RARE Advertising Brochure - Arabian Cross Horse Show US Grant 1882 Rochester NY

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Seller: dalebooks (8,180) 100%, Location: Rochester, New York, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 303079386299 VERY RARE Advertising Brochure Exhibit of Arabian Crosses Made by R. Huntington Produce of General Ulysses Grant's Arabian Stallions Leopard & Linden Western New York Fair - Rochester Driving Park Rochester, New York 1882 For offer: a very rare advertising pamphlet! Fresh from a prominent estate in Upstate NY. Never offered on the market until now. Vintage, Old, Original, Antique, NOT a Reproduction - Guaranteed !! Very nice piece of ephemera, with aesthetic period design. Arabian Crosses, as the origin and formation of the American road and trotting bred horse. Direct descendants of General Grant's famous horses. Henry Clay / Gold dust, Claydust - In-bred Clay, Ash Hill, Union of Arabian and Messenger blood, Islam, Hegira, Clayrabia, Gen. Beale, etc. This piece could be called a brochure, program, invitation, or a type of folding advertising trade card. Measures 5 x 3 3/4 inches when closed. 4 pgs. In good to very good condition. Small ding at top edge, as shown in photos. If you collect 19th century American history, Americana, advertisement ad, Victorian era, etc. this is a treasure you will not see again! Genealogy research info as well. Add this to your image or paper / ephemera collection. Combine shipping on multiple bid wins! 02011 GENERAL ULYSSES S. GRANT'S ArabiansBy Ben Hur(Western Horseman May/Jun '47) Polish Arabians(44)May Have Been Saved Pedigree BREEDING(45) Line-Breeding And In-Breeding(45) In-Breeding and Size(45) Seward's Arabians(45) WASHINGTON'S BEST Saddle Horse(46) Arabian Blood(46) (The Keene Richards Importations) Arabians(47)GENERAL ULYSSES S. GRANT'S ARABIAN ANCESTORS(49)THE Thoroughbred's Arabs At Chicago, 1893 (50) Type in the Arab(51) GENERAL U.S. GRANT of Civil War (U.S. 1861-65) fame and twice elected president of the United States, did not live to know that an Arabian stallion presented to him by Sultan of Turkey became many years later, the earliest Arabian stallion to be registered in the stud book of The Arabian Horse Club of America. It was one of those queer quirks of fate by which this stallion was the sire of one pure Arabian son whose blood will be found in many present day Arabians in this country. As invariable happens after every war, a hero emerges who captures popular acclaim. As a result, Grant was elected and re-elected president. His fame, in fact, was worldwide. He made a trip to Europe and the Orient. He visited Constantinople as the guest of Abdul Hamid II, Sultan of Turkey, and a great admirer of Grant, in March 1878. The Sultan personally escorted the General through his stables, noted for their many fine Arabian and Oriental horses. Grant had campaigned through the entire Civil War on horseback and was a superb rider and judge of horses. He expressed great admiration for a young dapple-grey Arabian stallion and the Sultan promptly presented the General with this very fine stallion, foaled in 1873, named Leopard. The Sultan, not to be outdone as a judge of horses thereupon selected another which he, (the Sultan) admired and presented it also to the General. This stallion, also a dapple grey, a year younger, was named Linden Tree. Historians will recall that Turkey was a major power on the Mediterranean whose authority was accepted as supreme throughout most of Asia Minor and most of the Arabian tribes in and around the Arabian desert. These tribes, ever on the move, often at war with one another and often revolting against the Turks, were a constant source of annoyance to the military authorities of Turkey. The shotgun was passing out as a weapon of warfare among civilized nations and the spear and long lance were passing out as weapons among the Arabian tribes. There was more than admiration and generosity behind the gift of the two Arabian stallions to General Grant by the Sultan, as can be interpreted by the fact they arrived in the United States aboard the steamer Norman Monarch, at New Haven, Conn., May 31, 1879, which was chartered to bring back to Turkey rifles, cartridges and ammunition from the famous Winchester Arms Company of that city. The Sultan was killing two birds with one stone! The two stallions were taken by boat to New York, then to Philadelphia, where they were shown at Suffolk Park, then at fairs at Dover, Del., Washington, D.C., Alexandria, Va., Cumberland, W. Va., and Doylestown Pa. They were then delivered to Gen. E.F. Beale at his place near Washington, where they were permanently stabled. General Grant was too busy, it seems, to give any personal attention to his gift horses and it remained for the renowned horseman of his day, Randolph Huntington of Long Island, New York, to become the champion admirer and mentor for the Grant Arabians. Mr. Huntington was a breeder of harness horses of note and specialized in the Clay family, (close up in Arabian breeding) with a theory that a breed of horses should be developed in the United States adapted to the needs of the country. His observations and theory of arriving at a suitable American-made horse included the use of the blood of the Arabian largely and to accomplish this he advocated and followed the old breeders' rule of "out-cross once and breed back by three closely related sources." Huntington lost no time in sending some of his choice virgin Clay mares to the stables of General Beale in the spring of 1880 to be bred to General Grant's stallions. His breeding program proved sound over the next few years and he was about to realize his ambition to produce an American-made breed of horses patterned somewhat after the horses of Count Orloff of Russia, which had been proven so valuable that they were taken over by the Russian government and sponsored as a national breed. Mr. Huntington had spent a lifetime and a fortune developing and proving his theory of horse breeding when his trusted secretary absconded with nearly $100,000. As a result he was compelled to hold a public auction and dispose of the major portion of his life's work. The fact that these horses brought high prices in part vindicated his theories of breeding, but the American-made breed was dissipated to the four winds. During this time, after the importation of the Grant Arabians, Mr. Huntington made an intense search and study of what had become of earlier importations of Arabians in this country, especially those presented to Secretary Seward of Lincoln's cabinet, President James K. Polk, A. Keene Richards and others. He found that within 15 years or less this Arabian blood had been so dissipated that little authentic breeding evidence was available. He thereupon determined to import one or more Arabian mares and begin where A. Keene Richards had been compelled to leave off because of the Civil War. He imported from England in 1888 the Arabian mare, Naomi, whose sire Yataghan and dam, Haidee, had both been brought from the desert in 1875 to England by Major Roger D. Upton. Naomi was bred to Leopard (1889) and foaled the chestnut stallion, Anazeh, at Mr. Huntington's place at Oyster Bay, Long Island, in 1890. This lone pure Arabian son of Leopard was the sire of eight pure Arabian foals, four of which -- Naarah, Nazlina, Naaman and Narkeesa -- went on to produced and are in many pedigrees today. The Arabian Horse Club of America was founded in 1908. Other Arabians were registered earlier, but to Randolph Huntington belongs the credit and honor of sponsoring Leopard, for proving him up for registration and for having imported the earliest Arabian mare to find her way into the stud book. So great was the admiration of Mr. Huntington for General Grant's Arabians and so certain was he of their historical importance that he commissioned the young artist, H.S.Kittredge, to make drawings of the two stallions during 1880. He had him make pictures of various others of his Henry Clay family of horses. This was before the day of the modern camera and present day methods of reproduction on paper. The pictures made by Mr. Kittredge, while very definite in detail, lack animation and are impersonal, reminding one of the large wooden horses formerly found in every harness shop on which to display their harness and saddles. Nevertheless, Mr. Huntington was so enthusiastic about the General Grant Arabians and their pictures that he wrote a book entitled "General Grant's Arabian Horses," published in 1885, in which he expounded at length his theories of breeding and pedigrees of his American made horses. One of these rare books is in possession of the writer, inscribed "Presented by the Author, Randolph Huntington." Under the picture of Leopard in Mr. Huntington's handwriting is written: "Proved a Seglawi-Jedran." Under the picture of Linden Tree is written "Proved a pure Barb." Fortunately for the future of Arabians in the United States, Linden Tree, registered in the Arabian stud book was never bred to a pure Arabian mare in this country. How Linden Tree could have been a Barb and yet presented by the Sultan to General Grant as a pure Arabian was related to us prior to 1930 by the late Major C.A. Benton, Civil War veteran, who devoted his life to horses related to military action. Major Benton was personally familiar with each and every Arabian in this country in the formative period of the stud book and club. A few years after the Grant importation he was sent on a military mission which took him to Constantinople, among other foreign ports. The Major related to us on several occasions how he sought out the keeper of the Sultan's stables and questioned him about the Grant stallions. It developed that on the day before the horses were to be loaded on shipboard the stallion selected by the Sultan as a gift to General Grant had sprained a leg and was lame. Rather than report the accident to the Sultan and possible loose his position, he selected another horse in the stable as near like him as possible. The horse was a Barb. We have, then, from two early authorities that Linden Tree was a Barb. It is significant that in all the early editions of the stud book when family names were given to all registered, the word "Unknown" is given after the word "Family" in Linden Tree's registration. It is a singular coincidence that at the time General Grant was in Turkey receiving the gift of the two stallions from the Sultan, the Blunts, Sir Wilfrid and Lady Ann, from England, were making their first journey among the northern Arabian tribes and acquiring their first Arabian horses. Events were transpiring to transplant the breeding of pure Arabian horses on two continents at the same time. Arabian horses had been brought from the desert to England and America for more than a hundred years by way of India, Turkey and Egypt, but almost invariably stallions, always with the thought of crossing them on native stock; in England to make and improve the Thoroughbred, in America to make the Quarter horse, American Saddle-bred and improve the Thoroughbred. When Grant's stallions arrived in America the Blunts were on their second journey to the desert, this time by the southern route. They were seeing Arabian horses on these journeys with the eyes of Englishmen trained to Thoroughbreds, but they were being fast won over to the idea of breeding Arabians in their purity. England already had the Major Upton Arabians. With the Blunt importations, Arabians wee now available in England for a real start. In America events for a real start were not so propitious. Randolph Huntington's imagination and ambition were fired anew when he saw the Grant stallions, but he saw them through the eyes of one trained to Clay fast harness horses. He was so enthused he wrote a book about them and his theories of making a new breed. Lady Ann's books of their journeys -- Bedouin Tribes of the Euphrates" and "Pilgrimage to Nejd," published 1879-80 -- came to the attention of Mr. Huntington. He too, became a convert to the idea of breeding pure Arabian horses in America. He imported from England the filly, Naomi, from the original Major Upton desert-bred pair imported to England in 1875 to mate with Leopard. Thus, English and American-bred pure Arabians had almost the same start at almost the same time. Many other importations from England since have strengthened the tie of almost common, if not identical, parentage of an ever increasing large number of Arabians on both continents. RANDOLPH HUNTINGTON was born in Springfield, Mass., in 1828. It was he who demonstrated the possibilities inherent in the Arab horse for the purpose of developing a new breed of saddle and road horses. He was related to some of the most influential people of his age, yet he preferred the breeding of horses to any other business. Randolph Huntington married a country girl who later inherited a farm near Bloomfield, Ontario country, N.Y., and it was on this farm that Huntington began to breed horses soon after the Civil War. During his first years on the farm he bought and sold many colts and fillies as coach horses in New York City. He soon came to recognize the value of the Clay stock in that community which was largely the result of the breeding of a horse called Henry Clay which was brought to the nearby Genesee valley and whose stock was distributed through the valley. Huntington soon realized that the Clay blood was fast disappearing and he set about buying up the most desirable daughters, granddaughters and sons of the old Henry Clay breeding. The Clays were an especially fine trotting breed for their day. He attributed the excellence of the Clay blood to the amount of Arab blood through Grand Bashaw, Young Bashaw, Andrew Jackson and Henry Clay. Before Huntington began to build up the Clay breed he sold all his horses of Hambletonian and other families. He began to collect the Clays in 1877. He states that he was in good position to know about the value of Clay blood as the first stud season made by this famous horse was in western New York at the farm of Francis Neason, an uncle of his wife. On May 31, 1879, there arrived in America two very fine stallions which were presented to Gen. U.S. Grant by the Sultan of Turkey. These stallions were Leopard and Linden Tree. It is generally acknowledged that Linden Tree was a Barb-Arabian while Leopard was a pure Arabian. Prior to the time that these horses arrived in America, the very favorable results from inbreeding to produce typical Clay horses was shown to be practical. After seeing the stallions, Leopard and Linden Tree, Randolph Huntington at once started negotiations to breed three virgin Clay mares to each of these stallions. He hoped thereby to improve the road horse quality of his horses. In later years he called them Clay-Arabs. Since Huntington wanted to breed only virgin mares it was not until 1880 or 1881 that he was able to breed and raise just what he wanted. The offspring secured from these matings were good and the results secured by breeding these offsprings later to each other were outstanding. Within a few years many prominent men in the New York area were beginning to see the advantages of breeding these Clay-Arabs. A company was formed and Mr. Huntington moved his horses to Long Island where the project was to be carried on. Just before moving to Long Island, Huntington purchased Naomi, the only Arab that remained of an importation to England of three Arabians. These Arabians were the mares Haidee and Zuleike and the stallion Yataghan, which cost Sanderman $62,500 in gold. Haidee was bred to Yataghan, her full brother, and produced Naomi, one of the finest and largest Arabian mares of her day. In 1888 Mr. Huntington bought Naomi and she was brought to America. In England, Naomi had been bred to Kismet and had a six months old horse colt at foot named Nimr. While Naomi was owned in England by the Rev. F. F. Vidal she foaled a chestnut filly which was sired by a famous Arabian racer, Maidan. Randolph Huntington from his study and observation of the Arabian horse was determined if at all possible to get Kismet-bred Arabs for his breeding operation. He was unable to buy Kismet, but did succeed in leasing him for a two year period at a reported price of $20,000 plus the insurance fee on Kismet for this amount to be kept on the stallion until his return to England. Kismet arrived Nov. 10, 1891, but was very sick with pneumonia, and died a few hours after being unloaded. Since Huntington was to be denied the use of Kismet for breeding purposes, his next move was to purchase Nazli (the daughter of Naomi) and her horse foal Nimr. These two Arabians figure prominently in many old pedigrees of Arabian horses. These importations did not have a direct influence on the Clay-Arabian horses, but it proves that Randolph Huntington knew the value of the Arabian horse. Huntington's treasurer, a man named Weeks, embezzled and disappeared with a sum reported to be nearly $100,000. This money was to have been used in the development of the Clay-Arabian horse and for the preparation of a history of the Clay horse. Had this not occurred it is possible that there would have been a different history of the light horse in America. Due to the depression of 1893 and to the lack of finances to feed, care and breed about 100 head of horses, Randolph Huntington's breeding venture of Clay-Arabs (sometimes called Americo-Arabs) was forced into receivership. Eighty-five horses were offered for sale February 22 and 23, 1894, at American Institute Buildings. They were sold by Peter C. Kellogg and Co., the leading auction firm of the day. A part-Arabian, partbred Arabian or, less precisely, half-Arabian, is a horse with documented amounts of Arabian horse breeding but not a purebred. Because the Arabian is deemed to be a breed of purebred horse dating back many centuries, the modern breed registries recognized by the World Arabian Horse Organization generally have tightly closed stud books which exclude a horse from registration if it is found to contain any outside blood. However, Arabian breeding has also been used for centuries to add useful traits to countless other horse breeds. In the modern era, crossbreeding has been popular to combine the best traits of two different breeds, such as color, size, or ability to specialize in a particular equestrian discipline. Thus, in the modern era, the desire to recognize and acknowledge Arabian breeding in non-purebred horses has led to the formation of partbred sections in many purebred Arabian registries in order to record the pedigrees of crossbreds. In addition, some particularly successful or popular crossbreds have created their own registries, usually closed to most outside breeding, but which generally allow additional infusions of purebred Arabian blood. Some registries, particularly those for sport horses and various warmbloods, have an open or partially open stud book that still allows some infusions of Arabian blood as well as that of other breeds, sometimes based on a documented Arabian pedigree, sometimes on a pedigree plus a studbook selection process. There are cases where a horse may qualify for registration in more than one registry and thus may be marketed as "double-registered". A few breeds, such as the Thoroughbred, acknowledge Arabian ancestry with named, documented horses in their stud books, but no longer accept new infusions of Arabian blood and the breed is considered a purebred in its own right. Literally hundreds of other horse breeds have some evidence of Arabian influence. In some breeds, such as the Percheron, Arabian influence is considered highly probable, but dates back hundreds of years and thus is difficult to conclusively prove as pedigree records cannot be linked to individual animals. In other breeds, such as the Andalusian horse or the American Quarter Horse, documentation of Arabian bloodlines in the breed can be found but either the records are controversial, or the infusion of Arab blood itself was controversial and for various reasons the breed registry today seeks to downplay Arabian type or influence. Registries A mare of 3/4 Arabian breeding, registered in the United States as a half-Arabian Breed registries for part-Arabians include: The USA Arabian Horse Association's Half-Arabian and Anglo-Arabian registry: Half-Arabians must have at least 50% Arabian blood and one purebred Arabian parent. Half-Arabians cannot be crossed on other Half-Arabians and produce registerable offspring. Anglo-Arabians have different requirements (see below). Anglo-Arabian or Anglo Arab: A Thoroughbred-Arabian cross. Different nations have different standards, but usually Anglo-Arabians must have a minimum of 25% and no more than 75% blood from each breed, which may be done by a first generation cross of an Arabian with a Thoroughbred or by crossing two Anglo-Arabians, or by crossing an Anglo-Arabian on either a purebred Thoroughbred or Arabian. In some nations, partbred Arabians are called "Anglo-Arabians," even if they are not strictly an Arab-Thoroughbred cross AraAppaloosa: An Appaloosa-Arabian cross Morab: A Morgan-Arabian cross National Show Horse: An American Saddlebred-Arabian cross Pintabian: A horse with over 99% Arabian blood and tobiano coloration; Pintabian horses with a registered Arabian parent also qualify for registration as Half-Arabians Quarab: An American Quarter Horse-Arabian cross, a few American Paint Horse bloodlines are also found in this breed. Welara: A Welsh pony-Arabian cross. Open stud books Part-Arabians may have coat colors not found in purebred Arabians, such as this "bay champagne" part-Arab Horse registries with an open stud book that allow Arabian and part-Arabians as well as other breeds to be registered include: American Warmblood: Has an open stud book that allows some Arabians and part-Arabians via a studbook selection process. Oldenburg horse: Has an open stud book that allows some Arabians and part-Arabians via a studbook selection process. Palomino Horse Breeders of America: A color breed registry that accepts horses of palomino color, including part-Arabians and even the occasional chestnut purebred Arabian with flaxen mane and tail if a light enough chestnut to meet the registry standard. (Purebred Arabians do not carry the creme gene that produces a true genetic palomino.) Pinto Horse Association of America: An American color breed registry for parti-colored horses that accepts part-Arabians with pinto color patterns and a few purebreds if they strongly exhibit the sabino color pattern that is known to exist in purebreds. Selle Francais: A French breed with significant Arabian, Anglo-Arabian and Thoroughbred influence. Partially open stud books that allow Arab breeding Breeds with a "partially open" stud book, but that still allow new infusions of Arabian breeding, some based only on documented pedigree, some requiring a pedigree and studbook selection, include: Appaloosa: Has some Arabians in foundation bloodlines. Allows horses with one Arabian, Thoroughbred, or American Quarter Horse parent crossed on an Appaloosa parent, so long as the ensuing foal also has leopard complex traits. Colorado Ranger: Similar to Appaloosa, has Arabian foundation stock. Gidran, or Hungarian Anglo-Arab: A Hungarian breed developed from Arabian foundation stock crossed on local horses with infusions of Arabian, Thoroughbred, Anglo-Arab and Shagya breeding. All horses of this breed are chestnut. Purosangue Orientale: An Italian breed developed by crossing Arabians on local horses in Sicily. Sardinian Anglo-Arab, Anglo-Arabo Sardo or AAS: An Italian breed with a minimum of 25% Arabian blood, developed by crossing Thoroughbred and Arabian stallions on local mares from Sardinia. Trakehner: Still allows infusion of Arabian, Thoroughbred, Anglo-Arabian and Shagya blood in limited circumstances. "Purebred" breeds with Arabian roots The Shagya Arabian is nearly purebred, but with a very small amount of non-Arabian breeding Breeds significantly influenced by acknowledged, documented Arabian foundation bloodstock recorded by their breed's stud book during their formative years, but have closed stud books that no longer accept Arabian blood directly include: Shagya Arabian: A Hungarian horse breed that is predominantly Arabian but with a very small percentage of non-Arabian breeding. Thoroughbred: All Thoroughbreds today descend from one of three Arabian foundation stallions from the late 17th and early 18th centuries. Orlov Trotter: A Russian breed whose foundation sire was Smetanka, a purebred Arabian The Arabian or Arab horse (Arabic: الحصان العربي [ ħisˤaːn ʕarabiː], DMG ḥiṣān ʿarabī) is a breed of horse that originated on the Arabian Peninsula. With a distinctive head shape and high tail carriage, the Arabian is one of the most easily recognizable horse breeds in the world. It is also one of the oldest breeds, with archaeological evidence (source needed) of horses in the Middle East that resemble modern Arabians dating back 4,500 years. Throughout history, Arabian horses have spread around the world by both war and trade, used to improve other breeds by adding speed, refinement, endurance, and strong bone. Today, Arabian bloodlines are found in almost every modern breed of riding horse. The Arabian developed in a desert climate and was prized by the nomadic Bedouin people, often being brought inside the family tent for shelter and protection from theft. Selective breeding for traits including an ability to form a cooperative relationship with humans created a horse breed that is good-natured, quick to learn, and willing to please. The Arabian also developed the high spirit and alertness needed in a horse used for raiding and war. This combination of willingness and sensitivity requires modern Arabian horse owners to handle their horses with competence and respect. The Arabian is a versatile breed. Arabians dominate the discipline of endurance riding, and compete today in many other fields of equestrian sport. They are one of the top ten most popular horse breeds in the world. They are now found worldwide, including the United States and Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, continental Europe, South America (especially Brazil), and their land of origin, the Middle East. Breed characteristics A light gray horse moving at a trot through an arena with all four feet off the ground. The tail is carried high and the neck is arched. A purebred Arabian stallion, showing dished profile, arched neck, level croup and high-carried tail See also: Horse anatomy Arabian horses have refined, wedge-shaped heads, a broad forehead, large eyes, large nostrils, and small muzzles. Most display a distinctive concave, or "dished" profile. Many Arabians also have a slight forehead bulge between their eyes, called the jibbah by the Bedouin, that adds additional sinus capacity, believed to have helped the Arabian horse in its native dry desert climate.