PANTIKAPAION in TAURIC CHERSONESOS 109BC Mithradates VI Tripod Greek Coin i38364

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Seller: Top-Rated Seller highrating_lowprice (20,567) 100%, Location: Rego Park, New York, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 351018053567 Item: i38364 Authentic Ancient Coin of: Greek city of Pantikapaion in Tauric Chersonesos Bronze 14mm (1.48 grams) Struck circa 109-106 B.C. Time of Mithradates VI , the Great Reference: Rare, possibly unpublished type ΠΑΝ, Tripod This type was struck over a coin with Pan and bow and club. You are bidding on the exact item pictured, provided with a Certificate of Authenticity and Lifetime Guarantee of Authenticity. The bow and arrow is a projectile weapon system (a bow with arrows ) that predates recorded history and is common to most cultures . Archery is the art, practice, or skill of applying it. Description A bow is a flexible arc which shoots aerodynamic projectiles called arrows . A string joins the two ends of the bow and when the string is drawn back, the ends of the bow are flexed. When the string is released, the potential energy of the flexed stick is transformed into the velocity of the arrow. Archery is the art or sport of shooting arrows from bows. Today, bows and arrows are used primarily for hunting and for the sport of archery . Though they are still occasionally used as weapons of war , the development of gunpowder and muskets , and the growing size of armies, led to their replacement in warfare several centuries ago in much of the world. Someone who makes bows is known as a bowyer , and one who makes arrows is a fletcher —or in the case of the manufacture of metal arrow heads, an arrow smith. History Scythians shooting with bows, Panticapeum (known today as Kertch , Ukraine ), 4th century BCE. The bow and arrow is among the oldest composite projectile weapons invented; only spear throwers and darts may predate it, having been in use since 30,000 BCE, with the oldest example from 17,500 BCE. However, despite its ancient provenance, a number of cultures in historical times lacked the bow and arrow, and in others oral history records a time before its acquisition. The earliest potential arrow heads date from about 64,000 years ago in the South African Sibudu Cave , though their identification as arrowheads (as opposed to spear or dart heads) is uncertain. The first actual bow fragments are the Stellmoor bows from northern Germany. They were dated to about 8,000 BCE but were destroyed in Hamburg during the Second World War, before carbon 14 dating was available; their age is attributed by archaeological association. The oldest bows in one piece are the elm Holmegaard bows from Denmark which were dated to 9,000 BCE. High performance wooden bows are currently made following the Holmegaard design. The bow and arrow are still used in tribal warfare in Africa to this day. An example was documented in 2009 in Kenya when the Kisii-tribe and Kalenjin-tribe clashed resulting in four deaths. Construction Polychrome small-scale model of the archer XI of the west pediment of the Temple of Aphaea , ca. 505–500 BCE. Parts of the bow The basic elements of a bow are a pair of curved elastic limbs , traditionally made from wood, joined by a riser. Both ends of the limbs are connected by a string known as the bow string . By pulling the string backwards the archer exerts compressive force on the string-facing section, or belly , of the limbs as well as placing the outer section, or back , under tension . While the string is held, this stores the energy later released in putting the arrow to flight.[citation needed] The force required to hold the string stationary at full draw is often used to express the power of a bow, and is known as its draw weight, or weight. Other things being equal, a higher draw weight means a more powerful bow, which is able to project arrows heavier, faster, or a greater distance. The various parts of the bow can be subdivided into further sections. The topmost limb is known as the upper limb, while the bottom limb is the lower limb. At the tip of each limb is a nock, which is used to attach the bowstring to the limbs. The riser is usually divided into the grip, which is held by the archer, as well as the arrow rest and the bow window. The arrow rest is a small ledge or extension above the grip which the arrow rests upon while being aimed. The bow window is that part of the riser above the grip, which contains the arrow rest. In bows drawn and held by hand, the maximum draw weight is determined by the strength of the archer. The maximum distance the string could be displaced and thus the longest arrow that could be loosed from it, a bow’s draw length, is determined by the size of the archer. A composite bow uses a combination of materials to create the limbs, allowing the use of materials specialized for the different functions of a bow limb. The classic composite bow uses wood for lightness and dimensional stability in the core, horn to store energy in compression, and sinew for its ability to store energy in tension. Such bows, typically Asian, would often use a stiff end on the limb end, having the effect of a recurve.