PANTIKAPAION in TAURIC CHERSONESOS 3-2CenBC Pan Cornucopia Greek Coin i38342

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Seller: Top-Rated Seller highrating_lowprice (20,576) 100%, Location: Rego Park, New York, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 351017976818 Item: i38342 Authentic Ancient Coin of: Greek city of Pantikapaion in Tauric Chersonesos Bronze 20mm (3.64 grams) Struck circa 3rd-2nd Century B.C. Reference: Sear 1705; B.M.C.3.39,40 Bearded head of Pan left, wreathed with ivy. ΠANTI, Cornucopia between caps of the Dioscuri. You are bidding on the exact item pictured, provided with a Certificate of Authenticity and Lifetime Guarantee of Authenticity. The cornucopia (from Latin cornu copiae) or horn of plenty is a symbol of abundance and nourishment, commonly a large horn-shaped container overflowing with produce, flowers, nuts, other edibles, or wealth in some form. Originating in classical antiquity , it has continued as a symbol in Western art , and it is particularly associated with the Thanksgiving holiday in North America . Allegorical depiction of the Roman goddess Abundantia with a cornucopia, by Rubens (ca. 1630) In Mythology Mythology offers multiple explanations of the origin of the cornucopia. One of the best-known involves the birth and nurturance of the infant Zeus, who had to be hidden from his devouring father Cronus . In a cave on Mount Ida on the island of Crete , baby Zeus was cared for and protected by a number of divine attendants, including the goat Amalthea ("Nourishing Goddess"), who fed him with her milk. The suckling future king of the gods had unusual abilities and strength, and in playing with his nursemaid accidentally broke off one of her horns , which then had the divine power to provide unending nourishment, as the foster mother had to the god. In another myth, the cornucopia was created when Heracles (Roman Hercules ) wrestled with the river god Achelous and wrenched off one of his horns; river gods were sometimes depicted as horned. This version is represented in the Achelous and Hercules mural painting by the American Regionalist artist Thomas Hart Benton . The cornucopia became the attribute of several Greek and Roman deities , particularly those associated with the harvest, prosperity, or spiritual abundance, such as personifications of Earth (Gaia or Terra ); the child Plutus , god of riches and son of the grain goddess Demeter ; the nymph Maia ; and Fortuna , the goddess of luck, who had the power to grant prosperity. In Roman Imperial cult , abstract Roman deities who fostered peace (pax Romana) and prosperity were also depicted with a cornucopia, including Abundantia , "Abundance" personified, and Annona , goddess of the grain supply to the city of Rome . Pluto , the classical ruler of the underworld in the mystery religions , was a giver of agricultural, mineral and spiritual wealth, and in art often holds a cornucopia to distinguish him from the gloomier Hades , who holds a drinking horn instead. Modern depictions In modern depictions, the cornucopia is typically a hollow, horn-shaped wicker basket filled with various kinds of festive fruit and vegetables . In North America, the cornucopia has come to be associated with Thanksgiving and the harvest. Cornucopia is also the name of the annual November Wine and Food celebration in Whistler , British Columbia, Canada. Two cornucopias are seen in the flag and state seal of Idaho . The Great Seal of North Carolina depicts Liberty standing and Plenty holding a cornucopia. The coat of arms of Colombia , Panama , Peru and Venezuela , and the Coat of Arms of the State of Victoria, Australia , also feature the cornucopia, symbolising prosperity. The horn of plenty is used on body art and at Halloween, as it is a symbol of fertility, fortune and abundance. Base of a statue of Louis XV of France In Greek religion and mythology , Pan (Ancient Greek: Πᾶν, Pān) is the god of the wild, shepherds and flocks, nature of mountain wilds, hunting and rustic music , and companion of the nymphs .[1] His name originates within the Ancient Greek language, from the word paein (πάειν), meaning "to pasture."