[1][2] Another breed characteristic is an arched neck with a large, well-set windpipe set on a refined, clean throatlatch. This structure of the poll and throatlatch was called the mitbah or mitbeh by the Bedouin. In the ideal Arabian it is long, allowing flexibility in the bridle and room for the windpipe.[2] Other distinctive features are a relatively long, level croup, or top of the hindquarters, and naturally high tail carriage. The USEF breed standard requires Arabians have solid bone and standard correct equine conformation.[3] Well-bred Arabians have a deep, well-angled hip and well laid-back shoulder.[4] Within the breed, there are variations. Some individuals have wider, more powerfully muscled hindquarters suitable for intense bursts of activity in events such as reining, while others have longer, leaner muscling better suited for long stretches of flat work such as endurance riding or horse racing.[5] Most have a compact body with a short back.[2] Arabians usually have dense, strong bone, and good hoof walls. They are especially noted for their endurance,[6][7] and the superiority of the breed in Endurance riding competition demonstrates that well-bred Arabians are strong, sound horses with superior stamina. At international FEI-sponsored endurance events, Arabians and half-Arabians are the dominant performers in distance competition.[8] Skeletal analysis A defleshed skeleton of a horse put together in a standing position. Mounted skeleton of an Arabian horse, showing underlying structure of breed characteristics including short back, high-set tail, distinction between level croup and well-angulated hip. This specimen also has only 5 lumbar vertebrae. Some Arabians, though not all, have 5 lumbar vertebrae instead of the usual 6, and 17 pairs of ribs rather than 18.[9] A quality Arabian has both a relatively horizontal croup and a properly angled pelvis as well as good croup length and depth to the hip (determined by the length of the pelvis), that allows agility and impulsion.[4][10] A misconception confuses the topline of the croup with the angle of the "hip" (the pelvis or ilium), leading some to assert that Arabians have a flat pelvis angle and cannot use their hindquarters properly. However, the croup is formed by the sacral vertebrae. The hip angle is determined by the attachment of the ilium to the spine, the structure and length of the femur, and other aspects of hindquarter anatomy, which is not correlated to the topline of the sacrum. Thus, the Arabian has conformation typical of other horse breeds built for speed and distance, such as the Thoroughbred, where the angle of the ilium is more oblique than that of the croup.[11][12][13] Thus, the hip angle is not necessarily correlated to the topline of the croup. Horses bred to gallop need a good length of croup and good length of hip for proper attachment of muscles, and so unlike angle, length of hip and croup do go together as a rule.[12] Size The breed standard stated by the United States Equestrian Federation, describes Arabians as standing between 14.1 to 15.1 hands (57 to 61 inches, 145 to 155 cm) tall, "with the occasional individual over or under."[3] Thus, all Arabians, regardless of height, are classified as "horses", even though 14.2 hands (58 inches, 147 cm) is the traditional cutoff height between a horse and a pony.[14] A common myth is that Arabians are not strong because they are relatively small and refined. However, the Arabian horse is noted for a greater density of bone than other breeds, short cannons, sound feet, and a broad, short back,[2] all of which give the breed physical strength comparable to many taller animals.[15] Thus, even a smaller Arabian can carry a heavy rider. For tasks where the sheer weight of the horse matters, such as farm work done by a draft horse,[16] any lighter-weight horse is at a disadvantage.[16] However, for most purposes, the Arabian is a strong and hardy light horse breed able to carry any type of rider in most equestrian pursuits.[15] Temperament A dark horse moving towards the camera with head held high and legs striding forward. Arabians are noted for both intelligence and a spirited disposition For centuries, Arabian horses lived in the desert in close association with humans.[17] For shelter and protection from theft, prized war mares were sometimes kept in their owner's tent, close to children and everyday family life.[18] Only horses with a naturally good disposition were allowed to reproduce, with the result that Arabians today have a good temperament that, among other examples, makes them one of the few breeds where the United States Equestrian Federation rules allow children to exhibit stallions in nearly all show ring classes, including those limited to riders under 18.[19] On the other hand, the Arabian is also classified as a "hot-blooded" breed, a category that includes other refined, spirited horses bred for speed, such as the Akhal-Teke, the Barb, and the Thoroughbred. Like other hot-bloods, Arabians' sensitivity and intelligence enable quick learning and greater communication with their riders; however, their intelligence also allows them to learn bad habits as quickly as good ones,[20] and they do not tolerate inept or abusive training practices.[21] Some sources claim that it is more difficult to train a "hot-blooded" horse.[22] Though most Arabians have a natural tendency to cooperate with humans, when treated badly, like any horse, they can become excessively nervous or anxious, but seldom become vicious unless seriously spoiled or subjected to extreme abuse.[21] At the other end of the spectrum, romantic myths are sometimes told about Arabian horses that give them near-divine characteristics.[23] Colors Main articles: Equine coat color and Equine coat color genetics The Arabian Horse Association registers purebred horses with the coat colors bay, gray, chestnut, black, and roan.[24] Bay, gray and chestnut are the most common; black is less common.[25] The classic roan gene does not appear to exist in Arabians;[26] rather, Arabians registered by breeders as "roan" are usually expressing rabicano or, sometimes, sabino patterns with roan features.[27] All Arabians, no matter their coat color, have black skin, except under white markings. Black skin provided protection from the intense desert sun.[28] A horse with a white hair coat and dark skin showing around the nose, eyes and genitalia. A gray Arabian; note white hair coat but black skin Gray and white Although many Arabians appear to have a "white" hair coat, they are not genetically "white". This color is usually created by the natural action of the gray gene, and virtually all white-looking Arabians are actually grays.[29] A specialized colorization seen in some older gray Arabians is the so-called "bloody-shoulder", which is a particular type of "flea-bitten" gray with localized aggregations of pigment on the shoulder.[30][31] There are a very few Arabians registered as "white" having a white coat, pink skin and dark eyes from birth. These animals are believed to manifest a new form of dominant white, a result of a nonsense mutation in DNA tracing to a single stallion foaled in 1996.[32] This horse was originally thought to be a sabino, but actually was found to have a new form of dominant white mutation, now labeled W3.[32] It is possible that white mutations have occurred in Arabians in the past or that mutations other than W3 exist but have not been verified by genetic testing.[27] Sabino Main article: Sabino horse One spotting pattern, sabino, does exist in purebred Arabians. Sabino coloring is characterized by white markings such as "high white" above the knees and hocks, irregular spotting on the legs, belly and face, white markings that extend beyond the eyes or under the chin and jaw, and sometimes lacy or roaned edges.[33] The genetic mechanism that produces sabino patterning in Arabians is undetermined, and more than one gene may be involved.[27] Studies at the University of California, Davis indicate that Arabians do not appear to carry the autosomal dominant gene "SB1" or sabino 1, that often produces bold spotting and some completely white horses in other breeds. The inheritance patterns observed in sabino-like Arabians also do not follow the same mode of inheritance as sabino 1.[34][35] A trotting horse with dark reddish-brown coloring on the neck, upper back, chest and legs, but white hair on the middle of the body and at base of the tail. A chestnut rabicano Arabian horse Rabicano or roan? Main article: Rabicano There are very few Arabians registered as roan, and according to researcher D. Phillip Sponenberg, roaning in purebred Arabians is actually the action of rabicano genetics.[26] Unlike a genetic roan, rabicano is a partial roan-like pattern; the horse does not have intermingled white and solid hairs over the entire body, only on the midsection and flanks, the head and legs are solid-colored.[26] Some people also confuse a young gray horse with a roan because of the intermixed hair colors common to both. However, a roan does not consistently lighten with age, while a gray does.[36][37] Colors that do not exist in purebreds Purebred Arabians never carry dilution genes.[38] Therefore, purebreds cannot be colors such as dun, cremello, palomino or buckskin.[39] However, there is pictorial evidence from pottery and tombs in Ancient Egypt suggesting that spotting patterns may have existed on ancestral Arabian-type horses in antiquity.[40] Nonetheless, purebred Arabians today do not carry genes for pinto or Leopard complex ("Appaloosa") spotting patterns, except for sabino. A horse with brown and white spots being ridden by a woman in a dark suit at a horse show A tobiano patterned National Show Horse, a type of partbred Arabian Spotting or excess white was believed by many breeders to be a mark of impurity until DNA testing for verification of parentage became standard. For a time, horses with belly spots and other white markings deemed excessive were discouraged from registration and excess white was sometimes penalized in the show ring.[27] To produce horses with some Arabian characteristics but coat colors not found in purebreds, they have to be crossbred with other breeds.[41] Though the purebred Arabian produces a limited range of potential colors, they do not appear to carry any color-based lethal disorders such as the frame overo gene ("O") that can produce lethal white syndrome (LWS). Because purebred Arabians cannot produce LWS foals, Arabian mares were used as a non-affected population in some of the studies seeking the gene that caused the condition in other breeds.[42] Nonetheless, partbred Arabian offspring can, in some cases, carry these genes if the non-Arabian parent was a carrier.[43] Genetic disorders There are six known genetic disorders in Arabian horses. Two are inevitably fatal, two are not inherently fatal but are disabling and usually result in euthanasia of the affected animal; the remaining conditions can usually be treated. Three are thought to be autosomal recessive conditions, which means that the flawed gene is not sex-linked and has to come from both parents for an affected foal to be born; the others currently lack sufficient research data to determine the precise mode of inheritance.[44] Arabians are not the only breed of horse to have problems with inherited diseases; fatal or disabling genetic conditions also exist in many other breeds, including the American Quarter Horse, American Paint Horse, American Saddlebred, Appaloosa, Miniature horse, and Belgian.[44] Genetic diseases that can occur in purebred Arabians, or in partbreds with Arabian ancestry in both parents, are the following: Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID). Recessive disorder, fatal when homozygous, carriers (heterozygotes) show no signs. Similar to the "bubble boy" condition in humans, an affected foal is born with a complete lack of an immune system, and thus generally dies of an opportunistic infection, usually before the age of three months.[45] There is a DNA test that can detect healthy horses who are carriers of the gene causing SCID, thus testing and careful, planned matings can now eliminate the possibility of an affected foal ever being born.[46] Lavender Foal Syndrome (LFS), also called Coat Color Dilution Lethal (CCDL). Recessive disorder, fatal when homozygous, carriers show no signs. The condition has its name because most affected foals are born with a coat color dilution that lightens the tips of the coat hairs, or even the entire hair shaft. Foals with LFS are unable to stand at birth, often have seizures, and are usually euthanized within a few days of birth.[47][48] In November 2009, Cornell University announced that a DNA test has been developed to detect carriers of LFS. Simultaneously, the University of Pretoria also announced that they had also developed a DNA test.[49] Cerebellar abiotrophy (CA or CCA). Recessive disorder, homozygous horses are affected, carriers show no signs. An affected foal is usually born without clinical signs, but at some stage, usually after six weeks of age, develops severe incoordination, a head tremor, wide-legged stance and other symptoms related to the death of the purkinje cells in the cerebellum. Such foals are frequently diagnosed only after they have crashed into a fence or fallen over backwards, and often are misdiagnosed as suffering from a head injury caused by an accident. Severity varies, with some foals having fast onset of severe coordination problems, others showing milder signs. Mildly affected horses can live a full lifespan, but most are euthanized before adulthood because they are so accident-prone as to be dangerous. As of 2008, there is a genetic test that uses DNA markers associated with CA to detect both carriers and affected animals.[50] Clinical signs are distinguishable from other neurological conditions, and a diagnosis of CA can be verified by examining the brain after euthanasia.[51] Occipital Atlanto-Axial Malformation (OAAM). This is a condition where the occiput, atlas and axis vertebrae in the neck and at the base of the skull are fused or malformed. Symptoms range from mild incoordination to the paralysis of both front and rear legs. Some affected foals cannot stand to nurse, in others the symptoms may not be seen for several weeks. This is the only cervical spinal cord disease seen in horses less than 1 month of age, and a radiograph can diagnose the condition. There is no genetic test for OAAM, and the hereditary component of this condition is not well researched at present.[52] Equine juvenile epilepsy, or Juvenile Idiopathic Epilepsy, sometimes referred to as "benign" epilepsy, is not usually fatal. Foals appear normal between epileptic seizures, and seizures usually stop occurring between 12 and 18 months.[48] Affected foals may show signs of epilepsy anywhere from two days to six months from birth.[53] Seizures can be treated with traditional anti-seizure medications, which may reduce their severity.[54] Though the condition has been studied since 1985 at the University of California, Davis, the genetic mode of inheritance is unclear, though the cases studied were all of one general bloodline group.[53] Recent research updates suggest that a dominant mode of inheritance is involved in transmission of this trait.[55] One researcher hypothesized that epilepsy may be linked in some fashion to Lavender Foal Syndrome due to the fact that it occurs in similar bloodlines and some horses have produced foals with both conditions.[48] Guttural Pouch Tympany (GPT) occurs in horses ranging from birth to 1 year of age and is more common in fillies than in colts. It is thought to be genetic in Arabians, possibly polygenic in inheritance, but more study is needed.[56] Foals are born with a defect that causes the pharyngeal opening of the eustachian tube to act like a one-way valve – air can get in, but it cannot get out. The affected guttural pouch is distended with air and forms a characteristic nonpainful swelling. Breathing is noisy in severely affected animals.[57] Diagnosis is based on clinical signs and radiographic examination of the skull. Medical management with NSAID and antimicrobial therapy can treat upper respiratory tract inflammation. Surgical intervention is needed to correct the malformation of the guttural pouch opening, to provide a route for air in the abnormal guttural pouch to pass to the normal side and be expelled into the pharynx. Foals that are successfully treated may grow up to have fully useful lives.[58] The Arabian Horse Association in the United States has created a foundation that supports research efforts to uncover the roots of genetic diseases.[59] The organization F.O.A.L. (Fight Off Arabian Lethals) is a clearinghouse for information on these conditions.[60] Additional information is available from the World Arabian Horse Association (WAHO).[61] Recent trends in halter breeding have given rise to Arabian horses with extremely concave features, raising concerns that the trait is detrimental to the animal's welfare.[62] Comparisons have been made to a similar trend with some dog breeds, where show judging awarding certain features has led to breeders seeking an ever more exaggerated form, with little concern as to the inherent function of the animal. Some veterinarians speculate that an extremely concave face is detrimental to a horse's breathing, but the issue has not been formally studied.[63] Legends An unfinished painting of a saddled gray horse in profile moving away from something as if frightened. An Arabian horse in the desert. Antoine-Jean Gros, c. 1810 Arabian horses are the topic of many myths and legends. One origin story tells how Muhammad chose his foundation mares by a test of their courage and loyalty. While there are several variants on the tale, a common version states that after a long journey through the desert, Muhammad turned his herd of horses loose to race to an oasis for a desperately needed drink of water. Before the herd reached the water, Muhammad called for the horses to return to him. Only five mares responded. Because they faithfully returned to their master, though desperate with thirst, these mares became his favorites and were called Al Khamsa, meaning, the five. These mares became the legendary founders of the five "strains" of the Arabian horse.[64][65] Although the Al Khamsa are generally considered fictional horses of legend,[66] some breeders today claim the modern Bedouin Arabian actually descended from these mares.[67] Another origin tale claims that King Solomon was given a pure Arabian-type mare named Safanad ("the pure") by the Queen of Sheba.[66] A different version says that Solomon gave a stallion, Zad el-Raheb or Zad-el-Rakib ("Gift to the Rider"), to the Banu Azd people when they came to pay tribute to the king. This legendary stallion was said to be faster than the zebra and the gazelle, and every hunt with him was successful, thus when he was put to stud, he became a founding sire of legend.[68] Yet another creation myth puts the origin of the Arabian in the time of Ishmael, the son of Abraham.[69] In this story, the Angel Jibril (also known as Gabriel) descended from Heaven and awakened Ishmael with a "wind-spout" that whirled toward him. The Angel then commanded the thundercloud to stop scattering dust and rain, and so it gathered itself into a prancing, handsome creature - a horse - that seemed to swallow up the ground. Hence, the Bedouins bestowed the title "Drinker of the Wind" to the first Arabian horse.[70] Finally, a Bedouin story states that Allah created the Arabian horse from the south wind and exclaimed, "I create thee, Oh Arabian. To thy forelock, I bind Victory in battle. On thy back, I set a rich spoil and a Treasure in thy loins. I establish thee as one of the Glories of the Earth... I give thee flight without wings."[71] Other versions of the story claim Allah said to the South Wind: "I want to make a creature out of you. Condense." Then from the material condensed from the wind, he made a kamayt-colored animal (a bay or burnt chestnut) and said: "I call you Horse; I make you Arabian and I give you the chestnut color of the ant; I have hung happiness from the forelock which hangs between your eyes; you shall be the Lord of the other animals. Men shall follow you wherever you go; you shall be as good for flight as for pursuit; you shall fly without wings; riches shall be on your back and fortune shall come through your meditation."[72] Origins Arabians are one of the oldest human-developed horse breeds in the world.[23] The progenitor stock, the Oriental subtype or "Proto-Arabian" was believed to be a horse with oriental characteristics similar to the modern Arabian. Horses with these features appeared in rock paintings and inscriptions in the Arabian Peninsula dating back 3500 years.[73] In ancient history throughout the Ancient Near East, horses with refined heads and high-carried tails were depicted in artwork, particularly that of Ancient Egypt in the 16th century BC.[74] Some scholars of the Arabian horse once theorized that the Arabian came from a separate subspecies of horse,[75] known as equus caballus pumpelli.[76] Other scholars, including Gladys Brown Edwards, a noted Arabian researcher, believe that the "dry" oriental horses of the desert, from which the modern Arabian developed, were more likely Equus ferus caballus with specific landrace characteristics based on the environments in which they lived, rather than being a separate subspecies.[9][76] Horses with similar, though not identical, physical characteristics include the Marwari horse of India, the Barb of North Africa, the Akhal-Teke of western Asia and the now-extinct Turkoman Horse.[76] Recent genetic studies of mitochondrial DNA in Arabian horses of Polish and American breeding suggest that the modern breed has heterogeneous origins with ten haplogroups. The modern concept of breed purity in the modern population cannot be traced beyond 200 years.[77] Desert roots A black-and-white photograph of a mounted man on a dark horse. A hawk is perched on the man's outstretched hand. Carl Raswan pictured on an Anazeh warmare There are different theories about where the ancestors of the Arabian originally lived. Most evidence suggests the proto-Arabian came from the area along the northern edge of the Fertile Crescent.[76] Another hypothesis suggests the southwestern corner of the Arabian peninsula, in modern-day Yemen, where three now-dry riverbeds indicate good natural pastures existed long ago, perhaps as far back as the Ice Age.[78][79] This hypothesis has gained renewed attention following a 2010 discovery of artifacts dated between 6590 and 7250 BCE in Al-Magar, in southwestern Saudi Arabia, that appeared to portray horses.