Lucy Beginnings of Humankind Archaeology Anthropology Australopithecus afarensis

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Seller: ancientgifts ✉️ (5,288) 100%, Location: Ferndale, Washington, US, Ships to: WORLDWIDE, Item: 124524569943 Lucy Beginnings of Humankind Archaeology Anthropology Australopithecus afarensis. The Amazing, Critically Acclaimed History of the Dramatic Discovery of Mankind’s Oldest Remains – Lucy! By Donald Johanson and Maitland Edey. NOTE: We have 75,000 books in our library, almost 10,000 different titles. Odds are we have other copies of this same title in varying conditions, some less expensive, some better condition. We might also have different editions as well (some paperback, some hardcover, oftentimes international editions). If you don’t see what you want, please contact us and ask. We’re happy to send you a summary of the differing conditions and prices we may have for the same title. DESCRIPTION: Hardcover with Dust Jacket. Publisher: Simon & Schuster (1981). Length: 409 pages. Dimensions: 9¼ x 6¼ x 1½ inches; 2 pounds. If you have any interest in archaeology or the origins of mankind, this is a MUST READ. Acclaimed both by critics as well as the general public – the story of one of the most significant finds ever of Paleoanthropology. 409 pages. Publisher: Simon and Schuster; (1981). When Donald Johanson discovered a partial skeleton, approximately 3.5 million years old, in the remote Afar region of Ethiopia in November of 1974, he knew he had stumbled onto something unique. Bursting with all the suspense and intrigue of a fast-paced adventure novel, and filled with lively, up-to-the-minute scientific detail and marvelous illustrations in color and black-and-white, this significant book unfolds the extraordinary discovery of “Lucy”, the oldest, most complete, best-preserved skeleton of any erect-walking human ancestor ever found, and the first new species to be named in more than 15 years. The book reveals the controversial change Lucy makes in our view of human origins, and provides a vivid, behind-the-scenes account of the entire history of paleoanthropology; as well as the eccentric, colorful characters who are and were a part of it. In January 1979, Johanson’s startling “official” announcement of his discovery of Lucy (which is how the world knows her, from the Beatle’s song “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds” even though her scientific name is Australopithecus afarensis), was an event that captured headlines, catapulted a young, relatively unknown American paleoanthropologist into international acclaim, and created a spirited, ongoing controversy among experts; including most notably Mary and Richard Leakey, in this wonderfully enigmatic field of fierce rivalries and astonishing breakthroughs. The story behind the controversy between Johanson and Richard Leakey over the significance of Lucy is revealed here fully for the first time, and marks the first real and successful challenge to the “Leakey Dynasty” ever made. What was Lucy? Her brain was too small to be a human’s, yet she walked upright, the very hallmark of being human. Where on the meticulously worked out line of human evolution; the “family tree”, did she fit? As Johanson confronts, and answers these hard questions and others, he takes us with him into the field and into the lab as he analyzes his new fossils (the year after he discovered Lucy, he discovered fossils of at least 13 individuals who were probably related and are now known as the “First Family”), conducts ever more ambitious expeditions, consults with colleagues, experiences doubts, conquers his own biases, and gains fresh insights along the way. And he takes us back into time, letting us relive the discoveries of Raymond Dart’s Taung Baby, the Java “Ape-Man”, the controversial Piltdown Man, and many others. We are also introduced to such fascinating people as Robert Brook, Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, Raymond Dart, Louis Leakey, Sir Arthur Keith, Eugene Dubois, and others. We learn about potassium-argon dating (how age is determined), how and why our ancestors began to walk upright, and the differences and similarities between apes and humans; and much more. Never before have the mystery and intricacy of our origins, a subject of endless fascination, been so clearly and compellingly explained as in this astonishing book. Illustrated with 8 pages of color, 32 black-and-white photographs, and 142 line drawings, diagrams, charts, and endpaper maps. CONDITION: LIKE NEW. Unread (but not entirely unblemished) hardcover w/dustjacket. Simon & Schuster (1981) 409 pages. Pages are pristine; clean, crisp, unmarked, unmutilated, tightly bound, unambiguously unread. However the dustjacket evidences very mild edge and corner shelfwear, together with prominent rubbing to the (front side) extremeties. Dustjacket is a high gloss burgundy, and it shows substantial wear along the edges and the corners of the front side of the dustjacket - no tears or other such blemishes, just the color is worn away at the edges and corners. High gloss dustjackets like this evidence rubbing very easily, even merely from being shelved between other books. Beneath the dustjacket the quarter cloth covers are absolutely clean evidencing only very mild edge and corner shelfwear. Except for the rubbing to the front side of the dustjacket the overall condition of the books is otherwise consistent with what might otherwise pass as "new" (albeit 30 year old "new") from an open-shelf bookstore environment such as Barnes & Noble, where otherwise "new" books might show minor signs of shelfwear, consequence of being shelved and re-shelved. Satisfaction unconditionally guaranteed. In stock, ready to ship. No disappointments, no excuses. PROMPT SHIPPING! HEAVILY PADDED, DAMAGE-FREE PACKAGING! Meticulous and accurate descriptions! Selling rare and out-of-print ancient history books on-line since 1997. We accept returns for any reason within 30 days! #016h. PLEASE SEE IMAGES BELOW FOR SAMPLE PAGES FROM INSIDE OF BOOK. PLEASE SEE PUBLISHER, PROFESSIONAL, AND READER REVIEWS BELOW. PUBLISHER REVIEW: REVIEW: Donald Johanson found a partial skeleton, approximately 3.5 million years old, in a remote region of Ethiopia in 1974, a headline-making controversy was launched that continues on today. Bursting with all the suspense and intrigue of a fast-paced adventure novel, here is Johanson's lively account of the extraordinary discovery of "Lucy", the oldest, best-preserved skeleton of any erect-walking human ancestor ever found. By expounding the controversial change Lucy makes in our view of human origins, Johanson provides a vivid, behind-the-scenes account of the