[2] He has the hindquarters, legs, and horns of a goat, in the same manner as a faun or satyr . With his homeland in rustic Arcadia , he is recognized as the god of fields, groves, and wooded glens; because of this, Pan is connected to fertility and the season of spring. The ancient Greeks also considered Pan to be the god of theatrical criticism. The god Pan is said to have intervened on behalf of the Macedonians in Antiogonos' battle with the Gauls in 277 B.C. In Roman religion and myth , Pan's counterpart was Faunus , a nature god who was the father of Bona Dea , sometimes identified as Fauna . In the 18th and 19th centuries, Pan became a significant figure in the Romantic movement of western Europe, and also in the 20th-century Neopagan movement . Origins In his earliest appearance in literature, Pindar 's Pythian Ode iii. 78, Pan is associated with a mother goddess , perhaps Rhea or Cybele ; Pindar refers to virgins worshipping Cybele and Pan near the poet's house in Boeotia . The parentage of Pan is unclear; in some myths he is the son of Zeus, though generally he is the son of Hermes or Dionysus , with whom his mother is said to be a nymph , sometimes Dryope or, in Nonnus , Dionysiaca (14.92), Penelope of Mantineia in Arcadia. This nymph at some point in the tradition became conflated with Penelope , the wife of Odysseus . Pausanias 8.12.5 records the story that Penelope had in fact been unfaithful to her husband, who banished her to Mantineia upon his return. Other sources (Duris of Samos; the Vergilian commentator Servius ) report that Penelope slept with all 108 suitors in Odysseus' absence, and gave birth to Pan as a result. This myth reflects the folk etymology that equates Pan's name (Πάν) with the Greek word for "all" (πᾶν). It is more likely to be cognate with paein, "to pasture", and to share an origin with the modern English word "pasture". In 1924, Hermann Collitz suggested that Greek Pan and Indic Pushan might have a common Indo-European origin. In the Mystery cults of the highly syncretic Hellenistic era Pan is made cognate with Phanes/Protogonos , Zeus, Dionysus and Eros . The Roman Faunus , a god of Indo-European origin, was equated with Pan. However, accounts of Pan's genealogy are so varied that it must lie buried deep in mythic time. Like other nature spirits, Pan appears to be older than the Olympians , if it is true that he gave Artemis her hunting dogs and taught the secret of prophecy to Apollo . Pan might be multiplied as the Panes (Burkert 1985, III.3.2; Ruck and Staples 1994 p 132) or the Paniskoi. Kerenyi (p. 174) notes from scholia that Aeschylus in Rhesus distinguished between two Pans, one the son of Zeus and twin of Arcas , and one a son of Cronus . "In the retinue of Dionysos , or in depictions of wild landscapes, there appeared not only a great Pan, but also little Pans, Paniskoi, who played the same part as the Satyrs ". Worship The worship of Pan began in Arcadia which was always the principal seat of his worship. Arcadia was a district of mountain people whom other Greeks disdained. Greek hunters used to scourge the statue of the god if they had been disappointed in the chase (Theocritus. vii. 107). Being a rustic god, Pan was not worshipped in temples or other built edifices, but in natural settings, usually caves or grottoes such as the one on the north slope of the Acropolis of Athens . These are often referred to as the Cave of Pan . The only exceptions are the Temple of Pan on the Neda River gorge in the southwestern Peloponnese – the ruins of which survive to this day – and the Temple of Pan at Apollonopolis Magna in ancient Egypt . Mythology Greek deities series Primordial deities Titans and Olympians Aquatic deities Chthonic deities Personified concepts Other deities Anemoi Asclepius Iris Leto Muses Nymphes Pan Psyche The goat-god Aegipan was nurtured by Amalthea with the infant Zeus in Athens. In Zeus' battle with Gaia , Aegipan and Hermes stole back Zeus' "sinews" that Typhon had hidden away in the Corycian Cave . Pan aided his foster-brother in the battle with the Titans by letting out a horrible screech and scattering them in terror. According to some traditions, Aegipan was the son of Pan, rather than his father. One of the famous myths of Pan involves the origin of his pan flute , fashioned from lengths of hollow reed. Syrinx was a lovely water-nymph of Arcadia, daughter of Landon, the river-god. As she was returning from the hunt one day, Pan met her. To escape from his importunities, the fair nymph ran away and didn't stop to hear his compliments. He pursued from Mount Lycaeum until she came to her sisters who immediately changed her into a reed. When the air blew through the reeds, it produced a plaintive melody. The god, still infatuated, took some of the reeds, because he could not identify which reed she became, and cut seven pieces (or according to some versions, nine), joined them side by side in gradually decreasing lengths, and formed the musical instrument bearing the name of his beloved Syrinx . Henceforth Pan was seldom seen without it. Echo was a nymph who was a great singer and dancer and scorned the love of any man. This angered Pan, a lecherous