous, yet possessing surprising depths of passion and resolve. Jane Eyre has been the source of many film and TV adaptations over the years -- most recently, a 2011 version starring Mia Wasikowska -- but it's this 1944 edition that has best stood the test of time and is acknowledged as staying especially true to feel of Bronte's novel. (Note: Jane Eyre was released in England in late December 1943, but it was a 1944 U.S. release and bears a 1944 copyright in its on-screen credits, so it's officially considered a 1944 picture.) In the story, young Jane is raised in a foreboding school for impoverished girls after her parents die and her abusive aunt, Sarah Reed, kicks her out. After suffering for years at the hands of the malicious Mr. Brocklehurst, Jane finally departs the school a grown woman and takes a job at another sinister place: Thornfield Hall, where she works as governess to the young adopted daughter of Edward Rochester (Orson Welles), a mysterious, brooding, harsh and unpredictable figure who comes and goes erratically. Thornfield is a place of strange goings-on, with odd noises and an attic that is off limits and seems to be imprisoning someone. Jane and Rochester begin a relationship that moves into friendship and more, yet seems defined by undercurrents of repressed passions and deep secrets. It's a real testament to the screenplay by Robert Stevenson, John Houseman and Aldous Huxley that their 96-minute film is able to fully keep the qualities that make Bronte's novel such a classic, even if the film does wrap things up a bit too quickly. Stevenson also directed the film, which has such a beautifully atmospheric look -- with deep-focus compositions, expressionistic black-and-white photography, and extravagantly gothic sets -- that it has often been attributed more to Orson Welles, who some assume exerted his own artistic influence onto a weak-willed Stevenson. But according to scholars who have actually studied the two men and this film, nothing could be further than the truth. Several of the extra materials on this Blu-ray delve into this "controversy," including Julie Kirgo's superb liner notes, which inform viewers that the chain of influence among artists was much more complex than meets the eye. Welles had done his own radio adaptation of Jane Eyre in 1940, and several of his Mercury Theatre collaborators were involved in the 1944 film -- Agnes Moorhead, John Houseman and Bernard Herrmann among them -- but Stevenson and his cinematographer, the great George Barnes, were talented artists in their own right. Welles' cameraman on Citizen Kane (1941), Gregg Toland, had previously assisted Barnes and thought of him as a mentor. As Kirgo writes: "the question is begged: who was influencing whom? And does Eyre look Wellesian or, perhaps more accurately, does Kane look Barnesian?" It's also said, understandably, that Jane Eyre is very reminiscent in look and narrative of the film Rebecca, which also starred Fontaine, but in fact, Rebecca author Daphne Du Maurier had been inspired in writing her 1938 novel by Bronte's Jane Eyre, published 91 years earlier. Nonetheless, producer David O. Selznick, who developed the Jane Eyre movie, sold it as a package -- talent included -- to Fox, because he ultimately decided it was too similar to Rebecca, which he had also produced. Jane Eyre features a dazzling roster of supporting players, starting with a trifecta of remarkable child performances. Peggy Ann Garner is brilliant as a young Jane, in a performance that feels of a piece with Fontaine's turn as the grown Jane, and Margaret O'Brien and an uncredited Elizabeth Taylor are every bit Garner's equal. Taylor is all of 11 here, and already luminously beautiful in a touching performance. She would shoot to stardom one year later in National Velvet (1944), and O'Brien and Garner would be honored with special Academy Awards in 1944 and 1945, respectively. Also in the cast: Agnes Moorhead as Jane's cruel aunt Sarah Reed, Henry Daniell as the autocratic Mr. Brocklehurst, Sara Allgood as the loving maid Bessie, Hillary Brooke as the socialite and romantic rival Blanche, and John Sutton as the kindly Dr. Rivers. The DVD and Blu-ray market for classic films has altered dramatically in recent years, with the major studios shifting more to made-on-demand DVD-Rs. The distributor Twilight Time, however, has developed a business model of releasing limited-edition Blu-rays of select Fox (and other) classic titles, and has become a gold standard for movie fans, up there with distributors like Criterion, Kino and Cohen. Twilight Time's Jane Eyre is a good case in point. The film was originally released onto standard DVD by Fox Home Entertainment in 2007, and Twilight Time has retained all the original, generous extras for this high-definition version, which looks and sounds excellent, and is limited to just 3000 copies. Among the extras: an isolated score track so that one of Bernard Herrmann's finest scores can be appreciated in its glory; fine liner notes by Julie Kirgo; the original theatrical trailer; the 19-minute featurette "Locked in the Tower: The Men Behind Jane Eyre," about Stevenson's and Welles's involvement with the film; the 45-minute propaganda film Know Your Ally Britain (1944) which was also directed by Robert Stevenson and stands as a fascinating, very well executed documentary narrated by Walter Huston and produced by Frank Capra, designed to educate Americans about the history and culture of their wartime British ally; two insightful commentary tracks, one with film historian Joseph McBride and actress Margaret O'Brien, and the other with film historian Julie Kirgo, Herrmann biographer Steven C. Smith, and historian Nick Redman -- who, with Brian Jamieson, formed the Twilight Time distribution label. By Jeremy Arnold Joan de Beauvoir de Havilland (October 22, 1917 – December 15, 2013), known professionally as Joan Fontaine, was a British-American actress. Fontaine began her career on the stage in 1935 and signed a contract with RKO Pictures that same year. In 1941, she received an Academy Award nomination for Best Actress for her role in Rebecca, directed by Alfred Hitchcock. The following year, she won the Academy Award for Best Actress for Hitchcock's Suspicion (1941), making Fontaine the only actor to ever win an Academy Award in a film directed by Hitchcock.[2] Fontaine and her elder sister Olivia de Havilland are the only set of siblings to have won lead acting Academy Awards. During the 1940s to the 1990s, Fontaine continued her career in roles on the stage and in radio, television and film. She released her autobiography, No Bed of Roses, in 1978. After a career spanning over fifty years, Fontaine made her last on-screen appearance in 1994. Born in Japan to British parents, the sisters moved to California in 1919. Fontaine lived in Carmel Highlands, California, where she owned a home, Villa Fontana. It was there that she died of natural causes at the age of 96 in 2013. Contents 1 Early life2 Career 3 Personal life 4 Death and legacy5 Filmography6 Broadway credits7 Radio appearances8 Awards and nominations9 References 10 External links Early life Joan de Havilland was born in Tokyo, Japan, to English parents. Her father, Walter Augustus de Havilland (August 31, 1872 – May 23, 1968), was educated at the University of Cambridge and served as an English professor at the Imperial University in Tokyo before becoming a patent attorney with a practice in Japan.[3] Her mother, Lilian Augusta (née Ruse; June 11, 1886 – February 20, 1975),[4][5] was educated at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London, and became a stage actress who left her career after going to Tokyo with her husband.[3] Her mother would return to work with the stage name "Lillian Fontaine" after her daughters achieved prominence in the 1940s. Joan's paternal cousin was Sir Geoffrey de Havilland (1882–1965), an aircraft designer known for the De Havilland Mosquito,[6] and founder of the aircraft company which bore his name. Her paternal grandfather, the Reverend Charles Richard de Havilland, was from a family from Guernsey, in the Channel Islands.[7][8] De Havilland's parents married in 1914 and separated in 1919, when Lilian decided to end the marriage after discovering that her husband used the sexual services of geishas; the divorce was not finalized, however, until February 1925.[9] Taking a physician's advice, Lilian de Havilland moved Joan—reportedly a sickly child who had developed anaemia following a combined attack of the measles and a streptococcal infection—and her elder sister, Olivia, to the United States.[10] The family settled in Saratoga, California, and Fontaine's health improved dramatically. She was educated at Los Gatos High School, and was soon taking diction lessons alongside her elder sister. When she was 16 years old, Fontaine returned to Japan to live with her father. There she attended the American School in Japan, graduating in 1935.[11] Career The Women (1939) Suspicion (1941), with Cary Grant Jane Eyre (1943) Fontaine made her stage debut in the West Coast production of Call It a Day (1935) and was soon signed to an RKO contract. Her film debut was a small role in No More Ladies (also 1935) in which she was credited as Joan Burfield.[12] Although Fontaine, on contract with RKO, had already made her screen appearance in No More Ladies, a series of other minor roles followed, in A Million to One and Quality Street (both 1937), opposite Katharine Hepburn. The studio considered her a rising star, and touted The Man Who Found Himself (also 1937) as her first starring role, placing a special screen introduction, billed as the "new RKO screen personality" after the end credit.[13] She next appeared in a major role alongside Fred Astaire in his first RKO film without Ginger Rogers: A Damsel in Distress (1937) but audiences were disappointed and the film flopped. She continued appearing in small parts in about a dozen films, including The Women (1939), but failed to make a strong impression and her contract was not renewed when it expired in 1939.[12] Fontaine's luck changed one night at a dinner party when she found herself seated next to producer David O. Selznick. She and Selznick began discussing the Daphne du Maurier novel Rebecca, and Selznick asked her to audition for the part of the unnamed heroine. She endured a grueling six-month series of film tests, along with hundreds of other actresses, before securing the part sometime before her 22nd birthday. Rebecca, starring Laurence Olivier alongside Fontaine, marked the American debut of British director Alfred Hitchcock. In 1940, the film was released to glowing reviews, and Fontaine was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actress.[12] Fontaine did not win that year (Ginger Rogers took home the award for Kitty Foyle), but she did win the following year for Best Actress in Suspicion, which co-starred Cary Grant and was also directed by Hitchcock.[12] This was to be the only Academy Award-winning acting performance to have been directed by Hitchcock.[2] During the 1940s, Fontaine excelled in romantic melodramas. Among her memorable films during this time were The Constant Nymph (1943) (for which she received her third Academy Award nomination),[12] Jane Eyre (1943), Ivy (1947) and Letter from an Unknown Woman (1948). Her film successes slowed a little during the 1950s, and she also began appearing in television and on the stage. She won good reviews for her role on Broadway in 1954 as Laura in Tea and Sympathy, opposite Anthony Perkins. She also appeared in numerous radio shows during the 1940s for the Lux Radio Theater. Later career During the 1960s, Fontaine appeared in several stage productions, including Private Lives, Cactus Flower and an Austrian production of The Lion in Winter. Her last theatrical film was The Witches (1966), which she also co-produced. She continued appearing in film and television roles throughout the 1970s and 1980s, and was nominated for an Emmy Award for the soap opera Ryan's Hope in 1980. Fontaine's autobiography, No Bed of Roses, was published in 1978. Fontaine's last role for television was in the 1994 TV film Good King Wenceslas, after which she retired to her estate, Villa Fontana, in Carmel Highlands, California where she would spend time in her gardens and with her dogs.[14] For her contribution to the motion picture industry, Fontaine has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1645 Vine Street. She left her hand and foot prints in front of the Grauman's Chinese Theatre on May 26, 1942. Personal life Fontaine held dual citizenship; she was British by birthright (both her parents were British) and became an American citizen in April 1943.[15][16] Marriages and children Fontaine was married and divorced four times. Her first marriage was to actor Brian Aherne, in 1939 in Del Monte, California; they divorced in April 1945.[17] In May 1946, she married actor/producer William Dozier in Mexico City. They had a daughter, Deborah Leslie, in 1948 and separated in 1949.[18] The following year, Fontaine filed for divorce, charging Dozier with desertion. Their divorce was finalized in January 1951.[19][20] Fontaine's third marriage was to producer and writer Collier Young on November 12, 1952. They separated in May 1960, and Fontaine filed for divorce in November 1960.[21] Their divorce was finalized in January 1961.[22] Fontaine's fourth and final marriage was to Sports Illustrated golf editor Alfred Wright, Jr, on January 23, 1964 in Elkton, Maryland; they divorced in 1969.[23] While in South America for a film festival in 1951, Fontaine met a 4-year-old Peruvian girl named Martita, and informally adopted her.[24] Fontaine met Martita while visiting Incan ruins where Martita's father worked as a caretaker. Martita's parents allowed Fontaine to become Martita's legal guardian in order to give the child a better life.[24] Fontaine promised Martita's parents she would send the girl back to Peru to visit when Martita was 16 years old. When Martita turned 16, Fontaine bought her a round-trip ticket to Peru, but Martita refused to go and opted to run away. Fontaine and Martita became estranged following the incident. While promoting her autobiography in 1978, Fontaine addressed the issue stating, "Until my adopted daughter goes back to see her parents, she's not welcome. I promised her parents. I do not forgive somebody who makes me break my word."[25] Sibling rivalry Fontaine's sister Olivia de Havilland, 1940s Fontaine and her sister, Olivia de Havilland, are the only set of siblings to have won lead acting Academy Awards. Olivia was the first to become an actress; when Fontaine tried to follow her lead, their mother, who allegedly favored Olivia, refused to let Joan use the family name. Subsequently, Fontaine had to invent a name, taking first Joan Burfield, and later Joan Fontaine. Biographer Charles Higham records that the sisters had an uneasy relationship from early childhood, when Olivia would rip up the clothes Joan had to wear as hand-me-downs, forcing Joan to sew them back together. A large part of the friction between the sisters allegedly stemmed from Fontaine's belief that Olivia was their mother's favorite child.[26] Fontaine and Gary Cooper holding their Oscars at the Academy Awards, 1942 De Havilland and Fontaine were both nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress in 1942. Fontaine won for her role in Alfred Hitchcock's Suspicion over de Havilland's performance in Hold Back the Dawn. Higham states that Fontaine "felt guilty about winning given her lack of obsessive career drive...". Higham has described the events of the awards ceremony, stating that as Fontaine stepped forward to collect her award, she pointedly rejected de Havilland's attempts at congratulating her and that de Havilland was both offended and embarrassed by her behavior. Fontaine, however, tells a different story in her autobiography, explaining that she was paralyzed with surprise when she won the Academy Award, and that de Havilland insisted she get up to accept it. "Olivia took the situation very graciously," Fontaine wrote. "I was appalled that I'd won over my sister."[27] Several years later, however, de Havilland apparently remembered what she perceived as a slight and exacted her own revenge by brushing past Fontaine, who was waiting with her hand extended, because de Havilland allegedly took offense at a comment Fontaine had made about de Havilland's husband. Contrary to press reports, the sisters continued their relationship after the 1940s. After Fontaine's separation from her husband in 1952, de Havilland came to her apartment in New York often, and at least once spent Christmas together there, in 1961. They were photographed laughing together at a party for Marlene Dietrich in 1967.[28] Joan also went to visit Olivia in Paris in 1969.[29] The sisters reportedly did not completely stop speaking to each other until 1975, after their mother's funeral, to which Joan, who was out of the country, was not invited. Both sisters largely refused to comment publicly about their relationship. In a 1978 interview, however, Fontaine said of the sibling rivalry, "I married first, won the Oscar before Olivia did, and if I die first, she'll undoubtedly be livid because I beat her to it!"[30] The following year, in a 1979 interview, Fontaine claimed the reason she and her sister stopped speaking to each other was that de Havilland wanted their mother (who was suffering from cancer) to be treated surgically at the advanced age of 88, which Fontaine apparently did not think was a good idea. Fontaine claims that after their mother died, de Haviland did not bother to try to find out where Fontaine could be reached (Fontaine was on tour in a play). Instead, de Havilland sent a telegram, which did not arrive until two weeks later at Fontaine's next stop.[31] According to Fontaine, de Havilland did not invite her to a memorial service for their mother. De Havilland claims she informed Fontaine, but Fontaine brushed her off, claiming she was too busy to attend. Higham records that Fontaine had an estranged relationship with her own daughters as well, possibly because she discovered that they were secretly maintaining a relationship with de Havilland.[26] Death and legacy On December 15, 2013, Fontaine died in her sleep of natural causes at the age of 96 in her Carmel Highlands home. Her longtime friend Noel Beutel said, "She had been fading in recent days and died peacefully."[32] Her Academy Award for best actress in Suspicion was initially going to be sold at an animal rights auction, however, the Academy threatened to sue since it was not offered back to them for $1.[33] After Fontaine's death, Olivia de Havilland released a statement saying she was "shocked and saddened" by the news.[34] Fontaine was cremated. Filmography Film Year Title Role Notes 1935 No More Ladies Caroline 'Carrie' Rumsey Credited as Joan Burfield 1937 A Million to One Joan Stevens Quality Street Charlotte Parratt Uncredited The Man Who Found Himself Nurse Doris King You Can't Beat Love Trudy Olson Music for Madame Jean Clemens A Damsel in Distress Lady Alyce Marshmorton 1938 Maid's Night Out Sheila Harrison Trade Wind Kay Kerrigan Blond Cheat Juliette 'Julie' Evans Sky Giant Meg Lawrence The Duke of West Point Ann Porter 1939 Gunga Din Emmy Man of Conquest Eliza Allen The Women Mrs. John Day (Peggy) 1940 Rebecca The second Mrs. de Winter Nominated – Academy Award for Best Actress Nominated – New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress - Directed by Alfred Hitchcock 1941 Suspicion Lina Academy Award for Best Actress New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress - Directed by Alfred Hitchcock 1942 This Above All Prudence Cathaway 1943 The Constant Nymph Tessa Sanger Nominated – Academy Award for Best Actress Jane Eyre Jane Eyre (as an adult) 1944 Frenchman's Creek Dona St. Columb 1945 The Affairs of Susan Susan Darell 1946 From This Day Forward Susan Cummings 1947 Ivy Ivy 1948 Letter from an Unknown Woman Lisa Berndle The Emperor Waltz Countess Johanna Augusta Franziska You Gotta Stay Happy Dee Dee Dillwood Kiss the Blood Off My Hands Jane Wharton 1950 September Affair Marianne 'Manina' Stuart Born to Be Bad Christabel Caine Carey 1951 Darling, How Could You! Alice Grey 1952 Something to Live For Jenny Carey Othello Page Uncredited Ivanhoe Rowena 1953 Decameron Nights Fiametta/Bartolomea/Ginevra/Isabella Flight to Tangier Susan Lane The Bigamist Eve Graham 1954 Casanova's Big Night Francesca Bruni Alternative title: Mr. Casanova 1956 Serenade Kendall Hale Beyond a Reasonable Doubt Susan Spencer 1957 Island in the Sun Mavis Norman Until They Sail Anne Leslie 1958 A Certain Smile Françoise Ferrand 1961 Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea Dr. Susan Hiller 1962 Tender Is the Night Baby Warren 1966 The Witches Gwen Mayfield Alternative title: The Devil's Own Television Year Title Role Notes 1953–1954 Four Star Playhouse Trudy episode: Trudy episode: The Girl on the Park Bench 1956 The Ford Television Theatre Julie episode: Your Other Love 1956 The 20th Century Fox Hour Lynne Abbott episode: Stranger In the Night 1956–1957 The Joseph Cotten Show Adrienne episode: Fatal Charm episode: The De Santre Story 1956–1960 General Electric Theater Linda Stacey Judith Laurel Chapman Melanie Langdon Countess Irene Forelli episode: A Possibility of Oil episode: The Story of Judith episode: At Miss Minner's episode: The Victorian Chaise Lounge episode: In Summer Promise 1959 Westinghouse Desilu Playhouse Margaret Lewis episode: Perilous 1960 Startime Julie Forbes episode: Closed Set 1960 Alcoa Presents: One Step Beyond Ellen Grayson episode: The Visitor 1961 The Light That Failed Hostess (TV movie) 1961 Checkmate Karen Lawson episode: Voyage Into Fear 1962 The Dick Powell Show Valerie Baumer episode: The Clocks 1963 Wagon Train Naomi Kaylor episode: The Naomi Kaylor Story 1963 The Alfred Hitchcock Hour Alice Pemberton episode: The Paragon 1965 The Bing Crosby Show Mrs. Taylor episode: Operation Man Save 1975 Cannon Thelma Cain episode: The Star 1978 The Users Grace St. George 1980 Ryan's Hope Paige Williams 5 episodes Nominated – Daytime Emmy Award Outstanding Guest/Cameo Appearance in a Daytime Drama Series 1981 The Love Boat Jennifer Langley episode: Chef's Special/Beginning Anew/Kleinschmidt 1983 Bare Essence Laura episode: Hour Four episode: Hour Five 1986 Crossings Alexandra Markham 1986 Hotel Ruth Easton episode: Harassed 1986 Dark Mansions Margaret Drake (TV movie) 1994 Good King Wenceslas Queen Ludmilla (TV movie) Radio Year Title Role Notes 1952 Hallmark Playhouse Episode: The Professor[35] Broadway credits Date Production Role September 30, 1953 – June 18, 1955 Tea and Sympathy Laura Reynolds December 26, 1968 – November 7, 1970 Forty Carats Ann Stanley Radio appearances Year Program Episode/source 1946 Lux Radio Theatre From This Day Forward[36] 1946 Academy Award Portrait of Jennie[37] 1946 Hollywood Players The Constant Nymph[38] 1952 Hallmark Playhouse Miracle on the Blotter[39] 1952 Broadway Playhouse Manhattan Serenade[40] 1952 Theatre Guild on the Air The House of Mirth[40] 1952 Hollywood Sound Stage Ivy[41] 1953 Theater of Stars The Guardsman[42] 1953 Radio Theater Undercurrent[43] Awards and nominations Year Award Category Title of work Result 1940 Academy Award Best Actress Rebecca Nominated 1941 Academy Award Best Actress Suspicion Won 1941 NYFCC Award Best Actress Suspicion Won 1943 Academy Award Best Actress The Constant Nymph Nominated 1947 Golden Apple Award Most Cooperative Actress Won 1980 Daytime Emmy Award Outstanding Guest/Cameo Appearance in a Daytime Drama Series Ryan's Hope Nominated George Orson Welles (/ˈwɛlz/; May 6, 1915 – October 10, 1985) was an American actor, director, writer, and producer who worked in theatre, radio, and film. He is best remembered for his innovative work in all three: in theatre, most notably Caesar (1937), a Broadway adaptation of William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar; in radio, the 1938 broadcast "The War of the Worlds", one of the most famous in the history of radio; and in film, Citizen Kane (1941), consistently ranked as one of the all-time greatest films. Welles directed a number of high-profile stage productions for the Federal Theatre Project in his early twenties, including an innovative adaptation of Macbeth with an entirely African American cast, and the political musical The Cradle Will Rock. In 1937 he and John Houseman founded the Mercury Theatre, an independent repertory theatre company that presented an acclaimed series of productions on Broadway through 1941. Welles found national and international fame as the director and narrator of a 1938 radio adaptation of H. G. Wells' novel The War of the Worlds performed for his radio anthology series The Mercury Theatre on the Air. It reportedly caused widespread panic when listeners thought that an invasion by extraterrestrial beings was occurring. Although some contemporary sources claim these reports of panic were mostly false and overstated,[1] they rocketed Welles to notoriety. His first film was Citizen Kane (1941), which he co-wrote, produced, directed, and starred in as Charles Foster Kane. Welles was an outsider to the studio system and directed only 13 full-length films in his career. Because of this, he struggled for creative control from the major film studios, and his films were either heavily edited or remained unreleased. His distinctive directorial style featured layered and nonlinear narrative forms, innovative uses of lighting such as chiaroscuro, unusual camera angles, sound techniques borrowed from radio, deep focus shots, and long takes. He has been praised as a major creative force and as "the ultimate auteur".