** MILITARY FIBULA ** ancient LEGIONARY SILVER Roman BROOCH ! 12,15g

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Seller: Top-Rated Seller ancient-lord (1,046) 100%, Location: Serbia, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 113822088987 **MILITARY FIBULA** L E G I O N A R Y Roman P E R F E C T ANCIENT SILVER BROOCH FIBULA is in EXCELLENT condition,made of S I L V E R. I-III century. The rapid spread of the Roman Empire by the 1st century AD resulted in a tremendous growth in the number and design of fibulae throughout Europe and the Near East. The spread of technologically advanced workshops in the Roman Empire led to more complex fibula designs. Bows were cast in more complex forms, hinges appeared alongside bilateral springs and a wide variety of plate designs were introduced. One of the first fibula designs of the Roman-era began in the La Tene III era, in the late 1st century BC. The Straight Wire fibula, also known as the Soldier's type or Legionnaire's type, is a very plain design. It resembles the violin bow fibula of over one thousand years earlier except that the bow has slightly more of an arch and the spring in (short) bilateral not unilateral. The Straight Wire fibula is found through the 1st century AD. In the 1st century AD, for the first time, several fibula designs originated in Roman Britain. Perhaps the most distinctive British fibula design was the Dolphin. This was actually a series of designs including the Polden Hill type, the Langton Down type, the Colchester type and the T-Shaped type. Dolphin fibulae have a smooth arched bow that tapers from the head to end in a long point. The long bilateral spring is covered. From the top the Dolphin fibula looks like a T or the late-Roman crossbow fibula. From the side it resembles a leaping dolphin. Roman era plate fibulae. 1st century AD Another British design was the Hod Hill type. Usually quite small, Hod Hill fibulae have a shallow arched bow that appears to be made up of lumpy segments. Many Hod Hill fibulae have a pair of small side lugs. The Fantail fibula, which have a short bow that flares into a flat, wide fan-shaped foot, were common in Britain and on the European continent. The Fantail design lasted into the 2nd century AD. A common and widespread design was the Augen (or Eye) fibula, which has a longer bow and a long, flat, wide foot. It has a short bilateral spring. Many Augen fibulae are decorated with a pair of ringed dots, or eyes, on the flat foot. Augen fibulae appear to have been introduced to the Roman Empire by Germanic peoples, notably Marcomanni, serving as Roman auxiliaries. The Aucissa fibula was another widespread design. It has a high semi-circular arched bow that extended into a short foot. The bow is flat and wide and has a rounded central ridge. The bow ends, at the head, in a hinge. The Aucissa was one of the first fibulae to use a hinge instead of a spring. The foot ends in a rounded knob. Many Aucissa fibulae have the word “AVCISSA” moulded above the hinge. This is thought to be the name of a workshop. The 1st century AD saw several other bow variations. The Wolf or Wolf's Head fibula has a flat, ribbon-like bow that widens into a square section at the head. The common design of two circles and a chevron near the rear of the bow is often interpreted as a wolf’s head. The Thracian Anchor type has a wide crescent at the head giving the fibula an anchor shape. The Thracian Anchor type is also called the Illyrian and is found in Pannonia (Hungary), Dacia (Romania) and Serbia. The late 1st century AD saw the introduction of the Kraftig Profilierte group of fibula designs. Kraftig Profilierte fibulae have a wide fan-, or bell-shaped head and a long thin pointy foot. They have long bilateral hinges. There are three main variations of the Kraftig Profilierte fibula. The North Pannonian Double Knot type, found in Pannonia has two knobs, or knots, on the bow. The Single Knot type, found in the central Balkans, has a single knob. The Black Sea type, found in the steppes north of the Black Sea, has a thin body, with no flaring near the head, and two knots. Kraftig Profilierte fibulae were found in the late 1st to late 2nd centuries AD and are mostly associated with the Przeworsk proto-Gothic culture. The 1st century AD saw the widespread use of plate fibulae. Plate fibulae consist of a flat plate. Since there is little space between the fibula body and the pin (there is no arch to the body), plate fibulae could not be used to fasten much material and were therefore mainly decorative. Most plate fibulae have a hinge assembly on the back. Plate fibulae are generally associated with women’s graves. The most common forms of plate fibula in the 1st century AD were round (disc), diamond, oval and lunula (crescent- or moon-shaped). The 2nd century AD Roman era fibulae. 