history of paleoanthropology and the colorful, eccentric characters who were and are a part of it. Never before have the mystery and intricacy of our origins been as clearly and compellingly explained as in this astonishing and dramatic book. 409 pages. Dr. Donald Johanson, one of the world’s leading paleoanthropologists, was born in Chicago, Illinoise in 1943. He received his B.A. in Anthropology in 1966 from the University of Illinois, and his M.A. and Ph.D. in 1970 and 1974 from the University of Chicago, where he studied under the distinguished paleoanthropologist F. Clark Howell. In 1973, when Johanson was co-directing the International Afar Research Expedition, he discovered a perfectly preserved knee joint at the Hadar site in Ethiopia. This historic discovery represented the oldest anatomical evidence for man’s bipedal stature and locomotion, the hallmark of mankind. The following year, also at Hadar, Johnason found Lucy; the year after that, the “First Family”. In 1974 he became Curator of Physical Anthropology at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, and in 1976, Director of scientific Research as well. He held Adjunct Professor appointments at Case Western Reserve and Kent State Universities. Dr. Johanson has traveled and lectured in Europe, the United States, Africa, and the Middle East, and published hundreds of scientific and popular articles in such magazines as Science, Nature, and National Geographic. “Lucy” was his first book. “Lucy’s Child” was its sequel. Co-Author of “Lucy” was Maitland A. Edey, one of America’s foremost science writers of the time. Edey was a graduate of Princeton University and a former editor of Life and Time-Life Books. “Lucy” was his tenth book. Two of his previous books had dealt with the subject of paleoanthropology. One of those was in collaboration with F. Clark Howell. PROFESSIONAL REVIEWS: REVIEW: Donald Johanson, the discoverer, in 1974, of "Lucy", the oldest skeleton of an erect-walking human yet found, reports the story of his internationally acclaimed find and speculates on its meaning for the understanding of our origin. “Lucy” is unquestionably an amazing scientific success story. It is a brilliant, prodigious work, and a world-wide “must read”. REVIEW: “Lucy” is absolutely the most enthralling book I have ever read on the discoveries, and their discoverers, during this century of fossil humans and their forerunners. That it is coauthored by the discoverer of one of the most interesting of these forms adds both drama and authority to this utterly fascinating book. READER REVIEWS: REVIEW: The value of this book hasn't diminished with the passage of time. Its compelling story of the growth of paleoanthropology in the 20th Century remains unmatched. Johanson's role should be known to most, but this personal relation endures as a landmark for those interested in the development of humanity. He's given us a lucid story of the life and work of the paleoanthropologist both in the field and laboratory. He is candid in assessing other workers and himself in tracing the line of descent from ape-like creatures to modern humans. He opens with a peerless overview of the key figures in the field, their insights, prejudices, successes and failures. The field was dominated by British research. The small German community of scientists held little challenge, and American researchers were nonexistent. Heady with victories that had left the Victorian Empire firmly established, the British stoutly maintained that intelligent humans were the product of the North European environment. Tropic peoples were torpid and apathetic. The harsher conditions of Northern Europe had forced increased cranial capacity, leading to intelligence. Brain growth, in their view, had preceded human bipedalism. If cranial enlargement was shown to be of British origins, so much the better. The Piltdown find was a prime example of that scenario, nearly universally accepted as fitting into the preconceived assumption. When a tiny skull found in 1925 in South Africa indicated that a human ancestor walked upright over a million years ago, there was consternation. Modern human roots couldn't be African and bipedalism before intelligence seemed outlandish. The Taung Child, however, couldn't be refuted, increasing the attention to African origins. Louis Leakey led the campaign and his many striking finds captured headlines and brought notoriety; and funding. More importantly, the new discoveries at last made it possible to begin drawing lines of human descent. While the Leakey team disclosures pushed the age of human origins into a more distant past, it was Johanson's discovery of an unusually complete skeleton that rocked the world. Finding ancestral human more than three million years old unseated the Leakey team as the leading paleoanthropological group and catapulted Johanson to the top. Johanson's account of making the find and his subsequent discoveries makes vivid reading. His outlook is modest enough, admitting to uncommon luck and the support of a talented team. He also shows the value of perseverance in his field. None of this detracts from the science and the struggle he and Tim White endured in presenting Lucy as a likely ancestor to us. The later clash with the Leakey family was disconcerting at a time when some unity was needed to establish the path human evolution has taken. All these circumstances are related without rancor, done in a highly effective homey style. Johanson's respect is deserved, both as a writer and field researcher. The shining jewel in this account remains the description of a seminar given to Johanson's graduate students by Owen Lovejoy. Lovejoy, an expert in animal locomotion, gives the clearest brief account of the course of human evolution yet offered. In a mere twenty-some pages, he shows how humans departed from other primates in bipedalism, sexual and child- rearing habits leading to modern family and community relationships. If for nothing else, this essay gives this book inestimable value. It remains unmatched, and belongs on the shelf of anyone interested in our origins. REVIEW: I have to say that this was the book that made me seriously interested in paleontology and archaeology. I first read it in 6th grade (no, it is not a children's book), and I enjoyed the anecdotes that Johanson provided time and again. I read it again when I was in a teenager, and I realized just how wonderful the book really is. Johanson provides an in-depth look into the life of a paleontologist (himself) while detailing his work in simple, easy to understand language. Even the difficult scientific methods and information were described in a way that makes them accessible to the common people; or