[80] The proto-Arabian horse may have been domesticated by the people of the Arabian peninsula known today as the Bedouin, some time after they learned to use the camel, approximately 4,000–5,000 years ago.[79][81] One theory is that this development occurred in the Nejd plateau in central Arabia.[73] Other scholars, noting that horses were common in the Fertile Crescent but rare in the Arabian peninsula prior to the rise of Islam, theorize that the breed as it is known today only developed in large numbers when the conversion of the Persians to Islam in the 7th century brought knowledge of horse breeding and horsemanship to the Bedouin.[82] The oldest depictions in the Arabian Peninsula of horses that are clearly domesticated date no earlier than 1800-2000 BCE.[80] Regardless of origin, climate and culture ultimately created the Arabian. The desert environment required a domesticated horse to cooperate with humans to survive; humans were the only providers of food and water in certain areas, and even hardy Arabian horses needed far more water than camels in order to survive (most horses can only live about 72 hours without water). Where there was no pasture or water, the Bedouin fed their horses dates and camel's milk.[83] The desert horse needed the ability to thrive on very little food, and to have anatomical traits to compensate for life in a dry climate with wide temperature extremes from day to night. Weak individuals were weeded out of the breeding pool, and the animals that remained were also honed by centuries of human warfare.[84] The Bedouin way of life depended on camels and horses: Arabians were bred to be war horses with speed, endurance, soundness, and intelligence.[84][85] Because many raids required stealth, mares were preferred over stallions as they were quieter, and therefore would not give away the position of the fighters.[84] A good disposition was also critical; prized war mares were often brought inside family tents to prevent theft and for protection from weather and predators.[86] Though appearance was not necessarily a survival factor, the Bedouin bred for refinement and beauty in their horses as well as for more practical features.[85] Strains and pedigrees For centuries, the Bedouin tracked the ancestry of each horse through an oral tradition. Horses of the purest blood were known as Asil and crossbreeding with non-Asil horses was forbidden. Mares were the most valued, both for riding and breeding, and pedigree families were traced through the female line. The Bedouin did not believe in gelding male horses, and considered stallions too intractable to be good war horses, thus they kept very few colts, selling most, and culling those of poor quality.[87] Over time, the Bedouin developed several sub-types or strains of Arabian horse, each with unique characteristics,[88] and traced through the maternal line only.[89] According to the Arabian Horse Association, the five primary strains were known as the Keheilan, Seglawi, Abeyan, Hamdani and Hadban.[90] Carl Raswan, a promoter and writer about Arabian horses from the middle of the 20th century, held the belief that there were only three strains, Kehilan, Seglawi and Muniqi. Raswan felt that these strains represented body "types" of the breed, with the Kehilan being "masculine", the Seglawi being "feminine" and the Muniqi being "speedy".[91] There were also lesser strains, sub-strains, and regional variations in strain names.[92][93] Therefore, many Arabian horses were not only Asil, of pure blood, but also bred to be pure in strain, with crossbreeding between strains discouraged, though not forbidden, by some tribes. Purity of bloodline was very important to the Bedouin, and they also believed in telegony, believing if a mare was ever bred to a stallion of "impure" blood, the mare herself and all future offspring would be "contaminated" by the stallion and hence no longer Asil.[94] This complex web of bloodline and strain was an integral part of Bedouin culture; they not only knew the pedigrees and history of their best war mares in detail, but also carefully tracked the breeding of their camels, Saluki dogs, and their own family or tribal history.[95] Eventually, written records began to be kept; the first written pedigrees in the Middle East that specifically used the term "Arabian" date to 1330 AD.[96] As important as strain was to the Bedouin, modern studies of mitochondrial DNA suggest that Arabian horses alive today with records stating descent from a given strain may not actually share a common maternal ancestry.[97] Historic development A line drawing of a two-wheeled chariot drawn by two horses, with three men in the chariot. One of the men is holding a shield. Hittite chariot (drawing of an Egyptian relief) Role in the ancient world Fiery war horses with dished faces and high-carried tails were popular artistic subjects in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, often depicted pulling chariots in war or for hunting. Horses with oriental characteristics appear in later artwork as far north as that of Ancient Greece and the Roman Empire. While this type of horse was not called an "Arabian" in the Ancient Near East until later, (the word "Arabia" or "Arabaya" first appeared in writing in Ancient Persia, c. 500 BC)[98] these proto-Arabians shared many characteristics with the modern Arabian, including speed, endurance, and refinement. For example, a horse skeleton unearthed in the Sinai peninsula, dated to 1700 BC and probably brought by the Hyksos invaders, is considered the earliest physical evidence of the horse in Ancient Egypt. This horse had a wedge-shaped head, large eye sockets and small muzzle, all characteristics of the Arabian horse.[99] In Islamic history Following the Hijra in AD 622 (also sometimes spelled Hegira), the Arabian horse spread across the known world of the time, and became recognized as a distinct, named breed.[100] It played a significant role in the History of the Middle East and of Islam. By 630, Muslim influence expanded across the Middle East and North Africa, by 711 Muslim warriors had reached Spain, and they controlled most of the Iberian Peninsula by 720. Their war horses were of various oriental types, including both Arabians and the Barb horse of North Africa.[101] Arabian horses also spread to the rest of the world via the Ottoman Empire, which rose in 1299. Though it never fully dominated the heart of the Arabian Peninsula, this Turkish empire obtained many Arabian horses through trade, diplomacy and war.[102] The Ottomans encouraged formation of private stud farms in order to ensure a supply of cavalry horses,[103] and Ottoman nobles, such as Muhammad Ali of Egypt also collected pure, desert-bred Arabian horses.[102] El Naseri, or Al-Nasir Muhammad, Sultan of Egypt (1290–1342) imported and bred numerous Arabians in Egypt. A stud farm record was made of his purchases describing many of the horses as well as their abilities, and was deposited in his library, becoming a source for later study.[102][104] Through the Ottomans, Arabian horses were often sold, traded, or given as diplomatic gifts to Europeans and, later, to Americans.[79] Egypt Historically, Egyptian breeders imported horses bred in the deserts of Palestine and the Arabian peninsula as the source of their foundation bloodstock.[105] By the time that the Ottoman Empire dominated Egypt, the political elites of the region still recognized the need for quality bloodstock for both war and for horse racing, and some continued to return to the deserts to obtain pure-blooded Arabians. One of the most famous was Muhammad Ali of Egypt, also known as Muhammad Ali Pasha, who established an extensive stud farm in the 19th century.[106][107] After his death, some of his stock was bred on by Abbas I of Egypt, also known as Abbas Pasha. However, after Abbas Pasha was assassinated in 1854, his heir, El Hami Pasha, sold most of his horses, often for crossbreeding, and gave away many others as diplomatic gifts.[106][107][108] A remnant of the herd was obtained by Ali Pasha Sherif, who then went back to the desert to bring in new bloodstock. At its peak, the stud of Ali Pasha Sherif had over 400 purebred Arabians.[107][109] Unfortunately, an epidemic of African horse sickness in the 1870s that killed thousands of horses throughout Egypt decimated much of his herd, wiping out several irreplaceable bloodlines.[107] Late in his life, he sold several horses to Wilfred and Lady Anne Blunt, who exported them to Crabbet Park Stud in England. After his death, Lady Anne was also able to gather many remaining horses at her Sheykh Obeyd stud.[110] A mounted man on a dark horse attacking a line of mounted men "Mameluck en Attaque" 18th-century painting by Carle Vernet Meanwhile, the passion brought by the Blunts to saving the pure horse of the desert helped Egyptian horse breeders to convince their government of the need to preserve the best of their own remaining pure Arabian bloodstock that descended from the horses collected over the previous century by Muhammad Ali Pasha, Abbas Pasha and Ali Pasha Sherif.[111] The government of Egypt formed the Royal Agricultural Society (RAS) in 1908,[112] which is known today as the Egyptian Agricultural Organization (EAO).[113] RAS representatives traveled to England during the 1920s and purchased eighteen descendants of the original Blunt exports from Lady Wentworth at Crabbet Park, and returned these bloodlines to Egypt in order to restore bloodlines had been lost.[112] Other than several horses purchased by Henry Babson for importation to the United States in the 1930s,[114] and one other small group exported to the USA in 1947, relatively few Egyptian-bred Arabian horses were exported until the overthrow of King Farouk I in 1952.[115] Many of the private stud farms of the princes were then confiscated and the animals taken over by the EAO.[113] In the 1960s and 1970s, as oil development brought more foreign investors to Egypt, some of whom were horse fanciers, Arabians were exported to Germany and to the United States, as well as to the former Soviet Union.[116][117] Today, the designation "Straight Egyptian" or "Egyptian Arabian" is popular with some Arabian breeders, and the modern Egyptian-bred Arabian is an outcross used to add refinement in some breeding programs.[111] A painting of a battle with a long line of mounted riders side-by-side in front of a line of marching men. In front of the riders are a number of individual horsemen fighting. Battle of La Higueruela, 1431. Spanish fighting the Moorish forces of Nasrid Sultan Muhammed IX of Granada. Note the differences in tail carriage of the various horses in the painting. The Arabian's high-carried tail is a distinctive trait that is seen even in part-blooded offspring. Arrival in Europe Probably the earliest horses with Arabian bloodlines to enter Europe came indirectly, through Spain and France. Others would have arrived with returning Crusaders[102]—beginning in 1095, European armies invaded Palestine and many knights returned home with Arabian horses as spoils of war. Later, as knights and the heavy, armored war horses who carried them became obsolete, Arabian horses and their descendants were used to develop faster, agile light cavalry horses that were used in warfare into the 20th century.[79] Another major infusion of Arabian horses into Europe occurred when the Ottoman Turks sent 300,000 horsemen into Hungary in 1522, many of whom were mounted on pure-blooded Arabians, captured during raids into Arabia. By 1529, the Ottomans reached Vienna, where they were stopped by the Polish and Hungarian armies, who captured these horses from the defeated Ottoman cavalry. Some of these animals provided foundation bloodstock for the major studs of eastern Europe.[118][119] Polish and Russian breeding programs With the rise of light cavalry, the stamina and agility of horses with Arabian blood gave an enormous military advantage to any army who possessed them. As a result, many European monarchs began to support large breeding establishments that crossed Arabians on local stock, one example being Knyszyna, the royal stud of Polish king Zygmunt II August, and another the Imperial Russian Stud of Peter the Great.[118] European horse breeders also obtained Arabian stock directly from the desert or via trade with the Ottomans. In Russia, Count Alexey Orlov obtained many Arabians, including Smetanka, an Arabian stallion who became a foundation sire of the Orlov trotter.[120][121] Orlov then provided Arabian horses to Catherine the Great, who in 1772 owned 12 pure Arabian stallions and 10 mares.[120] By 1889 two members of the Russian nobility, Count Stroganov and Prince Nikolai Borisovich Shcherbatov, established Arabian stud farms to meet the continued need to breed Arabians as a source of pure bloodstock.[116][120] In Poland, notable imports from Arabia included those of Prince Hieronymous Sanguszko (1743–1812), who founded the Slawuta stud.[122][123] Poland's first state-run Arabian stud farm, Janów Podlaski, was established by the decree of Alexander I of Russia in 1817,[124] and by 1850, the great stud farms of Poland were well-established, including Antoniny, owned by the Polish Count Potocki (who had married into the Sanguszko family); later notable as the farm that produced the stallion Skowronek.[123][125] Central and western Europe Several noble families of Poland became major breeders of Arabian horses. Eustachy Erazm Sanguszko, painted by Juliusz Kossak. The 18th century marked the establishment of most of the great Arabian studs of Europe, dedicated to preserving "pure" Arabian bloodstock. The Prussians set up a royal stud in 1732, originally intended to provide horses for the royal stables, and other studs were established to breed animals for other uses, including mounts for the Prussian army. The foundation of these breeding programs was the crossing of Arabians on native horses; by 1873 some English observers felt that the Prussian calvalry mounts were superior in endurance to those of the British, and credited Arabian bloodlines for this superiority.[126] Other state studs included the Babolna Stud of Hungary, set up in 1789,[127] and the Weil stud in Germany (now Weil-Marbach or the Marbach stud), founded in 1817 by King William I of Württemberg.[128] King James I of England imported the first Arabian stallion, the Markham Arabian, to England in 1616.[129] Arabians were also introduced into European race horse breeding, especially in England via the Darley Arabian, Byerly Turk, and Godolphin Arabian, the three foundation stallions of the modern Thoroughbred breed, who were each brought to England during the 18th century.[130] Other monarchs obtained Arabian horses, often as personal mounts. One of the most famous Arabian stallions in Europe was Marengo, the war horse ridden by Napoleon Bonaparte.[131] During the mid-19th century, the need for Arabian blood to improve the breeding stock for light cavalry horses in Europe resulted in more excursions to the Middle East. Queen Isabel II of Spain sent representatives to the desert to purchase Arabian horses and by 1847 had established a stud book; her successor, King Alfonso XII imported additional bloodstock from other European nations. By 1893, the state military stud farm, Yeguada Militar was established in Córdoba, Spain for breeding both Arabian and Iberian horses. The military remained heavily involved in the importation and breeding of Arabians in Spain well into the early 20th century, and the Yeguada Militar is still in existence today.[132] This period also marked a phase of considerable travel to the Middle East by European civilians and minor nobility, and in the process, some travelers noticed that the Arabian horse as a pure breed of horse was under threat due to modern forms of warfare, inbreeding and other problems that were reducing the horse population of the Bedouin tribes at a rapid rate.[133] By the late 19th century, the most farsighted began in earnest to collect the finest Arabian horses they could find in order to preserve the blood of the pure desert horse for future generations. The most famous example was Lady Anne Blunt, the daughter of Ada Lovelace and granddaughter of Lord Byron.[134] Rise of the Crabbet Park Stud A black-and-white photograph of a European woman dressed in Bedouin robes and head covering, standing in front of a dark horse equipped with a bridle and saddle. Lady Anne Blunt with her favorite Arabian mare, Kasida Main article: Crabbet Arabian Stud Perhaps the most famous of all Arabian breeding operations founded in Europe was the Crabbet Park Stud of England, founded 1878.[135][136] Starting in 1877, Wilfrid Scawen Blunt and Lady Anne Blunt made repeated journeys to the Middle East, including visits to the stud of Ali Pasha Sherif in Egypt and to Bedouin tribes in the Nejd, bringing the best Arabians they could find to England. Lady Anne also purchased and maintained the Sheykh Obeyd stud farm in Egypt, near Cairo. Upon Lady Anne's death in 1917, the Blunts' daughter, Judith, Lady Wentworth, inherited the Wentworth title and Lady Anne's portion of the estate, and obtained the remainder of the Crabbet Stud following a protracted legal battle with her father.[137][138] Lady Wentworth expanded the stud, added new bloodstock, and exported Arabian horses worldwide. Upon her death in 1957, the stud passed to her manager, Cecil Covey, who ran Crabbet until 1971, when a motorway was cut through the property, forcing the sale of the land and dispersal of the horses.[139] Along with Crabbet, the Hanstead Stud of Lady Yule also produced horses of worldwide significance.[140] Early 20th-century Europe In the early 20th century, the military was involved in the breeding of Arabian horses throughout Europe, particularly in Poland, Spain, Germany, and Russia; private breeders also developed a number of breeding programs.[141][142][143][144] Significant among the private breeders in continental Europe was Spain's Cristóbal Colón de Aguilera, XV Duque de Veragua, a direct descendant of Christopher Columbus, who founded the Veragua Stud in the 1920s.[132][145] Modern warfare and its impact on European studs Between World War I, the Russian Revolution, and the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, many historic European stud farms were lost; in Poland, the Antoniny and Slawuta Studs were wiped out except for five mares.[146] Notable among the survivors was the Janów Podlaski Stud. The Russian Revolution, combined with the effects of World War I, destroyed most of the breeding programs in Russia, but by 1921, the Soviet government reestablished an Arabian program, the Tersk Stud, on the site of the former Stroganov estate,[116][116] which included Polish bloodstock as well as some importations from the Crabbet Stud in England.[147] The programs that survived the war re-established their breeding operations and some added to their studs with new imports of desert-bred Arabian horses from the Middle East. Not all European studs recovered. The Weil stud of Germany, founded by King Wilhelm I, went into considerable decline; by the time the Weil herd was transferred to the Marbach State Stud in 1932, only 17 purebred Arabians remained.[128][148] The Spanish Civil War and World War II also had a devastating impact on horse breeding throughout Europe. The Veragua stud was destroyed, and its records lost, with the only survivors being the broodmares and the younger horses, who were rescued by Francisco Franco.[149][150] Crabbet Park, Tersk, and Janów Podlaski survived. Both the Soviet Union and the United States obtained valuable Arabian bloodlines as spoils of war, which they used to strengthen their breeding programs. The Soviets had taken steps to protect their breeding stock at Tersk Stud, and by utilizing horses captured in Poland they were able to re-establish their breeding program soon after the end of World War II. The Americans brought Arabian horses captured in Europe to the United States, mostly to the Pomona U.S. Army Remount station, the former W.K. Kellogg Ranch in California.[151] In the postwar era, Poland,[152] Spain,[150] and Germany developed or re-established many well-respected Arabian stud farms.[153] The studs of Poland in particular were decimated by both the Nazis and the Soviets, but were able to reclaim some of their breeding stock and became particularly world-renowned for their quality Arabian horses, tested rigorously by racing and other performance standards.[154] During the 1950s, the Russians also obtained additional horses from Egypt to augment their breeding programs.[155] After the Cold War While only a few Arabians were exported from behind the Iron Curtain during the Cold War, those who did come to the west caught the eye of breeders worldwide. Improved international relations between eastern Europe and the west led to major imports of Polish and Russian-bred Arabian horses to western Europe and the United States in the 1970s and 1980s.[156] The collapse of the former Soviet Union in 1991, greater political stability in Egypt, and the rise of the European Union all increased international trade in Arabian horses. Organizations such as the World Arabian Horse Association (WAHO) created consistent standards for transferring the registration of Arabian horses between different nations. Today, Arabian horses are traded all over the world.[157] In America The first horses on the American mainland since the end of the Ice Age arrived with the Spanish Conquistadors. Hernán Cortés brought 16 horses of Andalusian, Barb, and Arabian ancestry to Mexico in 1519. Others followed, such as Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, who brought 250 horses of similar breeding to America in 1540.[158] More horses followed with each new arrival of Conquistadors, missionaries, and settlers. Many horses escaped or were stolen, becoming the foundation stock of the American Mustang.[159][160] Early imports Colonists from England also brought horses of Arabian breeding to the eastern seaboard. One example was Nathaniel Harrison, who imported a horse of Arabian, Barb and Turkish ancestry to America in 1747.[158] Engraving of a uniformed man on a white horse lifting his hat as the horse moves towards a line of soldiers Washington Taking Control of the American Army, at Cambridge, Massachusetts July 1775. Copy of lithograph by Currier & Ives, 1876. One of George Washington's primary mounts during the American Revolutionary War was a gray half-Arabian horse named Blueskin, sired by the stallion "Ranger", also known as "Lindsay's Arabian", said to have been obtained from the Sultan of Morocco.[161][162] Other Presidents are linked to ownership of Arabian horses; in 1840, President Martin Van Buren received two Arabians from the Sultan of Oman,[158] and in 1877, President Ulysses S. Grant obtained an Arabian stallion, Leopard, and a Barb, Linden Tree, as gifts from Abdul Hamid II, the "Sultan of Turkey."[79][163][164] A. Keene Richard was the first American known to have specifically bred Arabian horses. He traveled to the desert in 1853 and 1856 to obtain breeding stock, which he crossed on Thoroughbreds, and also bred purebred Arabians. Unfortunately, his horses were lost during the Civil War and have no known purebred Arabian descendants today.[165] Another major U.S. political figure, William H. Seward purchased four Arabians in Beirut in 1859, prior to becoming Secretary of State to Abraham Lincoln.[166] Leopard is the only stallion imported prior to 1888 who left known purebred descendants in America.[167] In 1888 Randolph Huntington imported the desert-bred Arabian mare *Naomi, and bred her to Leopard, producing Leopard's only purebred Arabian son, Anazeh, who sired eight purebred Arabian foals, four of whom still appear in pedigrees today.[168] Development of purebred breeding in America A black-and-white photograph of a man holding an unsaddled light gray horse Exhibitor from Syria holding an Arabian horse at the Hamidie Society exhibition, World's Columbian Exposition, 1893. In 1908, the Arabian Horse Registry of America was established, recording 71 animals,[163] and by 1994, the number had reached half a million. Today there are more Arabians registered in North America than in the rest of the world put together.[169] The origins of the registry date to 1893, when the Hamidie Society sponsored an exhibit of Arabian horses from what today is Syria at the World Fair in Chicago.[163] This exhibition raised considerable interest in Arabian horses. Records are unclear if 40 or 45 horses were imported for the exposition, but seven died in a fire shortly after arrival. The 28 horses that remained at the end of the exhibition stayed in America and were sold at auction when the Hamidie Society went bankrupt.