Seller: highrating_lowprice (20,920) 100%, Location: Rego Park, New York, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 321044675506 Item: i21849 Authentic Ancient Coin of: Greek City of Kolophon in Ionia Bronze 18mm (5.54 grams) Struck 320-294 B.C. under magistrate Ikesios Reference: Sear 4354 var.; Kinns 103; Milne, Colophon 136; SNG Copenhagen 166 Laureate head of Apollo right. Horseman prancing right, armored and holding spear couched; lyre and K O Λ in field above, IKEΣIOΣ below. Situated several miles inland, on the river Halesos, Colophon was an important city and claimed to be the birthplace of Homer. The famous oracle of Apollo Klarios was within its territory. You are bidding on the exact item pictured, provided with a Certificate of Authenticity and Lifetime Guarantee of Authenticity. Colophon (Greek Κολοφών) was a city in the region of Lydia in antiquity dating from about the turn of the first millennium-BC. It was likely one the oldest of the twelve Ionian League cities, between Lebedos (120 stadia to the west) and Ephesus (to its south) and its ruins are in the eponymously named modern region of Ionia . The city's name comes from the word κολοφών, 'summit', which is also the origin of the bibliographic term 'colophon', in the metaphorical sense of a 'crowning touch', as it was sited along a ridgeline. The term "colophony" for rosin comes from the term colophonia resina, that is, resin from the pine trees of Colophon, which was highly valued for the strings of musical instruments. The ruins of the city are at the Castro of Ghiaour-Keui , a minor village in İzmir , Menderes . // Antiquity In Greek antiquity two sons of Codrus , King of Athens , established a colony there. It was the birthplace of the philosopher Xenophanes and the poet Mimnermus . After the death of Alexander the Great, Perdiccas expelled the Athenian settlers on Samos to Colophon, including the family of Epicurus , who joined them there after completing his military service. The cavalry of Colophon was renowned. In the third century BC, it was destroyed by Lysimachus —a Macedonian officer, one of the successors (Diadochi) of Alexander the Great , later a king (306 BCE) in Thrace and Asia Minor , during the same era when he nearly destroyed (and did depopulate by forced expulsion) the neighboring Ionian League city of Lebedos . Notium served as the port, and in the neighbourhood was the village of Clarus , with its famous temple and oracle of Apollo Clarius , where Calchas vied with Mopsus in divinatory science. In Roman times, after Lysimachus ' conquest, Colophon failed to recover (unlike Lebedos ) and lost its importance; actually, the name was transferred to the site of the port village of Notium , and the latter name disappeared between the Peloponnesian War and the time of Cicero (late 400s BC to 1st century BC ). Additionally, the city, as a major location on the Ionic mainland, was cited as a possible home or birthplace for Homer . In his True History, Lucian lists it as a possible birthplace along with the island of Khios and the city of Smyrna, though Lucian's Homer claims to be from Babylon . Apollo Belvedere , ca. 120–140 CE Apollo is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in ancient Greek and Roman religion , Greek and Roman mythology , and Greco –Roman Neopaganism . The ideal of the kouros (a beardless, athletic youth), Apollo has been variously recognized as a god of light and the sun, truth and prophecy, healing, plague, music, poetry, and more. Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto , and has a twin sister, the chaste huntress Artemis . Apollo is known in Greek-influenced Etruscan mythology as Apulu. As the patron of Delphi (Pythian Apollo), Apollo was an oracular god—the prophetic deity of the Delphic Oracle . Medicine and healing are associated with Apollo, whether through the god himself or mediated through his son Asclepius , yet Apollo was also seen as a god who could bring ill-health and deadly plague . Amongst the god's custodial charges, Apollo became associated with dominion over colonists , and as the patron defender of herds and flocks. As the leader of the Muses (Apollon Musegetes) and director of their choir, Apollo functioned as the patron god of music and poetry. Hermes created the lyre for him, and the instrument became a common attribute of Apollo . Hymns sung to Apollo were called paeans . Apollo (left) and Artemis . Brygos (potter signed), Tondo of an Attic red-figure cup c. 470 BC, Musée du Louvre . In Hellenistic times, especially during the 3rd century BCE, as Apollo Helios he became identified among Greeks with Helios , Titan god of the sun , and his sister Artemis similarly equated with Selene , Titan goddess of the moon In Latin texts, on the other hand, Joseph Fontenrose declared himself unable to find any conflation of Apollo with Sol among the Augustan poets of the 1st century, not even in the conjurations of Aeneas and Latinus in Aeneid XII (161–215). Apollo and Helios/Sol remained separate beings in literary and mythological texts until the 3rd century CE. Origins