at least people who are not archaeology majors. I was amazed at his ability to write an interesting, yet incredibly truthful account of the discovery of "Lucy", presumed to be the "first" human; in other words, the missing link in the evolutionary tree between humans and animals (primates). The book began my love of all things related to paleontology and archaeology, which I hope will never be sated! I recommend that anyone who was ever curious about dinosaurs as a child, or the exciting reality that these people see things that have not been seen for millions of years, or where in the world we came from, how we got to be who we are; in short, anyone and everyone, please take the time to borrow, if not buy this book! REVIEW: As a reader who has a sparse knowledge of anthropology, I can say this book was a pleasurable and informative read. Dr. Johanson divided the book into a prologue and five parts. The prologue describes the events of November 30, 1974, the day Lucy was discovered. The first part covers a brief background to the earliest fossil finds and is invaluable to any reader who is interested in who's who among some of the earliest scientists working on human origins. Part two covers his actual field expeditions to East Africa. During his first field season, Johanson became concerned about financing when his original grant of $43,000 was dwindling away. It is interesting to note, as Johanson describes about anthropology, that science is more than just field work and analysis. There are political, financial, and human relation issues that need to be mastered for the mission to succeed. I found part three, the analysis of Lucy, to be the most compelling. Johanson includes Le Gros Clark's paper and accompanying illustrations to highlight eight differences between chimpanzee jaws and human jaws. Knowledge of these differences were of immeasurable value in the analysis of an australopithecine jaw. Part four delivers a brief account of how our ancestors began to walk upright. I found this to be interesting but highly speculative. The final section includes drawings of how australopithecus afarensis may have appeared. I would highly recommend this book to anyone with a desire to know more about human ancestors and how a paleoanthropologist proceeds in uncovering our past. REVIEW: This book allows for those readers who know nothing about the archaeological world a glimpse into the past. For those readers, such as myself, I congratulate the author and encourage others to read this book. It is an interesting look into the events leading to the discovery of Humankind's oldest known ancestor, Lucy, and chronicles Dr. Johanson's growth from hot-shot college graduate to experienced, world renown field worker. As it is from his perspective, it gives a more personable and personal angle to the story as a whole. This is surely the most interesting book I have ever read. It is hard to let go once you start reading. Dr. Johanson takes the reader into the field with him, and makes him part of the excitement. A must read book. REVIEW: Johanson has a writing style that instantly draws the reader into the book. He gives a good history of paleoanthropology before heading into the real story about his own fossil finds. Three quarters of the book is narrative on the years he was in the field interlaced with short stories about other paleoanthropologists. He writes with an unbiased, pleasant style that is lacking in most scientists. The book is written so well that most people even if they are not interested in the topic could get enjoyment from it. It’s a gripping work that blends the history of paleoanthropology with modern techniques and Johanson's enlightening insight into a remarkably enjoyable scientific work. ADDITIONAL BACKGROUND: Australopithecus: The term “Australopithecus” is derived from the Latin “australis”, meaning “southern”, and the Greek “pithekos”, meaning “ape”. Australopithecus is a genus of hominins that existed in Africa from around 4.2 to 1.9 million years ago. It is from Australopithecus the genus Homo, including modern humans, is considered to be descended. Australopithecus is a member of the Australopithecina family, which includes Paranthropus, Kenyanthropus, Ardipithecus and Praeanthropus. The term "australopithecine" is however sometimes used to refer only to members of Australopithecus. Sub-species include: Australopithecus garhi, africanus, sediba, afarensis, anamensis, bahrelghazali and deyiremeda. Debate exists as to whether other hominid species of this time belong to a separate genus. These would include Paranthropus ('robust australopithecines') or Australopithecus ('gracile australopiths’). There’s also ongoing discussion as to whether some Australopithecus species should be completely reclassified. Based on the paleontological and archaeological evidence Australopithecus apparently evolved in eastern Africa around 4.2 million years ago. They spread throughout the African continent and eventually becoming extinct 1.9 million years ago (or 1.2 million years ago if Paranthropus is included). None of the groups directly assigned to this group survived. However Australopithecus is not literally extinct in the sense of having no living descendants. This is due to the fact that the genus Homo probably emerged from an Australopithecus species at some time between 3 and 2 million years ago. Australopithecus possessed genes which contributed to the increase in number and migration of neurons in the human brain. Significant changes to the hand first appear in the fossil record of later Australopithecus afarensis. About 3 million years ago shorter fingers evolved relative to thumb and as well as changes to the joints between the index finger and hand. The first Australopithecus specimen, the type specimen, was discovered in 1924 in a lime quarry by workers at Taung, South Africa. The specimen was studied by the Australian anatomist Raymond Dart, who was then working at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg. The fossil skull was from a three-year-old bipedal primate that he named Australopithecus africanus. The first report was published in Nature in February 1925. Dart realized that the fossil contained a number of humanoid features, and so he came to the conclusion that this was an early human ancestor. Later Scottish paleontologist Robert Broom and Dart set out to search for more early hominin specimens. They discovered several more sets of Australopithecus africanus remains from various sites. Initially the anthropological community was largely hostile to the idea that these discoveries were anything but apes. However this institutional attitude changed during the late 1940s. In 1950 evolutionary