[2]:6 Welles followed up Citizen Kane with critically acclaimed films including The Magnificent Ambersons in 1942 and Touch of Evil in 1958. Although these three are his most acclaimed films, critics have argued other works of his, such as The Lady from Shanghai (1947)[3] and Chimes at Midnight (1966),[4] are underappreciated. In 2002, Welles was voted the greatest film director of all time in two British Film Institute polls among directors and critics,[5][6] and a wide survey of critical consensus, best-of lists, and historical retrospectives calls him the most acclaimed director of all time.[7] Well known for his baritone voice,[8] Welles was a well-regarded actor in radio and film, a celebrated Shakespearean stage actor, and an accomplished magician noted for presenting troop variety shows in the war years. Contents 1 Early life2 Early career (1931–1935)3 Theatre (1936–1938) 3.1 Federal Theatre Project3.2 Mercury Theatre4 Radio (1936–1940) 4.1 The Mercury Theatre on the Air5 Hollywood (1939–1948) 5.1 Citizen Kane5.2 The Magnificent Ambersons5.3 Journey into Fear5.4 War work 5.4.1 Goodwill ambassador5.4.2 It's All True5.4.3 Radio (1942–43)5.4.4 The Mercury Wonder Show5.4.5 Radio (1944–45)5.5 The Stranger5.6 Around the World5.7 Radio (1946)5.8 The Lady from Shanghai5.9 Macbeth6 Europe (1948–1956) 6.1 Othello6.2 Mr. Arkadin6.3 Television projects7 Return to Hollywood (1956–1959) 7.1 Touch of Evil8 Return to Europe (1959–1970) 8.1 The Trial8.2 Chimes at Midnight9 Later career (1970–1985)10 Personal life 10.1 Relationships and family10.2 Physical characteristics10.3 Religious beliefs11 Politics12 Death and tributes13 Unfinished projects 13.1 Don Quixote13.2 The Merchant of Venice13.3 The Other Side of the Wind13.4 Other unfinished films and unfilmed screenplays14 Theatre credits15 Radio credits16 Filmography17 Discography18 Awards and honors19 Cultural references20 See also21 Notes22 References23 Further reading 23.1 Archival sources24 External links Early life Welles's birthplace in Kenosha, Wisconsin (2013) George Orson Welles was born May 6, 1915, in Kenosha, Wisconsin, son of Richard Head Welles (b. Richard Hodgdon Wells, November 12, 1872, near St. Joseph, Missouri; d. December 28, 1930, Chicago, Illinois)[9]:26[10][a] and Beatrice Ives Welles (b. September 1, 1881, Springfield, Illinois; d. May 10, 1924, Chicago).[10][11][b] He was named after his paternal great-grandfather, influential Kenosha attorney Orson S. Head, and his brother George Head.[9]:37 Despite his family's affluence, Welles encountered hardship in childhood. His parents separated and moved to Chicago in 1919. His father, who made a fortune as the inventor of a popular bicycle lamp,[12] became an alcoholic and stopped working. Welles's mother, a pianist, played during lectures by Dudley Crafts Watson at the Art Institute of Chicago to support her son and herself; the oldest Welles boy, "Dickie," was institutionalized at an early age because he had learning difficulties. Beatrice died of hepatitis in a Chicago hospital[13]:3–5 May 10, 1924, aged 42, just after Welles's ninth birthday.[14]:326 The Gordon String Quartet, which had made its first appearance at her home in 1921, played at Beatrice's funeral.[15][16] After his mother's death Welles ceased pursuing music. It was decided that he would spend the summer with the Watson family at a private art colony in Wyoming, New York, established by Lydia Avery Coonley Ward.[17]:8 There he played and became friends with the children of the Aga Khan, including the 12-year-old Prince Aly Khan. Then, in what Welles later described as "a hectic period" in his life, he lived in a Chicago apartment with both his father and Dr. Maurice Bernstein, a Chicago physician who had been a close friend of both his parents. Welles briefly attended public school[18]:133 before his alcoholic father left business altogether and took him along on his travels to Jamaica and the Far East. When they returned they settled in a hotel in Grand Detour, Illinois, that was owned by his father. When the hotel burned down Welles and his father took to the road again.[17]:9 "During the three years that Orson lived with his father, some observers wondered who took care of whom", wrote biographer Frank Brady.[17]:9 "In some ways, he was never really a young boy, you know," said Roger Hill, who became Welles's teacher and lifelong friend.[19]:24 Orson Welles in 1926: "Cartoonist, Actor, Poet and only 10" Welles briefly attended public school in Madison, Wisconsin, enrolled in the fourth grade.[17]:9 On September 15, 1926, he entered the Todd Seminary for Boys,[18]:3 an expensive independent school in Woodstock, Illinois, that his older brother, Richard Ives Welles, had attended ten years before but was expelled for misbehavior.[9]:48 At Todd School Welles came under the influence of Roger Hill, a teacher who was later Todd's headmaster. Hill provided Welles with an ad hoc educational environment that proved invaluable to his creative experience, allowing Welles to concentrate on subjects that interested him. Welles performed and staged theatrical experiments and productions there. "Todd provided Welles with many valuable experiences", wrote critic Richard France. "He was able to explore and experiment in an atmosphere of acceptance and encouragement. In addition to a theater the school's own radio station was at his disposal."[20]:27 Welles's first radio performance was on the Todd station, an adaptation of Sherlock Holmes that he also wrote.[13]:7 On December 28, 1930, when Welles was 15, his father died at the age of 58, alone in a hotel in Chicago. His will left it to Orson to name his guardian. When Roger Hill declined, Welles chose Maurice Bernstein.[21]:71–72 Following graduation from Todd in May 1931,[18]:3 Welles was awarded a scholarship to Harvard University, while his mentor Roger Hill advocated he attend Cornell College in Iowa.[22] Rather than enrolling, he chose travel. He studied for a few weeks at the Art Institute of Chicago[23]:117 with Boris Anisfeld, who encouraged him to pursue painting.[17]:18 Welles would occasionally return to Woodstock, the place he eventually named when he was asked in a 1960 interview, "Where is home?" Welles replied, "I suppose it's Woodstock, Illinois, if it's anywhere. I went to school there for four years. If I try to think of a home, it's that."[24] Early career (1931–1935) After his father's death, Welles traveled to Europe using a small portion of his inheritance. Welles said that while on a walking and painting trip through Ireland, he strode into the Gate Theatre in Dublin and claimed he was a Broadway star. The manager of Gate, Hilton Edwards, later said he had not believed him but was impressed by his brashness and an impassioned quality in his audition.[25]:134 Welles made his stage debut at the Gate Theatre on October 13, 1931, appearing in Ashley Dukes's adaptation of Jew Suss as Duke Karl Alexander of Württemberg. He performed small supporting roles in subsequent Gate productions, and he produced and designed productions of his own in Dublin. In March 1932 Welles performed in W. Somerset Maugham's The Circle at Dublin's Abbey Theatre and travelled to London to find additional work in the theatre. Unable to obtain a work permit, he returned to the U.S.[14]:327–330 Welles found his fame ephemeral and turned to a writing project at Todd School that would become the immensely successful, first entitled Everybody's Shakespeare and subsequently, The Mercury Shakespeare. Welles traveled to North Africa while working on thousands of illustrations for the Everybody's Shakespeare series of educational books, a series that remained in print for decades. In 1933, Roger and Hortense Hill invited Welles along to a party in Chicago, where Welles met Thornton Wilder. Wilder arranged for Welles to meet Alexander Woollcott in New York, in order that he be introduced to Katharine Cornell, who was assembling a repertory theatre company. Cornell's husband, director Guthrie McClintic, immediately put Welles under contract and cast him in three plays.[17]:46–49 Romeo and Juliet, The Barretts of Wimpole Street and Candida toured in repertory for 36 weeks beginning in November 1933, with the first of more than 200 performances taking place in Buffalo, New York.[14]:330–331 In 1934, Welles got his first job on radio — on The American School of the Air — through actor-director Paul Stewart, who introduced him to director Knowles Entrikin.[14]:331 That summer Welles staged a drama festival with the Todd School in Woodstock, Illinois, inviting Micheál Mac Liammóir and Hilton Edwards from Dublin's Gate Theatre to appear along with New York stage luminaries in productions including Trilby, Hamlet, The Drunkard and Tsar Paul. At the old firehouse in Woodstock he also shot his first film, an eight-minute short titled The Hearts of Age.[14]:330–331 A revised production of Katharine Cornell's Romeo and Juliet opened December 20, 1934, at the Martin Beck Theatre in New York.[14]:331–332[26] The Broadway production brought the 19-year-old Welles (now playing Tybalt) to the notice of John Houseman, a theatrical producer who was casting the lead role in the debut production of Archibald MacLeish's verse play, Panic.[27]:144–158 On November 14, 1934, Welles married Chicago socialite and actress Virginia Nicolson[14]:332 (often misspelled "Nicholson")[28] in a civil ceremony in New York. To appease the Nicolsons, who were furious at the couple's elopement, a formal ceremony took place December 23, 1934, at the New Jersey mansion of the bride's godmother. Welles wore a cutaway borrowed from his friend George Macready.[21]:182 By 1935 Welles was supplementing his earnings in the theater as a radio actor in Manhattan, working with many actors who would later form the core of his Mercury Theatre on programs including America's Hour, Cavalcade of America, Columbia Workshop and The March of Time.[14]:331–332 "Within a year of his debut Welles could claim membership in that elite band of radio actors who commanded salaries second only to the highest paid movie stars," wrote critic Richard France.[20]:172 Theatre (1936–1938) Main article: Orson Welles theatre credits Federal Theatre Project Macbeth (1936) Macbeth opening night at the Lafayette Theatre (April 14, 1936) Horse Eats Hat (1936) Faustus (1937) The Cradle Will Rock (1937) Part of the Works Progress Administration, the Federal Theatre Project (1935–39) was a New Deal program to fund theatre and other live artistic performances and entertainment programs in the United States during the Great Depression. It was created as a relief measure to employ artists, writers, directors and theater workers. Under national director Hallie Flanagan it was shaped into a true national theatre that created relevant art, encouraged experimentation and innovation, and made it possible for millions of Americans to see live theatre for the first time.[29] John Houseman, director of the Negro Theatre Unit in New York, invited Welles to join the Federal Theatre Project in 1935. Far from unemployed — "I was so employed I forgot how to sleep" — Welles put a large share of his $1,500-a-week radio earnings into his stage productions, bypassing administrative red tape and mounting the projects more quickly and professionally. "Roosevelt once said that I was the only operator in history who ever illegally siphoned money into a Washington project," Welles said.[14]:11–13 The Federal Theatre Project was the ideal environment in which Welles could develop his art. Its purpose was employment, so he was able to hire any number of artists, craftsmen and technicians, and he filled the stage with performers.[30]:3 The company for the first production, an adaptation of William Shakespeare's Macbeth with an entirely African-American cast, numbered 150.[31] The production became known as the Voodoo Macbeth because Welles changed the setting to a mythical island suggesting the Haitian court of King Henri Christophe,[32]:179–180 with Haitian vodou fulfilling the rôle of Scottish witchcraft.[33]:86 The play opened April 14, 1936, at the Lafayette Theatre in Harlem and was received rapturously. At 20, Welles was hailed as a prodigy.[34] The production then made a 4,000-mile national tour[14]:333[35] that included two weeks at the Texas Centennial Exposition in Dallas.[36] Welles next mounted the farce Horse Eats Hat, an adaptation by Welles and Edwin Denby of Eugène Labiche's play, Un Chapeau de Paille d'Italie.[19]:114 The play was presented September 26 – December 5, 1936, at Maxine Elliott's Theatre, New York,[14]:334 and featured Joseph Cotten in his first starring role.[37]:34 It was followed by an adaptation of Dr. Faustus that used light as a prime unifying scenic element in a nearly black stage, presented January 8 – May 9, 1937, at Maxine Elliott's Theatre.[14]:335 Outside the scope of the Federal Theatre Project,[20]:100 American composer Aaron Copland chose Welles to direct The Second Hurricane (1937), an operetta with a libretto by Edwin Denby. Presented at the Henry Street Settlement Music School in New York for the benefit of high school students, the production opened April 21, 1937, and ran its scheduled three performances.[14]:337 In 1937, Welles rehearsed Marc Blitzstein's political operetta, The Cradle Will Rock. It was originally scheduled to open June 16, 1937, in its first public preview. Because of severe federal cutbacks in the Works Progress projects, the show's premiere at the Maxine Elliott Theatre was canceled. The theater was locked and guarded to prevent any government-purchased materials from being used for a commercial production of the work. In a last-minute move, Welles announced to waiting ticket-holders that the show was being transferred to the Venice, 20 blocks away. Some cast, and some crew and audience, walked the distance on foot. The union musicians refused to perform in a commercial theater for lower non-union government wages. The actors' union stated that the production belonged to the Federal Theater Project and could not be performed outside that context without permission. Lacking the participation of the union members, The Cradle Will Rock began with Blitzstein introducing the show and playing the piano accompaniment on stage with some cast members performing from the audience. This impromptu performance was well received by its audience. Mercury Theatre At age 22 Welles was Broadway's youngest impresario — producing, directing and starring in an adaptation of Julius Caesar that broke all performance records for the play (1938) Welles as the octogenarian Captain Shotover in the Mercury Theatre production of Heartbreak House, on the cover of Time (May 9, 1938) Main article: Mercury Theatre Breaking with the Federal Theatre Project in 1937, Welles and Houseman founded their own repertory company, which they called the Mercury Theatre. The name was inspired by the title of the iconoclastic magazine, The American Mercury.[17]:119–120 Welles was executive producer, and the original company included such actors as Joseph Cotten, George Coulouris, Geraldine Fitzgerald, Arlene Francis, Martin Gabel, John Hoyt, Norman Lloyd, Vincent Price, Stefan Schnabel and Hiram Sherman. "I think he was the greatest directorial talent we've ever had in the [American] theater," Lloyd said of Welles in a 2014 interview. "When you saw a Welles production, you saw the text had been affected, the staging was remarkable, the sets were unusual, music, sound, lighting, a totality of everything. We had not had such a man in our theater. He was the first and remains the greatest."[38] The Mercury Theatre opened November 11, 1937, with Caesar, Welles's modern-dress adaptation of Shakespeare's tragedy Julius Caesar — streamlined into an anti-fascist tour de force that Joseph Cotten later described as "so vigorous, so contemporary that it set Broadway on its ear."[37]:108 The set was completely open with no curtain, and the brick stage wall was painted dark red. Scene changes were achieved by lighting alone.[39]:165 On the stage was a series of risers; squares were cut into one at intervals and lights were set beneath it, pointing straight up to evoke the "cathedral of light" at the Nuremberg Rallies. "He staged it like a political melodrama that happened the night before," said Lloyd.[38] Beginning January 1, 1938, Caesar was performed in repertory with The Shoemaker's Holiday; both productions moved to the larger National Theatre. They were followed by Heartbreak House (April 29, 1938) and Danton's Death (November 5, 1938).[30]:344 As well as being presented in a pared-down oratorio version at the Mercury Theatre on Sunday nights in December 1937, The Cradle Will Rock was at the Windsor Theatre for 13 weeks (January 4–April 2, 1938).[14]:340 Such was the success of the Mercury Theatre that Welles appeared on the cover of Time magazine, in full makeup as Captain Shotover in Heartbreak House, in the issue dated May 9, 1938—three days after his 23rd birthday.[40] Radio (1936–1940) Main article: Orson Welles radio credits Simultaneously with his work in the theatre, Welles worked extensively in radio as an actor, writer, director and producer, often without credit.[30]:77 Between 1935 and 1937 he was earning as much as $2,000 a week, shuttling between radio studios at such a pace that he would arrive barely in time for a quick scan of his lines before he was on the air. While he was directing the Voodoo Macbeth Welles was dashing between Harlem and midtown Manhattan three times a day to meet his radio commitments.[20]:172 In addition to continuing as a repertory player on The March of Time, in the fall of 1936 Welles adapted and performed Hamlet in an early two-part episode of CBS Radio's Columbia Workshop. His performance as the announcer in the series' April 1937 presentation of Archibald MacLeish's verse drama The Fall of the City was an important development in his radio career[30]:78 and made the 21-year-old Welles an overnight star.[41]:46 In July 1937, the Mutual Network gave Welles a seven-week series to adapt Les Misérables. It was his first job as a writer-director for radio,[14]:338 the radio debut of the Mercury Theatre, and one of Welles's earliest and finest achievements.[42]:160 He invented the use of narration in radio.[14]:88 "By making himself the center of the storytelling process, Welles fostered the impression of self-adulation that was to haunt his career to his dying day," wrote critic Andrew Sarris. "For the most part, however, Welles was singularly generous to the other members of his cast and inspired loyalty from them above and beyond the call of professionalism."[41]:8 That September, Mutual chose Welles to play Lamont Cranston, also known as The Shadow. He performed the role anonymously through mid-September 1938.[30]:83[43] The Mercury Theatre on the Air Main articles: The Mercury Theatre on the Air, The War of the Worlds (radio drama) and The Campbell Playhouse Welles at the press conference after "The War of the Worlds" broadcast (October 31, 1938) After the theatrical successes of the Mercury Theatre, CBS Radio invited Orson Welles to create a summer show for 13 weeks. The series began July 11, 1938, initially titled First Person Singular, with the formula that Welles would play the lead in each show. Some months later the show was called The Mercury Theatre on the Air.[41]:12 The weekly hour-long show presented radio plays based on classic literary works, with original music composed and conducted by Bernard Herrmann. The Mercury Theatre's radio adaptation of The War of the Worlds by H. G. Wells October 30, 1938, brought Welles instant fame. The combination of the news bulletin form of the performance with the between-breaks dial spinning habits of listeners was later reported to have created widespread confusion among listeners who failed to hear the introduction, although the extent of this confusion has come into question.[1][44][45][46] Panic was reportedly spread among listeners who believed the fictional news reports of a Martian invasion. The myth of the result created by the combination was reported as fact around the world and disparagingly mentioned by Adolf Hitler in a public speech some months later.[47] Welles's growing fame drew Hollywood offers, lures that the independent-minded Welles resisted at first. The Mercury Theatre on the Air, which had been a sustaining show (without sponsorship) was picked up by Campbell Soup and renamed The Campbell Playhouse.[48] The Mercury Theatre on the Air made its last broadcast on December 4, 1938, and The Campbell Playhouse began five days later. Welles began commuting from Hollywood to New York for the two Sunday broadcasts of The Campbell Playhouse after signing a film contract with RKO Pictures in August 1939. In November 1939, production of the show moved from New York to Los Angeles.[14]:353 After 20 shows, Campbell began to exercise more creative control and had complete control over story selection. As his contract with Campbell came to an end, Welles chose not to sign on for another season. After the broadcast of March 31, 1940, Welles and Campbell parted amicably.[17]:221–226 Hollywood (1939–1948) This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2014) RKO Radio Pictures president George Schaefer eventually offered Welles what generally is considered the greatest contract offered to an untried director: complete artistic control.[citation needed] After signing a summary agreement with RKO on July 22, Welles signed a full-length 63-page contract August 21, 1939.[14]:353 Welles's first experience on a Hollywood film was narrator for RKO's 1940 production of Swiss Family Robinson.[49] Citizen Kane Main article: Citizen Kane Welles in Citizen Kane (1941) RKO rejected Welles's first two movie proposals, but agreed on the third offer — Citizen Kane. Welles co-wrote, produced and directed the film, and performed the lead role.[50] Welles conceived the project with screenwriter Herman J. Mankiewicz, who was writing radio plays for The Campbell Playhouse.[51]:16 Mankiewicz based the original outline on the life of William Randolph Hearst, whom he knew socially and came to hate after being exiled from Hearst's circle.[52]:231 Welles supplied Mankiewicz with 300 pages of notes and put him under contract to write the first draft screenplay under the supervision of John Houseman. Welles later explained, "I left him on his own finally, because we'd started to waste too much time haggling. So, after mutual agreements on storyline and character, Mank went off with Houseman and did his version, while I stayed in Hollywood and wrote mine."[14]:54 Taking these drafts, Welles drastically condensed and rearranged them, then added scenes of his own. The industry accused Welles of underplaying Mankiewicz's contribution to the script, but Welles countered the attacks by saying, "At the end, naturally, I was the one making the picture, after all—who had to make the decisions. I used what I wanted of Mank's and, rightly or wrongly, kept what I liked of my own."[14]:54 Welles's project attracted some of Hollywood's best technicians, including cinematographer Gregg Toland.[50] For the cast, Welles primarily used actors from his Mercury Theatre. Filming Citizen Kane took ten weeks.[50] Hearst's media outlets boycotted the film and exerted enormous pressure on the Hollywood film community by threatening to expose 15 years of suppressed scandals and the fact that most studio bosses were Jewish. At one point, heads of the major studios jointly offered RKO the cost of the film in exchange for the negative and existing prints, fully intending to burn them. RKO declined.[citation needed] While waiting for the film to be released, Welles directed the original Broadway production of Native Son, a drama written by Paul Green and Richard Wright based on Wright's novel. Starring Canada Lee, the show ran March 24–June 28, 1941, at the St. James Theatre. The Mercury Production was the last time Welles and Houseman worked together.[30]:12 Citizen Kane was given a limited release and the film was well-received critically. Bosley Crowther of The New York Times called it "close to being the most sensational film ever made in Hollywood".[53] By the time it reached the general public, the publicity had waned. It garnered nine Academy Award nominations but won only for Best Original Screenplay, shared by Mankiewicz and Welles. Citizen Kane is now hailed as one of the greatest films ever made.[54] Andrew Sarris called it "the work that influenced the cinema more profoundly than any American film since The Birth of a Nation."[50] The delay in its release and uneven distribution contributed to mediocre results at the box office; it earned back its budget and marketing, but RKO lost any chance of a major profit. RKO shelved the film and did not re-release it until 1956.