[16] In this type of bow, this is known by the Arabic name 'siyah'. Modern construction materials for bows include laminated wood, fiberglass , metals , and carbon fiber components. Arrows An arrow usually consists of a shaft with an arrowhead attached to the front end, with fletchings and a nock at the other. Modern arrows are usually made from carbon fibre, aluminum, fiberglass, and wood shafts. Carbon shafts have the advantage that they do not bend or warp, but they can often be too light weight to shoot from some bows and are expensive. Aluminum shafts are less expensive than carbon shafts, but they can bend and warp from use. Wood shafts are the least expensive option but often will not be identical in weight and size to each other and break more often than the other types of shafts. Arrow sizes vary greatly across cultures and range from very short ones that require the use of special equipment to be shot to ones in use in the Amazon River jungles that are 8.5 feet (2.6 metres) long. Most modern arrows are 22 inches (56 cm) to 30 inches (76 cm) in length. Arrows come in many types, among which are breasted, bob-tailed, barrelled, clout, and target. A breasted arrow is thickest at the area right behind the fletchings, and tapers towards the nock and head. A bob-tailed arrow is thickest right behind the head, and tapers to the nock. A barrelled arrow is thickest in the centre of the arrow. Target arrows are those arrows used for target shooting rather than warfare or hunting, and usually have simple arrowheads. Arrowheads The end of the arrow that is designed to hit the target is called the arrowhead. Usually, these are separate items that are attached to the arrow shaft by either tangs or sockets. Materials used in the past for arrowheads include flint, bone, horn, or metal. Most modern arrowheads are made of steel, but wood and other traditional materials are still used occasionally. A number of different types of arrowheads are known, with the most common being bodkins , broadheads, and piles. Bodkin heads are simple spikes made of metal of various shapes, designed to pierce armour. A broadhead arrowhead is usually triangular or leaf-shaped and has a sharpened edge or edges. Broadheads are commonly used for hunting. A pile arrowhead is a simple metal cone, either sharpened to a point or somewhat blunt, that is used mainly for target shooting. A pile head is the same diameter as the arrow shaft and is usually just fitted over the tip of the arrow. Other heads are known, including the blunt head, which is flat at the end and is used for hunting small game or birds, and is designed to not pierce the target nor embed itself in trees or other objects and make recovery difficult. Another type of arrowhead is a barbed head, usually used in warfare or hunting. Bowstrings Bowstrings may have a nocking point marked on them, which serves to mark where the arrow is fitted to the bowstring before firing. The area around the nocking point is usually bound with thread to protect the area around the nocking point from wear by the archer's hands. This section is called the serving. At one end of the bowstring a loop is formed, which is permanent. The other end of the bowstring also has a loop, but this is not permanently formed into the bowstring but is constructed by tying a knot into the string to form a loop. Traditionally this knot is known as the archer's knot, but is a form of the timber hitch . The knot can be adjusted to lengthen or shorten the bowstring. The adjustable loop is known as the "tail". Bowstrings have been constructed of many materials throughout history, including fibres such as flax, silk , and hemp. Other materials used were animal guts , animal sinews , and rawhide . Modern fibres such as Dacron or Kevlar are now used in bowstring construction, as well as steel wires in some compound bows. Compound bows have a mechanical system of pulley cams over which the bowstring is wound. Types of bows There is no one accepted system of classification of bows. Some systems classify bows as either longbows or composite bows. In this system, a longbow is any bow that is made from one material. Composite bows are made from two or more layers of different materials. Other