god, and he instructed his followers to kill her. Echo was torn to pieces and spread all over earth. The goddess of the earth, Gaia , received the pieces of Echo, whose voice remains repeating the last words of others. In some versions, Echo and Pan had two children: Iambe and Iynx. In other versions, Pan had fallen in love with Echo, but she scorned the love of any man but was enraptured by Narcissus. As Echo was cursed by Hera to only be able to repeat words that had been said by someone else, she could not speak for herself. She followed Narcissus to a pool, where he fell in love with his own reflection and changed into a narcissus flower. Echo wasted away, but her voice could still be heard in caves and other such similar places. Pan also loved a nymph named Pitys , who was turned into a pine tree to escape him. Disturbed in his secluded afternoon naps, Pan's angry shout inspired panic (panikon deima) in lonely placesFollowing the Titans' assault on Olympus , Pan claimed credit for the victory of the gods because he had frightened the attackers. In the Battle of Marathon (490 BC), it is said that Pan favored the Athenians and so inspired panic in the hearts of their enemies, the Persians Erotic aspects Pan with a goat, statue from Villa of the Papyri , Herculaneum . Pan is famous for his sexual powers, and is often depicted with a phallus . Diogenes of Sinope , speaking in jest, related a myth of Pan learning masturbation from his father, Hermes , and teaching the habit to shepherds. Pan's greatest conquest was that of the moon goddess Selene . He accomplished this by wrapping himself in a sheepskin to hide his hairy black goat form, and drew her down from the sky into the forest where he seduced her. Pan and music In two late Roman sources, Hyginus and Ovid, Pan is substituted for the satyr Marsyas in the theme of a musical competition (agon), and the punishment by flaying is omitted. Pan once had the audacity to compare his music with that of Apollo , and to challenge Apollo, the god of the lyre, to a trial of skill. Tmolus , the mountain-god, was chosen to umpire. Pan blew on his pipes and gave great satisfaction with his rustic melody to himself and to his faithful follower, Midas , who happened to be present. Then Apollo struck the strings of his lyre. Tmolus at once awarded the victory to Apollo, and all but Midas agreed with the judgment. Midas dissented and questioned the justice of the award. Apollo would not suffer such a depraved pair of ears any longer and turned Midas' ears into those of a donkey . In another version of the myth, the first round of the contest was a tie, so the competitors were forced to hold a second round. In this round, Apollo demanded that they play their instruments upside-down. Apollo, playing the lyre, was unaffected. However, Pan's pipe could not be played while upside down, so Apollo won the contest. Capricornus The constellation Capricornus is traditionally depicted as a sea-goat, a goat with a fish's tail (see "Goatlike" Aigaion called Briareos, one of the Hecatonchires ). A myth reported as "Egyptian" in Gaius Julius Hyginus ' Poetic Astronomy[22] that would seem to be invented to justify a connection of Pan with Capricorn says that when Aegipan — that is Pan in his goat-god aspect — was attacked by the monster Typhon , he dove into the Nile; the parts above the water remained a goat, but those under the water transformed into a fish. Epithets Aegocerus "goat-horned" was an epithet of Pan descriptive of his figure with the horns of a goat. All of the Pans Pan could be multiplied into a swarm of Pans, and even be given individual names, as in Nonnus ' Dionysiaca , where the god Pan had twelve sons that helped Dionysus in his war against the Indians. Their names were Kelaineus, Argennon, Aigikoros, Eugeneios, Omester, Daphoineus, Phobos, Philamnos, Xanthos, Glaukos, Argos, and Phorbas. Two other Pans were Agreus and Nomios . Both were the sons of Hermes, Agreus' mother being the nymph Sose, a prophetess: he inherited his mother's gift of prophecy, and was also a skilled hunter. Nomios' mother was Penelope (not the same as the wife of Odysseus). He was an excellent shepherd, seducer of nymphs, and musician upon the shepherd's pipes. Most of the mythological stories about Pan are actually about Nomios, not the god Pan. Although, Agreus and Nomios could have been two different aspects of the prime Pan, reflecting his dual nature as both a wise prophet and a lustful beast. Aegipan , literally "goat-Pan," was a Pan who was fully goatlike, rather than half-goat and half-man. When the Olympians fled from the monstrous giant Typhoeus and hid themselves in animal form, Aegipan