biologist Ernst Walter Mayr said that all bipedal apes should be classified into the genus Homo, and considered renaming Australopithecus to Homo transvaalensis. However the contradictory view taken by Robinson in 1954 excluded australopiths from Homo, and this became the prevalent view. The first australopithecine fossil discovered in eastern Africa was an Australopithecus boisei skull excavated by Mary Leakey in 1959 in Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. The scientific community took 20 more years to widely accept Australopithecus as a member of the human family tree. Since then, the Leakey family has continued to excavate the gorge. Their efforts have provided further evidence for australopithecines, as well as for Homo habilis and Homo erectus. In 1997 an almost complete Australopithecus skeleton with skull was found in the Sterkfontein caves of Gauteng, South Africa. It is now called "Little Foot" and it is around 3.7 million years old. It was named Australopithecus prometheus which has since been placed within Australopithecus africanus. Other fossil remains found in the same cave in 2008 were named Australopithecus sediba, which lived 1.9 million years ago. Australopithecus africanus probably evolved into Australopithecus sediba. Some scientists think Australopithecus sediba may have evolved into Homo erectus, though this remain contentious. The genus Australopithecus is considered to be a “wastebasket” classification. The members are united by their similar physiology rather than close relations with each other over other hominin groups. As such the genus does not consist of a common ancestor and all of its descendents. However Australopithecus is considered to be the ancestor of the Homo genus, Kenyanthropus, and Paranthropus. Opinions differ as to whether the Paranthropus should be included within Australopithecus. It is suggested that Paranthropus along with Homo evolved from Australopithecus africanus. The members of Paranthropus appear to have a distinctly robust character distinct from other australopiths. But it is unclear if this indicates all members stemmed from a common ancestor, or independently evolved similar traits from occupying a similar ecological niche. Australopiths shared several traits with modern apes and humans. They were widespread throughout Eastern and Northern Africa by 3.5 million years ago. The earliest evidence of fundamentally bipedal hominins is a 3.6 million year old fossil trackway in Laetoli, Tanzania. The footprints bear a remarkable similarity to those of modern humans, and have generally been classified as australopith. Australopiths are the only form of prehuman hominins known to have existed in that region at that time. Australopithecus anamensis, afarensis, and africanus are among the most famous of the extinct hominins. Australopithecus africanus was once considered to be ancestral to the genus Homo, in particular Homo erectus. However, fossils assigned to the genus Homo have been found that are older than Australopithecus Africanus. Thus the genus Homo likely split off from the genus Australopithecus at an earlier date. The latest common ancestor would be either Australopithecus afarensis or an even earlier form, possibly Kenyanthropus. The alternative would be that both developed independently from a yet possibly unknown common ancestor. According to the Chimpanzee Genome Project, assuming a constant rate of mutation the last common human–chimpanzee ancestor existed about five to six million years ago,. However hominin species dated to earlier than the date could call this into question. Sahelanthropus tchadensis, commonly called "Toumai", is about seven million years old and Orrorin tugenensis lived at least six million years ago. Since little is known of them they remain controversial among scientists since the molecular clock in humans has determined that humans and chimpanzees had a genetic split at least a million years later. One theory suggests that (as was the caser with Homo sapien and Neanderthals) the human and chimpanzee lineages diverged somewhat at first. After this split some populations interbred around one million years later. The brains of most species of Australopithecus were roughly 35% of the size of a modern human brain with an endocranial volume average of 466 cc. This is more than the average endocranial volume of chimpanzee brains at 360 cc. Nonetheless the earliest australopiths (Australopithecus anamensis) appear to have been roughly within the chimpanzee range. Some later australopith specimens have a larger endocranial volume, even larger than that of some early Homo fossils. Most species of Australopithecus were diminutive and gracile, usually standing 1.2 to 1.4 meters (4 to4 ½ feet) tall. It is possible that they exhibited a considerable degree of sexual dimorphism, i.e., males being larger than females. In modern human populations males are on average 15% larger than females. In Australopithecus some estimates suggest that males could have been up to 50% larger than females by some estimates. However the actual degree of sexual dimorphism is uncertain due to the fragmentary nature of australopith fossil remains. According to researchers Australopithecus body proportions closely resemble those of bonobos (Pan paniscus), and suggest that bonobos may be phenotypically similar to Australopithecus. Furthermore thermoregulatory models suggest that australopiths were fully hair covered. They more resembled chimpanzees and bonobos than they did humans. The fossil record seems to indicate that Australopithecus is ancestral to Homo and modern humans. It was once assumed that large brain size had been a precursor to bipedalism. However the recent discovery of Australopithecus remains with a small brain but that had developed bipedality upset this theory. Nonetheless it remains a matter of controversy as to how bipedalism first emerged. The advantages of bipedalism were that it left the hands free to grasp objects, i.e., to carry food and infants. It also allowed the eyes to look over tall grasses for possible food sources or predators. However many evolutionary biologists argue that these advantages alone were not significant enough to cause the emergence of bipedalism. Earlier fossils such as Orrorin tugenensis indicate bipedalism around six million years ago. This would have been around the time of the split between humans and chimpanzees indicated by genetic studies. This suggests that erect, straight-legged walking originated as an adaptation to tree-dwelling. Major changes to the pelvis and feet had already taken place before Australopithecus. It was once thought that humans descended from a knuckle-walking ancestor, but this is not