classifications divide bows into three types — simple, backed, and composite. In this scheme, simple bows are made of one material, backed bows are made of two layers, which could be similar or different materials. Composite bows are made of three different layers, usually different materials, but occasionally two of the layers are made from the same material. Common types of bow include Recurve bow : a bow with the tips curving away from the archer. The curves straighten out as the bow is drawn and the return of the tip to its curved state after release of the arrow adds extra velocity to the arrow. Reflex bow : a bow that curves completely away from the archer when unstrung. The curves are opposite to the direction in which the bow flexes while drawn.Self bow : a bow made from one piece of wood.Longbow : a self bow that is usually quite long, often over 5 feet (1.5 metres) long. The traditional English longbow was usually made of yew wood, but other woods are used also. Composite bow : a bow made of more than one material Compound : a bow with mechanical aids to help with drawing the bowstring. Usually, these aids are pulleys at the tips of the limbs. Crossbow In a crossbow , the limbs of the bow, called a prod, are attached at right angles to a crosspiece or stock in order to allow for mechanical pulling and holding of the string. The mechanism that holds the drawn string has a release or trigger that allows the string to be released. A crossbow shoots a "bolt" rather than an arrow. A sacrificial tripod is a three-legged piece of religious furniture used for offerings or other ritual procedures. As a seat or stand, the tripod is the most stable furniture construction for uneven ground, hence its use is universal and ancient. It is particularly associated with Apollo and the Delphic oracle in ancient Greece , and the word "tripod" comes from the Greek meaning "three-footed." Apollo and Heracles struggle for the Delphic tripod (Attic black-figure hydria , c. 520 BC) Ancient Greece The most famous tripod of ancient Greece was the Delphic tripod from which the Pythian priestess took her seat to deliver the oracles of the deity. The seat was formed by a circular slab on the top of the tripod, on which a branch of laurel was deposited when it was unoccupied by the priestess. In this sense, by Classical times the tripod was sacred to Apollo . The mytheme of Heracles contesting with Apollo for the tripod appears in vase-paintings older than the oldest written literature. The oracle originally may have been related to the primal deity, the Earth. Priestess of Delphi (1891), as imagined by John Collier ; the Pythia is inspired by pneuma rising from below as she sits on a tripod Another well-known tripod in Delphi was the Plataean Tripod ; it was made from a tenth part of the spoils taken from the Persian army after the Battle of Plataea . This consisted of a golden basin, supported by a bronze serpent with three heads (or three serpents intertwined), with a list of the states that had taken part in the war inscribed on the coils of the serpent. The golden bowl was carried off by the Phocians during the Third Sacred War (356–346 BC); the stand was removed by the emperor Constantine to Constantinople in 324, where in modern Istanbul it still can be seen in the hippodrome , the Atmeydanı, although in damaged condition: the heads of the serpents have disappeared, however one is now on display at the nearby Istanbul Archaeology Museums. The inscription, however, has been restored almost entirely. Such tripods usually had three ears (rings which served as handles) and frequently had a central upright as support in addition to the three legs. Tripods frequently are mentioned by Homer as prizes in athletic games and as complimentary gifts; in later times, highly decorated and bearing inscriptions, they served the same purpose. They also were used as dedicatory offerings to the deities, and in the dramatic contests at the Dionysia the victorious choregus (a wealthy citizen who bore the expense of equipping and training the chorus) received a crown and a tripod. He would either dedicate the tripod to some deity or set it upon the top of a marble structure erected in the form of a small circular temple in a street in Athens , called the street of tripods, from the large number of memorials of this kind. One of these, the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates , erected by him to commemorate his victory in a dramatic contest in 335 BC, still stands. The form of the victory tripod, now missing from the top of the Lysicrates monument, has been rendered variously by scholars since the 18th century. An ancient Greek coin c. 330-300 BC. Laureate head of