[citation needed] During the 1950s, the film came to be seen by young French film critics such as François Truffaut as exemplifying the "auteur theory", in which the director is the "author" of a film. Truffaut, Godard and others inspired by Welles's example made their own films, giving birth to the Nouvelle Vague. In the 1960s Citizen Kane became popular on college campuses as a film-study exercise and as an entertainment subject. Its revivals on television, home video and DVD have enhanced its status and ultimately recouped costs. The film is considered by most film critics and historians to be one of, if not the, greatest motion pictures in cinema history.[citation needed] The Magnificent Ambersons Main article: The Magnificent Ambersons (film) Welles's second film for RKO was The Magnificent Ambersons, adapted by Welles from the Pulitzer Prize-winning novel by Booth Tarkington. Toland was not available, so Stanley Cortez was named cinematographer. The meticulous Cortez worked slowly and the film lagged behind schedule and over budget. Prior to production, Welles's contract was renegotiated, revoking his right to control the final cut.[citation needed] The Magnificent Ambersons was in production October 28, 1941 – January 22, 1942.[55] Throughout the shooting of the film Welles was also producing a weekly half-hour radio series, The Orson Welles Show. Many of the Ambersons cast participated in the CBS Radio series, which ran September 15, 1941 – February 2, 1942.[56]:525 Journey into Fear Main article: Journey into Fear (1943 film) At RKO's request, Welles worked on an adaptation of Eric Ambler's spy thriller, Journey into Fear, co-written with Joseph Cotten. In addition to acting in the film, Welles was the producer. Direction was credited to Norman Foster. Welles later said that they were in such a rush that the director of each scene was determined by whoever was closest to the camera.[citation needed] Journey into Fear was in production January 6–March 12, 1942.[57] War work Goodwill ambassador In late November 1941, Welles was appointed as a goodwill ambassador to Latin America by Nelson Rockefeller, U.S. Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs and a principal stockholder in RKO Radio Pictures.[58]:244 The mission of the OCIAA was cultural diplomacy, promoting hemispheric solidarity and countering the growing influence of the Axis powers in Latin America.[58]:10–11 John Hay Whitney, head of the agency's Motion Picture Division, was asked by the Brazilian government to produce a documentary of the annual Rio Carnival celebration taking place in early February 1942.[58]:40–41 In a telegram December 20, 1941, Whitney wrote Welles, "Personally believe you would make great contribution to hemisphere solidarity with this project."[59]:65 The OCIAA sponsored cultural tours to Latin America and appointed goodwill ambassadors including George Balanchine and the American Ballet, Bing Crosby, Aaron Copland, Walt Disney, John Ford and Rita Hayworth. Welles was thoroughly briefed in Washington, D.C., immediately before his departure for Brazil, and film scholar Catherine L. Benamou, a specialist in Latin American affairs, finds it "not unlikely" that he was among the goodwill ambassadors who were asked to gather intelligence for the U.S. government in addition to their cultural duties. She concludes that Welles's acceptance of Whitney's request was "a logical and patently patriotic choice".[58]:245–247 In addition to working on his ill-fated film project, It's All True, Welles was responsible for radio programs, lectures, interviews and informal talks as part of his OCIAA-sponsored cultural mission, which was regarded as a success.[60]:192 He spoke on topics ranging from Shakespeare to visual art at gatherings of Brazil's elite, and his two intercontinental radio broadcasts in April 1942 were particularly intended to tell U.S. audiences that President Vargas was a partner with the Allies. Welles's ambassadorial mission was extended to permit his travel to other nations including Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay.[58]:247–249, 328 Welles worked for more than half a year with no compensation.[58]:41, 328[60]:189 Welles's own expectations for the film were modest. "It's All True was not going to make any cinematic history, nor was it intended to," he later said. "It was intended to be a perfectly honorable execution of my job as a goodwill ambassador, bringing entertainment to the Northern Hemisphere that showed them something about the Southern one."[19]:253 It's All True Main article: It's All True (film) In July 1941, Welles conceived It's All True as an omnibus film mixing documentary and docufiction[19]:221[58]:27 in a project that emphasized the dignity of labor and celebrated the cultural and ethnic diversity of North America. It was to have been his third film for RKO, following Citizen Kane (1941) and The Magnificent Ambersons (1942).[61]:109 Duke Ellington was put under contract to score a segment with the working title, "The Story of Jazz", drawn from Louis Armstrong's 1936 autobiography, Swing That Music.[62]:232–233 Armstrong was cast to play himself in the brief dramatization of the history of jazz performance, from its roots to its place in American culture in the 1940s.[61]:109 "The Story of Jazz" was to go into production in December 1941.[58]:119–120 Mercury Productions purchased the stories for two other segments — "My Friend Bonito" and "The Captain's Chair" — from documentary filmmaker Robert J. Flaherty.[58]:33, 326 Adapted by Norman Foster and John Fante, "My Friend Bonito" was the only segment of the original It's All True to go into production.[61]:109 Filming took place in Mexico September–December 1941, with Norman Foster directing under Welles's supervision.[58]:311 In December 1941, the Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs asked Welles to make a film in Brazil that would showcase the Carnaval in Rio de Janeiro.[59]:65 With filming of "My Friend Bonito" about two-thirds complete, Welles decided he could shift the geography of It's All True and incorporate Flaherty's story into an omnibus film about Latin America — supporting the Roosevelt administration's Good Neighbor policy, which Welles strongly advocated.[58]:41, 246 In this revised concept, "The Story of Jazz" was replaced by the story of samba, a musical form with a comparable history and one that came to fascinate Welles. He also decided to do a ripped-from-the-headlines episode about the epic voyage of four poor Brazilian fishermen, the jangadeiros, who had become national heroes. Welles later said this was the most valuable story.[14]:158–159[30]:15 Required to film the Carnaval in Rio de Janeiro in early February 1942, Welles rushed to edit The Magnificent Ambersons and finish his acting scenes in Journey into Fear. He ended his lucrative CBS radio show[60]:189 February 2, flew to Washington, D.C., for a briefing, and then lashed together a rough cut of Ambersons in Miami with editor Robert Wise.[14]:369–370 Welles recorded the film's narration the night before he left for South America: "I went to the projection room at about four in the morning, did the whole thing, and then got on the plane and off to Rio — and the end of civilization as we know it."[14]:115 Welles left for Brazil on February 4 and began filming in Rio February 8, 1942.[14]:369–370 At the time it did not seem that Welles's other film projects would be disrupted, but as film historian Catherine L. Benamou wrote, "the ambassadorial appointment would be the first in a series of turning points leading — in 'zigs' and 'zags,' rather than in a straight line — to Welles's loss of complete directorial control over both The Magnificent Ambersons and It's All True, the cancellation of his contract at RKO Radio Studio, the expulsion of his company Mercury Productions from the RKO lot, and, ultimately, the total suspension of It's All True.[58]:46 In 1942 RKO Pictures underwent major changes under new management. Nelson Rockefeller, the primary backer of the Brazil project, left its board of directors, and Welles's principal sponsor at RKO, studio president George Schaefer, resigned. RKO took control of Ambersons and edited the film into what the studio considered a commercial format. Welles's attempts to protect his version ultimately failed.[55][63] In South America, Welles requested resources to finish It's All True. Given a limited amount of black-and-white film stock and a silent camera, he was able to finish shooting the episode about the jangadeiros, but RKO refused to support further production on the film. "So I was fired from RKO," Welles later recalled. "And they made a great publicity point of the fact that I had gone to South America without a script and thrown all this money away. I never recovered from that attack."[64]:188 Later in 1942 when RKO Pictures began promoting its new corporate motto, "Showmanship In Place of Genius: A New Deal at RKO",[59]:29 Welles understood it as a reference to himself.[64]:188 Radio (1942–43) Welles performs a card trick for Carl Sandburg before the War Bond drive broadcast I Pledge America (August 1942). Welles and Col. Arthur I. Ennis, head of the public relations branch of the Army Air Forces, discuss plans for the CBS Radio series Ceiling Unlimited (October 1942). Promotional herald for The Mercury Wonder Show (August 1943) Welles led the Treasury Department's campaign urging Americans to buy $16 billion in War Bonds to finance the Normandy landings (June 12–July 8, 1944). Welles introduced Vice President Henry A. Wallace at a Madison Square Garden rally advocating a fourth term for President Franklin D. Roosevelt (September 21, 1944).[14]:385 Welles returned to the United States August 22, 1942, after more than six months in South America.[14]:372 A week after his return[65][66] he produced and emceed the first two hours of a seven-hour coast-to-coast War Bond drive broadcast titled I Pledge America. Airing August 29, 1942, on the Blue Network, the program was presented in cooperation with the United States Department of the Treasury, (which wired bond subscriptions free of charge) and the American Women's Voluntary Services. Featuring 21 dance bands and a score of stage and screen and radio stars, the broadcast raised more than $10 million — more than $146 million today[67] — for the war effort.[68][69][70][71][72][73] On October 12, 1942, Cavalcade of America presented Welles's radio play, Admiral of the Ocean Sea, an entertaining and factual look at the legend of Christopher Columbus. "It belongs to a period when hemispheric unity was a crucial matter and many programs were being devoted to the common heritage of the Americas," wrote broadcasting historian Erik Barnouw. "Many such programs were being translated into Spanish and Portuguese and broadcast to Latin America, to counteract many years of successful Axis propaganda to that area. The Axis, trying to stir Latin America against Anglo-America, had constantly emphasized the differences between the two. It became the job of American radio to emphasize their common experience and essential unity."[74]:3 Admiral of the Ocean Sea, also known as Columbus Day, begins with the words, "Hello Americans" — the title Welles would choose for his own series five weeks later.[14]:373 Hello Americans, a CBS Radio series broadcast November 15, 1942 – January 31, 1943, was produced, directed and hosted by Welles under the auspices of the Office of the Coordinator for Inter-American Affairs. The 30-minute weekly program promoted inter-American understanding and friendship, drawing upon the research amassed for the ill-fated film, It's All True.[75] The series was produced concurrently with Welles's other CBS series, Ceiling Unlimited (November 9, 1942 – February 1, 1943), sponsored by the Lockheed-Vega Corporation. The program was conceived to glorify the aviation industry and dramatize its role in World War II. Welles's shows were regarded as significant contributions to the war effort.[41]:64 Throughout the war Welles worked on patriotic radio programs including Command Performance, G.I. Journal, Mail Call, Nazi Eyes on Canada, Stage Door Canteen and Treasury Star Parade. The Mercury Wonder Show Main article: The Mercury Wonder Show In early 1943, the two concurrent radio series (Ceiling Unlimited, Hello Americans) that Orson Welles created for CBS to support the war effort had ended. Filming also had wrapped on the 1943 film adaptation of Jane Eyre and that fee, in addition to the income from his regular guest-star roles in radio, made it possible for Welles to fulfill a lifelong dream. He approached the War Assistance League of Southern California and proposed a show that evolved into a big-top spectacle, part circus and part magic show. He offered his services as magician and director,[76]:40 and invested some $40,000 of his own money in an extravaganza he co-produced with his friend Joseph Cotten: The Mercury Wonder Show for Service Men. Members of the U.S. armed forces were admitted free of charge, while the general public had to pay.[77]:26 The show entertained more than 1,000 service members each night, and proceeds went to the War Assistance League, a charity for military service personnel.[78] The development of the show coincided with the resolution of Welles's oft-changing draft status in May 1943, when he was finally declared 4-F — unfit for military service — for a variety of medical reasons. "I felt guilty about the war," Welles told biographer Barbara Leaming. "I was guilt-ridden about my civilian status."[79]:86 He had been publicly hounded about his patriotism since Citizen Kane, when the Hearst press began persistent inquiries about why Welles had not been drafted.[59]:66–67[80][81] The Mercury Wonder Show ran August 3–September 9, 1943, in an 80-by-120-foot tent[78] located at 9000 Cahuenga Boulevard, in the heart of Hollywood.[14]:377[77]:26 At intermission September 7, 1943, KMPC radio interviewed audience and cast members of The Mercury Wonder Show — including Welles and Rita Hayworth, who were married earlier that day. Welles remarked that The Mercury Wonder Show had been performed for approximately 48,000 members of the U.S. armed forces.[14]:378[30]:129 Radio (1944–45) The idea of doing a radio variety show occurred to Welles after his success as substitute host of four consecutive episodes (March 14–April 4, 1943) of The Jack Benny Program, radio's most popular show, when Benny contracted pneumonia on a performance tour of military bases.[17]:368[82] A half-hour variety show broadcast January 26–July 19, 1944, on the Columbia Pacific Network, The Orson Welles Almanac presented sketch comedy, magic, mindreading, music and readings from classic works. Many of the shows originated from U.S. military camps, where Welles and his repertory company and guests entertained the troops with a reduced version of The Mercury Wonder Show.[41]:64[83][84] The performances of the all-star jazz group Welles brought together for the show were so popular that the band became a regular feature and was an important force in reviving interest in traditional New Orleans jazz.[85]:85 Welles was placed on the U.S. Treasury payroll May 15, 1944, as an expert consultant for the duration of the war, with a retainer of $1 a year.[86] On the recommendation of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau asked Welles to lead the Fifth War Loan Drive, which opened June 12 with a one-hour radio show on all four networks, broadcast from Texarkana, Texas. Including a statement by the President,[87] the program defined the causes of the war and encouraged Americans to buy $16 billion in bonds to finance the Normandy landings and the most violent phase of World War II. Welles produced additional war loan drive broadcasts June 14 from the Hollywood Bowl, and June 16 from Soldier Field, Chicago.[17]:371–373 Americans purchased $20.6 billion in War Bonds during the Fifth War Loan Drive, which ended July 8, 1944.[88] Welles campaigned ardently for Roosevelt in 1944. A longtime supporter and campaign speaker for FDR, he occasionally sent the president ideas and phrases that were sometimes incorporated into what Welles characterized as "less important speeches".[17]:372, 374 One of these ideas was the joke in what came to be called the Fala speech, Roosevelt's nationally broadcast September 23 address to the International Teamsters Union which opened the 1944 presidential campaign.[19]:292–293[89] Welles campaigned for the Roosevelt–Truman ticket almost full-time in the fall of 1944, traveling to nearly every state[17]:373–374 to the detriment of his own health[19]:293–294 and at his own expense.[9]:219 In addition to his radio addresses he filled in for Roosevelt, opposite Republican presidential nominee Thomas E. Dewey, at The New York Herald Tribune Forum broadcast October 18 on the Blue Network.[14]:386[19]:292 Welles accompanied FDR to his last campaign rally, speaking at an event November 4 at Boston's Fenway Park before 40,000 people,[19]:294[90] and took part in a historic election-eve campaign broadcast November 6 on all four radio networks.[14]:387[56]:166–167 On November 21, 1944, Welles began his association with This Is My Best, a CBS radio series he would briefly produce, direct, write and host (March 13–April 24, 1945).[91][92] He wrote a political column called Orson Welles' Almanac (later titled Orson Welles Today) for The New York Post January–November 1945, and advocated the continuation of FDR's New Deal policies and his international vision, particularly the establishment of the United Nations and the cause of world peace.[59]:84 On April 12, 1945, the day Franklin D. Roosevelt died, the Blue-ABC network marshalled its entire executive staff and national leaders to pay homage to the late president. "Among the outstanding programs which attracted wide attention was a special tribute delivered by Orson Welles", reported Broadcasting magazine.[93] Welles spoke at 10:10 p.m Eastern War Time, from Hollywood, and stressed the importance of continuing FDR's work: "He has no need for homage and we who loved him have no time for tears … Our fighting sons and brothers cannot pause tonight to mark the death of him whose name will be given to the age we live in."[94] Welles presented another special broadcast on the death of Roosevelt the following evening: "We must move on beyond mere death to that free world which was the hope and labor of his life."[14]:390[42]:242 He dedicated the April 17 episode of This Is My Best to Roosevelt and the future of America on the eve of the United Nations Conference on International Organization.[14]:390[91][92] Welles was an advisor and correspondent for the Blue-ABC radio network's coverage of the San Francisco conference that formed the UN, taking place April 24–June 23, 1945. He presented a half-hour dramatic program written by Ben Hecht on the opening day of the conference, and on Sunday afternoons (April 29–June 10) he led a weekly discussion from the San Francisco Civic Auditorium.[95][96] The Stranger Main article: The Stranger (1946 film) Director and star Orson Welles at work on The Stranger (October 1945) In the fall of 1945 Welles began work on The Stranger (1946), a film noir drama about a war crimes investigator who tracks a high-ranking Nazi fugitive to an idyllic New England town. Edward G. Robinson, Loretta Young and Welles star.[97] Producer Sam Spiegel initially planned to hire director John Huston, who had rewritten the screenplay by Anthony Veiller. When Huston entered the military, Welles was given the chance to direct and prove himself able to make a film on schedule and under budget[30]:19 — something he was so eager to do that he accepted a disadvantageous contract. One of its concessions was that he would defer to the studio in any creative dispute.[17]:379[19]:309–310 The Stranger was Welles's first job as a film director in four years.[14]:391 He was told that if the film was successful he could sign a four-picture deal with International Pictures, making films of his own choosing.[17]:379 Welles was given some degree of creative control,[30]:19 and he endeavored to personalize the film and develop a nightmarish tone.[98]:2:30 He worked on the general rewrite of the script and wrote scenes at the beginning of the picture that were shot but subsequently cut by the producers.[14]:186 He filmed in long takes that largely thwarted the control given to editor Ernest J. Nims under the terms of the contract.[98]:15:45 The Stranger was the first commercial film to use documentary footage from the Nazi concentration camps.[14]:189[99] Welles had seen the footage in early May 1945[98]:102:03 in San Francisco,[100]:56 as a correspondent and discussion moderator at the UN Conference on International Organization.[19]:304 He wrote of the Holocaust footage in his syndicated New York Post column May 7, 1945.[100]:56–57 Completed a day ahead of schedule and under budget,[17]:379–380 The Stranger was the only film made by Welles to have been a bona fide box office success upon its release. Its cost was $1.034 million; 15 months after its release it had grossed $3.216 million.[101] Within weeks of the completion of the film, International Pictures backed out of its promised four-picture deal with Welles. No reason was given, but the impression was left that The Stranger would not make money.[17]:381 Around the World Main article: Around the World (musical) In the summer of 1946, Welles moved to New York to direct the Broadway musical Around the World, a stage adaptation of the Jules Verne novel Around the World in Eighty Days with a book by Welles and music by Cole Porter. Producer Mike Todd, who would later produce the successful 1956 film adaptation, pulled out from the lavish and expensive production, leaving Welles to support the finances. When Welles ran out of money he convinced Columbia Pictures president Harry Cohn to send enough money to continue the show, and in exchange Welles promised to write, produce, direct and star in a film for Cohn for no further fee. The stage show soon failed due to poor box-office, with Welles unable to claim the losses on his taxes.[citation needed] Radio (1946) In 1946, Welles began two new radio series — The Mercury Summer Theatre on the Air for CBS, and Orson Welles Commentaries for ABC. While Mercury Summer Theatre featured half-hour adaptations of some classic Mercury radio shows from the 1930s, the first episode was a condensation of his Around the World stage play, and is the only record of Cole Porter's music for the project. Several original Mercury actors returned for the series, as well as Bernard Herrmann. Welles invested his earnings into his failing stage play. Commentaries was a political vehicle for him, continuing the themes from his New York Post column. Again, Welles lacked a clear focus, until the NAACP brought to his attention the case of Isaac Woodard. Welles brought significant attention to Woodard's cause.[citation needed] The last broadcast of Orson Welles Commentaries on October 6, 1946, marked the end of Welles's own radio shows.[14]:401 The Lady from Shanghai Main article: The Lady from Shanghai The film that Welles was obliged to make in exchange for Harry Cohn's help in financing the stage production Around the World was The Lady from Shanghai, filmed in 1947 for Columbia Pictures. Intended as a modest thriller, the budget skyrocketed after Cohn suggested that Welles's then-estranged second wife Rita Hayworth co-star. Orson Welles in The Lady from Shanghai (1947) Cohn disliked Welles's rough-cut, particularly the confusing plot and lack of close-ups, and was not in sympathy with Welles's Brechtian use of irony and black comedy, especially in a farcical courtroom scene. Cohn ordered extensive editing and re-shoots. After heavy editing by the studio, approximately one hour of Welles's first cut was removed, including much of a climactic confrontation scene in an amusement park funhouse. While expressing displeasure at the cuts, Welles was appalled particularly with the musical score. The film was considered a disaster in America at the time of release, though the closing shootout in a hall of mirrors has since become a touchstone of film noir. Not long after release, Welles and Hayworth finalized their divorce. Although The Lady From Shanghai was acclaimed in Europe, it was not embraced in the U.S. until decades later. A similar difference in reception on opposite sides of the Atlantic followed by greater American acceptance befell the Welles-inspired Chaplin film Monsieur Verdoux, originally to be directed by Welles starring Chaplin, then directed by Chaplin with the idea credited to Welles. Macbeth Main article: Macbeth (1948 film) Prior to 1948, Welles convinced Republic Pictures to let him direct a low-budget version of Macbeth, which featured highly stylized sets and costumes, and a cast of actors lip-syncing to a pre-recorded soundtrack, one of many innovative cost-cutting techniques Welles deployed in an attempt to make an epic film from B-movie resources. The script, adapted by Welles, is a violent reworking of Shakespeare's original, freely cutting and pasting lines into new contexts via a collage technique and recasting Macbeth as a clash of pagan and proto-Christian ideologies. Some voodoo trappings of the famous Welles/Houseman Negro Theatre stage adaptation are visible, especially in the film's characterization of the Weird Sisters, who create an effigy of Macbeth as a charm to enchant him. Of all Welles's post-Kane Hollywood productions, Macbeth is stylistically closest to Citizen Kane in its long takes and deep focus photography. Republic initially trumpeted the film as an important work but decided it did not care for the Scottish accents and held up general release for almost a year after early negative press reaction, including Life's comment that Welles's film "doth foully slaughter Shakespeare."