[170] These horses caught the interest of American breeders,[163][171] including Peter Bradley of the Hingham Stock Farm, who purchased some Hamidie horses at the auction, and Homer Davenport, another admirer of the Hamidie imports.[170] Major Arabian importations to the United States included those of Davenport and Bradley, who teamed up to purchase several stallions and mares directly from the Bedouin in 1906.[171] Spencer Borden of the Interlachen Stud made several importations between 1898 and 1911;[163][172] and W.R. Brown of the Maynesboro Stud, interested in the Arabian as a cavalry mount, imported many Arabians over a period of years, starting in 1918.[163] Another wave of imports came in the 1920s and 30s when breeders such as W.K. Kellogg, Henry Babson, Roger Selby, James Draper, and others imported Arabian bloodstock from Crabbet Park Stud in England, as well as from Poland, Spain and Egypt.[163][173] The breeding of Arabians was fostered by the U. S. Army Remount Service, which stood purebred stallions at public stud for a reduced rate.[174] Several Arabians, mostly of Polish breeding, were captured from Nazi Germany and imported to the U.S.A. following World War II.[175] In 1957, two deaths in England led to more sales to the United States: first from Crabbet Stud on the demise of Lady Wentworth,[176] and then from Hanstead with the passing of Gladys Yule.[140] As the tensions of the Cold War eased, more Arabians were imported to America from Poland and Egypt, and in the late 1970s, as political issues surrounding import regulations and the recognition of stud books were resolved, many Arabian horses were imported from Spain and Russia.[95][177] Modern trends In the 1980s, Arabians became a popular status symbol and were marketed similarly to fine art.[178] Some individuals also used horses as a tax shelter.[179] Prices skyrocketed, especially in the United States, with a record-setting public auction price for a mare named NH Love Potion, who sold for $2.55 million in 1984, and the largest syndication in history for an Arabian stallion, Padron, at $11 million.[180] The potential for profit led to over-breeding of the Arabian. When the Tax Reform Act of 1986 closed the tax-sheltering "passive investment" loophole, limiting the use of horse farms as tax shelters,[181][182] the Arabian market was particularly vulnerable due to over-saturation and artificially inflated prices, and it collapsed, forcing many breeders into bankruptcy and sending many purebred Arabians to slaughter.[182][183] Prices recovered slowly, with many breeders moving away from producing "living art" and towards a horse more suitable for amateur owners and many riding disciplines. By 2003, a survey found that 67% of purebred Arabian horses in America are owned for recreational riding purposes.[184] As of 2013, there are more than 660,000 Arabians that have been registered in the United States, and the US has the largest number of Arabians of any nation in the world.[185] In Australia Painting of a red colored horse with black mane and tail prancing The Arabian stallion Hector, or "Old Hector" was an early import to Australia whose bloodlines are still found today in the pedigrees of some Australian Thoroughbreds. Early imports Arabian horses were introduced to Australia in the earliest days of European Settlement. Early imports included both purebred Arabians and light Spanish "jennets" from Andalusia, many Arabians also came from India. Based on records describing stallions "of Arabic and Persian blood", the first Arabian horses were probably imported to Australia in several groups between 1788 and 1802.[186] About 1803, a merchant named Robert Campbell imported a bay Arabian stallion, Hector, from India;[186] Hector was said to have been owned by Arthur Wellesley, who later became known as the Duke of Wellington.[187] In 1804 two additional Arabians, also from India, arrived in Tasmania one of whom, White William, sired the first purebred Arabian foal born in Australia, a stallion named Derwent.[186] Throughout the 19th century, many more Arabians came to Australia, though most were used to produce crossbred horses and left no recorded purebred descendants.[186] The first significant imports to be permanently recorded with offspring still appearing in modern purebred Arabian pedigrees were those of James Boucaut, who in 1891 imported several Arabians from Wilfred and Lady Anne Blunt's Crabbet Arabian Stud in England.[188] Purebred Arabians were used to improve racehorses and some of them became quite famous as such; about 100 Arabian sires are included in the Australian Stud Book (for Thoroughbred racehorses).[187] The military was also involved in the promotion of breeding calvalry horses, especially around World War I.[188] They were part of the foundation of several breeds considered uniquely Australian, including the Australian Pony, the Waler and the Australian Stock Horse.[189] In the 20th and 21st centuries In the early 20th century, more Arabian horses, mostly of Crabbet bloodlines, arrived in Australia. The first Arabians of Polish breeding arrived in 1966, and Egyptian lines were first imported in 1970. Arabian horses from the rest of the world followed, and today the Australian Arabian horse registry is the second largest in the world, next to that of the United States.[190] Modern breeding A red postage stamp from the Soviet Union with Cyrillic lettering featuring a white line drawing of a horse's head with a silhouette of a black horse with a blue rider superimposed over the lower right-hand corner of the drawing A postage stamp from the Soviet Union featuring the Arabian horse Arabian horses today are found all over the world. They are no longer classified by Bedouin strain, but are informally classified by the nation of origin of famed horses in a given pedigree. Popular types of Arabians are labeled "Polish", "Spanish", "Crabbet", "Russian", "Egyptian", and "Domestic" (describing horses whose ancestors were imported to the United States prior to 1944, including those from programs such as Kellogg, Davenport, Maynesboro, Babson, Dickenson and Selby). In the USA, a specific mixture of Crabbet, Maynesboro and Kellogg bloodlines has acquired the copyrighted designation "CMK."[191] Each set of bloodlines has its own devoted followers, with the virtues of each hotly debated. Most debates are between those who value the Arabian most for its refined beauty and those who value the horse for its stamina and athleticism; there are also a number of breeders who specialize in preservation breeding of various bloodlines. Controversies exist over the relative "purity" of certain animals; breeders argue about the genetic "purity" of various pedigrees, discussing whether some horses descend from "impure" animals that cannot be traced to the desert Bedouin.[192] The major factions are as follows: The Arabian Horse Association (AHA) states, "The origin of the purebred Arabian horse was the Arabian desert, and all Arabians ultimately trace their lineage to this source." In essence, all horses accepted for registration in the United States are deemed to be "purebred" Arabians by AHA.[191] The World Arabian Horse Association (WAHO) has the broadest definition of a purebred Arabian. WAHO states, "A Purebred Arabian horse is one which appears in any purebred Arabian Stud Book or Register listed by WAHO as acceptable." By this definition, over 95% of the known purebred Arabian horses in the world are registered in stud books acceptable to WAHO.[193] WAHO also researched the purity question in general, and its findings are on its web site, describing both the research and the political issues surrounding Arabian horse bloodlines, particularly in America.[95] At the other end of the spectrum, organizations focused on bloodlines that are the most meticulously documented to desert sources have the most restrictive definitions. For example, The Asil Club in Europe only accepts "a horse whose pedigree is exclusively based on Bedouin breeding of the Arabian peninsula, without any crossbreeding with non-Arabian horses at any time."[194] Likewise, the Al Khamsa organization takes the position that "The horse...which are called "Al Khamsa Arabian Horses," are those horses in North America that can reasonably be assumed to descend entirely from bedouin Arabian horses bred by horse-breeding bedouin tribes of the deserts of the Arabian Peninsula without admixture from sources unacceptable to Al Khamsa."[195] Most restrictive of all are horses identified as "straight Egyptian" by the Pyramid Society, which must trace in all lines to the desert and also to horses owned or bred by specific Egyptian breeding programs.[196] By this definition, straight Egyptian Arabians constitute only 2% of all Arabian horses in America.[197] Ironically, some pure-blooded desert-bred Arabians in Syria had enormous difficulties being accepted as registrable purebred Arabians because many of the Bedouin who owned them saw no need to obtain a piece of paper to verify the purity of their horses. However, eventually the Syrians developed a stud book for their animals that was accepted by the World Arabian Horse Association (WAHO) in 2007.[198] Influence on other horse breeds Eighteenth-century painting of a dark brown horse being led by a man in blue clothes. The horse has a thin neck, tail carried high, and a small head. The Darley Arabian, a foundation sire of the Thoroughbred. Because of the genetic strength of the desert-bred Arabian horse, Arabian bloodlines have played a part in the development of nearly every modern light horse breed, including the Thoroughbred,[130] Orlov Trotter,[199] Morgan,[200] American Saddlebred,[201] American Quarter Horse,[200] and Warmblood breeds such as the Trakehner.[202] Arabian bloodlines have also influenced the development of the Welsh Pony,[200] the Australian Stock Horse,[200] Percheron draft horse,[203] Appaloosa,[204] and the Colorado Ranger Horse.[205] Today, people cross Arabians with other breeds to add refinement, endurance, agility and beauty. In the USA, Half-Arabians have their own registry within the Arabian Horse Association, which includes a special section for Anglo-Arabians (Arabian-Thoroughbred crosses).[206] Some crosses originally registered only as Half-Arabians became popular enough to have their own breed registry, including the National Show Horse (an Arabian-Saddlebred cross),[207] the Quarab (Arabian-Quarter Horse),[208] the Pintabian[209] the Welara (Arabian-Welsh Pony),[210] and the Morab (Arabian-Morgan).[211] In addition, some Arabians and Half Arabians have been approved for breeding by some Warmblood registries, particularly the Trakehner registry.[212] There is intense debate over the role the Arabian played in the development of other light horse breeds. Before DNA-based research developed, one hypothesis, based on body types and conformation, suggested the light, "dry", oriental horse adapted to the desert climate had developed prior to domestication;[213] DNA studies of multiple horse breeds now suggest that while domesticated horses arose from multiple mare lines, there is very little variability in the Y-chromosome between breeds.[214] Following domestication of the horse, due to the location of the Middle East as a crossroads of the ancient world, and relatively near the earliest locations of domestication,[215] oriental horses spread throughout Europe and Asia both in ancient and modern times. There is little doubt that humans crossed "oriental" blood on that of other types to create light riding horses; the only actual questions are at what point the "oriental" prototype could be called an "Arabian", how much Arabian blood was mixed with local animals, and at what point in history.[98][216] For some breeds, such as the Thoroughbred, Arabian influence of specific animals is documented in written stud books.[217] For older breeds, dating the influx of Arabian ancestry is more difficult. For example, while outside cultures, and the horses they brought with them, influenced the predecessor to the Iberian horse in both the time of Ancient Rome and again with the Islamic invasions of the 8th century, it is difficult to trace precise details of the journeys taken by waves of conquerors and their horses as they traveled from the Middle East to North Africa and across Gibraltar to southern Europe. Mitochondrial DNA studies of modern Andalusian horses of the Iberian peninsula and Barb horses of North Africa present convincing evidence that both breeds crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and influenced one another.[218] Though these studies did not compare Andalusian and Barb mtDNA to that of Arabian horses, there is evidence that horses resembling Arabians, whether before or after the breed was called an "Arabian", were part of this genetic mix. Arabians and Barbs, though probably related to one another, are quite different in appearance,[219] and horses of both Arabian and Barb type were present in the Muslim armies that occupied Europe.[132] There is also historical documentation that Islamic invaders raised Arabian horses in Spain prior to the Reconquista;[220] the Spanish also documented imports of Arabian horses in 1847, 1884 and 1885 that were used to improve existing Spanish stock and revive declining equine populations.[132] Uses Arabians are versatile horses that compete in many equestrian fields, including horse racing, the horse show disciplines of saddle seat, Western pleasure, and hunt seat, as well as dressage, cutting, reining, endurance riding, show jumping, eventing, youth events such as equitation, and others. They are used as pleasure riding, trail riding, and working ranch horses for those who are not interested in competition.[221] Competition See also: Arabian Horse Association and Endurance riding Arabians dominate the sport of endurance riding because of their stamina. They are the leading breed in competitions such as the Tevis Cup that can cover up to 100 miles (160 km) in a day,[222] and they participate in FEI-sanctioned endurance events worldwide, including the World Equestrian Games.[223] There is an extensive series of horse shows in the United States and Canada for Arabian, Half-Arabian, and Anglo-Arabian horses, sanctioned by the USEF in conjunction with the Arabian Horse Association. Classes offered include Western pleasure, reining, hunter type and saddle seat English pleasure, and halter, plus the very popular "Native" costume class.[224][225] "Sport horse" events for Arabian horses have become popular in North America, particularly after the Arabian Horse Association began hosting a separate Arabian and Half Arabian Sport Horse National Championship in 2003[226] that by 2004 grew to draw 2000 entries.[227] This competition draws Arabian and part-Arabian horses that perform in hunter, jumper, sport horse under saddle, sport horse in hand, dressage, and combined driving competition.[228] A gray horse being ridden by a person in red, black, and white Arabic-styled robes with a white Arabic-style head covering. The saddle cloth and reins are also covered in ornamented cloth with tassels. An Arabian horse in "native" costume, used in both exhibition and competition Other nations also sponsor major shows strictly for purebred and partbred Arabians, including Great Britain[229] France,[230] Spain,[231] Poland,[232] and the United Arab Emirates.[233] Purebred Arabians have excelled in open events against other breeds. One of the most famous examples in the field of western riding competition was the Arabian mare Ronteza, who defeated 50 horses of all breeds to win the 1961 Reined Cow Horse championship at the Cow Palace in San Francisco, California.[234][235] Another Arabian competitive against all breeds was the stallion Aaraf who won an all-breed cutting horse competition at the Quarter Horse Congress in the 1950s.[236] In show jumping and show hunter competition, a number of Arabians have competed successfully against other breeds in open competition,[235] including the purebred gelding Russian Roulette, who has won multiple jumping classes against horses of all breeds on the open circuit,[237] and in eventing, a purebred Arabian competed on the Brazilian team at the 2004 Athens Olympics.[238] Part-Arabians have also appeared at open sport horse events and even Olympic level competition. The Anglo-Arabian Linon was ridden to an Olympic silver medal for France in Dressage in 1928 and 1932, as well as a team gold in 1932, and another French Anglo-Arabian, Harpagon, was ridden to a team gold medal and an individual silver in dressage at the 1948 Olympics.[239][240] At the 1952 Olympics, the French rider Pierre d'Oriola won the Gold individual medal in show jumping on the Anglo-Arabian Ali Baba.[241] Another Anglo-Arabian, Tamarillo, ridden by William Fox-Pitt, represents the United Kingdom in FEI and Olympic competition, winning many awards, including first place at the 2004 Badminton Horse Trials.[242] More recently a gelding named Theodore O'Connor, nicknamed "Teddy", a 14.1 (or 14.2, sources vary) hand pony of Thoroughbred, Arabian, and Shetland pony breeding, won two gold medals at the 2007 Pan American Games and was finished in the top six at the 2007 and 2008 Rolex Kentucky Three Day CCI competition.[243] Other activities Black and gray photograph of a man in bedouin costume standing in front of a saddled gray horse. Rudolph Valentino and Jadaan. Publicity shot for The Son of the Sheik, 1926 Arabians are involved in a wide variety of activities, including fairs, movies, parades, circuses and other places where horses are showcased. They have been popular in movies, dating back to the silent film era when Rudolph Valentino rode the Kellogg Arabian stallion Jadaan in 1926's Son of the Sheik,[244] and have been seen in many other films, including The Black Stallion featuring the stallion Cass Ole,[245] The Young Black Stallion, which used over 40 Arabians during filming,[246] as well as Hidalgo[247] and the 1959 version of Ben-Hur.[248] Arabians are mascots for football teams, performing crowd-pleasing activities on the field and sidelines. One of the horses who serves as "Traveler", the mascot for the University of Southern California Trojans, has been a purebred Arabian. "Thunder", a stage name for the purebred Arabian stallion J B Kobask, was mascot for the Denver Broncos from 1993 until his retirement in 2004, when the Arabian gelding Winter Solstyce took over as "Thunder II".[249] Cal Poly Pomona's W.K. Kellogg Arabian Horse Center Equestrian Unit has made Arabian horses a regular sight at the annual Tournament of Roses Parade held each New Year's Day in Pasadena, California.[250] Arabians also are used on search and rescue teams and occasionally for police work. Some Arabians are used in polo in the USA and Europe, in the Turkish equestrian sport of Cirit (pronounced [dʒiˈɾit]), as well as in circuses, therapeutic horseback riding programs, and on guest ranches. Ulysses S. Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant;[b] April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American politician, soldier, international statesman, and author, who served as the 18th president of the United States from 1869 to 1877. During the American Civil War Grant led the Union Army as its commanding general to victory over the Confederacy with the supervision of President Abraham Lincoln. During the Reconstruction Era President Grant led the Republicans in their efforts to remove the vestiges of Confederate nationalism, racism, and slavery. From early childhood in Ohio, Grant was a skilled equestrian who had a talent for taming horses. He graduated from West Point in 1843 and served with distinction in the Mexican–American War. Upon his return, Grant married Julia Dent, and together they had four children. In 1854, Grant abruptly resigned from the army. He and his family struggled financially in civilian life for seven years. When the Civil War broke out in 1861, Grant joined the Union Army and rapidly rose in rank to general. Grant was persistent in his pursuit of the Confederate enemy, winning major battles and gaining Union control of the Mississippi River. In March 1864, President Abraham Lincoln promoted Grant to Lieutenant General, a rank previously reserved for George Washington. For over a year Grant's Army of the Potomac fought the Army of Northern Virginia led by Robert E. Lee in the Overland Campaign and at Petersburg. On April 9, 1865, Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox, and the war ended. On April 14, 1865, Lincoln was assassinated. Grant continued his service under Lincoln's successor President Andrew Johnson, and was promoted General of the Army in 1866. Disillusioned by Johnson's conservative approach to Reconstruction, Grant drifted toward the "Radical" Republicans. Elected the youngest 19th Century president in 1868, Grant stabilized the post-war national economy, created the Department of Justice, and prosecuted the Ku Klux Klan. He appointed African-Americans and Jewish-Americans to prominent federal offices. In 1871, Grant created the first Civil Service Commission. The Democrats and Liberal Republicans united behind Grant's opponent in the presidential election of 1872, but Grant was handily re-elected. Grant's new Peace Policy for Native Americans had both successes and failures. Grant's administration successfully resolved the Alabama claims and the Virginius Affair, but Congress rejected his Dominican annexation initiative. Grant's presidency was plagued by numerous public scandals, while the Panic of 1873 plunged the nation into a severe economic depression. After Grant left office in March 1877, he embarked on a two-and-a-half-year world tour that captured favorable global attention for him and the United States. In 1880, Grant was unsuccessful in obtaining the Republican presidential nomination for a third term. In the final year of his life, facing severe investment reversals and dying of throat cancer, he wrote his memoirs, which proved to be a major critical and financial success. At the time of his death, he was memorialized as a symbol of national unity. Historical assessments of Grant's legacy have varied considerably over the years. Historians have hailed Grant's military genius, and his strategies are featured in military history textbooks. Stigmatized by multiple scandals, Grant's presidency has traditionally been ranked among the worst. Modern scholars have shown greater appreciation for his achievements that included civil rights enforcement and has raised his historical reputation. Grant has been regarded as an embattled president who performed a difficult job during Reconstruction. Early life and education Further information: Early life and career of Ulysses S. Grant White clapboard house and outbuildings behind a white fence Grant's birthplace, Point Pleasant, Ohio Hiram Ulysses Grant was born in Point Pleasant, Ohio, on April 27, 1822, to Jesse Root Grant, a tanner and merchant, and Hannah Grant (née Simpson).[2] His ancestors Matthew and Priscilla Grant arrived aboard the ship Mary and John at Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630.[3] Grant's great-grandfather fought in the French and Indian War, and his grandfather, Noah, served in the American Revolution at Bunker Hill.[4] Afterward, Noah settled in Pennsylvania and married Rachel Kelley, the daughter of an Irish pioneer.[5] Their son Jesse (Ulysses's father) was a Whig Party supporter and a fervent abolitionist.[6] Jesse Grant moved to Point Pleasant in 1820 and found work as a foreman in a tannery.[7] He soon met his future wife, Hannah, and the two were married on June 24, 1821.[8] Ten months later Hannah gave birth to their first child, a son.[9] At a family gathering several weeks later the boy's name, Ulysses, was drawn from ballots placed in a hat. Wanting to honor his father-in-law, who had suggested Hiram, Jesse declared the boy to be Hiram Ulysses, though he would always refer to him as Ulysses.[10][c] In 1823, the family moved to Georgetown, Ohio, where five more siblings were born: Simpson, Clara, Orvil, Jennie, and Mary.[12] At the age of five, Ulysses began his formal education, starting at a subscription school and later in two private schools.[13] In the winter of 1836–1837, Grant was a student at Maysville Seminary, and in the autumn of 1838 he attended John Rankin's academy. In his youth, Grant developed an unusual ability to ride and manage horses.[14] Since Grant expressed a strong dislike for the tannery his father put his ability with horses to use by giving him work driving wagon loads of supplies and transporting people.[15] Unlike his siblings, Grant was not forced to attend church by his Methodist parents.