well-supported in the archaeological record. Australopithecines have thirty two teeth, like modern humans. Their molars were parallel, like those of great apes, and they had a slight pre-canine gap (diastema). Their canines were smaller, like modern humans, and with the teeth less interlocked than in previous hominins. In fact, in some australopithecines, the canines are shaped more like modern incisors. The molars of Australopithecus fit together in much the same way those of humans do, with low crowns and four low, rounded cusps used for crushing. They have cutting edges on the crests. However, australopiths generally evolved a larger postcanine dentition with thicker enamel. Australopiths in general had thick enamel, like Homo, while other great apes have markedly thinner enamel. Robust australopiths wore their molar surfaces down flat, unlike the more gracile species, who kept their crests. In a 1979 preliminary microwear study of Australopithecus fossil teeth, anthropologists theorized that robust australopiths ate predominantly fruit (frugivory). Australopithecus species are thought to have eaten mainly fruit, vegetables, and tubers, and perhaps easy to catch animals such as small lizards. Much research has focused on a comparison between the South African species Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus. Early analyses of dental microwear in these two species showed that compared to Paranthropus robustus, Australopithecus africanus had fewer microwear features and more scratches as opposed to pits on its molar wear facets. Microwear patterns on the cheek teeth of Australopithecus afarensis and Australopithecus anamensis indicate that Australopithecus afarensis predominantly ate fruits and leaves. In contrast Australopithecus anamensis included grasses and seeds in addition to fruits and leaves. The thickening of enamel in australopiths may have been a response to eating more ground-bound foods such as tubers, nuts, and cereal grains. Such a diet would have been contaminated by gritty dirt and other small particulates which would wear away enamel. Gracile australopiths had larger incisors, which indicates tearing food was important. This may have included eating scavenged meat. Even if so, the wearing patterns on the teeth suggest a largely herbivorous diet. In 1992, trace-element studies of the strontium/calcium ratios in robust australopith fossils suggested the possibility of animal consumption, as they did in 1994 using stable carbon isotopic analysis. In 2005 fossil animal bones with butchery marks dating to 2.6 million years old were found at the site of Gona, Ethiopia. This implies meat consumption by at least one of three species of hominins occurring around that time: Australopithecus africanus, Australopithecus garhi, and/or Paranthropus aethiopicus. In 2010 fossils of butchered animal bones dated 3.4 million years old were found in Ethiopia, close to regions where australopith fossils were found. Robust australopithecines (Paranthropus) had larger cheek teeth than gracile australopiths. This might possibly be because robust australopithecines had more tough, fibrous plant material in their diets. On the other hand it is likely that gracile australopiths ate more hard and brittle foods. However such divergence in chewing adaptations may instead have been a response to fallback food availability. In leaner times robust and gracile australopithecines may have turned to different low-quality foods (fibrous plants for the former, and hard food for the latter). However in more bountiful times it is likely they had more variable and overlapping diets. A study in 2018 found non-carious cervical lesions on the teeth of Australopithecus Africanus. The cause of the lesions was acid erosion, probably caused by consumption of acidic fruit. It was once thought that Australopithecus could not produce tools like Homo. However the 1994 discovery of Australopithecus garhi associated with large mammal bones bearing evidence of processing by stone tools showed this to not have been the case. This was the oldest evidence of manufacturing at the time until the 2010 discovery of cut marks dating to 3.4 million years ago attributed to Australopithecus afarensis. Following that was a similar 2015 discovery of the Lomekwi culture from Lake Turkana dating to 3.3 million years ago possibly attributed to Kenyanthropus. More stone tools dating to about 2.6 million years ago in Ledi-Geraru in the Afar Region were found in 2019, although these may be attributed to Homo [Wikipedia]. Australopithecus afarensis : When this small-bodied, small-brained hominin was discovered it proved that our early human relatives habitually walked on two legs. Its story began to take shape in late November 1974 in Ethiopia with the discovery of the fossilized skeleton of a small female nicknamed Lucy. More than 40 years later, Australopithecus afarensis is one of the best-represented species in the hominin fossil record. Australopithecus afarensis lived 3.7 million to three million years ago in Africa. Australopithecus afarensis possessed an appearance characterized by a projecting face, an upright stance and a mixture of ape-like and human-like body features. Australopithecus afarensis brain size ranged from about 385-550cc. They stood about 1 to 1.7 meters (3 feet, 3 inches to 5 feet, 7 inches) in height. Females were likely much shorter than males. Their weight would have been about 25 to 64 kilograms (55 to 141 pounds). Again, it is likely that females were significantly smaller than males. Their diet consisted primarily of plants including grasses, fruits and leaves. The species was named in 1978, four years after the discovery of Lucy. The name Australopithecus afarensis means “southern ape from Afar”, Afar being a region within Ethiopia. Australopithecus afarensis changed our understanding of human evolution. The genus Australopithecus consists of a group of small-bodied and small-brained early hominin species (human relatives). They were capable of walking upright but not well adapted for traveling long distances on the ground. Species in the australopith group also includes Australopithecus africanus, Australopithecus sediba, Australopithecus anamensis and Kenyanthropus platyops. Sometime prior to 2.5 million years ago the group probably gave rise to two more recent hominin groups, Homo and Paranthropus. Australopithecus afarensis wasn't the first member of the group discovered. That distinction went to the Australopithecus africanus, from South Africa. However the discovery of Australopithecus afarensis confirmed that these ancient human relatives habitually walked upright. The discovery confirmed that this feature of the human lineage occurred