2nd century AD Late Roman bow fibulae. 2nd – 3rd centuries AD Diverse fibulae. 4th century BC – 3rd century AD Tutulus plate fibulae. 2nd – 3rd centuries AD In Roman Britain the fibula designs common in the 1st century AD continued to some extent into the second, although usually in more complex variations. A new design, the Head Stud type, has a long bow with a stud, or occasionally a ring, at the head. The Knee fibula, a common design in the 2nd century AD, originated in Roman Pannonia (modern Hungary). With its short, fat bow that incorporates a 90 degree bend, archeologists thought it resembled a knee and leg. Many Knee fibulae have small rectangular, or larger semi-circular head plates. Knee fibulae appear, like the Augen type, to have been introduced into the Roman Empire by Germanic allies. Despite their small size, their appearance in Roman military graves implies that the Knee fibula was the most popular fibula among Roman soldiers in the 2nd century AD. They are rarely found outside military sites or contexts. The Pannonian Trumpet fibula has a wide flaring head like the bell of a trumpet. However, unlike a straight trumpet, the Pannonian Trumpet fibula is sharply bent near the head. This Germanic design was found in and around Pannonia but was exported as widely as Britain. The P-Shaped type is another common 2nd-century AD fibula design that originated among the Germanic peoples. The P-Shaped fibula, or Almgren Type 162, has a semi-circular arch and a long foot that curves back under itself to return to the base of the arch. They have bilateral springs. The bows of P-Shaped fibulae are usually semi-circular in cross-section and are decorated with ribs. P-Shaped fibulae were found from the 2nd to the early 4th centuries. There were other bow fibula variations of the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD. The Divided Bow type has an arched bow and a long foot. The arch was made up of two, or even three, separate, but parallel, arches. These arches are either wide and flat or narrow and tall. The Trident fibula has a rounded arch and long foot and a wide, flat head plate with three points. The entire fibula looks like a trident. Claims that this was the standard fibula of the Roman navy are unfounded. The use of plate fibulae continued in the 2nd century CE. Simple flat shapes were replaced with enamelled versions or more complex shapes. These included animal (zoomorphic) shapes (birds, horses, rabbits, flies, etc.), letters or words, abstract symmetrical or asymmetrical designs (including the so-called Celtic Trumpet designs), and skeuomorphic designs (symbolic designs). Most designs continued in use throughout the 2nd and 3rd centuries. In one later variation during this time, the Tutulus type, the circular disc plate was extended upwards to form a cone. The 3rd to 4th centuries AD The use of enamelled inlay continued until the end of the 3rd century AD. P-shaped fibulae. 3rd – 5th centuries AD A variation of the P-shaped fibula, the tied foot fibula has a foot that returns to the bow but then wraps, or ties, around the bow. Many Tied Foot fibulae have long bilateral springs. The tied foot fibula was found in the 3rd and 4th centuries AD and is associated with the Wielbark Gothic culture. The classic fibula of the late-Roman era, and in fact the best known of all fibula types, is the crossbow type. The crossbow fibula consists of a highly arched semi-circular bow, usually of squarish cross-section, and a long flat foot. The fibula has a wide transverse bar (or arms) at the head containing the pin-hinge. Crossbow fibulae usually have three round or onion-shaped knobs: one at the head and one at each end of the transverse bar. RARE RARE RARE RARE !!!! LEGIONARY FIBULA!!! Weight: 12,15 g LENGTH:49 mm Condition: P E R F E C T !!!LEGIONARY!!!! I - III century !!!, Material: Silver

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