The Omphalos in the Museum of Delphi . The cult centers of Apollo in Greece, Delphi and Delos , date from the 8th century BCE. The Delos sanctuary was primarily dedicated to Artemis , Apollo's twin sister. At Delphi, Apollo was venerated as the slayer of Pytho . For the Greeks, Apollo was all the Gods in one and through the centuries he acquired different functions which could originate from different gods. In archaic Greece he was the prophet , the oracular god who in older times was connected with "healing". In classical Greece he was the god of light and of music, but in popular religion he had a strong function to keep away evil. From his eastern-origin Apollo brought the art of inspection from "symbols and omina " (σημεία και τέρατα : semeia kai terata), and of the observation of the omens of the days. The inspiration oracular-cult was probably introduced from Anatolia . The ritualism belonged to Apollo from the beginning. The Greeks created the legalism , the supervision of the orders of the gods, and the demand for moderation and harmony. Apollo became the god of shining youth, the protector of music, spiritual-life, moderation and perceptible order. The improvement of the old Anatolian god, and his elevation to an intellectual sphere, may be considered an achievement of the Greek people. Healer and god-protector from evil The function of Apollo as a "healer" is connected with Paean , the physician of the Gods in the Iliad , who seems to come from a more primitive religion. Paeοn is probably connected with the Mycenean Pa-ja-wo, but the etymology is the only evidence. He did not have a separate cult, but he was the personification of the holy magic-song sung by the magicians that was supposed to cure disease. Later the Greeks knew the original meaning of the relevant song "paean". The magicians were also called "seer-doctors", and they used an ecstatic prophetic art which was used exactly by the god Apollo at the oracles. In the Iliad, Apollo is the healer under the gods, but he is also the bringer of disease and death with his arrows, similar to the function of the terrible Vedic god of disease Rudra .He sends a terrible plague to the Achaeans . The god who sends a disease can also prevent from it, therefore when it stops they make a purifying ceremony and offer him an "hecatomb" to ward off evil. When the oath of his priest appeases, they pray and with a song they call their own god, the beautiful Paean. Some common epithets of Apollo as a healer are "paion" , "epikourios", "oulios", and "loimios" . In classical times, his strong function in popular religion was to keep away evil, and was therefore called "apotropaios" and "alexikakos" , throw away the evil). In later writers, the word, usually spelled "Paean", becomes a mere epithet of Apollo in his capacity as a god of healing . Homer illustrated Paeon the god, and the song both of apotropaic thanksgiving or triumph. Such songs were originally addressed to Apollo, and afterwards to other gods: to Dionysus , to Apollo Helios , to Apollo's son Asclepius the healer. About the 4th century BCE, the paean became merely a formula of adulation; its object was either to implore protection against disease and misfortune, or to offer thanks after such protection had been rendered. It was in this way that Apollo had become recognised as the god of music. Apollo's role as the slayer of the Python led to his association with battle and victory; hence it became the Roman custom for a paean to be sung by an army on the march and before entering into battle, when a fleet left the harbour, and also after a victory had been won. Oracular cult Columns of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi, Greece. Unusually among the Olympic deities, Apollo had two cult sites that had widespread influence: Delos and Delphi . In cult practice, Delian Apollo and Pythian Apollo (the Apollo of Delphi) were so distinct that they might both have shrines in the same locality.Apollo's cult was already fully established when written sources commenced, about 650 BCE. Apollo became extremely important to the Greek world as an oracular deity in the archaic period , and the frequency of theophoric names such as Apollodorus or Apollonios and cities named Apollonia testify to his popularity. Oracular sanctuaries to Apollo were established in other sites. In the 2nd and 3rd century CE, those at Didyma and Clarus pronounced the so-called "theological oracles", in which Apollo confirms that all deities are aspects or servants of an all-encompassing, highest deity . "In the 3rd century, Apollo fell silent. Julian the Apostate (359 - 61) tried to revive the Delphic oracle, but failed Frequently Asked Questions How long until my order is shipped? Depending on the volume of sales, it may take up to 5 business days for shipment of your order after the receipt of payment. How will I know when the order was shipped? After your order has shipped, you will be left positive feedback, and that date should be used as a basis of estimating an arrival date. 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