[102] Welles left for Europe, while co-producer and lifelong supporter Richard Wilson reworked the soundtrack. Welles returned and cut 20 minutes from the film at Republic's request and recorded narration to cover some gaps. The film was decried as a disaster. Macbeth had influential fans in Europe, especially the French poet and filmmaker Jean Cocteau, who hailed the film's "crude, irreverent power" and careful shot design, and described the characters as haunting "the corridors of some dreamlike subway, an abandoned coal mine, and ruined cellars oozing with water."[103] Europe (1948–1956) This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2014) In Italy he starred as Cagliostro in the 1948 film Black Magic. His co-star, Akim Tamiroff, impressed Welles so much that Tamiroff would appear in four of Welles's productions during the 1950s and 1960s. The following year, Welles starred as Harry Lime in Carol Reed's The Third Man, alongside Joseph Cotten, his friend and co-star from Citizen Kane, with a script by Graham Greene and a memorable score by Anton Karas. A few years later, British radio producer Harry Alan Towers would resurrect the Lime character in the radio series The Adventures of Harry Lime. Welles appeared as Cesare Borgia in the 1949 Italian film Prince of Foxes, with Tyrone Power and Mercury Theatre alumnus Everett Sloane, and as the Mongol warrior Bayan in the 1950 film version of the novel The Black Rose (again with Tyrone Power). [104] Othello Main article: Othello (1952 film) During this time, Welles was channeling his money from acting jobs into a self-financed film version of Shakespeare's play Othello. From 1949 to 1951, Welles worked on Othello, filming on location in Europe and Morocco. The film featured Welles's friends, Micheál Mac Liammóir as Iago and Hilton Edwards as Desdemona's father Brabantio. Suzanne Cloutier starred as Desdemona and Campbell Playhouse alumnus Robert Coote appeared as Iago's associate Roderigo. Filming was suspended several times as Welles ran out of funds and left for acting jobs, accounted in detail in MacLiammóir's published memoir Put Money in Thy Purse. The American release prints had a technically flawed soundtrack, suffering from a drop-out of sound at every quiet moment. Welles's daughter, Beatrice Welles-Smith, restored Othello in 1992 for a wide re-release. The restoration included reconstructing Angelo Francesco Lavagnino's original musical score, which was originally inaudible, and adding ambient stereo sound effects, which were not in the original film. The restoration went on to a successful theatrical run in America. In 1952, Welles continued finding work in England after the success of the Harry Lime radio show. Harry Alan Towers offered Welles another series, The Black Museum, which ran for 52 weeks with Welles as host and narrator. Director Herbert Wilcox offered Welles the part of the murdered victim in Trent's Last Case, based on the novel by E. C. Bentley. In 1953, the BBC hired Welles to read an hour of selections from Walt Whitman's epic poem Song of Myself. Towers hired Welles again, to play Professor Moriarty in the radio series, The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring John Gielgud and Ralph Richardson. Welles briefly returned to America to make his first appearance on television, starring in the Omnibus presentation of King Lear, broadcast live on CBS October 18, 1953. Directed by Peter Brook, the production costarred Natasha Parry, Beatrice Straight and Arnold Moss.[105] In 1954, director George More O'Ferrall offered Welles the title role in the 'Lord Mountdrago' segment of Three Cases of Murder, co-starring Alan Badel. Herbert Wilcox cast Welles as the antagonist in Trouble in the Glen opposite Margaret Lockwood, Forrest Tucker and Victor McLaglen. Old friend John Huston cast him as Father Mapple in his 1956 film adaptation of Herman Melville's Moby-Dick, starring Gregory Peck. Mr. Arkadin Main article: Mr. Arkadin Welles in Madrid during the filming of Mr. Arkadin in 1954 Welles's next turn as director was the film Mr. Arkadin (1955), which was produced by his political mentor from the 1940s, Louis Dolivet. It was filmed in France, Germany, Spain and Italy on a very limited budget. Based loosely on several episodes of the Harry Lime radio show, it stars Welles as a billionaire who hires a man to delve into the secrets of his past. The film stars Robert Arden, who had worked on the Harry Lime series; Welles's third wife, Paola Mori, whose voice was dubbed by actress Billie Whitelaw; and guest stars Akim Tamiroff, Michael Redgrave, Katina Paxinou and Mischa Auer. Frustrated by his slow progress in the editing room, producer Dolivet removed Welles from the project and finished the film without him. Eventually five different versions of the film would be released, two in Spanish and three in English. The version that Dolivet completed was retitled Confidential Report. In 2005 Stefan Droessler of the Munich Film Museum oversaw a reconstruction of the surviving film elements. Television projects In 1955, Welles also directed two television series for the BBC. The first was Orson Welles' Sketch Book, a series of six 15-minute shows featuring Welles drawing in a sketchbook to illustrate his reminiscences for the camera (including such topics as the filming of It's All True and the Isaac Woodard case), and the second was Around the World with Orson Welles, a series of six travelogues set in different locations around Europe (such as Venice, the Basque Country between France and Spain, and England). Welles served as host and interviewer, his commentary including documentary facts and his own personal observations (a technique he would continue to explore in later works). In 1956, Welles completed Portrait of Gina. The film cans would remain in a lost-and-found locker at the hotel for several decades, where they were discovered after Welles's death. Return to Hollywood (1956–1959) Welles the magician with Lucille Ball in I Love Lucy (October 15, 1956) In 1956, Welles returned to Hollywood.[citation needed] He began filming a projected pilot for Desilu, owned by Lucille Ball and her husband Desi Arnaz, who had recently purchased the former RKO studios. The film was The Fountain of Youth, based on a story by John Collier. Originally deemed not viable as a pilot, the film was not aired until 1958 — and won the Peabody Award for excellence. Welles guest starred on television shows including I Love Lucy.[106] On radio, he was narrator of Tomorrow (October 17, 1956), a nuclear holocaust drama produced and syndicated by ABC and the Federal Civil Defense Administration.[107][108] Welles's next feature film role was in Man in the Shadow for Universal Pictures in 1957, starring Jeff Chandler. Touch of Evil Main article: Touch of Evil Welles as corrupt police captain Hank Quinlan in Touch of Evil (1958) Welles stayed on at Universal to direct (and co-star with) Charlton Heston in the 1958 film Touch of Evil, based on Whit Masterson's novel Badge of Evil. Originally only hired as an actor, Welles was promoted to director by Universal Studios at the insistence of Charlton Heston.[109]:154 The film reunited many actors and technicians with whom Welles had worked in Hollywood in the 1940s, including cameraman Russell Metty (The Stranger), makeup artist Maurice Seiderman (Citizen Kane), and actors Joseph Cotten, Marlene Dietrich and Akim Tamiroff. Filming proceeded smoothly, with Welles finishing on schedule and on budget, and the studio bosses praising the daily rushes. Nevertheless, after the end of production, the studio re-edited the film, re-shot scenes, and shot new exposition scenes to clarify the plot.[109]:175–176 Welles wrote a 58-page memo outlining suggestions and objections, stating that the film was no longer his version—it was the studio's, but as such, he was still prepared to help with it.[109]:175–176 In 1978, a longer preview version of the film was discovered and released. As Universal reworked Touch of Evil, Welles began filming his adaptation of Miguel de Cervantes' novel Don Quixote in Mexico, starring Mischa Auer as Quixote and Akim Tamiroff as Sancho Panza. Return to Europe (1959–1970) This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2014) In Crack in the Mirror (1960) He continued shooting Don Quixote in Spain and Italy, but replaced Mischa Auer with Francisco Reiguera, and resumed acting jobs. In Italy in 1959, Welles directed his own scenes as King Saul in Richard Pottier's film David and Goliath. In Hong Kong he co-starred with Curt Jürgens in Lewis Gilbert's film Ferry to Hong Kong. In 1960, in Paris he co-starred in Richard Fleischer's film Crack in the Mirror. In Yugoslavia he starred in Richard Thorpe's film The Tartars and Veljko Bulajić's "Battle of Neretva". Throughout the 1960s, filming continued on Quixote on-and-off until the decade, as Welles evolved the concept, tone and ending several times. Although he had a complete version of the film shot and edited at least once, he would continue toying with the editing well into the 1980s, he never completed a version film he was fully satisfied with, and would junk existing footage and shoot new footage. (In one case, he had a complete cut ready in which Quixote and Sancho Panza end up going to the moon, but he felt the ending was rendered obsolete by the 1969 moon landings, and burned 10 reels of this version.) As the process went on, Welles gradually voiced all of the characters himself and provided narration. In 1992, the director Jesús Franco constructed a film out of the portions of Quixote left behind by Welles. Some of the film stock had decayed badly. While the Welles footage was greeted with interest, the post-production by Franco was met with harsh criticism. Welles being interviewed in 1960 In 1961, Welles directed In the Land of Don Quixote, a series of eight half-hour episodes for the Italian television network RAI. Similar to the Around the World with Orson Welles series, they presented travelogues of Spain and included Welles's wife, Paola, and their daughter, Beatrice. Though Welles was fluent in Italian, the network was not interested in him providing Italian narration because of his accent, and the series sat unreleased until 1964, by which time the network had added Italian narration of its own. Ultimately, versions of the episodes were released with the original musical score Welles had approved, but without the narration. The Trial Main article: The Trial (1962 film) In 1962, Welles directed his adaptation of The Trial, based on the novel by Franz Kafka and produced by Michael and Alexander Salkind. The cast included Anthony Perkins as Josef K, Jeanne Moreau, Romy Schneider, Paola Mori and Akim Tamiroff. While filming exteriors in Zagreb, Welles was informed that the Salkinds had run out of money, meaning that there could be no set construction. No stranger to shooting on found locations, Welles soon filmed the interiors in the Gare d'Orsay, at that time an abandoned railway station in Paris. Welles thought the location possessed a "Jules Verne modernism" and a melancholy sense of "waiting", both suitable for Kafka. To remain in the spirit of Kafka Welles set up the cutting room together with the Film Editor, Frederick Muller (as Fritz Muller), in the old un-used, cold, depressing, station master office. The film failed at the box-office. Peter Bogdanovich would later observe that Welles found the film riotously funny. Welles also told a BBC interviewer that it was his best film.[110] While filming The Trial Welles met Oja Kodar, who later became his mistress and collaborator for the last 20 years of his life.[14]:428 Welles played a film director in La Ricotta (1963)—Pier Paolo Pasolini's segment of the Ro.Go.Pa.G. movie, although his renowned voice was dubbed by Italian writer Giorgio Bassani.[14]:516 He continued taking what work he could find acting, narrating or hosting other people's work, and began filming Chimes at Midnight, which was completed in 1966. Chimes at Midnight Main article: Chimes at Midnight Filmed in Spain, Chimes at Midnight was based on Welles's play, Five Kings, in which he drew material from six Shakespeare plays to tell the story of Sir John Falstaff (Welles) and his relationship with Prince Hal (Keith Baxter). The cast includes John Gielgud, Jeanne Moreau, Fernando Rey and Margaret Rutherford; the film's narration, spoken by Ralph Richardson, is taken from the chronicler Raphael Holinshed.[30]:249 Welles held the film in high regard: "It's my favorite picture, yes. If I wanted to get into heaven on the basis of one movie, that's the one I would offer up."[64]:203 In 1966, Welles directed a film for French television, an adaptation of The Immortal Story, by Karen Blixen. Released in 1968, it stars Jeanne Moreau, Roger Coggio and Norman Eshley. The film had a successful run in French theaters. At this time Welles met Oja Kodar again, and gave her a letter he had written to her and had been keeping for four years; they would not be parted again. They immediately began a collaboration both personal and professional. The first of these was an adaptation of Blixen's The Heroine, meant to be a companion piece to The Immortal Story and starring Kodar. Unfortunately, funding disappeared after one day's shooting. After completing this film, he appeared in a brief cameo as Cardinal Wolsey in Fred Zinnemann's adaptation of A Man for All Seasons—a role for which he won considerable acclaim. Sergei Bondarchuk and Orson Welles at the premiere of The Battle of Neretva in Sarajevo (November 1969) In 1967, Welles began directing The Deep, based on the novel Dead Calm by Charles Williams and filmed off the shore of Yugoslavia. The cast included Jeanne Moreau, Laurence Harvey and Kodar. Personally financed by Welles and Kodar, they could not obtain the funds to complete the project, and it was abandoned a few years later after the death of Harvey. The surviving footage was eventually edited and released by the Filmmuseum München. In 1968 Welles began filming a TV special for CBS under the title Orson's Bag, combining travelogue, comedy skits and a condensation of Shakespeare's play The Merchant of Venice with Welles as Shylock. In 1969 Welles called again the Film Editor Frederick Muller to work with him re-editing the material and they set up cutting rooms at the Safa Palatino Studios in Rome. Funding for the show sent by CBS to Welles in Switzerland was seized by the IRS. Without funding, the show was not completed. The surviving film clips portions were eventually released by the Filmmuseum München. In 1969, Welles authorized the use of his name for a cinema in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The Orson Welles Cinema remained in operation until 1986, with Welles making a personal appearance there in 1977. Also in 1969 he played a supporting role in John Huston's The Kremlin Letter. Drawn by the numerous offers he received to work in television and films, and upset by a tabloid scandal reporting his affair with Kodar, Welles abandoned the editing of Don Quixote and moved back to America in 1970. Later career (1970–1985) This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2014) Welles returned to Hollywood, where he continued to self-finance his film and television projects. While offers to act, narrate and host continued, Welles also found himself in great demand on television talk shows. He made frequent appearances for Dick Cavett, Johnny Carson, Dean Martin and Merv Griffin. Welles's primary focus during his final years was The Other Side of the Wind, an unfinished project that was filmed intermittently between 1970 and 1976. Written by Welles, it is the story of an aging film director (John Huston) looking for funds to complete his final film. The cast includes Peter Bogdanovich, Susan Strasberg, Norman Foster, Edmond O'Brien, Cameron Mitchell and Dennis Hopper. Financed by Iranian backers, ownership of the film fell into a legal quagmire after the Shah of Iran was deposed. While there have been several reports of all the legal disputes concerning ownership of the film being settled, enough disputes still exist to prevent its release. Welles portrayed Louis XVIII of France in the 1970 film Waterloo, and narrated the beginning and ending scenes of the historical comedy Start the Revolution Without Me (1970). In 1971, Welles directed a short adaptation of Moby-Dick, a one-man performance on a bare stage, reminiscent of his 1955 stage production Moby Dick—Rehearsed. Never completed, it was eventually released by the Filmmuseum München. He also appeared in Ten Days' Wonder, co-starring with Anthony Perkins and directed by Claude Chabrol, based on a detective novel by Ellery Queen. That same year, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences gave him an honorary award "For superlative artistry and versatility in the creation of motion pictures". Welles pretended to be out of town and sent John Huston to claim the award, thanking the Academy on film. Huston criticized the Academy for awarding Welles, even while they refused to give Welles any work. In 1972, Welles acted as on-screen narrator for the film documentary version of Alvin Toffler's 1970 book Future Shock. Working again for a British producer, Welles played Long John Silver in director John Hough's Treasure Island (1972), an adaptation of the Robert Louis Stevenson novel, which had been the second story broadcast by The Mercury Theatre on the Air in 1938. This was the last time he played the lead role in a major film. Welles also contributed to the script, his writing credit was attributed to the pseudonym 'O. W. Jeeves'. Some of Welles' original recorded dialog was redubbed by Robert Rietty. Orson Welles in F for Fake (1973), a film essay and the last film he completed. In 1973, Welles completed F for Fake, a personal essay film about art forger Elmyr de Hory and the biographer Clifford Irving. Based on an existing documentary by François Reichenbach, it included new material with Oja Kodar, Joseph Cotten, Paul Stewart and William Alland. An excerpt of Welles's 1930s War of the Worlds broadcast was recreated for this film; however, none of the dialogue heard in the film actually matches what was originally broadcast. Welles filmed a five-minute trailer, rejected in the U.S., that featured several shots of a topless Kodar. Welles hosted a British syndicated anthology series, Orson Welles's Great Mysteries, over the 1973–74 television season. His brief introductions to the 26 half-hour episodes were shot in July 1973 by Gary Graver.[14]:443 The year 1974 also saw Welles lending his voice for that year's remake of Agatha Christie's classic thriller Ten Little Indians produced by his former associate, Harry Alan Towers and starring an international cast that included Oliver Reed, Elke Sommer and Herbert Lom. In 1975, Welles narrated the documentary Bugs Bunny: Superstar, focusing on Warner Bros. cartoons from the 1940s. Also in 1975, the American Film Institute presented Welles with its third Lifetime Achievement Award (the first two going to director John Ford and actor James Cagney). At the ceremony, Welles screened two scenes from the nearly finished The Other Side of the Wind. In 1976, Paramount Television purchased the rights for the entire set of Rex Stout's Nero Wolfe stories for Orson Welles.[c][112][113][114] Welles had once wanted to make a series of Nero Wolfe movies, but Rex Stout – who was leery of Hollywood adaptations during his lifetime after two disappointing 1930s films – turned him down.[113] Paramount planned to begin with an ABC-TV movie and hoped to persuade Welles to continue the role in a mini-series.[112] Frank D. Gilroy was signed to write the television script and direct the TV movie on the assurance that Welles would star, but by April 1977 Welles had bowed out.[115] In 1980 the Associated Press reported "the distinct possibility" that Welles would star in a Nero Wolfe TV series for NBC television.[116] Again, Welles bowed out of the project due to creative differences and William Conrad was cast in the role.[117][118]:87–88 In 1979, Welles completed his documentary Filming Othello, which featured Michael MacLiammoir and Hilton Edwards. Made for West German television, it was also released in theaters. That same year, Welles completed his self-produced pilot for The Orson Welles Show television series, featuring interviews with Burt Reynolds, Jim Henson and Frank Oz and guest-starring The Muppets and Angie Dickinson. Unable to find network interest, the pilot was never broadcast. Also in 1979, Welles appeared in the biopic The Secret of Nikola Tesla, and a cameo in The Muppet Movie as Lew Lord. Beginning in the late 1970s, Welles participated in a series of famous television commercial advertisements. For two years he was on-camera spokesman for the Paul Masson Vineyards,[d] and sales grew by one third during the time Welles intoned what became a popular catchphrase: "We will sell no wine before its time."[120] He was also the voice behind the long-running Carlsberg "Probably the best lager in the world" campaign,[121] promoted Domecq sherry on British television[122] and provided narration on adverts for Findus, though the actual adverts have been overshadowed by a famous blooper reel of voice recordings, known as the Frozen Peas reel. He also did commercials for the Preview Subscription Television Service seen on stations around the country including WCLQ/Cleveland, KNDL/St. Louis and WSMW/Boston. In 1981, Welles hosted the documentary The Man Who Saw Tomorrow, about Renaissance-era prophet Nostradamus. In 1982, the BBC broadcast The Orson Welles Story in the Arena series. Interviewed by Leslie Megahey, Welles examined his past in great detail, and several people from his professional past were interviewed as well. It was reissued in 1990 as With Orson Welles: Stories of a Life in Film. Welles provided narration for the tracks "Defender" from Manowar's 1987 album Fighting the World and "Dark Avenger" on their 1982 album, Battle Hymns. His name was misspelled on the latter album, as he was credited as "Orson Wells".[123] During the 1980s, Welles worked on such film projects as The Dreamers, based on two stories by Isak Dinesen and starring Oja Kodar, and Orson Welles' Magic Show, which reused material from his failed TV pilot. Another project he worked on was Filming The Trial, the second in a proposed series of documentaries examining his feature films. While much was shot for these projects, none of them was completed. All of them were eventually released by the Filmmuseum München. In 1984, Welles narrated the short-lived television series Scene of the Crime. During the early years of Magnum, P.I., Welles was the voice of the unseen character Robin Masters, a famous writer and playboy. Welles's death forced this minor character to largely be written out of the series. In an oblique homage to Welles, the Magnum, P.I. producers ambiguously concluded that story arc by having one character accuse another of having hired an actor to portray Robin Masters.[124] He also, in this penultimate year released a music single, titled "I Know What It Is To Be Young (But You Don't Know What It Is To Be Old)", which he recorded under Italian label Compagnia Generale del Disco. The song was performed with the Nick Perito Orchestra and the Ray Charles Singers and produced by Jerry Abbott who was father to famed metal guitarist Dimebag Darrell.[125] The last film roles before Welles's death included voice work in the animated films Enchanted Journey (1984) and The Transformers: The Movie (1986), in which he played the planet-eating robot Unicron. His last film appearance was in Henry Jaglom's 1987 independent film Someone to Love, released after his death but produced before his voice-over in Transformers: The Movie. His last television appearance was on the television show Moonlighting. He recorded an introduction to an episode entitled "The Dream Sequence Always Rings Twice", which was partially filmed in black and white. The episode aired five days after his death and was dedicated to his memory. In the mid-1980s, Henry Jaglom taped lunch conversations with Welles at Los Angeles's Ma Maison as well as in New York. Edited transcripts of these sessions appear in Peter Biskind's 2013 book My Lunches With Orson: Conversations Between Henry Jaglom and Orson Welles.[126] Personal life Relationships and family Virginia Nicolson in Welles's lap outside the Connecticut venue for the Mercury stage production Too Much Johnson (August 1938) Wedding of Orson Welles and Rita Hayworth, with best man Joseph Cotten (September 7, 1943) Geraldine Fitzgerald and Michael Lindsay-Hogg (1944) Orson Welles and Chicago-born actress and socialite Virginia Nicolson (1916–1996) were married on November 14, 1934.