Apollo (left) and ornate tripod (right). Martin L. West writes that the sibyl at Delphi shows many traits of shamanistic practices, likely inherited or influenced from Central Asian practices. He cites her sitting in a cauldron on a tripod, while making her prophecies, her being in an ecstatic trance state, similar to shamans, and her utterings, unintelligible. According to Herodotus (The Histories, I.144), the victory tripods were not to be taken from the temple sanctuary precinct, but left there as dedications. Sometimes the tripod was used as a support for a lebes or cauldron or for supporting other items such as a vase. Delphic tripod (red-figured bell-krater , Paestum , c. 330 BC) Ancient China A ding from the late Shang Dynasty . Tripod pottery have been part of the archaeological assemblage in China since the earliest Neolithic cultures of Cishan and Peiligang in the 7th and 8th millennium BC. Sacrificial tripods were also found in use in ancient China usually cast in bronze but sometimes appearing in ceramic form. They are often referred to as "dings" and usually have three legs, but in some usages have four legs. The Chinese use sacrificial tripods in modern times, such as in 2005, when a "National Unity Tripod" made of bronze was presented by the central Chinese government to the government of northwest China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region to mark its fiftieth birthday. It was described as a traditional Chinese sacrificial vessel symbolizing unity. Mithradates VI, from Old Persian Mithradatha, "gift of Mithra "; 134–63 BC, also known as Mithradates the Great (Megas) and Eupator Dionysius, was king of Pontus and Armenia Minor in northern Anatolia (now Turkey ) from about 120–63 BC. Mithridates is remembered as one of the Roman Republic ’s most formidable and successful enemies, who engaged three of the prominent generals from the late Roman Republic in the Mithridatic Wars : Lucius Cornelius Sulla , Lucullus and Pompey . He was also the greatest ruler of the Kingdom of Pontus. Map of the Kingdom of Pontus, Before the reign of Mithridates VI (dark purple), after his conquests (purple), his conquests in the first Mithridatic wars (pink), as well as Pontus' ally the Kingdom of Armenia (green). Panticapaeum (Greek: Παντικάπαιον, Pantikápaion), present-day Kerch : an important Greek city and port in Taurica (Tauric Chersonese), situated on a hill (Mt. Mithridates ) on the western side of the Cimmerian Bosporus , founded by Milesians in the late 7th–early 6th century BC. In the 5th–4th centuries BC, the city became the residence first of the Archaeanactids and then of the Spartocids , dynasties of Greek kings of Bosporus , and was hence itself sometimes called Bosporus. Its economic decline in the 4th–3rd centuries BC was the result of the Sarmatian conquest of the steppes and the growing competition of Egyptian grain. The last of the Spartocids , Paerisades V , apparently left his realm to Mithridates VI Eupator, king of Pontus . This transition was arranged by one of Mithridates's generals, a certain Diophantus , who earlier was sent to Taurica to help local Greek cities against Palacus of Lesser Scythia . The takeover didn't go smoothly: Paerisades was murdered by Scythians led by Saumacus , Diophantus escaped to return later with reinforcements and to suppress the revolt (c. 110 BC). Half of a century later, Mithridates himself took his life in Panticapaeum, when, after his defeat in a war against Rome , his own son and heir Pharnaces and citizens of Panticapaeum turned against him. In 63 BC the city was partly destroyed by an earthquake. Raids by the Gothss and the Huns furthered its decline, and it was incorporated into the Byzantine state under Justin I in the early 6th century AD. Ruins of Panticapaeum in Kerch (Ukraine) During the first centuries of the city's existence, imported Greek articles predominated: pottery Kerch Style), terracottas , and metal objects, probably from workshops in Rhodes , Corinth , Samos , and Athens . Local production, imitated from the models, was carried on at the same time. Athens manufactured a special type of bowl for the city, known as Kerch ware. Local potters imitated the Hellenistic bowls known as the Gnathia style as well as relief wares—Megarian bowls. The city minted silver coins from the mid 6th century BC and from the 1st century BC gold and bronze coins. The Hermitage and Kerch Museums contain material from the site, which is still being excavated. Bibliography Noonan, Thomas S. "The Origins of the Greek Colony at Panticapaeum", American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 77, No. 1. (1973), pp. 77–81. 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