[16][d] For the rest of his life, he prayed privately and never officially joined any denomination.[17] To others, including late in life, his own son, Grant appeared to be an agnostic.[18] He inherited some of Hannah's Methodist piety and quiet nature.[19] Grant was largely apolitical before the war but wrote, "If I had ever had any political sympathies they would have been with the Whigs. I was raised in that school."[20] Early military career and personal life West Point and first assignment Engraving of young Grant in uniform Second lieutenant Grant in full dress uniform in 1843 Grant's father wrote to Representative Thomas L. Hamer requesting that he nominate Ulysses to the United States Military Academy (USMA) at West Point, New York. When a spot opened in March 1839, Hamer nominated the 16-year-old Grant.[21] He mistakenly wrote down "Ulysses S. Grant", which became his adopted name because West Point could not change the name of the appointee.[22][e] Initially reluctant because of concerns about his academic ability, Grant entered the academy on July 1, 1839, as a cadet and trained there for four years.[25] His nickname became "Sam" among army colleagues since the initials "U.S." also stood for "Uncle Sam".[26] Initially, Grant was indifferent to military life, but within a year he reexamined his desire to leave the academy and later wrote that "on the whole I like this place very much".[27] While at the Academy, his greatest interest was horses, and he earned a reputation as the "most proficient" horseman.[28] During the graduation ceremony, while riding York, a large and powerful horse that only Grant could manage well, he set a high-jump record that stood for 25 years.[29][f] Seeking relief from military routine, he studied under Romantic artist Robert Walter Weir, producing nine surviving artworks.[31] He spent more time reading books from the library than his academic texts, frequently reading works by James Fenimore Cooper and others.[32] On Sundays, cadets were required to march to and attend services at the academy's church, a requirement that Grant disliked.[33] Quiet by nature, Grant established a few intimate friends among fellow cadets, including Frederick Tracy Dent and James Longstreet. He was inspired both by the Commandant, Captain Charles F. Smith and by General Winfield Scott, who visited the academy to review the cadets. Grant later wrote of the military life, "there is much to dislike, but more to like."[34] Grant graduated on June 30, 1843, ranked 21st out of 39 alumni, and was promoted on July 1 to the rank brevet second lieutenant.[35] Small for his age at 17, he had entered the academy weighing only 117 pounds at five feet two inches tall; upon graduation four years later he had grown to a height of five feet seven inches.[36] Glad to leave the academy, he planned to resign his commission after his four-year term of duty.[37] Grant would later write to a friend that among the happiest days of his life was the day he left the presidency and the day he left the academy.[38] Despite his excellent horsemanship, he was not assigned to the cavalry, but to the 4th Infantry Regiment. Grant's first assignment took him to the Jefferson Barracks near St. Louis, Missouri.[39] Commanded by Colonel Stephen W. Kearny, the barracks was the nation's largest military base in the west.[40] Grant was happy with his new commander, but looked forward to the end of his military service and a possible teaching career.[41] Marriage and family In Missouri, Grant visited Dent's family and became engaged to his sister, Julia, in 1844.[41] Four years later on August 22, 1848, they were married at Julia's home in St. Louis. Grant's abolitionist father Jesse, who disapproved of the Dents owning slaves, refused to attend their wedding, which took place without either of Grant's parents.[42] Grant was flanked by three fellow West Point graduates, all dressed in their blue uniforms, including Longstreet, Julia's cousin.[43][g] At the end of the month, Julia was nevertheless warmly received by Grant's family in Bethel, Ohio.[46] They had four children: Frederick, Ulysses Jr. ("Buck"), Ellen ("Nellie"), and Jesse.[47] After the wedding, Grant obtained a two-month extension to his leave and returned to St. Louis when he decided, with a wife to support, that he would remain in the army.[48] Mexican–American War Main articles: Mexican–American War and Mexican Cession Battle of Monterrey, 1846 After rising tensions with Mexico following the United States' annexation of Texas, war broke out in 1846. During the conflict, Grant distinguished himself as a daring and competent soldier.[49] Before the war President John Tyler had ordered Grant's unit to Louisiana as part of the Army of Observation under Major General Zachary Taylor.[50] In September 1846, Tyler's successor, James K. Polk, unable to provoke Mexico into war at Corpus Christi, Texas, ordered Taylor to march 150 miles south to the Rio Grande. Marching south to Fort Texas, to prevent a Mexican siege, Grant experienced combat for the first time on May 8, 1846, at the Battle of Palo Alto.[51] Grant was tapped to serve as regimental quartermaster,[52] but yearned for a combat role; when finally allowed, he led a cavalry charge at the Battle of Resaca de la Palma. He demonstrated his equestrian ability at the Battle of Monterrey by carrying a dispatch past snipers while hanging off the side of his horse, keeping the animal between him and the enemy.[53] Before leaving the city he stopped at a house occupied by wounded Americans, giving them assurance he would send for help.[54] Polk, wary of Taylor's growing popularity, divided his forces, sending some troops (including Grant's unit) to form a new army under Major General Winfield Scott.[55] Traveling by sea, Scott's army landed at Veracruz and advanced toward Mexico City.[56] The army met the Mexican forces at the battles of Molino del Rey and Chapultepec outside Mexico City.[57] For his bravery at Molino del Rey, Grant was brevetted first lieutenant on September 30.[58] At San Cosmé, men under Grant's direction dragged a disassembled howitzer into a church steeple, reassembled it, and bombarded nearby Mexican troops.[57] His bravery and initiative earned him his second brevet promotion to captain.[59] On September 14, 1847, Scott's army marched into the city; Mexico ceded the vast territory, including California, to the U.S. on February 2, 1848.[60] During the war, Grant established a commendable record, studied the tactics and strategies of Scott and Taylor, and emerged as a seasoned officer, writing in his memoirs that this is how he learned much about military leadership.[61] In retrospect, although he respected Scott[62] he identified his leadership style with Taylor's. However, Grant also wrote that the Mexican War was wrong and the territorial gains were designed to expand slavery, stating, "I was bitterly opposed to the measure ... and to this day, regard the war, which resulted, as one of the most unjust ever waged by a stronger against a weaker nation." He opined that the Civil War was divine punishment on the nation for its aggression in Mexico.[63] During the war, Grant discovered his "moral courage" and began to consider a career in the army.[64] Post-war assignments Grant believed Pacific Northwest Indians were harmless. Chinook Indian Plankhouse 1850s. Grant's first post-war assignments took him and Julia to Detroit on November 17, 1848, but he had been replaced and was sent instead to Madison Barracks, a desolate outpost in upstate New York, in bad need of supplies and repair. After four months, Grant was sent back to his quartermaster job in Detroit.[65] When the discovery of gold in California brought droves of prospectors and settlers to the territory, Grant and the 4th infantry were ordered to reinforce the small garrison there. Grant was charged with bringing the soldiers and a few hundred civilians from New York City to Panama, overland to the Pacific and then north to California. Julia, eight months pregnant with Ulysses Jr., did not accompany him. While Grant was in Panama, a cholera epidemic broke out and claimed the lives of many soldiers, civilians and children. In Panama City, Grant established and organized a field hospital and moved the worst cases to a hospital barge one mile offshore.[66] When orderlies protested having to attend to the sick, Grant did much of the nursing himself, earning high praise from observers.[67] In August, Grant arrived in San Francisco. His next assignment sent him north to Vancouver Barracks in the Oregon Territory.[68] To supplement his meager salary, Grant tried several business ventures. They failed, confirming his father's belief that he had no head for business.[69] Grant assured Julia in a letter that the local Indians were harmless, while he developed an empathy for the plight of Indians from the "unjust treatment" by white men.[70] Promoted to captain on August 5, 1853, Grant was assigned to command Company F, 4th Infantry, at the newly constructed Fort Humboldt in California.[71] He arrived at the fort on January 5, 1854, and reported to its commander, Lieutenant Colonel Robert C. Buchanan. Grant was bored and depressed about being separated from his wife, and he began to drink.[72] An officer who roomed with Grant reported the affair to Colonel Buchanan, who reprimanded Grant for one drinking episode. Grant told Buchanan if he did not reform, he would resign. One Sunday, Grant was again rumored to have been found at his company's pay table influenced by drink. Keeping his pledge to Buchanan, Grant resigned, effective July 31, 1854, without explanation.[73] Buchanan endorsed Grant's letter of resignation but did not submit any report that verified the incident.[74][h] Grant was neither arrested nor faced court-martial, while the War Department stated, "Nothing stands against his good name."[79] Grant said years later, "the vice of intemperance (drunkenness) had not a little to do with my decision to resign."[80] With no means of support, Grant returned to St. Louis and reunited with his family, uncertain about his future.[81] Civilian struggles and politics small log cabin "Hardscrabble", the farm home Grant built in Missouri for his family At age 32, with no civilian vocation, Grant needed work to support his growing family. It was the beginning of seven financially lean years. His father offered him a place in the Galena, Illinois branch of the family's leather business on condition that Julia and the children stay with her parents in Missouri or with the Grants in Kentucky. Ulysses and Julia opposed another separation and declined the offer. In 1855, Grant farmed on his brother-in-law's property near St. Louis, using slaves owned by Julia's father.[82] The farm was not successful and to earn money he sold firewood on St. Louis street corners.[83] Earning only $50 a month (equivalent to $1,340 in 2018), wearing his faded army jacket, an unkempt Grant desperately looked for work.[84] The next year, the Grants moved to land on Julia's father's farm, and built a home Grant called "Hardscrabble". Julia disliked the rustic house, which she described as an "unattractive cabin".[85] The Panic of 1857 devastated farmers, including Grant, who pawned his gold watch to pay for Christmas.[86] In 1858, Grant rented out Hardscrabble and moved his family to Julia's father's 850-acre plantation that used slave labor.[87] That fall, after a bout of malaria, Grant retired from farming.[88] The same year, Grant acquired a slave from his father-in-law, a thirty-five-year-old man named William Jones.[89] In March 1859, Grant freed William, worth about $1,500, instead of selling him at a time when he needed money.[90] Grant moved to St. Louis, taking on a partnership with Julia's cousin Harry Boggs working in the real estate business as a bill collector, again without success, and at Julia's recommendation he dissolved his partnership.[91] In August, Grant applied for a position as county engineer, believing his education qualified him for the job. His application came with thirty-five notable recommendations, but Grant correctly assumed the position would be given on the basis of political affiliation and was passed over by the Free Soil and Republican county commissioners because he was believed to share his father-in-law's Democratic sentiments.[92] In the 1856 presidential election, Grant cast his first presidential vote for Democrat James Buchanan, later saying he was really voting against Republican John C. Frémont over concern that his anti-slavery position would lead to southern secession and war and because he considered Frémont to be a shameless self-promoter.[93] Although Grant was not an abolitionist, he was not considered a "slavery man", and could not bring himself to force slaves to do work.[94] In April 1860, Grant and his family moved north to Galena, accepting a position in his father's leather goods business run by his younger brothers Simpson and Orvil.[95][i] In a few months, Ulysses paid off the debts he acquired in Missouri.[97] Ulysses and family attended the local Methodist church and he soon established himself as a reputable citizen of Galena.[98] For the 1860 election, he could not vote because he was not yet a legal resident of Illinois, but he favored Democrat Stephen A. Douglas over the eventual winner, Abraham Lincoln, and Lincoln over the Southern Democrat, John C. Breckinridge.[99] He was torn between his increasingly anti-slavery views and the fact that his wife remained a staunch Democrat.[100] Civil War Main article: Ulysses S. Grant and the American Civil War Brig. Gen. Grant in 1861 On April 12, 1861, the American Civil War began when Confederate troops attacked Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina.[101] The news came as a shock in Galena, and Grant shared his neighbors' concern about the war.[102] On April 15, Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers.[103] On April 16, Grant attended a mass meeting held in Galena to assess the crisis and encourage recruitment, and a speech by his father's attorney, John Aaron Rawlins, stirred Grant's patriotism.[104][j] Ready to fight, Grant recalled with satisfaction, "I never went into our leather store again."[105][k] On April 18, Grant chaired a second recruitment meeting,[107] but turned down a captain's position as commander of the newly-formed militia company, hoping his previous experience would aid him to obtain more senior military rank.[108] Early commands Further information: Kentucky in the American Civil War Grant's early efforts to be recommissioned failed, rejected by Major General George B. McClellan and Brigadier General Nathaniel Lyon. On April 29, supported by Congressman Elihu B. Washburne of Illinois, Grant was appointed military aide to Governor Richard Yates, and mustered ten regiments into the Illinois militia. On June 14, again aided by Washburne, Grant was promoted to Colonel and put in charge of the unruly 21st Illinois Volunteer Infantry Regiment, which he soon restored to good order and discipline.[109] Colonel Grant and his 21st Regiment were transferred to Missouri to dislodge reported Confederate forces.[110] On August 5, with Washburne's aid, Grant was appointed Brigadier General of volunteers.[111] Major General John C. Frémont, Union commander of the West, passed over senior generals and appointed Grant commander of the District of Southeastern Missouri.[112][l] Grant set up his headquarters at Cairo, Illinois, a bustling Union military and naval base, that was to be used to launch a joint campaign down the Mississippi, Tennessee, and Cumberland rivers.[114] After the Confederates moved into western Kentucky, with designs on southern Illinois, Grant, who notified Frémont, advanced on Paducah, Kentucky, taking it without a fight on September 6, and set up a supply station.[115] Having understood the importance to Lincoln about Kentucky's neutrality, Grant assured its citizens, "I have come among you not as your enemy, but as your friend."[116] On November 1, Frémont ordered Grant to "make demonstrations" against the Confederates on both sides of the Mississippi, but prohibited him from attacking the enemy.[117] Belmont, Forts Henry and Donelson Main articles: Battle of Belmont, Battle of Fort Henry, and Battle of Fort Donelson Union soldiers charging into battle, some injured or dying Battle of Fort Donelson Map of the battle of Shiloh depicting troop movements Map showing Fort Donelson and surrounding area during capture On November 2, 1861, Lincoln removed Frémont from command, a move that freed up Grant to make a planned attack from Cairo on Confederate soldiers encamped in Belmont, Missouri.[117][m] On November 7, Grant, along with Brigadier General John A. McClernand, landed 2,500 men at Hunter's Point, two miles north of the Confederate base outside Belmont.[119] The Union army took the camp, but the reinforced Confederates under Brigadier Generals Frank Cheatham and Gideon J. Pillow forced a chaotic Union retreat.[120] Grant had wanted to destroy Confederate strongholds at both Belmont, Missouri and Columbus, Kentucky, but was not given enough troops and was only able to disrupt their positions. Grant's troops had to fight their way back to their Union boats and escaped back to Cairo under fire from the heavily fortified stronghold at Columbus.[121] Although Grant and his army retreated, the battle gave his volunteers much needed confidence and experience.[122] Also, President Lincoln noticed that Grant was a general willing to fight.[123] Confederate-held Columbus blocked Union access to the lower Mississippi. Grant, and General James B. McPherson, came up with a plan to bypass Columbus and with a force of 25,000 troops, move against Fort Henry on the Tennessee River and then ten miles east to Fort Donelson on the Cumberland River, with the aid of gunboats, opening both rivers and allowing the Union access further south. Grant presented his plan to Henry Halleck, his new commander under the newly created Department of Missouri.[124] Halleck was considering the same strategy, but rebuffed Grant, believing he needed twice the number of troops. However, after Halleck telegraphed and consulted McClellan about the plan, he finally agreed on condition that the attack be conducted in close cooperation with navy Flag Officer, Andrew H. Foote.[125] Foote's gunboats bombarded Fort Henry, leading to its surrender on February 6, 1862, before Grant's infantry even arrived.[126] Grant then ordered an immediate assault on Fort Donelson, under the command of John B. Floyd, which dominated the Cumberland River. Unlike Fort Henry, Grant was now going up against a force equal to his. Unaware of the garrison's strength, Grant's forces were over-confident. Grant, McClernand, and Smith positioned their divisions around the fort. The next day McClernand and Smith launched probing attacks on apparent weak spots in the Confederate line, only to retreat with heavy losses. On February 14, Foote's gunboats began bombarding the fort, only to be repulsed by its heavy guns. Foote himself was wounded. Thus far the Confederates were winning, but soon Union reinforcements arrived, giving Grant a total force of over 40,000 men. When Foote regained control of the river, Grant resumed his attack resulting in a standoff. That evening, Floyd called a council of war, unsure of his next action. Grant received a dispatch from Foote, requesting that they meet. Grant mounted a horse and rode seven miles over freezing roads and trenches, reaching Smith's division, instructing him to prepare for the next assault, and rode on and met up with McClernand and Wallace. After exchanging reports, he met up with Foote. On February 16, Foote resumed his bombardment, which signaled a general attack. Floyd and Pillow fled, leaving the fort in command of Simon Bolivar Buckner, who submitted to Grant's demand for "unconditional and immediate surrender".[127] Grant had won the first major victory for the Union, capturing Floyd's entire rebel army of more than 12,000. Halleck was angry that Grant had acted without his authorization and complained to McClellan, accusing Grant of "neglect and inefficiency". On March 3, Halleck sent a telegram to Washington complaining that he had no communication with Grant for a week. Three days later, Halleck followed up with a postscript claiming "word has just reached me that ... Grant has resumed his bad habits (of drinking)."[128] Lincoln, regardless, promoted Grant to major general of volunteers while the Northern press treated Grant as a hero. Playing off his initials, they took to calling him "Unconditional Surrender Grant."[129] Shiloh and aftermath Further information: Battle of Shiloh Thure de Thulstrup;s painting of the Battle of Shiloh, depicting soldiers in battles in the woods Battle of Shiloh Thulstrup 1888 Map of the battle of Shiloh depicting troop movements Battle of Shiloh Map As the great numbers of troops from both armies gathered, it was widely thought in the North that another western battle might end the war.[130] Grant, reinstated by Halleck at Lincoln's and Stanton's urging, left Fort Henry and traveled by boat up the Tennessee River to rejoin his army with orders to advance with the Army of the Tennessee into Tennessee. Grant's main Union army was located at Pittsburg Landing, while 40,000 Confederate troops converged at Corinth.[131] Brigadier General William Tecumseh Sherman assured Grant that his green troops were ready for an attack. Grant agreed and wired Halleck with their assessment.[132] Grant, whose forces numbered 45,000, wanted to attack the Confederates at Corinth, but Halleck ordered him not to attack until Major General Don Carlos Buell arrived with his division of 25,000.[133] Meanwhile, Grant prepared for an attack on the Confederate army of roughly equal strength. Instead of preparing defensive fortifications between the Tennessee River and Owl Creek,[n] and clearing fields of fire, they spent most of their time drilling the largely inexperienced troops while Sherman dismissed reports of nearby Confederates.[134] Union inaction created the opportunity for the Confederates to attack first before Buell arrived.[135] On the morning of April 6, 1862, Grant's troops were taken by surprise when the Confederates, led by Generals Albert Sidney Johnston and P.G.T. Beauregard, struck first "like an Alpine avalanche" near Shiloh church, attacking five divisions of Grant's army and forcing a confused retreat toward the Tennessee River.[136] Johnston was wounded and died and command fell upon Beauregard.[137] One Union line held the Confederate attack off for several hours at a place later called the "Hornet's Nest", giving Grant time to assemble artillery and 20,000 troops near Pittsburg Landing.[138] The Confederates finally broke through the Hornet's Nest to capture a Union division, but "Grant's Last Line" held Pittsburg Landing, while the exhausted Confederates, lacking reinforcements, halted their advance.[139] The day's fighting had been costly, with thousands of troops killed and wounded. That evening, heavy rain set in. Sherman found Grant standing alone under a tree in the rain. "Well, Grant, we've had the devil's own day of it, haven't we?" Sherman said. "Yes," replied Grant. "Lick 'em tomorrow, though."[140] Bolstered by 18,000 fresh troops from the divisions of Major Generals Buell and Lew Wallace, Grant counterattacked at dawn the next day and regained the field, forcing the disorganized and demoralized rebels to retreat back to Corinth while thousands deserted.[141] Halleck ordered Grant not to advance more than one day from Pittsburg Landing, stopping the pursuit of the Confederate Army.[142] Although Grant had won the battle the situation was little changed, with the Union in possession of Pittsburg Landing and the Confederates once again holed up in Corinth.[143] Grant, now realizing that the South was determined to fight and that the war would not be won with one battle, would later write, "Then, indeed, I gave up all idea of saving the Union except by complete conquest."[144] Shiloh was the costliest battle in American history to that point and the staggering 23,746 total casualties stunned the nation.[145] Briefly hailed a hero for routing the Confederates, Grant was soon mired in controversy.[146] The Northern press castigated Grant for shockingly high casualties, and accused him of drunkenness during the battle, contrary to the accounts of officers and others with him at the time.[147][o] However, Grant's victory at Shiloh ended any chance for the Confederates to prevail in the Mississippi valley or regain its strategic advantage in the West.[148] Halleck arrived from St. Louis on April 11, took command, and assembled a combined army of about 120,000 men. On April 29, he relieved Grant of field command and replaced him with Major General George Henry Thomas. Halleck slowly marched his army to take Corinth, entrenching each night.