[14]:332 The couple separated in December 1939,[17]:226 and divorced February 1, 1940.[127][128] After bearing with Welles's romances in New York, Virginia had learned that Welles had fallen in love with Mexican actress Dolores del Río.[17]:227 Infatuated with her since adolescence, Welles met del Río at Darryl Zanuck's ranch[19]:206 soon after he moved to Hollywood in 1939.[17]:227[19]:168 Their relationship was kept secret until 1941, when del Río filed for divorce from her second husband. They openly appeared together in New York while Welles was directing the Mercury stage production, Native Son.[19]:212 They acted together in the movie Journey into Fear (1943). Their relationship came to an end, among other things, due to the infidelities of Welles. Del Río returned to México in 1943, shortly before Welles married Rita Hayworth.[129] Welles married Rita Hayworth September 7, 1943.[19]:278 They were divorced November 10, 1947.[79]:142 During his last interview, recorded for The Merv Griffin Show on the evening before his death, Welles called Hayworth "one of the dearest and sweetest women that ever lived … and we were a long time together — I was lucky enough to have been with her longer than any of the other men in her life."[130] In 1955, Welles married actress Paola Mori (née Countess Paola di Girifalco), an Italian aristocrat who starred as Raina Arkadin in his 1955 film, Mr. Arkadin. The couple had embarked on a passionate affair, and they were married at her parents' insistence.[21]:168 They were wed in London May 8, 1955,[14]:417, 419 and never divorced. Croatian-born artist and actress Oja Kodar became Welles's longtime companion both personally and professionally from 1966 onwards, and they lived together for some of the last 20 years of his life.[21]:255–258 Welles had three daughters from his marriages: Christopher Welles Feder (born March 27, 1938, with Virginia Nicolson);[e][19]:148 Rebecca Welles Manning (December 17, 1944 – October 17, 2004,[131] with Rita Hayworth); and Beatrice Welles (born November 13, 1955, with Paola Mori).[14]:419 Welles is thought to have a son, British director Michael Lindsay-Hogg (born May 5, 1940), from an affair with Irish actress Geraldine Fitzgerald, then the wife of Sir Edward Lindsay-Hogg, 4th baronet.[28][132] When Lindsay-Hogg was 16 his mother reluctantly divulged that there were pervasive rumors that his father was Welles, and she denied them — but in such detail that he was left confused and dubious.[133][134]:15 Fitzgerald evaded the subject for the rest of her life. Lindsay-Hogg knew Welles, worked with him in the theatre and met him at intervals throughout Welles's life.[132] After he learned that Welles's oldest daughter Chris, his childhood playmate, had long suspected that he was her brother,[135] Lindsay-Hogg initiated a DNA test that proved inconclusive. In his 2011 autobiography Lindsay-Hogg reported that his questions were resolved by his mother's close friend Gloria Vanderbilt, who wrote that Fitzgerald had told her that Welles was his father.[134]:265–267 A forthcoming 2015 biography by Patrick McGilligan reportedly documents the impossibility of Welles's paternity.[136] After the death of Rebecca Welles Manning, a man named Marc McKerrow was revealed to be her son, and therefore the direct descendant of Orson Welles and Rita Hayworth. McKerrow's reactions to the revelation and his meeting with Oja Kodar are documented in the 2008 film Prodigal Sons.[137] McKerrow died June 18, 2010.[138] Despite an urban legend promoted by Welles himself,[f] he was not related to Abraham Lincoln's wartime Secretary of the Navy, Gideon Welles. The myth dates back to the first newspaper feature ever written about Welles — "Cartoonist, Actor, Poet and only 10" — in the February 19, 1926, issue of The Capital Times. The article falsely states that he was descended from "Gideon Welles, who was a member of President Lincoln's cabinet".[9]:47–48[59]:311 As presented by Charles Higham in a genealogical chart that introduces his 1985 biography of Welles, Orson Welles's father was Richard Head Welles (born Wells), son of Richard Jones Wells, son of Henry Hill Wells (who had an uncle named Gideon Wells), son of William Hill Wells, son of Richard Wells (1734–1801).[9] Physical characteristics In his 1956 biography, Peter Noble describes Welles as "a magnificent figure of a man, over six feet tall, handsome, with flashing eyes and a gloriously resonant speaking-voice".[140]:19 Welles said that a voice specialist once told him he was born to be a heldentenor, a heroic tenor, but that when he was young and working at the Gate Theatre he forced his voice down into a bass-baritone.[18]:144 Even as a baby Welles was prone to illness, including diphtheria, measles, whooping cough and malaria. From infancy he suffered from asthma, sinus headaches, and backache[17]:8 that was later found to be caused by congenital anomalies of the spine. Foot and ankle trouble throughout his life was the result of flat feet.[141]:560 "As he grew older," Brady wrote, "his ill health was exacerbated by the late hours he was allowed to keep [and] an early penchant for alcohol and tobacco".[17]:8 In 1928, at age 13, Welles was already more than six feet tall and weighed over 180 pounds.[9]:50 His passport recorded his height as six feet three inches, with brown hair and green eyes.[21]:229 "Crash diets, drugs, and corsets had slimmed him for his early film roles," wrote biographer Barton Whaley. "Then always back to gargantuan consumption of high-caloric food and booze. By summer 1949, when he was 34, his weight had crept up to a stout 230 pounds. In 1953 he ballooned from 250 to 275 pounds. After 1960 he remained permanently obese."[142]:329 Religious beliefs When Peter Bogdanovich once asked him about his religion, Orson Welles gruffly replied that it was none of his business, then misinformed him that he was raised Catholic.[14]:xxx[142]:12 Although the Welles family was no longer devout, it was fourth-generation Protestant Episcopalian and, before that, Quaker and Puritan.[142]:12 Welles's earliest paternal forebear in America, Richard Wells, was a leader of the Quaker community in Pennsylvania. His earliest maternal ancestor in America was John Alden, a crew member on the Pilgrim ship Mayflower.[9]:5 The funeral of Welles's father Richard H. Welles was Episcopalian.[142]:12[143] In April 1982, when interviewer Merv Griffin asked him about his religious beliefs, Welles replied, "I try to be a Christian. I don't pray really, because I don't want to bore God."[17]:576 Near the end of his life Welles was dining at Ma Maison, his favorite restaurant in Los Angeles, when proprietor Patrick Terrail conveyed an invitation from the head of the Greek Orthodox Church, who asked Welles to be his guest of honor at divine liturgy at Saint Sophia Cathedral. Welles replied, "Please tell him I really appreciate that offer, but I am an atheist."[144]:104–105 "Orson never joked or teased about the religious beliefs of others," wrote biographer Barton Whaley. "He accepted it as a cultural artifact, suitable for the births, deaths, and marriages of strangers and even some friends — but without emotional or intellectual meaning for himself."[142]:12 Politics This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2014) Welles was politically active from the beginning of his career. He remained aligned with the left throughout his life,[145] and always defined his political orientation as "progressive". He was a strong supporter of Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal, and often spoke out on radio in support of progressive politics.[145] He campaigned heavily for Roosevelt in the 1944 election.[145] "During a White House dinner," Welles recalled in a 1983 conversation with his friend Roger Hill, "when I was campaigning for Roosevelt, in a toast, with considerable tongue in cheek, he said, 'Orson, you and I are the two greatest actors alive today'. In private that evening, and on several other occasions, he urged me to run for a Senate seat either in California or Wisconsin. He wasn't alone."[18]:115 For several years, he wrote a newspaper column on political issues and considered running for the U.S. Senate in 1946, representing his home state of Wisconsin (a seat that was ultimately won by Joseph McCarthy).[145] Welles' name and political activities are reported on pages 155-157 of Red Channels, the anti-Communist publication that, in part, fueled the already flourishing Hollywood Blacklist.[146] He was in Europe during the height of the Red Scare, thereby nullifying more reasons for the Hollywood establishment to ostracize him. In 1970, Welles narrated (but did not write) a satirical political record on the administration of President Richard Nixon titled The Begatting of the President. He was also an early and outspoken critic of American racism and the practice of segregation. Death and tributes On the evening of October 9, 1985, Welles recorded his final interview on the syndicated TV program, The Merv Griffin Show, appearing with biographer Barbara Leaming. "Both Welles and Leaming talked of Welles's life and the segment was a nostalgic interlude," wrote biographer Frank Brady.[17]:590–591 Welles returned to his house in Hollywood and worked into the early hours typing stage directions for the project he and Gary Graver were planning to shoot at UCLA the following day. Welles died sometime on the morning of October 10, following a heart attack.[14]:453 He was found by his chauffeur at around 10 a.m.; the first of Welles's friends to arrive was Paul Stewart.[59]:295–297 Welles was cremated by prior agreement with the executor of his estate, Greg Garrison.[17]:592 A successful television producer, Garrison had encouraged Welles to make guest appearances on TV in the 1970s, which proved so lucrative that Welles was able to pay off a portion of the taxes he owed the IRS.[17]:549–550 Garrison and Welles were first acquainted in 1946, during the Broadway production of Around the World, for which Garrison was a stagehand.[19]:470–471 A brief private funeral took place at Cunningham and O'Connor in Hollywood, the mortuary where the visitation for John Ford had taken place. The service was attended by Paola Mori and Welles's three daughters — the first time they had ever been together. Only a few close friends were invited: Garrison, Graver, Roger Hill[59]:298 and Prince Alessandro Tasca di Cuto. Chris Welles Feder later described the funeral as an awful experience.[21]:1–9 Within days of Welles's death Richard Wilson and other friends began to organize a public memorial tribute[17]:593 which took place November 2, 1985, at the Directors Guild of America Theater in Los Angeles. Host Peter Bogdanovich introduced speakers including Charles Champlin, Geraldine Fitzgerald, Greg Garrison, Charlton Heston, Roger Hill, Henry Jaglom, Arthur Knight, Oja Kodar, Barbara Leaming, Janet Leigh, Norman Lloyd, Dan O'Herlihy, Patrick Terrail and Robert Wise.[17]:594[59]:299–300 "I know what his feelings were regarding his death," Joseph Cotten later wrote. "He did not want a funeral; he wanted to be buried quietly in a little place in Spain. He wanted no memorial services …" Cotten declined to attend the memorial program; instead he sent a short message, ending with the last two lines of a Shakespeare sonnet that Welles had sent him on his most recent birthday:[37]:216 But if the while I think on thee, dear friend, All losses are restored and sorrows end.[37]:217 In 1987 the cremated remains of Welles and Mori (killed in a 1986 car crash[147]) were taken to Ronda, Spain, and buried in an old well covered by flowers on the rural estate of a longtime friend, retired bullfighter Antonio Ordóñez.[59]:298–299[148][g][h] Unfinished projects Welles's reliance on self-production meant that many of his later projects were filmed piecemeal or were not completed. Welles financed his later projects through his own fundraising activities. He often also took on other work to obtain money to fund his own films. Don Quixote Main article: Don Quixote (unfinished film) In the mid-1950s, Welles began work on Don Quixote, initially a commission from CBS television. Welles expanded the film to feature length, developing the screenplay to take Quixote and Sancho Panza into the modern age. Filming stopped with the death of Francisco Reiguera, the actor playing Quixote, in 1969. Orson Welles continued editing the film into the early 1970s. At the time of his death, the film remained largely a collection of footage in various states of editing. The project and more importantly Welles's conception of the project changed radically over time. A version of the film was created from available fragments in 1992 and released to a very negative reception. A version Oja Kodar supervised, with help from Jess Franco, assistant director during production, was released in 2008 to mixed reactions. Frederick Muller - the film editor for The Trial, Chimes at Midnight and the CBS Special "Orson Bag" was fortunate to work on editing three reels of the original, unadulterated version - was asked for his opinion in 2013 from a journalist of Time Out, his reply was he felt that if released without image re-editing but with the addition of ad hoc sound and music it probably would have been rather successful. The Merchant of Venice Main article: The Merchant of Venice (1969 film) In 1969, Welles was given another TV commission to film a condensed adaptation of The Merchant of Venice.[64]:XXXIV Although Welles had actually completed the film by 1970 the finished negative was later mysteriously stolen from his Rome production office.[59]:234 A restored and reconstructed version of the film, made by using the original script and composer's notes, premiered at the 72nd Venice International Film Festival alongside Othello as part of the pre-opening ceremonies.[150] The Other Side of the Wind Main article: The Other Side of the Wind In 1970, Welles began shooting The Other Side of the Wind. The film relates the efforts of a film director (played by John Huston) to complete his last Hollywood picture and is largely set at a lavish party. By 1972 the filming was reported by Welles as being "96% complete",[17]:546 though it is likely that Welles had only edited about 40 minutes of the film by 1979.[2]:320 In that year, legal complications over the ownership of the film forced the negative into a Paris vault. In 2004 director Peter Bogdanovich, who acted in the film, announced his intention to complete the production. As of 2009, legal complications over the Welles estate had kept the film from being finished or released. On October 28, 2014, the Los Angeles-based production company Royal Road Entertainment announced that it had negotiated an agreement, with the assistance of producer Frank Marshall, and would purchase the rights to complete and release The Other Side of the Wind. Bogdanovich and Marshall will complete Welles's nearly finished film in Los Angeles, aiming to have it ready for screening May 6, 2015 — the 100th anniversary of Welles's birth.[151] Royal Road Entertainment and German producer Jens Koethner Kaul acquired the rights held by Les Films de l'Astrophore and the late Mehdi Boushehri. They reached an agreement with Oja Kodar, who inherited Welles's ownership of the film, and Beatrice Welles, manager of the Welles estate.[152] Some footage is included in the documentaries Working with Orson Welles (1993) and Orson Welles: One Man Band (1995). Other unfinished films and unfilmed screenplays Too Much Johnson, a 1938 comedy film written and directed by Welles. Designed as the cinematic aspect of Welles's Mercury Theatre stage presentation of William Gillette's 1894 comedy, the film was not completely edited or publicly screened. Too Much Johnson was considered a lost film until August 2013 news reports that a pristine print was discovered in Italy in 2008. A copy restored by the George Eastman House museum was scheduled to premiere October 9, 2013, at the Pordenone Silent Film Festival, with a U.S. premiere to follow.[153] A single performance of Too Much Johnson, on 2/2/15, at the Film Forum in NYC, was a great success. Produced by Bruce Goldstein and adapted and directed by Allen Lewis Rickman, it featured the Film Forum Players with live piano.Heart of Darkness: Welles's projected first film in 1940, planned in extreme detail and with some test shots filmed. (The footage is now lost.) It was planned to be entirely shot in long takes from the point of view of the narrator, Marlow, who would be played by Welles; his reflection would occasionally be seen in the window as his boat sailed down river. The project was abandoned because it could not be delivered on budget, and Citizen Kane was made instead.[14]:30–33, 355–356Santa: In 1941, Welles planned a film to his then partner, the Mexican actress Dolores del Río. The film was adapted from the novel by Mexican writer Federico Gamboa. The film which marked the debut of Dolores del Río in the Mexican Cinema. Welles made a correction of the script in thirteen extraordinary sequences. Unfortunately, the high salary demanded by Del Río threw overboard the project. In 1943, the film finally done with the settings of Welles, led by Norman Foster and starring Mexican actress Esther Fernández.[154]The Way to Santiago: In 1941 Welles also planned a Mexican drama with Dolores del Río, which he gave to RKO to be budgeted. The film would a movie version of the same name novel by Calder Marshall. In the story, Dolores del Río would play Elena Medina, "the most beautiful girl in the world", with Welles playing an American who becomes entangled in a mission to disrupt a Nazi plot to overthrow the Mexican government. Welles planned to shoot in Mexico, but the Mexican government had to approve the story, and this never occurred.[154]The Life of Christ: In 1941, Welles received the support of Bishop Fulton Sheen for a retelling of the life of Christ to be set in the American West in the 1890s. After filming of Citizen Kane was complete,[155] Welles, Perry Ferguson and Gregg Toland scouted locations in Baja California and Mexico. Welles wrote a screenplay with dialogue from the Gospels of Mark, Matthew and Luke. "Every word in the film was to be from the Bible — no original dialogue, but done as a sort of American primitive," Welles said, "set in the frontier country in the last century." The unrealized project was revisited by Welles in the 1950s when he wrote a second unfilmed screenplay, to be shot in Egypt.[14]:361–362It's All True: Welles did not originally want to direct this 1942 documentary on South America, but after its abandonment by RKO, he spent much of the 1940s attempting to buy the negative of his material from RKO, so that he could edit and release it in some form. The footage remained unseen in vaults for decades, and was assumed lost. Over 50 years later, some (but not all) of the surviving material saw release in the 1993 documentary It's All True: Based on an Unfinished Film by Orson Welles.Monsieur Verdoux: In 1944, Welles wrote the first-draft script of this film, which he also intended to direct. Charlie Chaplin initially agreed to star in it, but later changed his mind, citing never having been directed by someone else in a feature before. Chaplin bought the film rights and made the film himself in 1947, with some changes (Welles said the gallows scenes were written by Chaplin, but that much of the film was unchanged from his own script). The final film credits Chaplin with the script, "based on an idea by Orson Welles".Cyrano de Bergerac: Welles spent around nine months c. 1947-8 co-writing the screenplay for this along with Ben Hecht, a project Welles was assigned to direct for Alexander Korda. He began scouting for locations in Europe whilst filming Black Magic, but Korda was short of money, so sold the rights to Columbia pictures, who eventually dismissed Welles from the project, and then sold the rights on to United Artists, who in turn made a film version in 1950, which was not based on Welles's script.[14]:106–108Around the World in Eighty Days: After Welles's elaborate musical stageshow of this Jules Verne novel, encompassing 38 different sets, he began shooting some test footage in Morocco for a film version in 1947. The footage was never edited, funding never came through, and Welles abandoned the project. Nine years later, the stage show's producer Mike Todd made his own award-winning film version of the book.[14]:402Moby Dick—Rehearsed: a film version of Welles's 1955 London meta-play, starring Gordon Jackson, Christopher Lee, Patrick McGoohan, and with Welles as Ahab. Using bare, minimalist sets, Welles alternated between a cast of nineteenth-century actors rehearsing a production of Moby Dick, with scenes from Moby Dick itself. Kenneth Williams, a cast member who was apprehensive about the entire project, recorded in his autobiography that Welles's dim, atmospheric stage lighting made some of the footage so dark as to be unwatchable. The entire play was filmed, but is now presumed lost. This was made during one weekend at the Hackney Empire theatre.[156]Histoires extraordinaires: The producers of this 1968 anthology film, based on short stories by Edgar Allan Poe, announced in June 1967 that Welles would direct one segment based on both "Masque of the Red Death" and "The Cask of Amontillado" for the omnibus film. Welles withdrew in September 1967 and was replaced. The script, written in English by Welles and Oja Kodar, is in the Filmmuseum Munchen collection.[157]One-Man Band: This Monty Python-esque spoof in which Welles plays all but one of the characters (including two characters in drag), was made around 1968-9. Welles intended this completed sketch to be one of several items in a television special on London. Other items filmed for this special – all included in the "One Man Band" documentary by his partner Oja Kodar – comprised a sketch on Winston Churchill (played in silhouette by Welles), a sketch on peers in a stately home, a feature on London gentlemen's clubs, and a sketch featuring Welles being mocked by his snide Savile Row tailor (played by Charles Gray).[158]Treasure Island: Welles wrote two screenplays for this in the 1960s, and was eager to seek financial backing to direct it. Eventually, his own screenplay (under the pseudonym of O.W. Jeeves) was further rewritten, and formed the basis of the 1972 film version directed by John Hough, in which Welles played Long John Silver.The Deep: An adaptation of Charles Williams' Dead Calm. The picture was entirely set on two boats and shot mostly in close-ups, and was filmed off the coasts of Yugoslavia and the Bahamas, between 1966 and 1969, with all but one scene completed. Originally planned as commercially viable thriller, to show that Welles could make a popular, successful film. It was put on hold in 1970 when Welles worried that critics would not respond favourably to this film as his theatrical follow-up to the much-lauded Chimes at Midnight, and Welles focused instead on F for Fake. It was abandoned altogether in 1973 due to the death of its star Laurence Harvey.Dune: An early attempt at adapting Frank Herbert's sci-fi novel Dune by Chilean film director Alejandro Jodorowsky was to star Welles as the evil Baron Vladimir Harkonnen, whom Jodorowsky had personally chosen for the role. However, the planned film never advanced past pre-production.Saint Jack. In 1978 Welles was lined up by his long-time protégé Peter Bogdanovich (who was then acting as Welles's de facto agent) to direct this adaptation of the 1973 Paul Theroux novel about an American pimp in Singapore. Hugh Hefner and Bogdnovich's then-partner Cybill Shepherd were both attached to the project as producers, with Hefner providing finance through his Playboy productions. However, both Hefner and Shepherd became convinced that Bogdanovich himself would be a more commercially viable director than Welles, and insisted that Bogdanovich take over. Since Bogdanovich was also in need of work after a series of box office flops, he agreed. When the film was finally made in 1979 by Bogdanovich and Hefner (but without Welles or Shepherd's participation), Welles felt betrayed and according to Bogdanovich the two "drifted apart a bit".[159]Filming The Trial: After the success of his 1978 film Filming Othello made for West German television, and mostly consisting of a monologue to the camera, Welles began shooting scenes for this follow-up film, but never completed it.