long before the evolution of bigger brains. Australopithecus afarensis discoveries in the 1970s, including Lucy’s fossilized remains as well as the Laetoli footprints, confirmed our ancient relatives were bipedal. They walked upright on two legs before big brains evolved. Replicas are on display at the Natural History Museum of London in the Human Evolution gallery. Also on display alongside is the skull of Kenyanthropus platyops. Kenyanthropus platyops is another hominin species that lived in East Africa during the same period. The ability to walk upright may have offered survival benefits, including the ability to spot dangerous predators earlier. Perhaps even more crucially it left the hands free to do other tasks, such as carry food and use tools. According to the fossils recovered to date Australopithecus afarensis lived between 3.7 and 3 million years ago. This means the species survived for at least 700,000 years. That’s more than twice as long as our own species, Homo sapiens, has been around. Australopithecus afarensis fossils have been unearthed in Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania at Laetoli, Omo, Hadar, Woranso-Mille and Dikika. They have also been found at Lake Turkana in Kenya. Lucy the Australopithecus afarensis was one of the first hominin fossils to become a household name. Her skeleton is around 40% complete. At the time of her discovery she was by far the most complete early hominin known. The momentous occasion occurred on November 24, 1974. Palaeoanthropologist Donald Johanson was exploring the ravines and valleys of the Hadar river in the Afar region of northeastern Ethiopia. He spotted an arm bone fragment poking out of a slope. Johanson later recounted that his pulse quickened as he realized the arm bone fragment belonged not to a monkey, but a hominin. As the team found more and more fragments, they began to appreciate that they were uncovering an extraordinary skeleton. The full excavation took three weeks. Lucy's skeleton consists of 47 out of 207 bones, including parts of the arms, legs, spine, ribs and pelvis. In addition the lower jaw and several other skull fragments were excavated. However most of the hand and foot bones were missing. The fossils are slightly less than 3.18 million years old. None of the bones were duplicates, supporting the conclusion that they came from a single individual. The shape of the pelvic bones revealed the individual was female. Lucy measured just 1.05 meters (40 inches) and would have weighed around 28 kilograms (62 pounds). Yet an erupted wisdom tooth and the fact that certain bones were fused suggested Lucy was a young adult. The affectionate nickname comes from the Beatles' song Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds, which was often playing from the team's tape recorder back at camp. Her small skull, long arms and conical rib cage are like an ape's. However Lucy possesses a more human-like spine, pelvis and knee due to walking upright. Johanson thought Lucy was either a small member of the genus Homo or a small australopithecine. Only after analyzing other fossils subsequently uncovered nearby and at Laetoli in Kenya did scientists establish a new species. Four years after the discovery the new species was established, Australopithecus afarensis. At the time Australopithecus afarensis was the oldest hominin species known, although far older species have since been found. Researchers studied injuries to Lucy's bones to see whether they offered insights into how she died, publishing their findings in 2016. CT scans revealed fractures in her shoulder joint and arms. The fractures were similar to those observed in people who fall from a great height, as if she reached out to break her fall. They also indicated that many of the breaks occurred around the time of death, rather than over time as the bones became fossilized. The researchers believe the injuries observed were severe enough that internal organs could also have been damaged. Based on their evidence, the team suggest that Lucy died falling out of a tree. However this conclusion is not uncertain. Many scientists, including Johanson, say there are other plausible explanations for the breakages. It’s possible that Lucy may have been trampled by stampeding animals after death. Australopithecus afarensis possessed both ape-like and human-like characteristics. The top of its skull, the cranial vault, was slightly domed and its brain was comparable in size to a chimpanzee's. Its face projected outwards, less so in females than in males. Some Australopithecus afarensis skull specimens show evidence this species possessed powerful chewing muscles, indications that their diet required hard chewing of tough plant material. They possessed ape-like long arms and more human-like feet, together with an upright stance. It is generally believed they had an abundance of body hair, a characteristic likely lost later in human evolution. The smallest Australopithecus afarensis adults weighed an estimated 55 pounds (25 kilograms). The largest weighed about 141 pounds (64 kilograms). This is a broad range, suggesting pointing high sexual dimorphism. Sexual dimorphism is the difference in size and shape between males and females. Modern humans have a low level of sexual dimorphism and the two sexes look very similar. Gorillas on the other hand are sexually dimorphic to a high degree. The difference between Australopithecus afarensis males and females is similar to the latter. Australopithecus afarensis had a number of distinctive dental features. In some members of the species the tooth rows diverge slightly towards the back. This forms a dental arcade (the part of the mouth where teeth sit) that is neither parallel-sided as in modern apes nor more rounded as in humans. The canine teeth of Australopithecus afarensis are much smaller than those of chimpanzees. They are also narrower and differently shaped to those of the earlier Australopithecus anamensis. The canine premolar honing complex has been completely lost. This is a feature present in chimpanzees and other apes outside of the hominin lineage. The large and projecting upper canine teeth are sharpened against the lower third premolars. All known modern and fossil apes have this honing complex. Its absence along with the presence of bipedalism is thought to be characteristic of species on the hominin lineage. Australopithecus afarensis was competent at walking upright on two legs. Skeletal features indicate it did so regularly. However it may not have walked in exactly the same way as we do or been able to walk long distances efficiently. Anatomical features associated with upright walking are present in the spine, pelvis, legs and