[149] Meanwhile, Beauregard pretended to be reinforcing, sent "deserters" to the Union Army with that story, and moved his army out during the night, to Halleck's surprise when he finally arrived at Corinth on May 30.[150] Discouraged, Grant considered resigning but Sherman convinced him to stay.[151] Lincoln dismissed Grant's critics, saying "I can't spare this man; he fights."[152] Halleck divided his combined army and reinstated Grant as field commander of the Army of the Tennessee on July 11.[153] On September 19, Grant's army defeated Confederates at the Battle of Iuka, then successfully defended Corinth, inflicting heavy casualties.[154] On October 25, Grant assumed command of the District of the Tennessee.[155] In November, after Lincoln's preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, Grant ordered units under his command to incorporate former slaves into the Union Army, giving them clothes, shelter and wages for their services.[156] Vicksburg campaign Further information: Vicksburg Campaign and General Order No. 11 (1862) A line of about a dozen Union gunboats on the Mississippi River exchange fire with the town above on a cliff Grant's gamble: Porter's gunboats running the Confederate gauntlet at Vicksburg The Confederate stronghold of Vicksburg, Mississippi, blocked the way of Union control of the Mississippi River, making its capture vital.[157] Grant's Army held western Tennessee with almost 40,000 troops available to fight.[158] Grant was aggravated to learn that Lincoln authorized McClernand to raise a separate army for the purpose.[159] Halleck ordered McClernand to Memphis, and placed him and his troops under Grant's authority.[160] After Grant's army captured Holly Springs, Grant planned to attack Vicksburg's front overland while Sherman would attack the fortress from the rear on the Mississippi River.[161] However, Confederate cavalry raids on December 11 and 20 broke Union communications and recaptured Holly Springs, preventing the armies of Grant and Sherman from connecting.[162] On December 29, a Confederate army led by Lieutenant General John C. Pemberton repulsed Sherman's direct approach ascending the bluffs to Vicksburg at Chickasaw Bayou.[163] McClernand reached Sherman's army, assumed command, and independently of Grant led a campaign that captured Confederate Fort Hindman.[164] During this time, Grant incorporated fleeing African American slaves into the Union Army giving them protection and paid employment.[165] Along with his military responsibilities in the months following Grant's return to command, he was concerned over an expanding illicit cotton trade in his district.[166] He believed the trade undermined the Union war effort, funded the Confederacy, and prolonged the war, while Union soldiers died in the fields.[167] Grant's own father, together with some Jewish partners, the Mack Brothers, attempted to gain access to this lucrative trade through Grant. On December 17, Grant issued General Order No. 11, expelling "Jews, as a class", from the district, saying that Jewish merchants were violating trade regulations.[168][p] The Northern press strongly condemned Grant's anti-semitism, while Jewish leaders complained to Lincoln.[170] Lincoln demanded the order be revoked and Grant rescinded it within three weeks.[171][q] Lines of soldiers fire at each other, with houses in the background The Battle of Jackson, fought on May 14, 1863, was part of the Vicksburg Campaign. On January 29, 1863, Grant assumed overall command and attempted to advance his army through water-logged terrain to bypass Vicksburg's guns, while the green Union soldiers gained valuable experience.[173] On April 16, Grant ordered Admiral David Dixon Porter's gunboats south under fire from the Vicksburg batteries to meet up with his troops who had marched south down the west side of the Mississippi River.[174] Grant ordered diversionary battles, confusing Pemberton and allowing Grant's army to move east across the Mississippi, landing troops at Bruinsburg.[175] Grant's army captured Jackson, the state capital. Advancing his army to Vicksburg, Grant defeated Pemberton's army at the Battle of Champion Hill on May 16, forcing their retreat into Vicksburg.[176] After Grant's men assaulted the entrenchments twice, suffering severe losses, they settled in for a siege lasting seven weeks. During quiet periods of the campaign Grant would take to drinking on occasion.[177] The personal rivalry between McClernand and Grant continued until Grant removed McClernand from command when he contravened Grant by publishing an order without permission.[178] Pemberton surrendered Vicksburg to Grant on July 4, 1863.[179] Vicksburg's fall gave Union forces control of the Mississippi River and split the Confederacy. By that time, Grant's political sympathies fully coincided with the Radical Republicans' aggressive prosecution of the war and emancipation of the slaves.[180] The success at Vicksburg was a morale boost for the Union war effort.[178] When Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton suggested Grant be brought back east to run the Army of the Potomac, Grant demurred, writing that he knew the geography and resources of the West better and he did not want to upset the chain of command in the East.[181] Chattanooga and promotion Further information: Chattanooga Campaign Confederate soldiers face Union troops running toward them Union troops swarm Missionary Ridge and defeat Bragg's army. Lincoln promoted Grant to major general in the regular army and assigned him command of the newly formed Division of the Mississippi on October 16, 1863, including the Armies of the Ohio, Tennessee, and Cumberland.[182] After the Battle of Chickamauga, the Army of the Cumberland retreated into Chattanooga where they became trapped.[183] Taking command, Grant arrived in Chattanooga by horseback with plans to resupply the city and break the siege.[184] Lincoln also sent Major General Joseph Hooker to assist Grant. Union forces captured Brown's Ferry and opened a supply line to Bridgeport.[185] On November 23, Grant organized three armies to attack at Missionary Ridge and Lookout Mountain. Two days later, Hooker's forces took Lookout Mountain.[186] Grant ordered Major General George Henry Thomas to advance when Sherman's army failed to take Missionary Ridge from the northeast.[187] The Army of the Cumberland, led by Major General Philip Sheridan and Brigadier General Thomas J. Wood, charged uphill and captured the Confederate entrenchments at the top, forcing a retreat.[188] The decisive battle gave the Union control of Tennessee and opened Georgia, the Confederate heartland, to Union invasion.[189] Grant was given an enormous thoroughbred horse, Cincinnati, by a thankful admirer in St. Louis.[190][r] On March 2, 1864, Lincoln promoted Grant to lieutenant general, giving him command of all Union Armies, answering only to the president.[192] Grant arrived in Washington on March 8, and he was formally commissioned by Lincoln the next day at a Cabinet meeting.[193] Grant developed a good working relationship with Lincoln, who allowed Grant to devise his own strategy as long as Lee was defeated.[194] Grant established his headquarters with General George Meade's Army of the Potomac in Culpeper, north-west of Richmond, and met weekly with Lincoln and Stanton in Washington.[195][s] After protest from Halleck, Grant scrapped a risky invasion plan of North Carolina, and adopted a plan of five coordinated Union offensives on five fronts, so Confederate armies could not shift troops along interior lines.[197] Grant and Meade would make a direct frontal attack on Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, while Sherman, whom Grant named chief of the western armies, was to destroy Joseph E. Johnston's Army of Tennessee and take Atlanta.[198] Major General Benjamin Butler would advance on Lee from the southeast, up the James River, while Major General Nathaniel Banks would capture Mobile.[199] Major General Franz Sigel was to capture granaries and rail lines in the Shenandoah Valley that supplied the Confederate Army.[200] Grant commanded in total 533,000 battle-ready troops spread out over an eighteen-mile front, while the Confederates had lost many officers in battle and had great difficulty finding replacements.[201] Grant's own popularity had risen, and there was talk that a Union victory early in the year could lead to his candidacy for the presidency. He was aware of the rumors, but had ruled out a political candidacy; the possibility would soon vanish with delays on the battlefield.[202] Overland Campaign and Petersburg Siege Further information: Overland Campaign and Siege of Petersburg Battle of the Wilderness The Overland Campaign was a series of brutal battles fought in Virginia for seven weeks during May and June 1864.[203] Sigel's and Butler's efforts failed, and Grant was left alone to fight Lee.[204] On the morning of Wednesday, May 4, dressed in his full uniform, with sword at his side, Grant rode out from his headquarters at Culpeper towards Germanna Ford, mounted on his war horse, Cincinnati.[205] That day Grant crossed the Rapidan unopposed, while supplies were transported on four pontoon bridges.[206] On May 5, the Union army attacked Lee in the Wilderness, a three-day battle with estimated casualties of 17,666 Union and 11,125 Confederate.[207] Rather than retreat, Grant flanked Lee's army to the southeast and attempted to wedge his forces between Lee and Richmond at Spotsylvania Court House.[208] Lee's army got to Spotsylvania first and a costly battle ensued, lasting thirteen days, with high casualties.[209] On May 12, Grant attempted to break through Lee's Muleshoe salient guarded by Confederate artillery, resulting in one of the bloodiest assaults of the Civil War, known as the Bloody Angle.[210] Unable to break Lee's lines, Grant again flanked the rebels to the southeast, meeting at North Anna, where a battle lasted three days.[211] Photograph of Grant in uniform leaning on a post in front of a tent Commanding General Grant at the Battle of Cold Harbor in 1864 Grant maneuvered his army to Cold Harbor, a vital railroad hub that linked to Richmond, but Lee's men had the defensive advantage and were already entrenched. On the third day of the thirteen-day battle, Grant led a costly assault and was soon castigated as "the Butcher" by the Northern press after taking 52,788 Union casualties; Lee's Confederate army suffered 32,907 casualties, but he was less able to replace them.[212] This battle was the second of two that Grant later said he regretted (the other being his initial assault on Vicksburg). Undetected by Lee, Grant moved his army south of the James River, freed Butler from the Bermuda Hundred, and advanced toward Petersburg, Virginia's central railroad hub.[213] After crossing the James, Grant arrived at Petersburg, threatening nearby Richmond. Beauregard defended the city, and Lee's veteran reinforcements soon arrived, resulting in a nine-month siege. Northern resentment grew as the war dragged on. Lee was forced to defend Richmond, unable to reinforce other Confederate forces. Sheridan was assigned command of the Union Army of the Shenandoah and Grant directed him to "follow the enemy to their death" and to destroy vital Confederate supplies in the Shenandoah Valley. When Sheridan reported suffering attacks by John S. Mosby's irregular Confederate cavalry, Grant recommended rounding up their families for imprisonment as hostages at Fort McHenry.[214] After Grant's abortive attempt to capture Petersburg, Lincoln supported Grant in his decision to continue. Because of the high casualties, Lincoln arrived at Grant's headquarters at City Point on June 21 to assess the state of Grant's army, meeting with Grant and Admiral Porter. By the time Lincoln departed his appreciation for Grant had grown.[215] Painting of four men conferring in a ship's cabin, entitled "The Peacemakers". Grant (center left) next to Lincoln with General Sherman (far left) and Admiral Porter (right) – The Peacemakers At Petersburg, Grant approved a plan to blow up part of the enemy trenches from an underground tunnel. The explosion created a crater, into which poorly led Union troops poured. Recovering from the surprise, Confederates surrounded the crater and easily picked off Union troops within it. The Union's 3,500 casualties outnumbered the Confederates' by three-to-one; although the plan could have been successful if implemented correctly, Grant admitted the tactic had been a "stupendous failure".[216] Rather than fight Lee in a full frontal attack as he had done at Cold Harbor, Grant continued to extend Lee's defenses south and west of Petersburg to capture essential railroad links.[217] After the Federal army rebuilt the City Point Railroad, Grant used mortars to attack Lee's overstretched forces.[218] Union forces soon captured Mobile Bay and Atlanta and now controlled the Shenandoah Valley, ensuring Lincoln's reelection in November.[219] Sherman convinced Grant and Lincoln to send his army to march on Savannah and devastate the Confederate heartland.[220] Sherman cut a 60-mile path of destruction of Southern infrastructure unopposed, reached the Atlantic Ocean, and captured Savannah on December 22.[221] On December 16, after much prodding by Grant, the Union Army under Thomas smashed Hood's Confederate Army at Nashville.[222] It was the beginning of the end for the Confederacy, with Lee's forces at Petersburg being the only significant obstacle remaining.[223] By March 1865, Grant had severely weakened Lee's strength, having extended his lines to 35 miles.[224] Lee's troops deserted by the thousands due to hunger and the strains of trench warfare.[225] Grant, Sherman, Porter, and Lincoln held a conference to discuss the surrender of Confederate armies and Reconstruction of the South on March 28.[226] Appomattox campaign, and victory Main articles: Third Battle of Petersburg, Appomattox Campaign, and Battle of Appomattox Court House Surrender of General Lee to General Grant at Appomattox Court House On April 2, Grant ordered a general assault on Lee's entrenched forces. Union troops took Petersburg and captured an evacuated Richmond the following day.[227] Lee and part of his army broke free and attempted to link up with the remnants of Joseph E. Johnston's defeated army, but Sheridan's cavalry stopped the two armies from converging, cutting them off from their supply trains.[228] Grant was in communication with Lee before he entrusted his aide Orville Babcock to carry his last dispatch to Lee requesting his surrender with instructions to escort him to a meeting place of Lee's choosing.[229] Grant immediately mounted his horse, Cincinnati, and rode west, bypassing Lee's army, to join Sheridan who had captured Appomattox Station, blocking Lee's escape route. On his way Grant was hailed by a member of Meade's staff carrying a letter sent by Lee through the picket lines, informing Grant that he was ready to formally surrender.[230] On April 9, Grant and Lee met at Appomattox Court House.[231] Upon receiving Lee's dispatch about the proposed meeting Grant had been jubilant. Although Grant felt depressed at the fall of "a foe who had fought so long and valiantly," he believed the Southern cause was "one of the worst for which a people ever fought."[232] After briefly discussing their days of old in Mexico, Grant wrote out the terms of surrender, whereupon Lee expressed satisfaction and accepted Grant's terms.[233] Going beyond his military authority, Grant gave Lee and his men amnesty; Confederates would surrender their weapons and return to their homes. At Lee's request, Grant also allowed them to keep their horses, all on the condition that they would not take up arms against the United States.[234] Grant ordered his troops to stop all celebration, saying the "war is over; the rebels are our countrymen again."[235] Confederate forces surrendered to Union forces, and the war ended on May 9, 1865.[236][t] Lincoln's assassination Main article: Assassination of Abraham Lincoln On April 14, 1865, five days after Grant's victory at Appomattox, he attended a cabinet meeting in Washington. Lincoln invited him and his wife to Ford's Theater, but they declined as upon his wife Julia's urging, had plans to travel to Philadelphia. In a conspiracy that also targeted top cabinet members, and in a last effort to topple the Union, Lincoln was fatally shot by John Wilkes Booth at the theater, and died the next morning.[237] Many, including Grant himself, thought that he had been a target in the plot.[238] Stanton notified him of the President's death and summoned him back to Washington. Vice President Andrew Johnson was sworn in as President on April 15. Attending Lincoln's funeral on April 19, Grant stood alone and wept openly; he later said Lincoln was "the greatest man I have ever known."[239] Upon Johnson's assumption of the presidency, Grant told Julia that he dreaded the change in administrations; he judged Johnson's attitude toward white southerners as one that would "make them unwilling citizens", and feared that the Civil War would be revived.[240] Commanding General Main article: Ulysses S. Grant as commanding general, 1865–1869 Commanding General Grant by Ole Peter Hansen Balling, 1865 At the war's end, Grant remained commander of the army, with duties that included dealing with Maximilian and French troops in Mexico, enforcement of Reconstruction in the former Confederate states, and supervision of Indian wars on the western Plains.[241] Grant secured a house for his family in Georgetown Heights in 1865, but instructed Elihu Washburne that for political purposes his legal residence remained in Galena, Illinois.[242] That same year, Grant spoke at Cooper Union in New York in support of Johnson's presidency. Further travels that summer took the Grants to Albany, New York, back to Galena, and throughout Illinois and Ohio, with enthusiastic receptions.[243] On July 25, 1866, Congress promoted Grant to the newly created rank of General of the Army of the United States.[244] Reconstruction Further information: Reconstruction Era Reconstruction was a turbulent period from 1863 to 1877 when former Confederate states were readmitted to the Union, and fierce controversy arose over the status of both the defeated Confederates and the newly freed ex-slaves. In November 1865, Johnson sent Grant on a fact-finding mission to the South. Grant recommended continuation of the Freedmen's Bureau, which Johnson opposed, but advised against using black troops, which he believed encouraged an alternative to farm labor.[245] Grant did not believe the people of the South were ready for self-rule, and that both whites and blacks in the South required protection by the federal government. Concerned that the war led to a diminished respect for civil authorities, Grant continued using the Army to maintain order.[246] On the same day the Thirteenth Amendment was ratified, Grant filed an unconvincing and optimistic report of his tour, expressing his faith that "the mass of thinking men of the South accept the present situation of affairs in good faith." |Grant later disavowed the report.[247]}} In this respect Grant's opinion on Reconstruction aligned with Johnson's policy of restoring former Confederates to their positions of power, arguing that Congress should allow representatives from the South to take their seats.[248] Grant believed the federal government was responsible to all Union Army veterans who served in the war, both white and black.[249] Break from Johnson Conflict over Reconstruction broke the fragile relationship between Grant and President Andrew Johnson (pictured). Grant was initially optimistic about Johnson, saying he was satisfied the nation had "nothing to fear" from the Johnson administration.[250] Despite differing styles, Grant got along cordially with Johnson, and he was allowed to attend cabinet meetings concerning Reconstruction.[250] By February 1866, the relationship between Grant and Johnson began to break apart.[251] Johnson opposed Grant's closure of the Richmond Examiner for disloyal editorials.[251] Grant's team of commanders enforced the landmark Civil Rights Act of 1866, passed over Johnson's veto.[251] Needing Grant's popularity, Johnson took Grant on his "Swing Around the Circle" tour, a failed attempt to gain national support for lenient policies toward the South.[252] Grant privately called Johnson's speeches a "national disgrace" and he left the tour early.[253] On March 2, 1867, overriding Johnson's veto, Congress passed the first of three Reconstruction Acts, which divided the southern states into five military districts, putting in charge military officers to enforce Reconstruction policy.[254] Protecting Grant, Congress passed the Command of the Army Act, attached to an army appropriation bill, preventing his removal or relocation, and forcing Johnson to pass orders through Grant.[255] In August 1867, Johnson suspended Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, a Lincoln appointee who sympathized with Congressional Reconstruction, replacing him with Grant as acting Secretary.[256][u] Stanton was a Radical Republican protected by allies in Congress.[258] Grant wanted to replace him but recommended against bypassing the Tenure of Office Act, prohibiting a cabinet removal without Senate approval.[259] Grant accepted the position, not wanting the Army to fall under a conservative appointee who would impede Reconstruction, and managed an uneasy partnership with Johnson.[260] In December 1867, Congress voted to keep Stanton, who was reinstated by a Senate Committee on Friday January 10, 1868. Grant told Johnson he was going to resign office to avoid fines and imprisonment. Johnson said he would assume Grant's legal responsibility, and reminded Grant that he had promised him to delay his resignation until a suitable replacement was found.[257] On Monday January 13, Grant immediately surrendered the office to Stanton.[261] Johnson was livid, and accused Grant of lying at a stormy cabinet meeting. The publication of angry messages between Grant and Johnson led to a complete break between the president and his general.[262] The controversy led to Johnson's impeachment and trial in the Senate.[258] Johnson was saved from removal from office by one vote.[263] Grant's popularity rose among the Radical Republicans and his nomination for the presidency appeared certain.[264] Election of 1868 Main article: United States presidential election, 1868 Photograph of a crowd in front of Capitol building decorated with patriotic bunting First inauguration of Ulysses S. Grant, Capitol building steps, March 4, 1869 When the Republican Party met at the 1868 Republican National Convention in Chicago, the delegates unanimously nominated Grant for president and Speaker of the House Schuyler Colfax for vice president.[258] Although Grant had preferred to remain in the army, he accepted the Republican nomination, believing that he was the only one who could unify the nation.[265] The Republicans advocated "equal civil and political rights to all" and African American enfranchisement.[266][267] The Democrats, having abandoned Johnson, nominated former governor Horatio Seymour (New York) for president and Francis P. Blair (Missouri) for vice president.[268] The Democrats advocated the immediate restoration of former Confederate states to the Union and amnesty from "all past political offenses".[269] Grant played no overt role during the campaign and instead was joined by Sherman and Sheridan in a tour of the West that summer.[270] However, the Republicans adopted his words "Let us have peace" as their campaign slogan.[271] Grant's 1862 General Order No. 11 became an issue during the presidential campaign; he sought to distance himself from the order, saying "I have no prejudice against sect or race, but want each individual to be judged by his own merit."[272] The Democrats and their Klan supporters focused mainly on ending Reconstruction and returning control of the South to the white Democrats and the planter class, which alienated many War Democrats in the North.[273] To intimidate blacks from voting Republican, the Klan, led by former Confederate general Nathan Bedford Forrest, used violence and intimidation across the South in three states: Kansas, Georgia, and Louisiana.[274] Grant won the popular vote by 300,000 votes out of 5,716,082 votes cast, receiving an Electoral College landslide of 214 votes to Seymour's 80.[275] Seymour received a majority of white votes, but Grant was aided by 500,000 votes cast by blacks,[268] winning him 52.7 percent of the popular vote.