[59]:253 What Welles did film was an 80-minute question-and-answer session in 1981 with film students asking about the film. The footage was kept by Welles's cinematographer Gary Graver, who donated it to the Munich Film Museum, which then pieced it together with Welles's trailer for the film, into an 83-minute film which is occasionally screened at film festivals.The Big Brass Ring: This 1982 screenplay, written by Welles with Oja Kodar was adapted and filmed by director George Hickenlooper in partnership with writer F.X. Feeney. Both the Welles script and the 1999 film center on a U.S. Presidential hopeful in his 40s, his elderly mentor—a former candidate for the Presidency, brought low by homosexual scandal—and the Italian journalist probing for the truth of the relationship between these men. During the last years of his life, Welles struggled to get financing for the planned film; however, his efforts at casting Jack Nicholson, Robert Redford, Warren Beatty, Clint Eastwood, Burt Reynolds and Paul Newman as the main character were unsuccessful. All of the actors turned down the role for various reasons.Cradle Will Rock: Welles planned on writing and directing a film about the 1937 staging of The Cradle Will Rock. Rupert Everett was slated to play the young Welles. However, Welles was unable to acquire funding. Tim Robbins later directed a similar film, but it was not based on Welles's script.King Lear: At the time of his death, Welles was in talks with a French production company to direct a film version of the Shakespeare play, in which he would also play the title role.An adaptation of Vladimir Nabokov's novel Ada for which Welles flew to Paris to discuss the project personally with the Russian author. Theatre credits See Orson Welles theatre credits Radio credits See Orson Welles radio credits Filmography See Orson Welles filmography Discography See Orson Welles discography Awards and honors This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2014) 1933: Welles's stage production of Twelfth Night for the Todd School for Boys received first prize[14]:330 from the Chicago Drama League after competition at the Century of Progress Exposition of 1933, the Chicago World's Fair.[160][i]1942: Citizen Kane received nine nominations at the 1941 Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Best Director and Best Actor in a Leading Role. It received the Oscar for Best Original Screenplay, an award Welles shared with Herman J. Mankiewicz.[161]1943: The Magnificent Ambersons was nominated for four 1942 Academy Awards, including Best Picture.[162]1945: On May 24, 1945, the Interracial Film and Radio Guild honored Welles for his contributions to interracial harmony through radio. Presented at the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles, the guild's second annual awards ceremony also honored Eddie "Rochester" Anderson, Norman Corwin, Bing Crosby, Bette Davis, Lena Horne, James Wong Howe, Earl Robinson, Nathan Straus and Miguel C. Torres.[142]:214–215[163]1947: The Stranger was nominated for the Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival.[164]1952: Othello won the Palme d'Or at the 1952 Cannes Film Festival.[165]1959: For their ensemble work in Compulsion, Orson Welles, Bradford Dillman and Dean Stockwell shared the prize for Best Actor at the Cannes Film Festival.[14]:4251966: Chimes at Midnight was screened in competition for the Palme d'Or at the 1966 Cannes Film Festival and won the 20th Anniversary Prize and the Technical Grand Prize. In Spain, it won the Citizens Writers Circle Award for Best Film.[166]1968: Welles was nominated for Best Foreign Actor in a Leading Role at the 21st British Academy Film Awards for his performance in Chimes at Midnight.[166]1970: Welles was given the first Career Golden Lion award in the Venice Film Festival.1970: Welles was given an Academy Honorary Award for "superlative and distinguished service in the making of motion pictures."[167] Welles did not attend the ceremony: "I didn't go because I feel like a damn fool at those things. I feel foolish, really foolish. ... I made piece of film and said that I was in Spain, and thanked them."[19]:5111975: Welles was given the American Film Institute Lifetime Achievement Award.1976: Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word or Non-Musical Album for "Great American Documents", shared with Helen Hayes, Henry Fonda and James Earl Jones.1978: Welles was presented with the Los Angeles Film Critics Association Career Achievement Award.1979: Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word or Non-Musical Album for the original motion picture soundtrack for Citizen Kane.1979: Welles was inducted into the National Radio Hall of Fame.1982: In Paris on February 23, 1982, President François Mitterrand presented Welles with the Order of Commander of the Légion d'honneur, the highest civilian decoration in France.[14]:449[59]:2071982: Welles was nominated for Best Supporting Actor in a Motion Picture at the Golden Globe Awards for his role in Butterfly, the same role that had him nominated for the Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Supporting Actor, won by Ed McMahon in the same film, which also won the award for Worst Picture.1982: Welles won a Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Recording for his role on Donovan's Brain.1983: Welles was made a member of the Académie des Beaux-Arts.[19]:5081983: Welles was awarded a Fellowship of the British Film Institute in 1983.1984: In 1984 the Directors Guild of America presented Welles with its greatest honor, the D. W. Griffith Award.[168]1985: Welles received the Career Achievement Award from the National Board of Review.[169]1993: The 1992 audiobook version of This is Orson Welles by Welles and Peter Bogdanovich was nominated for a Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word or Non-Musical Album.[170][171]1998: In 1998 and 2007, the American Film Institute ranked Citizen Kane as the greatest American movie. These other Welles films were nominated for the AFI list: The Magnificent Ambersons (1942, director/producer/screenwriter); The Third Man (1949, actor); Touch of Evil (1958, actor/director/screenwriter); and A Man for All Seasons (1966, actor).1999: The American Film Institute acknowledged Welles as one of the top 25 male motion picture stars of Classic Hollywood cinema in its survey, AFI's 100 Years... 100 Stars.[172]2002: A highly divergent genus of Hawaiian spiders Orsonwelles is named in his honor.[173]2007: A statue of Welles sculpted by Oja Kodar was installed in the city of Split, Croatia.[21]:256[174]2013: On February 10, 2013, the Woodstock Opera House in Woodstock, Illinois, dedicated its stage to Welles, honoring the site of his American debut as a professional theatre director.[175]2015: Throughout 2015, numerous festivals and events observed the 100th anniversary of Welles's birth.[176] Cultural references One of the recurring celebrity characters on the influential Canadian sketch comedy TV show Second City Television was John Candy's impersonation of Welles. On SCTV, Candy appeared as Welles in an array of embarrassing commercials, talk shows and other low-budget productions.[citation needed]Director Peter Jackson cast Montreal actor Jean Guérin as Welles in his 1994 film, Heavenly Creatures.[177]Vincent D'Onofrio portrayed Welles in a brief cameo appearance in Tim Burton's 1994 film, Ed Wood.[178] He reprised the role in "Five Minutes, Mr. Welles" (2005), a short film concerning Welles's part in the film The Third Man that D'Onofrio also co-wrote and directed.[179]Voice actor Maurice LaMarche is known for his Welles impression, heard in Tim Burton's 1994 film Ed Wood (in which he dubbed the dialog of Vincent D'Onofrio); the 1994–95 primetime animated series, The Critic; a 2006 episode of The Simpsons; and a 2011 episode of Futurama for which LaMarche won an Emmy Award. The voice he created for the character Brain from the animated series Animaniacs and Pinky and the Brain was largely influenced by Welles.[180]The 1996 film The Battle Over Citizen Kane, which chronicles the conflict between Welles and Hearst, was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature.[181]Welles is a recurring character in the Anno Dracula series by author and critic Kim Newman, appearing in Dracula Cha Cha Cha (1998) and Johnny Alucard (2013).[182][183]In 1999 Welles appeared on a U.S. postage stamp in a scene from Citizen Kane. The United States Postal Service was petitioned to honor Welles with a stamp in 2015, the 100th anniversary of his birth, but the effort did not succeed.[184]The 1999 HBO docudrama, RKO 281, tells the story of the making of Citizen Kane, starring Liev Schreiber as Orson Welles.[185]Tim Robbins's 1999 film Cradle Will Rock chronicles the process and events surrounding Welles and John Houseman's production of the 1937 musical by Marc Blitzstein. Welles is played by actor Angus MacFadyen.[186]Austin Pendleton's 2000 play, Orson's Shadow, concerns the 1960 London production of Eugène Ionesco's play Rhinoceros directed by Welles and starring Laurence Olivier. First presented by the Steppenwolf Theatre Company in 2000, the play opened off-Broadway in 2005[187] and had its European premiere in London in 2015.[188]In Michael Chabon's 2000 Pulitzer Prize-winning novel The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier & Clay, the protagonists meet Orson Welles and attend the premiere of Citizen Kane.[189]The film Fade to Black (2006) is a fictional thriller based on Davide Ferrario's novel,[190] set during Welles's 1948 journey to Rome to star in the movie Black Magic. Danny Huston stars as Welles.[191]Me and Orson Welles (2009), based on Robert Kaplow's 2003 novel,[192] stars Zac Efron as a teenager who convinces Welles (Christian McKay) to cast him in his 1937 production of Julius Caesar. McKay received numerous accolades for his performance, including a BAFTA nomination.[193]In 2014 comedic actor Jack Black portrayed Welles in the sketch comedy show Drunk History.[194]A 2014 documentary by Chuck Workman, Magician: The Astonishing Life and Work of Orson Welles, was released to critical acclaim.[195][196] Dame Elizabeth Rosemond Taylor, DBE (February 27, 1932 – March 23, 2011) was a British-American[2] actress. Beginning as a child star with MGM in the 1940s, she became a screen actress during Hollywood's Golden Age. She appeared in more than 50 films, playing mostly dramatic roles, and won two Academy Awards for Best Actress.[3] Taylor's screen debut was in the film National Velvet (1944) at the age of 12. Her career grew and she would later go on to star in such films as Father of the Bride (1950), A Place in the Sun (1951), Giant (1956), Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1958), and Suddenly, Last Summer (1959) for which she won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress - Motion Picture Drama . She won the Academy Award for Best Actress for BUtterfield 8 (1960), played the title role in Cleopatra (1963), and famously married her co-star Richard Burton after leaving her husband of five years, Eddie Fisher. She and Burton appeared together in 11 films, including Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1966), for which Taylor won the BAFTA Award for Best Actress and her second Academy Award for Best Actress. From the mid-1970s, she appeared less frequently in film, and made occasional appearances in television and theatre. Her much-publicized personal life consisted of eight marriages, seven husbands (she married Burton twice) and several life-threatening illnesses throughout her extraordinary career. From the mid-1980s, Taylor championed HIV and AIDS programs; she co-founded the American Foundation for AIDS Research in 1985, and The Elizabeth Taylor AIDS Foundation in 1991. She received the Presidential Citizens Medal, the Legion of Honour, the Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award and a Life Achievement Award from the American Film Institute, who named her seventh on their list of the greatest female stars of Classic Hollywood Cinema. Taylor died from congestive heart failure in March 2011 at the age of 79, having suffered many years of ill health. Contents 1 Early life2 Acting career 2.1 Career beginnings (1941–1943)2.2 Adolescent star (1944–1949)2.3 Transition to adult roles (1950–1951)2.4 1952–19552.5 Critical acclaim (1956–1960)2.6 Cleopatra and hiatus (1961–1964)2.7 Success with Richard Burton (1965–1967)2.8 Career decline (1968–1979)2.9 Stage and television roles; retirement (1980–2007)3 Personal life 3.1 Marriages, romances, and children3.2 Religion and identity3.3 Impressions of career and marriage3.4 Jewelry, fashion and perfumes4 Activism 4.1 HIV/AIDS4.2 Jewish causes5 Illnesses and death6 Legacy7 Awards and honors8 Filmography9 Notes10 References11 Sources12 Further reading13 External links Early life Adolescent Taylor with her parents at the Stork Club in New York in 1947 Elizabeth Rosemond Taylor was born on February 27, 1932 at Heathwood, her family's home on 8 Wildwood Road in Hampstead Garden Suburb, London.[4] She received dual citizenship at birth, as her parents, art dealer Francis Lenn Taylor (1897–1968) and retired stage actress Sara Sothern (née Sara Viola Warmbrodt, 1895–1994), were United States citizens, both originally from Arkansas City, Kansas.[4][a] They moved to London in 1929 and opened a gallery on Bond Street; their first child, a son named Howard, was born the same year.[8] The Taylors' upper-class life in London was little affected by the Great Depression.[9] Taylor was enrolled in Byron House, a Montessori school in Highgate.[10] The family's friends included artists such as Augustus John and Laura Knight, and MP Colonel Victor Cazalet.[9] Cazalet was Taylor's unofficial godfather and an important influence in her early life.[9] He was also a lay preacher of Christian Science, a religious movement, which teachings Sara Taylor adhered to and according to which she raised her children.[11] Although the Taylors had wished to make England their permanent home, they decided to return to the United States in the spring of 1939, after Cazalet warned them about the coming war against Germany.[12] Sara Taylor and the children traveled first on board the S.S. Manhattan in April 1939; Francis stayed behind in London to take care of the shipping of the gallery's art works.[13] After arriving in the U.S., Sara and the children temporarily moved in with Taylor's maternal grandfather in Pasadena, California.[12] Francis arrived soon after and later owned an art gallery in The Beverly Hills Hotel.[14] The family later settled in Beverly Hills, where Taylor and her brother were enrolled in Hawthorne School.[15] Acting career Career beginnings (1941–1943) Taylor as a child In Los Angeles, Taylor's mother was frequently told that her "beautiful" daughter should audition for film roles.[16] One of Taylor's features which had drawn attention since her early childhood was her eyes; they were deep blue to the extent of appearing violet, and were rimmed by dark double eyelashes, caused by a genetic mutation.[17][18] Sara initially disliked the idea of Taylor appearing in films, but after the war made it clear that the family would not be returning to England, she changed her mind and began viewing the film industry as a way of assimilating to American society.[16] Gossip columnist Hedda Hopper, a friend of the Cazalets, attended the Beverly Hills gallery opening in 1940, and subsequently wrote about it in her column, also mentioning Taylor.[19] Hopper's endorsement brought the gallery clients from the film industry; one of them, Andrea Berens, was the fiancée of Universal Pictures' head executive John Cheever Cowdin, and arranged an audition with the studio in early 1941.[20] Around the same time, Taylor also received an audition with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer through one of her school friends, whose father was a studio producer.[20] Both studios offered Taylor a contract.[20] While she preferred MGM, her mother decided to accept Universal's offer, and the studio signed Taylor for a seven-year contract in April 1941.[20] She appeared in a small role in There's One Born Every Minute (1942), but was not cast in other films and her contract was terminated in March 1942.[20] While the exact reason for the termination is unknown, the studio's casting director allegedly disliked her, stating that "the kid has nothing... her eyes are too old, she doesn't have the face of a child".[20] Biographer Alexander Walker agrees that Taylor appeared older than her age, and looked very different from popular child stars of the era, such as Shirley Temple and Judy Garland.[21] Taylor herself stated that she was often called an "old soul" when she was a child, and that "apparently I used to frighten grown ups, because I was totally direct."[22] Taylor received another opportunity in October 1942, when her father's acquaintance, MGM producer Samuel Marx, arranged an audition for a minor role in Lassie Come Home (1943).[20] The part required an actress with a British accent; while Taylor had quickly learned an American accent following the move to the U.S., she could still easily switch back when necessary.[23] The audition was successful and she was given a three-month "test option" contract, which was upgraded to a standard seven-year contract in January 1943.[24] After Lassie, she appeared in minor uncredited roles in two other films set in Britain, Jane Eyre (1943) and The White Cliffs of Dover (1944).[24] Adolescent star (1944–1949) Taylor with co-star Mickey Rooney in National Velvet (1944), her first major film role Taylor had her first starring role aged twelve, when she was cast in National Velvet (1944) as a girl who wants to compete in the Grand National despite its ban on female jockeys.[25] She later called it "the most exciting film" of her career.[26] MGM had been looking for a suitable actress with a British accent and the ability to ride horses since 1937.[25] Taylor was cast at the recommendation of director Clarence Brown, who had previously worked with her in White Cliffs and knew she had the required skills.[25] As she was deemed too short, filming was pushed back several months to allow her to grow.[25] During this time, Taylor practiced riding daily.[25] She fractured her spine in a fall, but the injury went unnoticed for several years.[25] In developing Taylor into a leading actress, MGM made some changes to her looks. She had to wear braces to correct her teeth, and had two of her baby teeth pulled out.[25] The studio also wanted to dye her hair and change the shape of her eyebrows, and proposed that she use the screen name "Virginia", but Taylor and her parents refused.[22] According to Walker, the experience marked the beginning of Taylor's years as MGM's "chattel".[27] National Velvet became a box office success upon its release on Christmas 1944.[25] Bosley Crowther of The New York Times stated that "her whole manner in this picture is one of refreshing grace",[28] while James Agee of The Nation wrote that she "is rapturously beautiful ... I hardly know or care whether she can act or not."[29] In January 1946, Taylor signed a new seven-year contract with MGM, with a weekly salary of $750.[30] Following the success of National Velvet, the studio decided that her public image should be constructed around her adoration of animals, and next cast her in a minor role in the third film of the Lassie series, Courage of Lassie (1946).[31] The studio also published a book of Taylor's writings about her pet chipmunk, Nibbles and Me (1946), and had paper dolls and coloring books made after her.[32] Taylor in Modern Screen in 1948 During her teenage years, the studio controlled every aspect of Taylor's life; according to Walker, she had "no freedom outside the studio gates; or even inside them."[33] Taylor followed a strict daily schedule.[33] During the day, she attended school and filmed scenes on the MGM lot, and her evenings were spent in dancing and singing classes and in practising the following day's scenes.[33] Taylor later described MGM as a "big extended factory" that "promoted [her] for their pockets".[22] She also stated that she was happier before she began her film career, and that she "had no real childhood" after becoming a star.[34] MGM began to construct a more mature image for Taylor after she turned fifteen in 1947.[35] The studio organized public appearances, interviews and photo shoots which portrayed her at parties and on dates.[36] Life called her "Hollywood's most accomplished junior actress" for her two film appearances in 1947.[37] The first was the drama Cynthia, which starred her as a frail girl who defies her overprotective parents to go to prom.[38] The second was Michael Curtiz's critically and commercially successful period film Life with Father, in which she appeared opposite William Powell and Irene Dunne.[39][40] She was loaned to Warner Bros. for the film; the studio paid her $3,500 per week, several times her regular MGM salary.[41] As Taylor developed into a young woman, film magazines and gossip columnists began comparing her to older actresses such as Ava Gardner and Lana Turner.[42] MGM next cast her in A Date with Judy (1948) as a teenage "man-stealer" who seduces her peer's date to a high school dance.[43] Her other film role that year was as a bride in Julia Misbehaves (1948), which starred Greer Garson and became a commercial success upon its release in August, grossing over $4 million.[44] Taylor's last adolescent role was as Amy March in Mervyn LeRoy's Little Women (1949). While it did not match the popularity of the previous 1933 film adaptation of Louisa M. Alcott's novel, it was a box office success.[45] Transition to adult roles (1950–1951) Taylor's transition to adult roles was relatively easy. Already in 1949, Time had featured her on its cover, and in the accompanying article called her "a jewel of great price, a true sapphire", and the leader among Hollywood's next generation of stars.[46] Her first mature role was in the thriller Conspirator (1950), in which she played a young wife, who begins to suspect that her husband, played by Robert Taylor, is a Soviet spy.[47] It was filmed in England when Taylor was still only sixteen, but its release was delayed until March 1950, as MGM did not like it, and also feared it could cause diplomatic problems.[47][48] Taylor's second film release of 1950 was the comedy The Big Hangover (1950), co-starring Van Johnson.[49] It was released in May, and the same month, Taylor married hotel-chain heir Conrad Hilton, Jr. in a highly-publicized ceremony.[50] The event was organized by MGM, and used as part of the publicity campaign for Taylor's next film, Vincente Minelli's comedy Father of the Bride (1950), in which she appeared opposite Spencer Tracy and Joan Bennett as a bride preparing for her wedding.[50] The film became a commercial success upon its release in June, grossing $6 million worldwide, and was followed by a successful sequel Father's Little Dividend (1951) ten months later.[51] With Montgomery Clift in A Place in the Sun (1951) Taylor's next film release, George Stevens' A Place in the Sun (1951), marked a departure from her earlier work. It was the first time since National Velvet that she received widespread critical praise for her performance,[52] and according to her, was the first film in which she had even been asked to do any real acting.[34] Based on Theodore Dreiser's novel An American Tragedy (1925), it featured Taylor as a spoiled socialite who comes between a poor factory worker (Montgomery Clift) and his girlfriend (Shelley Winters).[53] Stevens explained that he chose Taylor as the role required someone who was "not so much a real girl as the girl on the candy-box cover, the beautiful girl in the yellow Cadillac convertible that every American boy sometime or other thinks he can marry"[54] and that Taylor was "the only one I was aware of who could create this illusion".[55] A Place in the Sun was a box office success, grossing $3 million,[56] and was lauded especially for its main actors' performances.[57] Herb Golden of Variety stated that Taylor's "the histrionics are of a quality so far beyond anything she has done previously, that Stevens’ skilled hands on the reins must be credited with a minor miracle"[58] and A.H. Weiler of The New York Times wrote that she gives "a shaded, tender performance and one in which her passionate and genuine romance avoids the bathos common to young love as it sometimes comes to the screen."[59] 1952–1955 Taylor next starred in the romantic comedy Love Is Better Than Ever (1952).[60] According to Walker, she was cast in the "B-picture" as a reprimand for causing a scandal when she divorced Hilton after only nine months of marriage.[60] She was then sent to Britain to take part in the historical epic Ivanhoe (1952), one of the studio's most expensive projects in years.[61] Taylor disliked the film; she thought it superficial and her role as Rebecca the Jewish girl too small.[61] Regardless, Ivanhoe became one of MGM's biggest commercial successes, earning $11 million in worldwide rentals.[62] Taylor's last film made under her old contract was The Girl Who Had Everything (1953), a remake of the pre-code drama A Free Soul (1931).[63] After several months of negotiations, Taylor signed a new seven-year contract with MGM in the summer of 1952.[64] Although she wanted more interesting roles, the decisive factor in continuing with the studio was her financial need; she had recently married British actor Michael Wilding and was pregnant with her first child.[64] In addition to granting her a weekly salary of $4,700, MGM agreed to give the couple a loan for a house and signed Wilding for a three-year contract.[65] Due to her financial dependency, the studio now had even more control over her than previously.