feet. These include a broad pelvis and a femur that is angled inwards towards the knee so that the center of gravity lies directly above the foot. Lucy and her species also retained some adaptations for climbing and hanging from trees. These features are seen in the shoulders, arms, wrists and hands. It is likely that particularly the smaller females spent a significant amount of time moving around in trees. The larger males were probably less arboreal. Australopithecus afarensis may have foraged in the tree canopy as well as on the ground. They probably retreated to the trees at night to avoid predators and for a good night's sleep. Chimpanzees and other apes are known to build nesting platforms in tree canopies. The site of Laetoli in Tanzania preserves the oldest known hominin footprints. Nearly 3.7 million years ago, a volcanic eruption covered the landscape with a layer of fine ash. Rain created a surface like wet cement. Before it hardened a variety of animals wandered across it. Further eruptions covered the footprints they left behind. Thus the footprints were preserved for posterity. More than 20 species left tracks, including rhinoceroses, giraffes and baboons. Two years after the first animal prints were uncovered in 1978 palaeoanthropologist Mary Leakey excavated a 60 foot (27 meter) long trail made by hominins, consisting of about 70 footprints. They were attributed to Australopithecus afarensis. They remain to this day the most likely candidate as only this species has been found at Laetoli. The tracks show two individuals walked side by side and a third followed behind. Their toes and way of walking were more human than ape-like. According to the close spacing of the footprints, the hominins who made them had short legs. The prints resemble those of modern humans, with an arch and a big toe aligned with the other toes. Their steps were also similar to those of modern humans. The heel touched the ground first and weight transferring to the ball of the foot before the toes push the foot off the ground. Biomechanical analysis suggests the bipedal gait was not entirely modern though. Additionally that the leg may have been slightly more bent at the knee as the foot hit the floor. The impressions left in the ash reveal that a small group with different sized feet were walking from south to north. At least one smaller individual was walking behind and stepping into the footprints made by a larger individual. Nearly forty years later in 2015 another set of footprints was found 150 meters (330 feet) from the original trail. This second set of footprints was also nearly 3.7 million years old. These were made by two individuals one of whom was much taller and heavier. They were walking in the same direction as the original group. Perhaps a single social group made the two trails. It’s possible that a large male was walking with females and children. It's quite rare to find footprints of hominins, the group to which humans and our ancestors and close relatives belong. The footprints at Laetoli are the only ones attributed to a species not in the genus Homo. Various lines of evidence suggest that Australopithecus afarensis ate a slightly different diet than that of earlier hominins. Carbon isotope values in tooth enamel reveal that Australopithecus afarensis is currently the earliest hominin species showing evidence for a more diverse diet. This would have included savannah-based foods such as sedges or grasses. These grasses would be in addition to the more traditional diet based on fruits and leaves from trees and shrubs. Some of the anatomical changes compared to the earlier species Australopithecus anamensis suggest there was a change in diet towards foods that were harder or tougher over time, as Australopithecus afarensis has adaptations for heavy chewing. As the species walked upright but retained the ability to climb trees, it may have searched for food in the trees, as well as on the ground. Our closest living relatives have been observed making and using simple tools. These include chimpanzees, as well as other apes and monkeys. So it seems likely that all hominins made use of tools to some extent. No tools have yet been directly associated with Australopithecus afarensis. However the Australopithecine species had hands that were well suited for the controlled manipulation of objects, and they probably did use tools. The oldest known stone tools are around 3.3 million years old and were unearthed in Kenya. These Lomekwian tools were made from volcanic rock and crafted into cores, flakes and potential anvils. Australopithecus afarensis is known from Kenya around this time. However the most likely candidate for the toolmaker is another species called Kenyanthropus platyops. Specimens of this hominin have been found close to where the tools were excavated. A small number of animal bones found at Dikika in Ethiopia have been reported as showing cut marks made by stone tools. They have been dated to about 3.4 million years ago and the team involved attribute the butchery to Australopithecus afarensis. In this instance this is the only hominin species known to live in the area at this time. These conclusions are contentious however. If they withstand scrutiny this would be the earliest evidence of meat-eating behavior by a hominin. A number of other significant Australopithecus afarensis finds have been made in addition to Lucy and the Laetoli footprints. A knee was uncovered in 1973, and was the first hominin fossil found at Hadar in Ethiopia. The anatomy of the knee joint indicated it belonged to a species that walked on two legs. At the time it was discovered it was the oldest evidence of a biped. It encouraged Johanson's team to return to the area, where they found Lucy the following year. A lower jaw bone containing nine teeth was discovered in 1974 by Mary Leakey at Laetoli in Tanzania. It was designated the type specimen for Australopithecus afarensis. This designation made the specimen the official representative of the species to which other potential Australopithecus afarensis fossils are be compared. In 1975 more than 200 hominin fossils were unearthed from Hadar. They represent at least 13 individuals, including 4 children. Scientists think they were probably related. The specimens support the theory that Australopithecus afarensis was significantly sexually dimorphic. Other than their size the group showed nearly identical anatomical features. Clearly this fact demonstrated that they were all the same species. Whatever disaster befell the group, it happened around 3.2 million years ago. Then unearthed in Ethiopia between 2005 and 2009 a partial skeleton similarly complete to Lucy but much older. It dated to about 