[276] At the age of 46, Grant was the youngest president yet elected, and the first president after the nation had outlawed slavery.[277] Presidency (1869–1877) Main article: Presidency of Ulysses S. Grant Photographic portrait of Grant President Grant, 1870 On March 4, 1869, Grant was sworn in as the eighteenth President of the United States by Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase. Grant assumed the presidency with reluctance, which he expressed in an 1868 letter, after his nomination, to Sherman: I have been forced into it in spite of myself. I could not back down without, as it seems to me, leaving the contest for power for the next four years between mere trading politicians, the elevation of whom, no matter which party won, would lose to us, largely, the results of the costly war which we have gone through.[278] Johnson, angry with Grant, did not attend Grant's inauguration or ride with him as he departed the White House for the last time.[279] In his inaugural address, Grant urged the ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment, while large numbers of African Americans attended his inauguration.[280] He also urged that bonds issued during the Civil War should be paid in gold and called for reform in Indian Policy while he recommended the "proper treatment" of Native Americans and encouraged their "civilization and ultimate citizenship".[281] Grant's cabinet appointments sparked both criticism and approval.[282] Grant appointed: Elihu B. Washburne Secretary of State and John A. Rawlins Secretary of War.[283] Washburne resigned, and Grant appointed him Minister to France. Grant then appointed former New York Senator Hamilton Fish Secretary of State.[283] Rawlins died in office, and Grant appointed William W. Belknap of Iowa Secretary of War.[284] Grant appointed New York businessman Alexander T. Stewart Secretary of Treasury, but Stewart was found legally ineligible to hold office by a 1789 law.[285][v] Grant then appointed Massachusetts Representative George S. Boutwell Secretary of Treasury.[286] Philadelphia businessman Adolph E. Borie was appointed Secretary of Navy, but he found the job stressful and resigned.[287][w] Grant then appointed New Jersey's attorney general George M. Robeson Secretary of Navy.[289] Grant appointed: former Ohio Governor Jacob D. Cox Secretary of Interior, former Maryland Senator John Creswell Postmaster-General, and Ebenezer Rockwood Hoar Attorney General.[290] Family group on porch The First Family: Ulysses and Julia Grant's family at the "summer capital" in Long Branch, New Jersey, 1870 Grant nominated Sherman his Army successor as general-in-chief and gave him control over war bureau chiefs.[291] When Rawlins took over the War Department,[x] he complained to Grant that Sherman was given too much authority. Grant reluctantly revoked his own order, upsetting Sherman and damaging their wartime friendship.[291] Grant's nomination of James Longstreet, a former Confederate general, to the position of Surveyor of Customs of the port of New Orleans, was met with general amazement, and was largely seen as a genuine effort to unite the North and South.[293] Grant very much regretted his wartime order expelling Jewish traders. In his army days he has traded at a local store operated by the Seligman brothers, two Jewish merchants who became Grant's lifelong friends. They became wealthy bankers who donated substantially to Grant's presidential campaign.[294] Running for president in 1868, Grant publicly apologized for it. Once elected he set out to make amends. Historian Jonathan Sarna argues: Eager to prove that he was above prejudice, Grant appointed more Jews to public office than had any of his predecessors and, in the name of human rights, he extended unprecedented support to persecuted Jews in Russia and Romania. Time and again, partly as a result of this enlarged vision of what it meant to be an American and partly in order to live down General Orders No. 11, Grant consciously worked to assist Jews and secure them equality. ... Through his appointments and policies, Grant rejected calls for a 'Christian nation' and embraced Jews as insiders in America, part of 'we the people.' During his administration, Jews achieved heightened status on the national scene, anti-Jewish prejudice declined, and Jews looked forward optimistically to a liberal epoch characterized by sensitivity to human rights and interreligious cooperation.[295] Later Reconstruction and civil rights Amos T. Akerman, Attorney General who vigorously prosecuted the Ku Klux Klan When Grant took office in 1869, Reconstruction took precedence, Republicans controlled most Southern states, propped up by Republican controlled Congress, northern money, and southern military occupation.[296] Grant advocated in his inaugural address the ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment that declared the right to vote for African Americans.[297] Unlike Johnson, Grant's vision of Reconstruction included federal enforcement of civil rights and spoke out against voter intimidation of Southern blacks.[298] Within a year, three remaining former Confederate states—Mississippi, Virginia, and Texas—were admitted to Congress, having complied with Congressional Reconstruction Acts and adopted the Fifteenth Amendment.[299] Supported by Congress, Grant put military pressure on Georgia, the last remaining former Confederate state, to reinstate its black legislators and adopt the new amendment.[300] Georgia complied, and on February 24, 1871 its Senators were seated in Congress.[301] Southern Reconstructed states were controlled by carpetbaggers, scalawags and former slaves. The Ku Klux Klan terrorist group, however, continued to undermine Reconstruction by violence and intimidation.[302] Grant, in 1870, signed legislation creating the Justice Department. He employed it to enforce the Reconstruction efforts in the South.[303] On March 23, 1871, Grant asked Congress for legislation, passed on April 20, known as the Ku Klux Klan Act, that authorized the president to impose martial law and suspend the writ of habeas corpus.[304] By October, Grant suspended habeas corpus in part of South Carolina and sent federal troops to help marshals, who initiated prosecutions.[305] Grant's new Attorney General, Amos T. Akerman, a former Confederate officer and now zealous civil rights attorney from Georgia, replaced Hoar. Bolstered by the Department of Justice and Solicitor General, he made hundreds of arrests while forcing 2,000 Klansmen to flee the state. Akerman returned over 3,000 indictments of the Klan throughout the South and obtained 600 convictions for the worst offenders.[306] By 1872 the Klan's power had collapsed, and African Americans voted in record numbers in elections in the South.[307] That same year, Grant signed the Amnesty Act, which restored political rights to former Confederates. Lacking sufficient funding, the Justice Department stopped prosecutions of the Klan by June 1873. Civil rights prosecutions continued but with fewer yearly cases and convictions.[308] Grant's Postmaster General John Creswell used his patronage powers to integrate the postal system and appointed a record number of African American men and women as postal workers across the nation, while also expanding many of the mail routes.[309] Grant appointed Republican abolitionist and champion of black education Hugh Lennox Bond as U.S. Circuit Court judge.[310] Image of mobs rioting entitled "The Louisiana Outrage". White Leaguers at Liberty Place attacked the integrated police force and state militia, New Orleans, September 1874 After the Klan's decline, a faction of southern conservatives called "Redeemers" formed armed groups, such as the Red Shirts and the White League, who openly used violence, intimidation, voter fraud, and racist appeals in an attempt to take control of state governments.[311] The Panic of 1873 and the ensuing depression contributed to public fatigue, and the North grew less concerned with Reconstruction.[312] Supreme Court rulings in the Slaughter-House Cases and United States v. Cruikshank restricted federal enforcement of civil rights.[313] In 1874, Grant ended the Brooks–Baxter War, bringing Reconstruction in Arkansas to a peaceful conclusion. That same year, he sent troops and warships under Major General William H. Emory to New Orleans in the wake of the Colfax massacre and disputes over the election of Governor William Pitt Kellogg.[314] Grant recalled Sheridan and most of the federal troops from Louisiana.[315] By 1875, Redeemer Democrats had taken control of all but three Southern states. As violence against black Southerners escalated once more, Attorney General Edwards Pierrepont told Governor Adelbert Ames of Mississippi that the people were "tired of the autumnal outbreaks in the South", and declined to intervene directly, instead sending an emissary to negotiate a peaceful election.[316] Grant later regretted not issuing a proclamation to help Ames, having been told Republicans in Ohio would bolt the party if Grant intervened in Mississippi.[317] Grant told Congress in January 1875 he could not "see with indifference Union men or Republicans ostracized, persecuted, and murdered."[318] Congress refused to strengthen the laws against violence, but instead passed a sweeping law to guarantee blacks access to public facilities.[319] Grant signed it as the Civil Rights Act of 1875, but enforcement was weak and the Supreme Court ruled the law unconstitutional in 1883.[320] In October 1876, Grant dispatched troops to South Carolina to aid Republican Governor Daniel Henry Chamberlain.[321] Grant's successor, Rutherford B. Hayes, abandoned the remaining three Republican governments in the South that were supported by the army after the Compromise of 1877, which marked the end of Reconstruction.[322] In 1875, Grant proposed measures to limit religious roles in public schools. Grant laid out his agenda for "good common school education." He attacked government support for "sectarian schools" run by religious organizations, and called for the defense of public education "unmixed with sectarian, pagan or atheistical dogmas." Grant declared that "Church and State" should be "forever separate." Religion, he said, should be left to families, churches, and private schools devoid of public funds.[323] His views were incorporated into the Blaine Amendment. That amendment did not become federal law but many states adopted versions. Historian Tyler Anbinder says, "Grant was not an obsessive nativist. He expressed his resentment of immigrants and animus toward Catholicism only rarely. But these sentiments reveal themselves frequently enough in his writings and major actions as general....In the 1850s he joined a Know Nothing lodge and irrationally blamed immigrants for setbacks in his career."[324] Indian peace policy Further information: American Indian Wars § West of the Mississippi (1811–1924), and Black Hills Land Claim Formal photographic portrait of a sitting mustached man Ely Samuel Parker Seneca Indian appointed by Grant as Commissioner of Indian Affairs When Grant took office in 1869, the nation's policy towards Indians was in chaos, with more than 250,000 Indians being governed by 370 treaties.[70] He appointed Ely S. Parker, a Seneca Indian, a member of his wartime staff, as Commissioner of Indian Affairs, the first Native American to serve in this position, surprising many around him.[325][y] In April 1869, Grant signed a law establishing an unpaid Board of Indian Commissioners to reduce corruption and oversee implementation of Indian policy, based on the appointment of Quakers as Indian agents.[327][z] In 1871, he signed a bill ending the Indian treaty system; the law now treated individual Native Americans as wards of the federal government, and no longer dealt with the tribes as sovereign entities.[329][aa] Parker's resignation in 1871 undermined the peace policy, as did denominational infighting and entrenched economic interests, while Indians refused to adopt European American culture.[330] On October 1, 1872, General Oliver Otis Howard successfully negotiated peace with Apache leader, Cochise, who waged guerrilla war against the army and settlers, to move the tribe to a new reservation.[331] On April 11, 1873, General Edward Canby, was killed in Northern California south of Tule Lake by Modoc leader Kintpuash, in a failed peace conference to end the Modoc War, shocking the nation.[332] Grant ordered restraint after Canby's death, the army captured Kintpuash, who was convicted of Canby's murder and hanged on October 3 at Fort Klamath, while the remaining Modoc tribe was relocated to the Indian Territory.[332] In 1874, the army defeated the Comanche Indians at the Battle of Palo Duro Canyon.[333] Their villages were burned and horses slaughtered, eventually forcing them to finally settle at the Fort Sill reservation in 1875.[334] Grant pocket-vetoed a bill in 1874 protecting bison and supporting Interior Secretary Columbus Delano, who believed correctly the killing of bison would force Plains Indians to abandon their nomadic lifestyle.[335][ab] After discovery of gold in the Black Hills, miners encroached on Sioux land guaranteed under the Fort Laramie treaty.[337] Grant believed he could not keep the miners out, so he offered the Sioux $6,000,000 for their sacred lands in October 1874; Red Cloud reluctantly entered negotiations, but other Sioux chiefs readied for war.[338] On November 3, 1875, Grant held a meeting at the White House and, under advice from Sheridan, Grant agreed not to enforce keeping out miners from the Black Hills, and to force "hostile" Indians onto the Sioux reservation.[339][ac] During the Great Sioux War that started after Sitting Bull refused to relocate to agency land, warriors led by Crazy Horse killed George Armstrong Custer and his men at the Battle of the Little Big Horn, the army's most famous defeat in the Indian wars. Later, Grant castigated Custer in the press, saying "I regard Custer's massacre as a sacrifice of troops, brought on by Custer himself, that was wholly unnecessary – wholly unnecessary."[341] In September and October 1876, Grant convinced the tribes to relinquish the Black Hills. Congress ratified the agreement three days before Grant left office in 1877.[342][ad][ae] Foreign affairs Further information: Annexation of Santo Domingo, Treaty of Washington (1871), and Virginius Affair The most pressing problem confronting Grant when he took office in 1869 was the settlement of the Alabama claims against Great Britain, involving a set of complex grievances and depredations committed against American shipping during the Civil War by the Confederate cruiser CSS Alabama, secretly purchased in England.[346] Senator Charles Sumner, Chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee, believed the British had violated American neutrality and demanded reparations, including the acquisition of Canada.[347] Secretary of State Hamilton Fish and Treasurer George Boutwell convinced Grant that peaceful relations with Britain were more important, and the two nations agreed to negotiate along those lines.[348] To avoid jeopardizing negotiations, Grant refrained from recognizing Cuban rebels who were fighting for independence from Spain, which would have been inconsistent with American objections to the British granting belligerent status to Confederates.[349][af] A commission in Washington produced a treaty whereby an international tribunal would settle the damage amounts; the British admitted regret, but not fault.[350][ag] The Senate approved the Treaty of Washington, which settled disputes over fishing rights and maritime boundaries, by a 50–12 vote, signed on May 8, 1871.[352] Formal photographic portrait of bearded man Hamilton Fish, Secretary of State, 1869–1877 Grant's foreign policy had an expansionist impulse not uncommon for his times.[353] In early April 1869, Joseph W. Fabens met with Fish, and proposed annexation of the Dominican Republic.[354] On April 6, Fish brought up Fabens's proposal at a cabinet meeting, but Grant initially showed no interest.[355] In July, Grant sent Babcock to the island with instructions by Fish to investigate the government, natural resources, people, and economy. He was not given diplomatic authority to negotiate an annexation treaty.[356] In mid-September, Babcock returned to Washington with an annexation treaty proposal he made with President Buenaventura Báez, which Grant endorsed at a cabinet meeting, but informed his cabinet it was without authorization.[357][ah] Grant believed annexation would strengthen American strategic power in the Caribbean, increase natural resources, and serve as a safe haven for Freedmen. Fish was instructed by Grant to draw up two treaties, one for Dominican annexation and another for the lease of Samaná Bay. In early January 1870, Grant visited Senator Sumner to gain his support for annexation. When Grant left, he was confident he had Sumner's approval, but he was wrong; the episode led to hostility between the two men. On January 20, Grant submitted the treaties to the Senate for ratification.[359] After much stalling by Sumner, who opposed annexation, the Foreign Relations Committee rejected the treaties by a 5-to-2 vote. Grant personally lobbied senators, but despite his efforts the Senate defeated the treaties by a 28–28 vote with 19 Republicans joining the opposition.[360] Undaunted, Grant convinced Congress to send a commission to investigate.[361] For this undertaking, he chose three neutral parties, with Fredrick Douglass to head the commission.[362] Although the commission approved its findings, the Senate remained opposed, forcing Grant to abandon further efforts.[363] Grant fired Sumner's friend and Minister to Great Britain, John Lothrop Motley, while his allies in the Senate deposed Sumner of his chairmanship.[364] reception line King Kalākaua of Hawaii meets President Grant at the White House in 1874. In October 1873, Grant's Caribbean neutrality policy was shaken when a Spanish cruiser captured a merchant ship, Virginius, flying the U.S. flag, carrying supplies and men to aid the Cuban insurrection.[365] Spanish authorities executed the prisoners, including eight American citizens, and many Americans called for war with Spain.[366] Grant ordered U.S. Navy Squadron warships to converge on Cuba, off of Key West, supported by the USS Kansas.[367] On November 27, Fish reached a diplomatic resolution in which Spain's president, Emilio Castelar y Ripoll, expressed his regret, surrendered the Virginius and surviving captives.[368] A year later, Spain paid a cash indemnity of $80,000 to the families of the executed Americans.[369] Realizing the Navy was susceptible to European naval powers, in June 1874, Secretary Robeson commissioned the reconstruction of five redesigned double-turreted monitor warships.[370] Grant and Fish secured a free trade treaty in 1875 with the Kingdom of Hawaii, incorporating the Pacific islands' sugar industry into the United States' economic sphere.[371] Gold standard and gold conspiracy Further information: Black Friday (1869) Soon after taking office Grant took conservative steps to return the nation's currency to a more secure footing.[349] During the Civil War, Congress had authorized the Treasury to issue banknotes that, unlike the rest of the currency, were not backed by gold or silver. The "greenback" notes, as they were known, were necessary to pay the unprecedented war debts, but they also caused inflation and forced gold-backed money out of circulation; Grant was determined to return the national economy to pre-war monetary standards.[372] On March 18, 1869, he signed the Public Credit Act of 1869 that guaranteed bondholders would be repaid in "coin or its equivalent", while greenbacks would gradually be redeemed by the Treasury and replaced by notes backed by specie. The act committed the government to the full return of the gold standard within ten years.[373] This followed a policy of "hard currency, economy and gradual reduction of the national debt." Grant's own ideas about the economy were simple and he relied on the advice of wealthy and financially successful businessman that he courted.[349] Cartoon, entitled "The 'Boy of the Period' Stirring up the Animals', shows Fisk poking bulls and bears and a man running toward them with a bag in his hand A cartoon showing Grant running with a bag of Treasury gold released to defeat the Gold Ring In April 1869, railroad tycoons Jay Gould and Jim Fisk, conspired to corner the gold market in New York, the nation's financial capital.[374] Gould and Fisk controlled the Erie Railroad, and a high price of gold would allow foreign agriculture buyers to purchase exported crops, shipped east over the Erie's routes.[375] Boutwell's bi-weekly policy of selling gold from the Treasury, however, kept gold artificially low.[376] To stop the sale of Treasury gold and raise the price, Gould and Fisk built a relationship with Grant's brother-in-law, Abel Corbin, and gained access to Grant.[377] Assistant Treasurer Daniel Butterfield, who had been appointed by Grant under influence from Corbin, was bribed by Gould $10,000.[378] Butterfield was to send coded messages to Gould and Fisk to secretly alert them of Treasury gold sales by Boutwell.[379][ai] In mid-June, Gould personally lobbied Grant that a high price of gold would spur the economy and increase agriculture sales.[380] In July, Grant reduced the sale of Treasury gold to $2,000,000 per month and subsequent months.[380] Fisk played a role in August in New York, having a letter from Corbin, he told Grant his gold policy would destroy the nation.[381] By September, Grant, who was naive in matters of finance, was convinced that a low gold price would help farmers, and the sale of gold for September was not increased.[382] On September 23, when the gold price reached 143 1⁄8, Boutwell rushed to the White House and talked with Grant.[383] The following day, September 24, known as Black Friday, Grant ordered Boutwell to sell, whereupon Boutwell wired Butterfield in New York, to sell $4,000,000 in gold.[384] The bull market at Gould's Gold Room collapsed, the price of gold plummeted from 160 to 133 1⁄3, a bear market panic ensued, Gould and Fisk fled for their own safety, while severe economic damages lasted months.[385] By January 1870, the economy resumed its post-war recovery.[386] An 1870 Congressional investigation chaired by James A. Garfield cleared Grant of profiteering, but excoriated Gould and Fisk for their manipulation of the gold market and Corbin for exploiting his personal connection to Grant.[387] Election of 1872 and second term Main article: United States presidential election, 1872 A Thomas Nast cartoon depicting Grant steering a ship and being challenged by opponents during the presidential election of 1872. Cartoon by Thomas Nast on Grant's opponents in the reelection campaign Despite his administration's scandals, Grant continued to be personally popular.[388] His reelection was supported by Frederick Douglass and other prominent abolitionists along with reformers of the Indian question.[389] In 1871, to placate reformers and alleviate a burgeoning federal bureaucracy, Grant created the Civil Service Commission, chaired by reformer George William Curtis, authorized and funded by Congress, to take effect January 1, 1872.[390] Congress, however, failed to enact permanent civil service legislation and in 1875 it refused to implement funding to maintain the commission.[391] Party reformers cooled toward Grant, critical of Grant's implementation of the commission's proposed reforms, corruption at the New York Customs House investigated by Congress, and Grant's alliance with party and patronage boss New York Senator Roscoe Conkling.[392] There was further intraparty division between the faction most concerned with the plight of the freedmen, and the faction concerned with the growth of industry and small government. During the war, both factions' interests had aligned, and in 1868 both had supported Grant. As the wartime coalition began to fray, Grant's alignment with the party's pro-Reconstruction elements alienated party leaders who favored an end to federal intervention in Southern racial issues.[393] In March 1871, led by Senator Carl Schurz of Missouri and General Jacob D. Cox, Grant's former Secretary of Interior, one hundred Republicans in Cincinnati broke from the party and formed what became the Liberal Republican Party, supporting "civil service reform, sound money, low tariffs, and states' rights."[394] The Liberals denounced Grantism, corruption, nepotism, and inefficiency, demanded the withdrawal of federal troops from the South, literacy tests for blacks to vote, and amnesty for Confederates.[395] The Liberals nominated Horace Greeley, a leading Republican New York Tribune editor and a fierce enemy of Grant, for president, and Missouri governor B. Gratz Brown, for vice president.