[65] Taylor and Van Johnson in the romantic drama The Last Time I Saw Paris (1954) Taylor's first two films made under her new contract were released ten days apart in spring 1954.[66] The first was the romantic film Rhapsody, starring her as a woman caught in a love triangle with two musicians. The second was the drama Elephant Walk, in which she played a British woman struggling to adapt to life on her husband's tea plantation in Ceylon. She had been loaned to Paramount Pictures for the film after its original star, Vivien Leigh, became ill.[67] In the fall, Taylor starred in two more film releases. Beau Brummell was a Regency era period film, another project in which she was cast against her will.[68] Taylor disliked historical films, as their elaborate costumes and make-up required her to wake up earlier than usual to prepare.[68] She also thought her performance was one of the worst of her career.[68] The second film was Richard Brooks' The Last Time I Saw Paris, based on F. Scott Fitzgerald's short story. Although she had wanted to be cast in The Barefoot Contessa (1954) instead, Taylor liked the film, and later stated that it "convinced me I wanted to be an actress instead of yawning my way through parts".[69] While it was not as profitable as many other MGM films, it garnered positive reviews.[69] Taylor became pregnant again during the production, and had to agree to add another year to her contract.[70] Critical acclaim (1956–1960) Taylor and Rock Hudson in Giant (1956) By the mid-1950s, film studios were beginning to lose revenue due to television.[71] In order to bring audiences back to the cinemas, they began concentrating on making fewer films of better quality; the change benefited Taylor, who finally began to get roles she found interesting.[71] After having her second child, she was loaned to Warner Bros. for George Stevens' Giant (1956), an epic about a Texas ranching dynasty, which co-starred Rock Hudson and James Dean.[71] The project was one of the most demanding Taylor had participated in.[71] Stevens wanted to break her will to make her easier to direct, and his provocations led to clashes between them.[71] She was also often ill, which caused delays in the production.[72] Then, days after completing his part of the filming, Dean died in a car crash.[73] Giant earned praise from the critics and became a box office success.[71] Variety stated that Taylor gave "a surprisingly clever performance"[74] and The Guardian called her one of the film's strongest assets, lauding her performance as "an astonishing revelation of unsuspected gifts".[75] MGM next reunited Taylor with Montgomery Clift in Raintree County (1957), a Civil War drama it hoped would replicate the success of Gone with the Wind (1939).[76] Taylor found her role as a mentally disturbed Southern belle fascinating, but overall disliked the film.[76][b] Although the film failed to become the type of success MGM had planned,[77] Taylor was nominated for the first time for an Academy Award for Best Actress. Promotional poster for Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1958) Taylor considered her next performance as Maggie the Cat in the Tennessee Williams adaptation Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1958) a career "high point", although it coincided with one of the most difficult periods in her personal life.[34] She had divorced Wilding after completing Raintree County and married producer Mike Todd. In March 1957, she had completed two weeks of filming on Cat when Todd was killed in an airplane crash.[78] Despite her loss, MGM pressurized Taylor to return to work only three weeks later.[79] She later stated that she "in a way ... became Maggie" and that acting "was the only time I could function" during that time.[34] Taylor's personal life drew further public attention when it became known that she was having an affair with singer Eddie Fisher.[80] Fisher decided to divorce his wife, actress Debbie Reynolds, and marry Taylor.[80] MGM used the scandal to promote the film by featuring Taylor in a negligée on a bed in the film's posters.[80] Although the Fisher affair made her subject to public hatred, it did not affect the film negatively: it grossed $10 million in American cinemas alone and made Taylor the year's second most profitable star.[80] She received positive reviews for her performance, with Crowther of The New York Times calling her "terrific"[81] and Variety praising her for "a well-accented, perceptive interpretation".[82] Taylor also received nominations for an Academy Award and a BAFTA. Taylor's next film, Joseph L. Mankiewicz' Suddenly, Last Summer (1959), was also an adaptation from a Tennessee Williams play. The independent production earned her $500,000 for playing the role of a severely traumatized patient in a mental institution.[80] Although the film was a serious-minded drama, it was again promoted with Taylor's sex appeal; both its trailer and poster featured her in a white swimsuit. The strategy worked, as Suddenly became a financial success.[83] It also gained Taylor a Golden Globe for Best Actress and a third Academy Award nomination.[80] By 1959, Taylor owed one more film for MGM, which it decided should be BUtterfield 8 (1960), a controversial story about a high-class prostitute.[84] The studio correctly calculated that Taylor's public image as a "homewrecker" would make it easy for audiences to associate her with the role.[84] She hated the film for the same reason, but had no choice in the matter, although the studio agreed to her demands of filming in New York and casting Eddie Fisher in a sympathetic role.[84] As predicted, BUtterfield 8 was a major commercial success, grossing $18 million in world rentals.[85] Crowther wrote that Taylor "looks like a million dollars, in mink or in negligée",[86] while Variety stated that she gives "a torrid, stinging portrayal with one or two brilliantly executed passages within".[87] She won the Academy Award for Best Actress.[85] Cleopatra and hiatus (1961–1964) Taylor in Cleopatra (1963) Taylor's first film after finishing her MGM contract was 20th Century-Fox's historical epic Cleopatra (1963), in which she played the titular role. In retrospect, she considered it a "low point" in her career;[34] it received mixed to negative reviews and although it became the biggest commercial success of 1963, its production costs were greater than its profits.[88] Nevertheless, its production made film history and dominated the headlines for nearly three years. Taylor became the first female star to be paid $1 million for a film role; Fox also granted her 10% of the film's profits and shot the film in Todd-AO, a widescreen format owned by Taylor, who had inherited its rights from Mike Todd.[89] Cleopatra also became famous for taking nearly two years to film, and for being the most expensive film made up to that point, nearly driving Fox to bankruptcy.[90] Its filming began in England in 1960, but had to be halted several times due to bad weather and Taylor's ill health.[91] In March 1961, she developed pneumonia, which proved nearly fatal and necessitated a tracheotomy to be performed.[91] Once she had recovered, Fox decided to discard the already filmed material and move the production to Rome, also changing its director to Joseph Mankiewicz and the actor playing Mark Antony to Richard Burton.[92] Taylor and Burton began an extramarital affair, which caused a scandal. Although neither had yet divorced their spouses, Taylor and Burton then starred in Anthony Asquith's The V.I.P.s (1963), which story mirrored the headlines about them.[93] Taylor played a famous model attempting to leave her husband for a lover, and Burton her estranged millionaire husband. Released soon after Cleopatra to profit from the scandal, it became a box office success. Taylor was also paid $500,000 to appear in a CBS television special, Elizabeth Taylor in London.[94] After completing The V.I.P.s, Taylor took a two-year hiatus from films, during which she and Burton were married.[95] Success with Richard Burton (1965–1967) Taylor and Burton continued starring together in films in the mid-1960s. Walker has compared these films to "illustrated gossip columns", as their film roles often mirrored their public personas.[96] They received a combined $88 million for their films over the next decade and according to Burton, "they say we generate more business activity than one of the smaller African nations".[97] Their first joint project following Taylor's hiatus was Vincente Minelli's romantic drama The Sandpiper (1965), about an illicit love affair in the bohemian Big Sur. Its reviews were largely negative, but it grossed a successful $14 million.[98] "I am just constantly surprised at how good Elizabeth and Richard are... Their flexibility and talent and cooperativeness and lovingness is overwhelming... I've had more trouble with little people you've never heard of –temper tantrums, upstaging, girls' sobbing– than with the so-called legendary Burtons. The Burtons are on time, they know their lines, and if I make suggestions, Elizabeth can keep in her mind fourteen dialogue changes, twelve floor marks, and ten pauses..." [99] —Mike Nichols on directing Taylor and Burton Their next project, Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1966), features the most acclaimed performance of Taylor's career.[100] She and Burton starred as Martha and George, a middle-aged couple going through a marital crisis. In order to convincingly play 50-year-old Martha, Taylor gained weight, wore a wig, and used make-up to make herself look old and tired — a stark contrast to her glamorous public image.[101] It was her idea to hire Mike Nichols to direct, even though he had never before made a film.[102] The production differed from everything Taylor had done previously, as Nichols, whose previous experience was from the stage, wanted to first thoroughly rehearse before filming.[103] The film was considered groundbreaking for its adult themes and uncensored language.[104] It opened to "glorious" reviews, and became one of the biggest commercial successes of the year.[105] Taylor received her second Academy Award, a BAFTA, a National Board of Review award and a New York City Film Critics Circle Award for her performance. In 1966, Taylor and Burton also performed Doctor Faustus for a week in Oxford to benefit the Oxford University Dramatic Society; he starred and she appeared in her first stage role as Helen of Troy, a part which required no speaking.[106] Although it received generally negative reviews, Burton then produced it into a film, Doctor Faustus (1967), with the same cast.[106] It was also panned by critics and grossed only $600,000 in the box office.[107] Their next project, Franco Zeffirelli's The Taming of the Shrew (1967), which they also co-produced, was more successful.[108] It posed another challenge for Taylor, as she was the only actor in the project with no previous experience of performing Shakespeare; Zeffirelli later stated that this made her performance interesting, as she "invented the part from scratch".[109] Critics found the play to be fitting material for the couple, and it was a box office success by grossing $12 million.[110] Taylor's third film released in 1967, John Huston's Reflections in a Golden Eye, was her first without Burton since Cleopatra. It was a drama about a repressed homosexual and his unfaithful wife, and was originally slated to co-star Taylor's old friend Montgomery Clift, whose career had been in decline for several years due to his addictions.[111] Before the filming began, Clift died from a heart attack and was replaced by Marlon Brando.[112] It was a critical and commercial failure at the time of its release.[113] Taylor and Burton's last film of the year was the Graham Greene adaptation The Comedians; it received mixed reviews and was a box office failure.[114] Career decline (1968–1979) By the late 1960s, Taylor's career was in decline. She had gained weight and was nearing middle age, and did not fit in with the new generation of more androgynous actresses, such as Jane Fonda and Julie Christie.[115] After several years of nearly constant media attention, the public was also tiring of her and Burton, and criticized their jet set lifestyle.[116] In 1968, Taylor starred in two films directed by Joseph Losey, Boom! and Secret Ceremony. The former was based on a Tennessee Williams play, and featured her as an aging, serial-marrying millionaire and Burton as a younger man who turns up on the Mediterranean island on which she has retired.[117] It was panned by the critics, and failed in the box office.[118] Secret Ceremony, a psychological drama in which Taylor starred opposite Mia Farrow and Robert Mitchum, had a similar fate.[119] 20th Century-Fox's The Only Game in Town (1970), in which Taylor played a Las Vegas showgirl who has an affair with a compulsive gambler, played by Warren Beatty, was another failure.[120] Taylor appeared in three films in 1972. Zee and Co. (1972), which portrayed her and Michael Caine as a troubled married couple, won her the David di Donatello for Best Foreign Actress. She then appeared with Burton in Under Milk Wood (1972); although her role was small, its producers decided to give her top-billing to profit from her fame.[121] Her third film role that year was playing a blonde diner waitress in Peter Ustinov's Faust parody Hammersmith Is Out (1972), her tenth collaboration with Burton. Although it was overall not successful,[122] Taylor received some good reviews, with Vincent Canby of The New York Times writing that she has "a certain vulgar, ratty charm",[123] and Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times stating that "the spectacle of Elizabeth Taylor growing older and more beautiful continues to amaze the population".[124] Her performance won the Silver Bear for Best Actress at the Berlin Film Festival. Richard Burton, Lucille Ball and Taylor in Here's Lucy in 1974 Taylor and Burton's last film together was the Harlech Television film Divorce His, Divorce Hers (1973), fittingly named as they divorced the following year.[125] Her other films released in 1973 were the British thriller Night Watch (1973), and the American drama Ash Wednesday (1973).[126] For the latter, in which she starred as a woman who undergoes multiple plastic surgeries in an attempt to save her marriage, she received a Golden Globe nomination.[127] Her only film released in 1974, the Italian Muriel Spark adaptation The Driver's Seat (1974) was another failure.[128] Taylor took fewer roles after the mid-1970s and focused on supporting the career of her sixth husband, Republican politician John Warner. In 1976, she participated in the Soviet-American fantasy film The Blue Bird (1976) and had a small role in the television film Victory at Entebbe (1976), and in 1977 sang in the critically panned film adaptation of Stephen Sondheim's A Little Night Music (1977).[129] Stage and television roles; retirement (1980–2007) Taylor at an event honoring her career in 1981 Taylor had her first substantial role in several years in the mystery film The Mirror Crack'd (1980), based on an Agatha Christie novel and featuring an ensemble cast of famous actors from the studio era, such as Kim Novak, Rock Hudson, and Tony Curtis.[130] Wanting to challenge herself, Taylor then acted in her first substantial stage role, appearing as Regina Giddens in a Broadway production of Lillian Hellman's The Little Foxes, which premiered in May 1981.[131] Instead of portraying Giddens in negative light as had often been the case in previous productions, Taylor's idea was to show her as a victim of circumstance, stating "She's a killer, but she's saying 'Sorry fellas, you put me in this position'".[132] The production had a sold-out six-month run, but received mixed reviews.[131] Frank Rich of The New York Times wrote that Taylor's performance as "Regina Giddens, that malignant Southern bitch-goddess ... begins gingerly, soon gathers steam and then explodes into a black and thunderous storm that may just knock you out of your seat",[133] while Dan Sullivan of the Los Angeles Times stated that "Taylor presents a possible Regina Giddens, as seen through the persona of Elizabeth Taylor. There's some acting in it, as well as some personal display."[134] In November 1981, Taylor also appeared as evil socialite Helena Cassadine in the daytime soap opera General Hospital, one of her favorite television shows.[135] The following spring, she continued performing The Little Foxes in London's West End, received largely negative reviews from the British press.[135] Encouraged by the success of The Little Foxes, Taylor and producer Zev Bufman founded the Elizabeth Taylor Repertory Company.[135] Its first and only project was a revival of Noël Coward's comedy Private Lives, starring Taylor and Richard Burton.[136][137] It premiered in Boston in spring 1983, and although commercially successful, received generally negative reviews, with critics noting that both were in noticeably poor health — Taylor entered a drug rehabilitation centre after the play's run ended and Burton died the following year.[136] After the failure of Private Lives, Taylor dissolved her theater company.[138] Her only other project that year was the HBO television film Between Friends.[139] Following her stage projects, Taylor took on several television roles. In 1984, she was a guest star in Hotel and in the following year played gossip columnist Louella Parsons in the television film Malice in Wonderland and a brothel keeper in the historical miniseries North and South.[140] She was awarded the honorary Cecil B. DeMille Award in 1985,[127] and the Film Society of Lincoln Center's Chaplin Award in 1986.[141] Taylor played the titular role in the Western Poker Alice (1987), appeared in Franco Zeffirelli's biopic Young Toscanini (1988) and in a television version of Sweet Bird of Youth (1989), her fourth Tennessee Williams adaptation.[140] Taylor had few acting roles in the 1990s, instead focusing her time on HIV/AIDS activism. She made cameos in the television series Captain Planet and the Planeteers (1992), The Nanny (1993) and The Simpsons (1992, 1993).[142] Her last theatrically released film was The Flintstones (1994), in which she played Pearl Slaghoople, earning a Golden Raspberry nomination for her performance.[143] She was awarded American Film Institute's AFI Life Achievement Award in 1993,[144] and a Screen Actors Guild honorary award in 1997.[145][146] Her final roles were in the television film These Old Broads and in the animated sitcom God, the Devil and Bob, both in 2001.[143] Taylor announced in 2003 that she was retiring from acting to focus on philanthropy.[147] She gave one last public performance in 2007, when she and James Earl Jones performed the play Love Letters at an AIDS benefit at the Paramount Studios.[143] Personal life Marriages, romances, and children Taylor was married eight times to seven husbands. When asked why she married so often, she replied, "I don't know, honey. It sure beats the hell out of me,"[26] but also said that, "I was taught by my parents that if you fall in love, if you want to have a love affair, you get married. I guess I'm very old-fashioned."[148] Taylor's husbands were: Conrad "Nicky" Hilton (May 6, 1950 – January 29, 1951): Taylor believed that she was in love with the young hotel heir, but also wanted to escape from her mother. Hilton's "gambling, drinking, and abusive behavior",[148][149] however, horrified her and her parents, caused a miscarriage, and ended the marriage in divorce after nine months.[26][150]Michael Wilding (February 21, 1952 – January 26, 1957): The "gentle" Wilding, 20 years older than Taylor, comforted her after she left Hilton.[148][26] After their divorce, Taylor admitted that "I gave him rather a rough time, sort of henpecked him, and probably wasn't mature enough for him."[150] Wilding and Taylor had two sons, Michael and Christopher.Mike Todd (February 2, 1957 – March 22, 1958): Taylor's next husband was even older than the previous one: born in 1909, Todd was 23 years older than Taylor and had a son who was older than her. Although this marriage lasted only a little over one year, it was the only one of Taylor's marriages to end without divorce; Todd died in a plane crash while married to Taylor. Todd and Taylor had a daughter, Elizabeth ("Liza"), born only six months after their wedding. Although their relationship was tumultuous, Taylor later called him one of the three loves of her life, along with Burton and jewelry.[151][26] Todd was Jewish, and about a year after his death, Taylor (who by then was married to another Jewish husband) converted to Judaism herself. With husband Richard Burton in The Sandpiper (1965) Eddie Fisher (May 12, 1959 – March 6, 1964): Fisher, who was also Jewish, and who had been Todd's best friend, consoled Taylor after Todd's death. They began an affair while Fisher was still married to Debbie Reynolds, causing a scandal;[26][152]:226 Reynolds eventually forgave Taylor; she even voted for her when Taylor was nominated for an Oscar for BUtterfield 8, and starred with her in These Old Broads.[153]Richard Burton (March 15, 1964 – June 26, 1974; again from October 10, 1975 – July 29, 1976): The Vatican condemned Burton and Taylor's affair, which began when both were married to others, as "erotic vagrancy".[148] The press closely followed their relationship before, during, and after their ten years of marriage, and there was great public interest in "the most famous film star in the world and the man many believed to be the finest classical actor of his generation." Taylor wanted to focus on her marriage rather than her career. She even gained weight on purpose, in an unsuccessful attempt to not receive film roles.[26] Burton once said, "You can't keep clapping a couple of sticks [of dynamite] together without expecting them to blow up"[148]. Sixteen months after being divorced, they remarried in a private ceremony in Kasane, Botswana. They separated again and had their second and final divorce in 1976.John Warner (December 4, 1976 – November 7, 1982): As with Burton, Taylor sought to be known as the wife of her husband, a Republican[154][155] United States Senator from Virginia. Unhappy with her life in Washington,[156] however, Taylor became depressed and entered the Betty Ford Center.[26]Larry Fortensky (October 6, 1991 – October 31, 1996): Taylor and Fortensky met during another stay at the Betty Ford Center and were married at the Neverland Ranch of her longtime friend, Michael Jackson[26] Taylor had many romances outside her marriages. Before marrying Hilton, she was engaged to Heisman Trophy winner Glenn Davis—who did not know until the relationship ended that Taylor's mother had encouraged it to build publicity for her daughter[150]—and also to the son of William D. Pawley, the United States Ambassador to Brazil.[46] Industrialist and producer Howard Hughes promised Taylor's parents that if they would encourage her to marry him, he would finance a movie studio for her; Sara Taylor agreed, but Taylor refused.[150][157] Taylor had two sons, Michael Howard (born January 6, 1953) and Christopher Edward (born February 27, 1955; her own 23rd birthday), with Michael Wilding. She had a daughter, Elizabeth Frances "Liza" (born August 6, 1957), with Michael Todd. During her marriage to Eddie Fisher, Taylor started proceedings to adopt a two-year-old girl from Germany, Maria (born August 1, 1961); the adoption process was finalized in 1964, by which time Taylor and Fisher were already divorced.[158] Richard Burton later adopted Taylor's daughters Liza and Maria.[159] Taylor became a grandmother at the age of 39. At the time of her death, she was survived by her four children, ten grandchildren, and four great-grandchildren.[160] Religion and identity In 1959, at age 27, after nine months of study, Taylor converted from Christian Science to Judaism,[161] taking the Hebrew name Elisheba Rachel. Biographer Alexander Walker suggests that Elizabeth's conversion to Judaism at the age of 27 and her lifelong support for Israel, may have been influenced by views she heard at home. Walker notes that Cazalet campaigned for a Jewish homeland, and her mother also worked in various charities, which included sponsoring fundraisers for Zionism.[162]:14 Taylor said that her conversion was something she had long considered and was not related to her marriages. After Mike Todd's death, she said she "felt a desperate need for a formalized religion", and explained that neither Roman Catholicism nor Christian Science were able to address many of the "questions she had about life and death".[163]:175 Biographer Randy Taraborrelli notes that after she studied the philosophy of Judaism, she felt an "immediate connection to the faith."[163]:176 At the conversion ceremony, her parents were present as witnesses and supported her decision.[163]:176 Although Taylor rarely attended synagogue, she said she could feel "close to God anywhere, not just in a place designed for worship ..."[163]:176 For a period, Taylor was a follower of Kabbalah and a member of the Kabbalah Centre.