assumed the form of a fish-tailed goat. Later he came to the aid of Zeus in his battle with Typhoeus, by stealing back Zeus' stolen sinews. As a reward the king of the gods placed him amongst the stars as the Constellation Capricorn. The mother of Aegipan, Aix (the goat), was perhaps associated with the constellation Capra. Sybarios was an Italian Pan who was worshipped in the Greek colony of Sybaris in Italy. The Sybarite Pan was conceived when a Sybarite shepherd boy named Krathis copulated with a pretty she-goat amongst his herds. The "Death" of Pan Pan, Mikhail Vrubel 1900. According to the Greek historian Plutarch (in De defectu oraculorum, "The Obsolescence of Oracles"), Pan is the only Greek god (other than Asclepius ) who actually dies. During the reign of Tiberius (A.D. 14–37), the news of Pan's death came to one Thamus, a sailor on his way to Italy by way of the island of Paxi. A divine voice hailed him across the salt water, "Thamus, are you there? When you reach Palodes , take care to proclaim that the great god Pan is dead." Which Thamus did, and the news was greeted from shore with groans and laments. Christian apologists took Plutarch's notice to heart, and repeated and amplified it until the 18th century. It was interpreted with concurrent meanings exegesisin all four modes of medieval : literally as historical fact, and allegorically as the death of the ancient order at the coming of the new.[original research?] Eusebius of Caesarea in his Praeparatio Evangelica (book V) seems to have been the first Christian apologist to give Plutarch's anecdote, which he identifies as his source pseudo-historical standing, which Eusebius buttressed with many invented passing details that lent verisimilitude . It should be noted that it would be absurd for medieval Christian apologists to even consider Plutarch's account to be historically factual--and not merely a symbolic anecdote--inasmuch as their Christian monotheistic beliefs would inevitably come into conflict with Plutarch's pagan polytheistic account. In more modern times, some have suggested a possible a naturalistic explanation for the myth. For example, Robert Graves (The Greek Myths) reported a suggestion that had been made by Salomon Reinach and expanded by James S. Van Teslaar[29] that the hearers aboard the ship, including a supposed Egyptian, Thamus, apparently misheard Thamus Panmegas tethneke 'the all-great Tammuz is dead' for 'Thamus, Great Pan is dead!', Thamous, Pan ho megas tethneke. "In its true form the phrase would have probably carried no meaning to those on board who must have been unfamiliar with the worship of Tammuz which was a transplanted, and for those parts, therefore, an exotic custom." Certainly, when Pausanias toured Greece about a century after Plutarch, he found Pan's shrines, sacred caves and sacred mountains still very much frequented. However, a naturalistic explanation might not be needed. For example, William Hansen has shown that the story is quite similar to a class of widely-known tales known as Fairies Send a Message. The cry "Great Pan is dead" has appealed to poets, such as John Milton , in his ecstatic celebration of Christian peace, On the Morning of Christ's Nativity line 89, and Elizabeth Barrett Browning . One remarkable commentary of Herodotus on Pan is that he lived 800 years before himself (c. 1200 BCE), this being already after the Trojan War. Influence Revivalist imagery The Magic of Pan's Flute, by John Reinhard Weguelin (1905) In the late 18th century, interest in Pan revived among liberal scholars. Richard Payne Knight discussed Pan in his Discourse on the Worship of Priapus (1786) as a symbol of creation expressed through sexuality. "Pan is represented pouring water upon the organ of generation; that is, invigorating the active creative power by the prolific element." In the English town of Painswick in Gloucestershire , a group of 18th century gentry, led by Benjamin Hyett, organised an annual procession dedicated to Pan, during which a statue of the deity was held aloft, and people shouted 'Highgates! Highgates!" Hyett also erected temples and follies to Pan in the gardens of his house and a "Pan's lodge", located over Painswick Valley. The tradition died out in the 1830s, but was revived in 1885 by the new vicar, W. H. Seddon, who mistakenly believed that the festival had been ancient in origin. One of Seddon's successors, however, was less appreciative of the pagan festival and put an end to it in 1950, when he had Pan's statue buried. John Keats 's "Endymion" opens with a festival dedicated to Pan where a stanzaic hymn is sung in praise of him. "Keats's account of Pan's activities is largely