3.6 million years ago. It belonged to a male that was about 5 foot, 3 inches (1.6 meters) tall, about 30% bigger than Lucy. He was nicknamed “Kadanuumuu”, which means 'Big Man' in the Afar language. Due to the lack of skull or dental parts to compare with the Australopithecus afarensis type specimen some scientists question whether Kadanuumuu can be assigned to Australopithecus afarensis. An almost complete skeleton of a tiny Australopithecus afarensis child nicknamed “Selam” was found at Dikika in Ethiopia in 2006. More than five years of painstaking excavation revealed previously unknown aspects of the species. CT scans of the skull showed the child's dental development was similar to a three-year-old chimpanzee. The remains were absent marks from predators or scavengers. It appears likely that the child died naturally or in an accident and was quickly buried, perhaps by a flash flood [Natural History Museum of London]. SHIPPING & RETURNS/REFUNDS: We always ship books domestically (within the USA) via USPS INSURED media mail (“book rate”). Most international orders cost an additional $15.49 to $46.49 for an insured shipment in a heavily padded mailer. There is also a discount program which can cut postage costs by 50% to 75% if you’re buying about half-a-dozen books or more (5 kilos+). Our postage charges are as reasonable as USPS rates allow. ADDITIONAL PURCHASES do receive a VERY LARGE discount, typically about $5 per book (for each additional book after the first) so as to reward you for the economies of combined shipping/insurance costs. Your purchase will ordinarily be shipped within 48 hours of payment. We package as well as anyone in the business, with lots of protective padding and containers. All of our shipments are fully insured against loss, and our shipping rates include the cost of this coverage (through stamps.com, Shipsaver.com, the USPS, UPS, or Fed-Ex). International tracking is provided free by the USPS for certain countries, other countries are at additional cost. We do offer U.S. Postal Service Priority Mail, Registered Mail, and Express Mail for both international and domestic shipments, as well United Parcel Service (UPS) and Federal Express (Fed-Ex). Please ask for a rate quotation. We will accept whatever payment method you are most comfortable with. If upon receipt of the item you are disappointed for any reason whatever, I offer a no questions asked 30-day return policy. Send it back, I will give you a complete refund of the purchase price; 1) less our original shipping/insurance costs, 2) less non-refundable PayPal/eBay payment processing fees. Please note that PayPal does NOT refund fees. Even if you “accidentally” purchase something and then cancel the purchase before it is shipped, PayPal will not refund their fees. So all refunds for any reason, without exception, do not include PayPal/eBay payment processing fees (typically between 3% and 5%) and shipping/insurance costs (if any). If you’re unhappy with PayPal and eBay’s “no fee refund” policy, and we are EXTREMELY unhappy, please voice your displeasure by contacting PayPal and/or eBay. We have no ability to influence, modify or waive PayPal or eBay policies. ABOUT US: Prior to our retirement we used to travel to Europe and Central Asia several times a year. Most of the items we offer came from acquisitions we made in Eastern Europe, India, and from the Levant (Eastern Mediterranean/Near East) during these years from various institutions and dealers. Much of what we generate on Etsy, Amazon and Ebay goes to support The Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, as well as some other worthy institutions in Europe and Asia connected with Anthropology and Archaeology. Though we have a collection of ancient coins numbering in the tens of thousands, our primary interests are ancient jewelry and gemstones. Prior to our retirement we traveled to Russia every year seeking antique gemstones and jewelry from one of the globe’s most prolific gemstone producing and cutting centers, the area between Chelyabinsk and Yekaterinburg, Russia. From all corners of Siberia, as well as from India, Ceylon, Burma and Siam, gemstones have for centuries gone to Yekaterinburg where they have been cut and incorporated into the fabulous jewelry for which the Czars and the royal families of Europe were famous for. My wife grew up and received a university education in the Southern Urals of Russia, just a few hours away from the mountains of Siberia, where alexandrite, diamond, emerald, sapphire, chrysoberyl, topaz, demantoid garnet, and many other rare and precious gemstones are produced. Though perhaps difficult to find in the USA, antique gemstones are commonly unmounted from old, broken settings – the gold reused – the gemstones recut and reset. Before these gorgeous antique gemstones are recut, we try to acquire the best of them in their original, antique, hand-finished state – most of them centuries old. We believe that the work created by these long-gone master artisans is worth protecting and preserving rather than destroying this heritage of antique gemstones by recutting the original work out of existence. That by preserving their work, in a sense, we are preserving their lives and the legacy they left for modern times. Far better to appreciate their craft than to destroy it with modern cutting. Not everyone agrees – fully 95% or more of the antique gemstones which come into these marketplaces are recut, and the heritage of the past lost. But if you agree with us that the past is worth protecting, and that past lives and the produce of those lives still matters today, consider buying an antique, hand cut, natural gemstone rather than one of the mass-produced machine cut (often synthetic or “lab produced”) gemstones which dominate the market today. We can set most any antique gemstone you purchase from us in your choice of styles and metals ranging from rings to pendants to earrings and bracelets; in sterling silver, 14kt solid gold, and 14kt gold fill. When you purchase from us, you can count on quick shipping and careful, secure packaging. We would be happy to provide you with a certificate/guarantee of authenticity for any item you purchase from us. There is a $3 fee for mailing under separate cover. I will always respond to every inquiry whether via email or eBay message, so please feel free to write. Condition: LIKE NEW. Unread but with faint edge and corner shelfwear to dustjacket and covers, rubbing to dustjacket extremities. See detailed condition description below., Format: Hardcover with dustjacket, Length: 409 pages, Dimensions: 9¼ x 6¼ x 1½ inches; 2 pounds, Publisher: Simon & Schuster (1981)

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