Seller: neat_stuff_from_ohio (4,277) 99.8%, Location: Dayton, Ohio, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 281869930014 Condition: Please see the listing description and photographs for any possible conditional issues., Color: Off White with Black Ink, Maker: Does Not Apply, Material: Paper, Details: PROVIDENCE ASH REMOVAL COMPANY. INVOICE FOR DR. GEORGE W. BENEDICT of BROWN UNIVERSITY c1903. TYPE OF SCRIPOPHILY, EXONUMIA, NOTAPHILY: Invoice for collection of wood / coal ashes. COMPANY NAME: Providence Ash Company ADDRESS: Corner of Pearl Street and Central Streets CITY, COUNTY & STATE: Providence, (Providence County) Rhode Island. FORM PRINTED BY: N/A. DATE ON FORM & YEARS OLD: November 8, 1903. 112-years old. CLIENT'S NAME ON RECEIPT: Dr. George W. Benedict, Ph. D. ADDRESS: 16 John Street CITY, COUNTY & STATE: Providence, (Providence County) Rhode Island. PRODUCTS PURCHASED: Removal of household heating ashes. TYPE OF DOCUMENT: Invoice. GENERAL COLORS: White paper (slightly browned from age), black imprint, light-blue lined. Purple "PAID" stamp. MEASUREMENTS: 8⅜" x 5⅝". EMBOSSING: None. TAXATION/REVENUE/OTHER STAMPS: None. WATERMARKS ON PAPER: "DELTA MI." Although this is a partial watermark, we suspect it was for Delta Mills (American Writing Paper Company) of Holyoke, Massachusetts. FOLDS: Appears to be two vertical and no horizontal. CORNERS: Slightly round. HOLES, TEARS, DAMAGE: None noted. In very good condition. ADDITIONAL NOTES: Two historical goodies in one document: Dr. Benedict (of Brown University) and The Providence Ash Company! PROVIDENCE ASH COMPANY: According to Page 142 of the "Acts and Resolves Passed by The General Assembly of The State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, November Session 1901," on September 7, 1901: Charles P. Bennett, Secretary of State, certified that Abel H. Tilton, Oscar H. White and Myron H. Fuller filed in the office of the Secretary of State, their agreement to form a Corporation under the name of "The Providence Ash Company," for the purpose of removing ashes and waste matter from dwelling houses and other buildings and places. The company had an initial capital stock of one-hundred thousand dollars (this was a substantial amount of money in the early 1900s). For many years, ash cans were simply dumped into wagons and hauled away. Ashes ended up on the ground or strewn about by the wind. The Providence Ash Company employed covered cans to keep things tidy. A invoice dated November 1903 placed the company at the corner of Pearl and Central Streets. Another invoice dated April 1913 placed the company at 206 Messer Street. According to the 1919 Providence Business Directory, the Provident Ash Company removed ashes and moved furniture: General, local, and long distance auto trucking. By 1919, they were located at 183 Pond Street at the corner of Winter Street and their phone number was 239 "Gaspee." We can find no mention of the company after 1919. A check of the Rhode Island Secretary of State shows no company or corporation currently operating under this name. This business most likely succumbed to a new heating technology: Heating oil and natural gas - neither of which leaves ash. WHY ASH COMPANIES EXISTED (THEN VANISHED): Heating by wood or coal was messy. Really messy! Homeowners (or their servants) were encouraged to carefully shift their ash prior to disposal (so as not to waste any unburned coal). Wood ash collected was sold to lye companies and used in the manufacture of strong soaps. Wood ash was also mixed with cement, used as an insect repellant (when applied to gardens), used to shine up silverware, and incorporated into growing calcium-hungry plants (such as tomatoes). Coal ash on the other hand contains heavy metals such as arsenic, lead, mercury, and selenium, as well as aluminum, barium, boron, and chlorine. All can be toxic. During the late 1800s, cast iron radiators would bring an end to heating homes by fireplace (one of which was usually located in every room in the house; all needed to be fed in the colder months). America’s homes would also be heated by a coal-fired boiler in the basement, which would heat water or steam and send it to radiators in every room. Around 1885, Dave Lennox built and marketed the industry’s first riveted-steel coal furnace. These two methods would quickly dominate central heating until 1935, when the first forced-air furnaces (using coal as a heat source) came on the market. These new furnaces forced hot air through ductwork utilizing an electric fan. Regardless of how the home was heated, (radiator, coal furnace or coal / firewood-fed forced-air furnaces), there were pails and pails of ash that needed to be collected and removed from every home and business every-other week. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, gas and oil fired versions of forced air furnaces would relieve the homeowners from the chore of “stoking the fire” and removing of the resulting ash. No more ash, no more need for ash removal companies. ABOUT THE HOMEOWNER, DR. GEORGE W. BENEDICT, PH. D.: The address listed on the invoice is for 16 John Street, Providence, Rhode Island. We had a difficult time deciphering the name on the invoice. It appeared to be G. W. Beurdict. The last name Beurdict shows up primarily in Canada. We had no luck matching it to Providence, Rhode Island in the early 1900s. According to Page 115 of "The Art Directory 1898-1899" © The Art Book Company, New York 1898, Abram C. Mendenhall resided at 16 John Street. Mendenhall was definitely not the name appearing on this invoice. According to Page 12 of the "Address Book of Burlington, Vermont. 1904-5" © Katharine Lord 1904, Mr. and Mrs. George W. Benedict resided at 16 John Street, Providence, Rhode Island. Bingo! According to Brown University's 1917 yearbook, George Wyllys Benedict PH. D., was an Associate Professor of English residing at 16 John Street. Doctor Benedict received his education at the University of Vermont and at Harvard. In 1923, Dr. Benedict became a full professor at Brown - - where he taught English composition, Anglo-Saxon, Chaucer, medieval literature, Shakespeare, and the literature of the Romantic and the Victorian periods. He was also and excellent machinist. Dr. Benedict retired in 1937 and at the age of 94, died in Providence on February 7, 1966. DISCOUNTS: Due to the rarity and oddity of this document, no discounts are being offered to museums, colleges, universities, or libraries wishing to expand their collections. 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