[1] During an interview when she was 55, Taylor described how her inner sense of identity, when a child actress, kept her from giving in to many of the studio's demands, especially with regard to altering her appearance to fit in. She went against fads and had a good sense of her identity. "I've always been very aware of the inner me that has nothing to do with the physical me," she said. "It has to do with a connection with nature, God, your inner being—whatever you want to call it ...."[164] Impressions of career and marriage In 1964, at the age of 32, Taylor described herself as an actress: "The Elizabeth Taylor who's famous, the one on film, really has no depth or meaning to me. She's a totally superficial working thing, a commodity." She was also able to explain her acting skills as "minuscule—it's not technique. It's instinct and a certain ability to concentrate." Although most of her film roles during the previous decade portrayed her beauty and sexuality, Taylor claimed they merely exaggerated or contradicted who she was in real life, stating, "I am not a 'sex queen' or a 'sex symbol.' I don't think I want to be one ... If my husband thinks I'm sexy, that's good enough for me."[165] By then, Taylor was married for the fifth time, to Richard Burton. She expected their marriage to last due to Burton's strong relationship with their children, noting that he was the "absolute boss of the household and they respect him for that."[165] Except for her third husband, Mike Todd, who died in a plane accident, she partly blamed her young romances and divorces on her "puritanical upbringing and beliefs." She said, "At first, I guess I didn't know what was love and what was not. I always chose to think I was in love and that love was synonymous with marriage. I couldn't just have a romance; it had to be a marriage ... When I was first divorced, I was 18 and I had only been married nine months. I was very naïve and really totally crushed. It was the first divorce in my family.[165] Jewelry, fashion and perfumes Taylor had a passion for jewelry. At her death, Taylor's jewelry collection was reportedly worth $150 million[166] and has been documented in her book My Love Affair with Jewelry (2002).[167] Among her well-known pieces were the 33.19-carat (6.638 g) Krupp Diamond, which she wore daily,[148] and the 69.42-carat (13.884 g) pear-shaped Taylor-Burton Diamond; both were among many gifts from husband Richard Burton.[168] Taylor was a fashion icon during her years as an active film star. In addition to her own purchases, MGM costumers Edith Head and Helen Rose helped Taylor choose clothes that emphasized her face, chest, and waist. Taylor helped popularize Valentino and Halston's designs,[169] and in the 1980s Schering-Plough developed violet contact lenses, citing Taylor's eyes as inspiration.[170] Taylor launched the House of Taylor fragrance line at a time when celebrity perfumes by and large did not exist.[171] The first was Passion in 1988, followed by White Diamonds, which is still one of the top selling celebrity fragrances of all time.[171] She was heavily involved in the creation of her fragrances, from the scent to packaging.[171] Activism HIV/AIDS Taylor devoted consistent and generous humanitarian time, advocacy efforts, and funding to HIV and AIDS-related projects and charities, helping to raise more than $270 million for the cause. She was one of the first celebrities and public personalities to do so at a time when few acknowledged the disease, organizing and hosting the first AIDS fundraiser in 1984, to benefit AIDS Project Los Angeles.[148] Taylor was cofounder of the American Foundation for AIDS Research (amfAR) with Dr. Michael Gottlieb and Dr. Mathilde Krim in 1985.[149] Her longtime friend and former co-star Rock Hudson had disclosed having AIDS and died of it that year. She also founded The Elizabeth Taylor AIDS Foundation (ETAF) in 1991, created to provide critically needed support services for people with HIV/AIDS.[149] For example, in 2006 Taylor commissioned a 37-foot (11 m) "Care Van" equipped with examination tables and xray equipment, the New Orleans donation made by her Elizabeth Taylor AIDS Foundation and Macy's.[172][173] That year, in the wake of Hurricane Katrina, Taylor donated $500,000 to the NO/AIDS Task Force, a non-profit organization serving the community of those affected by HIV/AIDS in and around New Orleans. The donation was shared by Taylor in celebration of her 74th birthday and to help NO/AIDS Task Force continue their work fighting AIDS.[173][174] Taylor was honored with a special Academy Award, the Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award, in 1992 for her HIV/AIDS humanitarian work. Speaking of that work, former President Bill Clinton said at her death, "Elizabeth's legacy will live on in many people around the world whose lives will be longer and better because of her work and the ongoing efforts of those she inspired."[175] Jewish causes After her conversion to Judaism, Taylor worked for Jewish causes throughout her life.[176] In 1959, her large-scale purchase of Israeli Bonds caused Arab boycotts of her films.[177] In 1962, she was barred from entering Egypt to complete Cleopatra; its government announcing that she would not be allowed to come to Egypt because she had adopted the Jewish faith and "supports Israeli causes". However the ban was lifted in 1964 after it was considered that the film had brought favourable publicity to Egypt.[178] In 1974 Taylor and Richard Burton considered marrying in Israel, but were unable to do so because Burton was not Jewish.[178] Taylor helped to raise money for organizations such as the Jewish National Fund; advocated for the right of Soviet Jews to emigrate to Israel and canceled a visit to the USSR because of its condemnation of Israel due to the Six-Day War, along with signing a letter protesting the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379 of 1975.[179] She offered herself as a replacement hostage after more than 100 Israeli civilians were taken hostage in the Entebbe skyjacking in 1976.[177] After the success of the operation in which the hostages were freed, she acted with Kirk Douglas in a TV special, Victory at Entebbe, broadcast in January 1977. Of her role, she stated, "I couldn't pass up this opportunity. I have strong ties to Israel and I firmly believe in the courage and dedication of the Entebbe mission."[180] Illnesses and death Taylor's grave in the Great Mausoleum at the Forest Lawn Memorial Park Taylor struggled with health problems much of her life.[181] She broke her back at the age of twelve in a fall during the filming of National Velvet, which would continue to affect her in later years. Beginning in 1951, Taylor experienced serious medical issues whenever she faced problems in her personal life.[150] She broke her back five times, had both her hips replaced, a hysterectomy, suffered from dysentery and phlebitis, punctured her esophagus, and survived a benign brain tumor operation in 1997.[148][153] At 5'4", Taylor constantly gained and lost significant amounts of weight (known as yo-yo dieting), reaching both 119 pounds and 180 pounds in the 1980s.[156] She was a heavy smoker until forced to quit following a severe bout of pneumonia in 1990.[182] Due to numerous back injuries, she was addicted to sleeping pills and painkillers for 35 years.[153] She was treated for alcoholism and prescription drug addiction at the Betty Ford Center in 1983[183] and again in 1988.[184] She was diagnosed with congestive heart failure in 2004 and in February 2011, new symptoms related to heart failure led to her being admitted to Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles for treatment.[185] She remained there until her death at age 79 on March 23, 2011, surrounded by her four children.[160][186] Taylor's funeral took place the day after she died at the Forest Lawn Memorial Park in Glendale, California. It was a private Jewish ceremony presided over by Rabbi Jerome Cutler, and at Taylor's request began 15 minutes behind schedule, as according to her representative, "she even wanted to be late for her own funeral."[187] She is entombed in the Great Mausoleum.[188][189] Legacy Taylor has been called the "greatest movie star of all."[152]:2 A child-star at the age of 12, she was soon after launched into public awareness by MGM and a string of successful films, many of which are today considered "classics". Her resulting celebrity made her into a Hollywood icon, as she set the "gold standard" for Hollywood fame, and "created the model for stardom," adds Mann.[152]:3 Other observers, such as social critic Camille Paglia, describes Taylor as "the greatest actress in film history," partly as a result of the "liquid realm of emotion" she expressed on screen.[152]:4 Taylor had a major role in sparking the sexual revolution of the 1960s, as she pushed the envelope on sexuality: she was one of the first major stars to pose (mostly) nude in Playboy, and among the first to remove her clothes onscreen.[152]:5 In A Place in the Sun, filmed when she was 17, her surprising maturity shocked Hollywood columnist Hedda Hopper, who wrote of her precocious sexuality. Film historian Andrew Sarris describes her love scenes in the film with Montgomery Clift as "unnerving—sybaritic—like gorging on chocolate sundaes."[152]:6 In real life, she was considered "a star without airs," notes Mann. Writer Gloria Steinem likewise described her as a "movie queen with no ego ... expert at what she does, uncatty in her work relationships with other actresses".[152]:7 Mike Nichols, who directed her in Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1966), said that of all the actors he had worked with, Taylor had the "most democratic soul." Mann adds that she treated electricians and studio crew the "same way she would a Rothschild at a charity gala."[152]:6 Director George Cukor told Taylor that she possessed "that rarest of virtues—simple kindness."[152]:7 Taylor's ex‑husband, actor Richard Burton, who co‑starred with her in eleven films, expressed great admiration for her talent as an actress. Burton said, "I think she's one of the most underrated screen actresses that ever lived, and I think she's one of the best ones who ever lived. At her finest she's incomparable."[190] Awards and honors Main article: List of awards and nominations received by Elizabeth Taylor Throughout her sixty-two year career, Elizabeth Taylor received more than 40 awards, honors, and nominations. With six Academy Award nominations, Taylor won twice for Best Actress in BUtterfield 8 in 1960, and for Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? in 1966. She won a Golden Globe for Best Actress in Suddenly, Last Summer in 1960. In 1997 Taylor was honored by the Screen Actors Guild (SAG) with the Life Achievement Award.[191] Taylor received the French Legion of Honour in 1987,[153] and in 2000 was appointed Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire (DBE).[192] She received the Hollywood Foreign Press Association's Cecil B. DeMille Award in 1985, and in 1992 she received the Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Academy Award for her work fighting AIDS. In 2001, she received a Presidential Citizens Medal for her humanitarian work, most notably for helping to raise more than $200 million for AIDS research and bringing international attention and resources to addressing the epidemic.[191] Taylor was inducted into the California Hall of Fame in 2007.[193] Additional awards include five Golden Laurel Awards, a New York City Film Critics Circle Award, a Silver Bear for Best Actress in the 22nd Berlin International Film Festival, Women in Film Crystal Award, The Vanguard Award for GLAAD Media Awards, a Kansas City Film Critics Circle Award, two David di Donatello Awards, Hasty Pudding’s Woman of the Year Award and a Marian Anderson Award. In 1994 a Golden Palm Star on the Palm Springs, California, Walk of Stars was dedicated to her.****** For a Few Dollars More (Italian: Per qualche dollaro in più) is a 1965 spaghetti Western film directed by Sergio Leone. It stars Clint Eastwood and Lee Van Cleef as bounty hunters and Gian Maria Volontè as the primary villain.[4]German actor Klaus Kinski plays a supporting role as a secondary villain. The film was an international co-productionamong Italy, West Germany, and Spain.[5][6] The film was released in the United States in 1967, and is the second part of what is commonly known as the Dollars Trilogy, following A Fistful of Dollars and preceding The Good, the Bad and the Ugly. The films catapulted Eastwood and Van Cleef into stardom.[7] Film historian Richard Schickel, in his biography of Clint Eastwood, believed that this was the best film in the trilogy, arguing that it was "more elegant and complex than A Fistful of Dollars and more tense and compressed than The Good, the Bad and the Ugly." Director Alex Cox considered the church scene to be one of "the most horrible deaths" of any Western, describing Volontè's Indio as the "most diabolical Western villain of all time."[8] Contents 1Plot 2Cast 3Production 3.1Development 3.2Production 3.3Post-production 3.4Music 4Release and reception 4.1Box office 4.2Critical reception 5In popular culture 6References 7Bibliography 8External links Plot[edit] The man many call Manco (Eastwood) is a bounty killer who makes a living collecting rewards issued for wanted outlaws, a profession shared by a former member of the army named Colonel Douglas Mortimer (Van Cleef). Eventually, the two learn that a ruthless psychopath named "El Indio" (Volonte) was broken out of prison by his gang, slaughtering all but one of his jailers. While murdering the family of the man who captured him, Indio carries a musical pocketwatch that was a memento of his youth, using it to time the duel. Flashbacks reveal that he had taken the watch from a young woman (Rosemary Dexter), who had shot herself as he was raping her after having murdered her husband. The incident has haunted Indio, and he smokes an addictive drug to cloud his memory. Indio plans to rob the Bank of El Paso, which has a disguised safe containing "almost a million dollars". Manco arrives in the town and becomes aware of Mortimer, who had arrived earlier. He sees Mortimer deliberately insult the hunchback Wild (Kinski), who is reconnoitering the bank. Manco confronts Mortimer after the two have studied each other, and they decide to work together as neither intends to back down. Mortimer persuades Manco to join Indio's gang and "get him between two fires". Manco achieves this by freeing a friend of Indio from prison despite Indio's suspicions. Indio sends Manco and three others to rob the bank in nearby Santa Cruz. Manco guns down the three bandits and sends a false telegraphic alarm to rouse the El Paso sheriff and his posse, who ride to Santa Cruz. The gang blast the wall at the rear of the El Paso bank and steal the safe, but are unable to open it. Groggy (Luigi Pistilli) is angry when Manco is the only one to return from Santa Cruz, but Indio accepts Manco's version of events thanks to Mortimer having given Manco a convincing wound. Manco manages to convince the gang to ride to the small border town of Agua Caliente rather than travel through Rio Bravo. Mortimer, who anticipated Manco would deviate from their planned ambush, is already there. Wild recognises Mortimer, forcing a showdown that results in the hunchback's death before Mortimer offers his services to Indio to crack open the safe without using explosives. Indio locks the money in a strongbox and says that the loot will be divided after a month. Manco and Mortimer break into the strongbox and hide the money, only to be caught immediately afterwards and beaten up. Mortimer has secured the strongbox lock, however, and Indio believes that the money is still there. Later that night, Indio has his lieutenant Niño (Mario Brega) kill the guard stationed to guard Manco and Mortimer with a knife belonging to Cuchillo (Aldo Sambrell). Once Niño frees the prisoners, Indio reveals that he knew they are bounty hunters and executes Cuchillo to make it appear he betrayed the gang, while sending his men after Manco and Mortimer in hopes they would all kill each other so that he can split the money just between Niño and himself. But Groggy realizes the scheme and forces Indio to open the strong box after killing Niño, only for the two to find the money not there. Eventually, after he and Manco kill the bandits, Mortimer calls out Indio while revealing his full name. Mortimer shoots Groggy as he runs for cover, but is disarmed by Indio who plays the pocketwatch while challenging the bounty hunter to regain his weapon and kill him when the music ends. But as the music ends, the same tune begins from an identical pocketwatch which Manco had pilfered from Mortimer. Manco gives his own gunbelt and pistol to Mortimer, saying: "Now we start". The music plays to completion and Mortimer shoots first, killing Indio. Mortimer takes Indio's watch and Manco remarks on Mortimer's resemblance to the woman in the photographs. Mortimer reveals himself as her brother and with his revenge complete, declines his share of the bounty and leaves. Manco tosses the bodies of Indio and his men into a wagon, finally adding Groggy's body after killing him, and rides off to collect the bounties on them all, before briefly pausing to recover the stolen money from its hiding place. Cast[edit] Clint Eastwood as Manco Lee Van Cleef as Colonel Douglas Mortimer Gian Maria Volontè as El Indio Mario Brega as Niño Luigi Pistilli as Groggy Aldo Sambrell as Cuchillo Klaus Kinski as Wild Benito Stefanelli as Hughie Panos Papadopulos as Sancho Perez Robert Camardiel as Tucumcari station clerk Josef Egger as Old Prophet Tomás Blanco as Tucumcari sheriff Lorenzo Robledo as Tomaso, Indio's Traitor Dante Maggio as Carpenter in cell with El Indio Werner Abrolat as Slim, Member of Indio's Gang Joseph Bradley as El Paso Tavern Keeper Frank Braña as Blackie, Member of Indio's Gang José Canalejas as Chico, Member of Indio's Gang Rosemary Dexter as Mortimer's Sister Fernando Di Leo as Cigar Smoking Card Player Eduardo García as Member of Indio's Gang Jesús Guzmán as Carpetbagger on Train Peter Lee Lawrence as Mortimer's Brother-in-Law Sergio Leone as Whistling Bounty Hunter Antonio Molino Rojo as Frisco, Member of Indio's Gang Ricardo Palacios as Tucumcari Saloon Keeper Carlo Simi as El Paso Bank Manager Production[edit] Development[edit] After the box-office success of A Fistful of Dollars in Italy, director Sergio Leone and his new producer, Alberto Grimaldi, wanted to begin production of a sequel, but they needed to get Clint Eastwood to agree to star in it. Eastwood was not ready to commit to a second film when he had not even seen the first. Quickly, the filmmakers rushed an Italian-language print (a U.S. version did not yet exist) of Per un pugno di dollari to him. The star then gathered a group of friends for a debut screening at CBS Production Center and, not knowing what to expect, tried to keep expectations low by downplaying the film. As the reels unspooled, however, Eastwood's concerns proved to be unfounded. The audience may not have understood Italian, but in terms of style and action, the film spoke volumes. "Everybody enjoyed it just as much as if it had been in English", Eastwood recalled. Soon, he was on the phone with the filmmakers' representative: "Yeah, I'll work for that director again", he said. Charles Bronson was again approached for a starring role but he passed, citing that the sequel's script was like the first film.[9] Instead, Lee Van Cleef accepted the role. Eastwood received $50,000 for returning in the sequel, while Van Cleef received $17,000.[1] Screenwriter Luciano Vincenzoni wrote the film in nine days.[10] However, Leone was dissatisfied with some of the script's dialogue, and hired Sergio Donati to work as an uncredited script doctor.[11] Production[edit] The film was shot in Almería, Spain, with interiors done at Rome's Cinecittà Studios.[1] The production designer Carlo Simi built the town of "El Paso" in the Almería desert:[12] it still exists, as the tourist attraction Mini Hollywood.[13] The town of Agua Caliente, where Indio and his gang flee after the bank robbery, is Albaricoques, a small "pueblo blanco" on the Níjar plain. Post-production[edit] As all of the film's footage was shot MOS (i.e. without recording sound at time of shooting), Eastwood and Van Cleef returned to Italy where they dubbed over their dialogue, and sound effects were added.[14] Although it is explicitly stated in the movie that the Colonel Mortimer character is originally from the Carolinas, Van Cleef opted to perform his dialogue using his native New Jersey accent rather than a Southern accent.[15] Music[edit] The musical score was composed by Ennio Morricone, who had previously collaborated with director Leone on A Fistful of Dollars. Under Leone's explicit direction, Morricone began writing the score before production had started, as Leone often shot to the music on set.[16] The music is notable for its blend of diegetic and non-diegetic moments through a recurring motif that originates from the identical pocket watches belonging to El Indio and Colonel Mortimer.[17] "The music that the watch makes transfers your thought to a different place," said Morricone. "The character itself comes out through the watch but in a different situation every time it appears."[18] For a Few Dollars More Soundtrack album by Ennio Morricone Released1965 (Original album) GenreSoundtrack LabelRCA Italiana Ennio Morricone chronology Se non avessi più te (1965)For a Few Dollars More (1965)Idoli controluce (1966) A soundtrack album was originally released in Italy by RCA Italiana.[19] In the United States, Hugo Montenegro released a cover version as did Billy Strange and Leroy Holmes who released a cover version of the soundtrack album with the original American poster art. Maurizio Graf sang a vocal "Occhio Per Occhio"/"Eye For An Eye" to the music of the cue "Sixty Seconds to What" track that did not appear in the film but was released as a tie-in 45rpm record. All tracks written by Ennio Morricone. Track listing No.TitleLength 1."La Resa Dei Conti"3:06 2."Osservatori Osservati"2:01 3."Il Vizio Di Uccidere"2:24 4."Il Colpo"2:21 5."Addio Colonnello"1:44 6."Per Qualche Dollaro In Più"2:50 7."Poker D'Assi"1:15 8."Carillon"1:10 Release and reception[edit] Box office[edit] For a Few Dollars More was released in Italy in December 1965 as Per Qualche Dollaro in Più.[20] In the United States, the film debuted on 10 May 1967, four months after the release of A Fistful of Dollars, grossing $5 million.[20] At the time of its Italian release, the film proved to be even more commercially successful than its predecessor.[21] By 1967, the film became the highest-grossing film of any nationality in the history of Italian cinema.[22] It was the seventh most popular movie at the French box office in 1966, after La Grande Vadrouille, Dr Zhivago, Is Paris Burning?, A Fistful of Dollars and Lost Command and A Man and a Woman.[23] Critical reception[edit] It initially received mediocre reviews from critics. Bosley Crowther of The New York Times said, "The fact that this film is constructed to endorse the exercise of murderers, to emphasize killer bravado and generate glee in frantic manifestations of death is, to my mind, a sharp indictment of it as so-called entertainment in this day."[24] Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times described the film as "one great old Western cliché after another" and that the film "is composed of situations and not plots."[25] The film has since grown in popularity, while also gaining more positive feedback from contemporary critics. The review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes reports a 94% approval rating with an average rating of 7.8/10 based on 33 reviews. The website's consensus reads, "With Clint Eastwood in the lead, Ennio Morricone on the score, and Sergio Leone's stylish direction, For a Few Dollars More earns its recognition as a genre classic."[26] In a retrospective review of the Dollars Trilogy, Paul Martinovic of Den of Geek said, "For A Few Dollars More is often overlooked in the trilogy, awkwardly sandwiched between both the original film and the best-known, but it's a stunning film in its own right."[27] Paolo Sardinas of MovieWeb said, "Eastwood gives it his all and turns in another iconic performance along with scene stealer Lee Van Cleef, who helps make For a Few Dollars More twice as good as its predecessor."[28] British journalist Kim Newman has pointed out that the film changed the way bounty hunters were viewed by audiences. It moved them away from a "profession to be ashamed of", one with a "(ranking) lower than a card sharp on the Western scale of worthwhile citizens", to one of heroic respectability.[29][30][194] EBAY3195 Condition: Used, Condition: The condition is very good . 2 folds . ( Pls look at scan for accurate AS IS images ), Size: GIANT size around 28" x 38" ( not accurate ), Country/Region of Manufacture: United States, Country of Manufacture: Israel

PicClick Insights PicClick Exclusive
  •  Popularity - 386 views, 5.4 views per day, 72 days on eBay. Super high amount of views. 0 sold, 1 available.
  •  Price -
  •  Seller - 2,055+ items sold. 0% negative feedback. Top-Rated Seller! Ships on time with tracking, 0 problems with past sales.
Similar Items