drawn from the Elizabethan poets. Douglas Bush notes, 'The goat-god, the tutelary divinity of shepherds, had long been allegorized on various levels, from Christ to "Universall Nature" (Sandys) ; here he becomes the symbol of the romantic imagination, of supra-mortal knowledge.'" In the late nineteenth century Pan became an increasingly common figure in literature and art. Patricia Merivale states that between 1890 and 1926 there was an "astonishing resurgence of interest in the Pan motif". He appears in poetry, in novels and children's books, and is referenced in the name of the character Peter Pan . He is the eponymous "Piper at the Gates of Dawn" in the seventh chapter of Kenneth Grahame 's The Wind in the Willows (1908). Grahame's Pan, unnamed but clearly recognisable, is a powerful but secretive nature-god, protector of animals, who casts a spell of forgetfulness on all those he helps. He makes a brief appearance to help the Rat and Mole recover the Otter's lost son Portly. Arthur Machen 's 1894 novella The Great God Pan uses the god's name in a simile about the whole world being revealed as it really is: ". . . seeing the Great God Pan". The novella is considered by many (including Stephen King ) as being one of the greatest horror stories ever written. Pan entices villagers to listen to his pipes as if in a trance in Lord Dunsany 's novel 'The Blessing of Pan' published in 1927. Although the god does not appear within the story, his energy certainly invokes the younger folk of the village to revel in the summer twilight, and the vicar of the village is the only person worried about the revival of worship for the old pagan god. Pan is also featured as a prominent character in Tom Robbins ' Jitterbug Perfume (1984). Aeronautical engineer and occultist Jack Parsons invoked Pan before test launches at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory . Identification with Satan Francisco Goya , Witches' Sabbath (El aquelarre), . 1798. Oil on canvas, 44 × 31 cm. Museo Lázaro Galdiano, Madrid. Pan's goatish image recalls conventional faun-like depictions of Satan . Although Christian use of Plutarch's story is of long standing[original research?][citation needed], Ronald Hutton has argued that this specific association is modern and derives from Pan's popularity in Victorian and Edwardian neopaganism . Medieval and early modern images of Satan tend, by contrast, to show generic semi-human monsters with horns, wings and clawed feet. Neopaganism In 1933, the Egyptologist Margaret Murray published the book, The God of the Witches, in which she theorised that Pan was merely one form of a horned god who was worshipped across Europe by a witch-cult . This theory influenced the Neopagan notion of the Horned God, as an archetype of male virility and sexuality. In Wicca , the archetype of the Horned God is highly important, as represented by such deities as the Celtic Cernunnos , Indian Pashupati and Greek Pan. A modern account of several purported meetings with Pan is given by Robert Ogilvie Crombie in The Findhorn Garden (Harper & Row, 1975) and The Magic Of Findhorn (Harper & Row, 1975). Crombie claimed to have met Pan many times at various locations in Scotland, including Edinburgh , on the island of Iona and at the Findhorn Foundation . In classical mythology, Syrinx was a nymph and a follower of Artemis , known for her chastity . Pursued by the amorous Greek god Pan , she ran to a river's edge and asked for assistance from the river nymphs. In answer, she was transformed into hollow water reeds that made a haunting sound when the god's frustrated breath blew across them. Pan cut the reeds to fashion the first set of pan pipes , which were thenceforth known as syrinx. The word syringe was derived from this word. In literature The story of the syrinx is told in Achilles Tatius ' Leukippe and Kleitophon where the heroine is subjected to a virginity test by entering a cave where Pan has left syrinx pipes that will sound a melody if she passes. The story became popular among artists and writers in the 19th century. The Victorian artist and poet Thomas Woolner wrote Silenus, a long narrative poem about the myth, in which Syrinx becomes the lover of Silenus , but drowns when she attempts to escape rape by Pan, as a result of the crime Pan is transmuted into a demon figure and Silenus becomes a drunkard. Amy Clampitt 's poem Syrinx refers to the myth by relating the whispering of the reeds to the difficulties of language. The story was used as a central theme by Aifric Mac Aodha in her poetry collection "Gabháil Syrinx". Samuel R. Delany features an instrument called a syrynx in his classic science-fiction novel Nova. In art "Pan and Syrinx" by Jean-François de Troy The Victorian artist, Arthur Hacker (September 25, 1858 – November 12, 1919), depicted Syrinx in his 1892 nude. This painting in oil on canvas is currently on display in Manchester Art Gallery . Sculptor Adolph Wolter was commissioned in 1973 to create a replacement for a stolen sculpture of Syrinx in Indianapolis , Indiana . This work was a replacement for a similar statue by Myra Reynolds Richards that had been stolen. The sculpture sits in University Park located in the city's Indiana World War Memorial Plaza . In music Claude Debussy wrote "Syrinx (La Flute De Pan)" based on Pan's sadness over losing his love. This piece was the first unaccompanied flute solo of the 20th century[citation needed], and remains a very popular addition to the modern flautist's repertoire. It was also transcribed for solo saxophone, becoming a standard performance piece for saxophone too. It was used as incidental music in the play Psyché by Gabriel Mourey.[4] French Baroque composer Michel Pignolet de Montéclair composed "Pan et Syrinx", a cantata for voice & ensemble (No 4 of Second livre de cantates). Danish composer Carl Nielsen composed "Pan and Syrinx" (Pan og Syrinx), Op. 49, FS 87. Canadian electronic progressive rock band Syrinx took their name from the legend. Canadian progressive rock band Rush have a movement titled "The Temples of Syrinx" in their song "2112" on their album 2112 . The song is about a dystopian futuristic society in which the arts, particularly music, have been suppressed by the Priests of the Temples of Syrinx. Panticapaeum (Greek: Παντικάπαιον, Pantikápaion), present-day Kerch : an important Greek city and port in Taurica (Tauric Chersonese), situated on a hill (Mt. Mithridates ) on the western side of the Cimmerian Bosporus , founded by Milesians in the late 7th–early 6th century BC. In the 5th–4th centuries BC, the city became the residence first of the Archaeanactids and then of the Spartocids , dynasties of Greek kings of Bosporus , and was hence itself sometimes called Bosporus. Its economic decline in the 4th–3rd centuries BC was the result of the Sarmatian conquest of the steppes and the growing competition of Egyptian grain. The last of the Spartocids , Paerisades V , apparently left his realm to Mithridates VI Eupator, king of Pontus . This transition was arranged by one of Mithridates's generals, a certain Diophantus , who earlier was sent to Taurica to help local Greek cities against Palacus of Lesser Scythia . The takeover didn't go smoothly: Paerisades was murdered by Scythians led by Saumacus , Diophantus escaped to return later with reinforcements and to suppress the revolt (c. 110 BC). Half of a century later, Mithridates himself took his life in Panticapaeum, when, after his defeat in a war against Rome , his own son and heir Pharnaces and citizens of Panticapaeum turned against him. In 63 BC the city was partly destroyed by an earthquake. Raids by the Goths and the Huns furthered its decline, and it was incorporated into the Byzantine state under Justin I in the early 6th century AD. Ruins of Panticapaeum in Kerch (Ukraine) During the first centuries of the city's existence, imported Greek articles predominated: pottery Kerch Style), terracottas , and metal objects, probably from workshops in Rhodes , Corinth , Samos , and Athens . Local production, imitated from the models, was carried on at the same time. Athens manufactured a special type of bowl for the city, known as Kerch ware. Local potters imitated the Hellenistic bowls known as the Gnathia style as well as relief wares—Megarian bowls. The city minted silver coins from the mid 6th century BC and from the 1st century BC gold and bronze coins. The Hermitage and Kerch Museums contain material from the site, which is still being excavated. Bibliography Noonan, Thomas S. "The Origins of the Greek Colony at Panticapaeum", American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 77, No. 1. (1973), pp. 77–81. Frequently Asked Questions How long until my order is shipped?: Depending on the volume of sales, it may take up to 5 business days for shipment of your order after the receipt of payment. How will I know when the order was shipped?: After your order has shipped, you will be left positive feedback, and that date should be used as a basis of estimating an arrival date. USPS First Class mail takes about 3-5 business days to arrive in the U.S., international shipping times cannot be estimated as they vary from country to country. I am not responsible for any USPS delivery delays, especially for an international package. 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