[396] The Democrats adopted the Greeley-Brown ticket and the Liberals party platform.[397] The opposition pushed the themes that Grant was a scandal-ridden crook and a drunkard.[398] The regular Republican Party nominated Grant for reelection, with Senator Henry Wilson of Massachusetts replacing Colfax as the vice presidential nominee.[399] Details revealed of the 1867 Crédit Mobilier bribery scandal, implicating both Colfax and Wilson, stung the Grant administration, but did not directly involve Grant.[400] The Republicans shrewdly borrowed from the Liberals party platform including "extended amnesty, lowered tariffs, and embraced civil service reform."[401] To placate the burgeoning suffragist movement, the Republicans' platform included that women's rights should be treated with "respectful consideration."[402] To the Liberals' chagrin, Greeley made Grant's Southern policy, rather than civil service reform, the main campaign issue.[403] Grant won reelection easily thanks to federal prosecution of the Klan, a strong economy, debt reduction, lowered tariffs, and tax reductions.[404] He received 3.6 million (55.6%) votes to Greeley's 2.8 million votes and an Electoral College landslide of 286 to 66.[405][aj] A majority of African Americans in the South voted for Grant, while Democratic opposition remained mostly peaceful.[408] Grant lost in six former slave states that wanted to see an end to Reconstruction.[409] Grant proclaimed the victory as a personal vindication of his presidency, but inwardly he felt betrayed by the Liberals.[297] Grant was sworn in for his second term by Salmon P. Chase on March 4, 1873. In his second inaugural address, he reiterated the problems still facing the nation and focused on what he considered the chief issues of the day: freedom and fairness for all Americans while emphasizing the benefits of citizenship for freed slaves. Grant concluded his address with the words, "My efforts in the future will be directed towards the restoration of good feelings between the different sections of our common community".[410][ak] In 1873, Wilson suffered a stroke; never fully recovering, he died in office on November 22, 1875.[412] With Wilson's loss, Grant relied on Fish's guidance more than ever.[413] Panic of 1873 and loss of Congress Grant continued to work for a strong dollar, signing into law the Coinage Act of 1873, which effectively ended the legal basis for bimetallism (the use of both silver and gold as money), establishing the gold standard in practice.[414][al] The Coinage Act discontinued the standard silver dollar and established the gold dollar as the sole monetary standard; because the gold supply did not increase as quickly as the population, the result was deflation. Silverites, who wanted more money in circulation to raise the prices that farmers received, denounced the move as the "Crime of 1873", claiming the deflation made debts more burdensome for farmers.[416] A cartoon depicting Grant after vetoing the Inflation bill. Grant is congratulated for vetoing the "inflation bill" in 1874. Economic turmoil renewed during Grant's second term. In September 1873, Jay Cooke & Company, a New York brokerage house, collapsed after it failed to sell all of the bonds issued by Cooke's Northern Pacific Railway. The collapse rippled through Wall Street, and other banks and brokerages that owned railroad stocks and bonds were also ruined.[417] On September 20, the New York Stock Exchange suspended trading for ten days.[418] Grant, who knew little about finance, traveled to New York to consult leading businessmen and bankers for advice on how to resolve the crisis, which became known as the Panic of 1873.[419] Grant believed that, as with the collapse of the Gold Ring in 1869, the panic was merely an economic fluctuation that affected bankers and brokers.[420] He instructed the Treasury to buy $10 million in government bonds, injecting cash into the system. The purchases curbed the panic on Wall Street, but an industrial depression, later called the Long Depression, nonetheless swept the nation.[419] Many of the nation's railroads—89 out of 364—went bankrupt.[421] Congress hoped inflation would stimulate the economy and passed what became known as the "Inflation Bill" in 1874. Many farmers and workingmen favored the bill, which would have added $64 million in greenbacks to circulation, but some Eastern bankers opposed it because it would have weakened the dollar.[422] Belknap, Williams, and Delano[am] told Grant a veto would hurt Republicans in the November elections. Grant believed the bill would destroy the credit of the nation, and he vetoed it despite their objections. Grant's veto placed him in the conservative faction of the Republican Party and was the beginning of the party's commitment to a gold-backed dollar.[424] Grant later pressured Congress for a bill to further strengthen the dollar by gradually reducing the number of greenbacks in circulation. When the Democrats gained a majority in the House after the 1874 elections, the lame-duck Republican Congress did so before the Democrats took office.[425] On January 14, 1875, Grant signed the Specie Payment Resumption Act, which required gradual reduction of the number of greenbacks allowed to circulate and declared that they would be redeemed for gold beginning on January 1, 1879.[426][an] Scandals and reform Further information: Ulysses S. Grant presidential administration scandals, Ulysses S. Grant presidential administration reforms, and Gilded Age Grant's presidency took place during massive post-war industrial growth, speculation and lifestyle extravagance, that fueled criminal behavior in government offices.[428] Many charges of misconduct that Grant responded to involved financial corruption, while all of his executive departments were investigated by Congress.[429] Grant often trusted wealthy men involved in speculation, or wartime comrades, while he stubbornly defended cabinet members and appointees involved in corruption whom he believed innocent.[430] Cartoonist Thomas Nast praises Grant for rejecting demands by Pennsylvania politicians to suspend civil service rules. Grant's administration had limited success with civil service reform.[431] Grant's Secretary of Interior Jacob D. Cox fired unqualified clerks, implemented a merit testing system, and rebuffed mandatory party contributions.[432] On October 3, 1870, Cox resigned office under pressure from Republican party bosses and a dispute with Grant over a patent claim.[433] On March 3, 1871 Congress authorized Grant to create the Civil Service Commission.[434] Grant appointed reformer George William Curtis to head of the Commission, that advocated competitive exams, and the end of forced political payments.[435] The Commission's rules took effect the next year, but Department heads, assistants, and higher level officials were exempted.[436][ao] In November 1871, Grant's appointed New York Collector Thomas Murphy, an ally of Roscoe Conkling, resigned from office. Murphy's men had created a corrupt profiteering ring at the New York Custom House. Grant appointed Chester A. Arthur, another Conkling man, to replace Murphy, and administration of the Customs House steadily improved. Pressured by an 1872 Congressional investigation, Grant ordered prosecutions of men involved in the bribery scandal and removed the ringleader.[438] He was exonerated, but his reputation was damaged by being associated with Conkling's patronage machine.[439] On March 3, 1873, Grant signed a bill that increased pay for federal employees.[440] Decried as the Salary Grab Act, Congress repealed the law later that year, but Grant was allowed to keep his doubled $50,000 annual salary.[441] By 1873, public confidence in government rule and Congress had reached its lowest ebb in an era derisively named the Gilded Age.[442] Scandals escalated in Grant's second term, reaching into the President's inner circle.[443] In 1872, Grant signed into law, an act that eliminated private moiety (tax collection) contracts, but an attached rider allowed three more contracts.[383] Boutwell's assistant secretary William A. Richardson, hired John B. Sanborn to go after "individuals and cooperations" who allegedly evaded taxes. Retained by Richardson (as Sectretary), Sanborn aggressively collected $427,000 in supposed delinquent taxes.[444] A May 1874 Congressional investigation report exposed the Sanborn Incident, while Richardson was severely condemned.[445] When the House motioned Richardson's censure he resigned and Grant appointed him as a judge of the Court of Claims.[446] In June, Grant signed into law another Anti-Moiety Act, that abolished the system.[447] Grant replaced Richardson as Treasury Secretary with Benjamin Helm Bristow, a man known for his honesty, who began a series of reforms in the department, while tightening up its investigation force.[448] Bristow's anti-corruption house cleaning put him in the national spotlight as another scandal was discovered in 1875.[449] Under Bristow's direction, an investigation uncovered the notorious Whiskey Ring that involved collusion between distillers and Treasury officials to evade paying the Treasury millions in tax revenues.[450] Much of this money was being pocketed while some of it went into Republican coffers.[451] Bristow informed Grant of the ring in mid-April and on May 10, Bristow struck.[452] Federal marshals raided 32 installations nationwide and arrested 350 men; 176 indictments were obtained, leading to 110 convictions and $3,150,000 in fines returned to the Treasury.[453] "Uncle Sam" cartoon tapping a Louisville whiskey barrel, captioned "probe away" Harper's Weekly cartoon on Bristow's Whiskey Ring investigation Grant appointed David Dyer, under Bristow's recommendation, federal attorney to prosecute the Ring in St. Louis, who indicted Grant's old friend General John McDonald, supervisor of Internal Revenue.[454] Grant endorsed Bristow's investigation writing on a letter "Let no guilty man escape..."[455] Bristow's investigation discovered Babcock received kickback payments, and that Babcock had secretly forewarned McDonald, the ring's mastermind boss, of the coming investigation.[456] On November 22, the jury convicted McDonald.[457] On December 9, Babcock was indicted, however Grant refused to believe in Babcock's guilt, was ready to testify in Babcock's favor, but Fish warned that doing so would put Grant in the embarrassing position of testifying against a case prosecuted by his own administration.[458] Instead, Grant remained in Washington and on February 12, 1876, gave a deposition in Babcock's defense, expressing that his confidence in his secretary was "unshaken".[459] Grant's testimony silenced all but his strongest critics.[460] The jury acquitted Babcock, but there was enough evidence revealed that Grant reluctantly dismissed him from the White House, although Babcock kept his position of Superintendent of Public Buildings in Washington.[461][ap] The Interior Department under Secretary Columbus Delano, whom Grant appointed to replace Cox, was rife with fraud and corrupt agents and Delano was forced to resign. Surveyor General Silas Reed had set up corrupt contracts that benefited Delano's son, John Delano.[463] Grant's Secretary Interior Zachariah Chandler, who succeeded Delano in 1875, cleaned up corruption and reformed the department.[464] When Grant was informed by Postmaster Marshall Jewell of a potential Congressional investigation into an extortion scandal involving Attorney General George H. Williams' wife, Grant fired Williams and appointed Edwards Pierrepont in his place. Grant's new cabinet appointments temporarily appeased reformers.[465] When the Democrats took control of the House in 1875, they launched a series of investigations into corruption in federal departments.[466] Among the most damaging of the Indian Ring scandal involved Secretary of War William W. Belknap taking quarterly kickbacks from the Fort Sill tradership, which led to his resignation in February 1876.[467] Belknap was impeached by the House, but was acquitted by the Senate.[468] Grant's own brother Orvil set up "silent partnerships" and received kickbacks from four trading posts.[469] Congress discovered that Secretary of Navy Robeson had been bribed by a naval contractor, but no articles of impeachment were drawn up.[470] In November 1876, Grant apologized to the nation and admitted mistakes in his administration, saying, "[f]ailures have been errors of judgement, not of intent."[471] Election of 1876 Main article: United States presidential election, 1876 Even as Grant drew cheers at the opening of the Centennial Exposition in May 1876, the collected scandals of his presidency, the country's weak economy, and the Democratic gains in the House led many in the Republican party to repudiate him in June.[472] Bristow was among the leading candidates to replace him, suggesting that a large faction desired an end to "Grantism" and feared that Grant would run for a third term.[473] Ultimately, Grant declined to run, but Bristow also failed to capture the nomination, as the convention settled on Governor Rutherford B. Hayes of Ohio, a reformer.[474] The Democrats nominated Governor Samuel J. Tilden of New York. Voting irregularities in three Southern states caused the election that year to remain undecided for several months.[475] Grant told Congress to settle the matter through legislation and assured both sides that he would not use the army to force a result, except to curb violence. On January 29, 1877, he signed legislation forming an Electoral Commission to decide the matter.[476] The Commission ruled that the disputed votes belonged to Hayes; to forestall Democratic protests, Republicans agreed to the Compromise of 1877, in which the last troops were withdrawn from Southern capitals. The Republicans had won, but Reconstruction was over.[477] According to biographer Jean Edward Smith, "Grant's calm visage in the White House reassured the nation."[322] Post-presidency Main article: Post-presidency of Ulysses S. Grant World tour and diplomacy Main article: World tour of Ulysses S. Grant Grant and Bismarck in 1878 After leaving the White House, Grant and his family stayed with Fish in Washington for two months before setting out on a world tour that lasted approximately two and a half years.[478] Preparing for the tour, they arrived in Philadelphia on May 10, 1877, and were honored with celebrations during the week before their departure. On May 16, Grant and Julia left for England aboard the SS Indiana.[479] During the tour the Grants made stops in Europe, the Mediterranean, and points in the middle and Far East, meeting with notable dignitaries such as Queen Victoria, Pope Leo XIII, Otto von Bismarck, Emperor Meiji and others. Grant was the first U.S. President to visit Jerusalem and the Holy Land.[480] As a courtesy to Grant, his touring party was sometimes transported to their destinations by the U.S. Navy. During the tour, the Hayes administration encouraged Grant to assume a diplomatic role to unofficially represent the United States and strengthen American interests abroad, while resolving issues for some countries in the process.[481] Homesick, the Grants left Japan sailing on the SS City of Tokio escorted by a Japanese man-of-war, crossed the Pacific and landed in San Francisco on September 20, 1879, greeted by cheering crowds.[482] Before returning home to Philadelphia, Grant stopped at Chicago for a reunion with General Sherman and the Army of the Tennessee.[483] Grant's tour demonstrated to much of the world that the United States was an emerging world power.[484] Third term attempt Main article: 1880 Republican National Convention Grant, shown in a cartoon as an acrobat hanging from rings, holding up multiple politician/acrobats Cartoonist Joseph Keppler lampooned Grant and his associates. Puck 1880 Stalwarts, led by Grant's old political ally, Roscoe Conkling, saw Grant's renewed popularity as an opportunity to regain power, and sought to nominate him for the presidency in 1880. Opponents called it a violation of the unofficial two-term rule in use since George Washington. Grant said nothing publicly but wanted the job and encouraged his men.[485] Washburne urged him to run; Grant demurred, saying he would be happy for the Republicans to win with another candidate, though he preferred James G. Blaine to John Sherman. Even so, Conkling and John A. Logan began to organize delegates in Grant's favor. When the convention convened in Chicago in June, there were more delegates pledged to Grant than to any other candidate, but he was still short of a majority vote to get the nomination.[486] At the convention, Conkling nominated Grant with an elegant speech, the most famous line being: "When asked which state he hails from, our sole reply shall be, he hails from Appomattox and its famous apple tree."[486] With 370 votes needed for nomination, the first ballot had Grant at 304, Blaine at 284, Sherman at 93, and the rest to minor candidates.[487] Subsequent ballots followed, with roughly the same result; neither Grant nor Blaine could win. After thirty-six ballots, Blaine's delegates deserted him and combined with those of other candidates to nominate a compromise candidate: Representative James A. Garfield of Ohio.[488] A procedural motion made the vote unanimous for Garfield, who accepted the nomination.[489] Grant gave speeches for Garfield but declined to criticize the Democratic nominee, Winfield Scott Hancock, a general who had served under him in the Army of the Potomac.[490] Garfield won the election. Grant gave Garfield his public support and pushed him to include Stalwarts in his administration.[491] On July 2, 1881, Garfield was shot by an assassin and died on September 19. On learning of Garfield's death from a reporter, Grant wept bitterly.[492] Business reversals, speculation and confidence men When Grant had returned to America from his costly world tour, he had depleted most of his savings and needed to earn money and find a new home.[493] Wealthy friends bought him a home on Manhattan's Upper East Side, and to make an income, Grant, Jay Gould, and former Mexican Finance Secretary Matías Romero chartered the Mexican Southern Railroad, with plans to build a railroad from Oaxaca to Mexico City. Grant urged Chester A. Arthur, who had succeeded Garfield as president in 1881, to negotiate a free trade treaty with Mexico. Arthur and the Mexican government agreed, but the United States Senate rejected the treaty in 1883. The railroad was similarly unsuccessful, falling into bankruptcy the following year.[494] At the same time, Grant's son Ulysses Jr. had opened a Wall Street brokerage house with Ferdinand Ward, a confidence man who swindled numerous wealthy men; Ward was regarded as a rising star and the firm, Grant & Ward, was initially successful.[495] In 1883, Grant joined the firm and invested $100,000 of his own money.[496] Grant, however, warned Ward that if his firm engaged in government business he would dissolve their partnership.[497] To encourage investment, Ward paid investors abnormally high interest, by pledging the company's securities on multiple loans in a process called rehypothecation.[498] Ward, in collusion with banker James D. Fish, kept secret from bank examiners, retrieved the firm's securities from the company's bank vault.[499] When the trades went bad, multiple loans came due, all backed up by the same collateral. Historians agree that Grant was likely unaware of Ward's intentions, but it is unclear how much Buck Grant knew. In May 1884, enough investments went bad to convince Ward that the firm would soon be bankrupt. Ward, who assumed Grant was "a child in business matters,"[500] told him of the impending failure, but assured Grant that this was a temporary shortfall.[501] Grant approached businessman William Henry Vanderbilt, who gave him a personal loan of $150,000.[502] Grant invested the money in the firm, but it was not enough to save it from failure. Essentially penniless, but compelled by a sense of personal honor, he repaid what he could with his Civil War mementos and the sale or transfer of all other assets.[503] Vanderbilt took title to Grant's home, although he allowed the Grants to continue to reside there, and pledged to donate the souvenirs to the federal government and insisted the debt had been paid in full.[504] Grant was distraught over Ward's deception and asked privately how he could ever "trust any human being again."[505] In March 1885, as his health was failing, he testified against both Ward and Fish.[506] Ward was convicted of fraud in October 1885, months after Grant's death, and served six and a half years in prison.[507] After the collapse of Grant and Ward, there was an outpouring of sympathy for Grant.[508] Memoirs, pension, and death Grant sitting in a porch chair wrapped in blankets Grant working on his memoirs in June 1885, less than a month before his death Drawing of a steam engine and train approaching station with an honor guard at attention Grant's funeral train at West Point, bound for New York City Throughout his career, Grant repeatedly told highly detailed stories of his military experiences, often making slight mistakes in terms of dates and locations. As a poor hardscrabble farmer in St. Louis just before the war, he kept his neighbors spellbound till midnight "listening intently to his vivid narrations of Army experiences."[509] In calm moments during the Civil War, he often spoke of his recent experiences, typically "in terse and often eloquent language."[510] Grant's interpretations changed over time – in his letters written during the Mexican War period, there is no criticism of the war. By contrast his Memoirs are highly critical of the political aspects, condemning the war as unwarranted aggression by the United States. Grant told and retold his war stories so many times that writing his Memoirs was more a matter of repetition and polish rather than trying to recall his memories for the first time.[511] To restore his family's income and reputation, Grant wrote several articles on his Civil War campaigns for The Century Magazine at $500 (equivalent to $14,000 in 2018) each. The articles were well received by critics, and the editor, Robert Underwood Johnson, suggested that Grant write a book of memoirs, as Sherman and others had done. Grant's articles would serve as the basis for several chapters.[512] In the summer of 1884, Grant complained of a sore throat but put off seeing a doctor until late October, when he learned it was cancer, possibly caused by his frequent cigar smoking.[513][aq] Grant chose not to reveal the seriousness of his condition to his wife, who soon found out from Grant's doctor.[515] Before being diagnosed, Grant was invited to a Methodist service for Civil War veterans in Ocean Grove, New Jersey, on August 4, 1884, receiving a standing ovation from more than ten thousand veterans and others; it would be his last public appearance.[516] In March of the following year, The New York Times announced that Grant was dying of cancer, and a nationwide public concern for the former president began.[517] Knowing of Grant and Julia's financial difficulties, Congress sought to honor him and restored him to the rank of General of the Army with full retirement pay (Grant's assumption of the presidency in 1869 had required that he resign his commission and forfeit his pension).[518] Grant was nearly broke and worried constantly about leaving his wife a suitable amount of money to live on. Century magazine offered Grant a book contract with a 10 percent royalty, but Grant's friend Mark Twain, understanding how bad Grant's financial condition was, made him an offer for his memoirs which paid an unheard-of 75 percent royalty.[519] To provide for his family, Grant worked intensely on his memoirs at his home in New York City. His former staff member Adam Badeau assisted him with much of the research, while his son Frederick located documents and did much of the fact-checking.[520] Because of the summer heat and humidity, his doctors recommended that he move upstate to a cottage at the top of Mount McGregor, offered by a family friend.[521] Grant finished his memoir and died only a few days later.[522] Grant's memoirs treat his early life and time in the Mexican–American War briefly and are inclusive of his life up to the end of the Civil War.[523] The Personal Memoirs of Ulysses S. Grant was a critical and commercial success. Julia Grant received about $450,000 in royalties (equivalent to $12,500,000 in 2018).[519] Grant's successful autobiography pioneered a method for ex-presidents and veterans to earn money.[524] The memoir has been highly regarded by the public, military historians, and literary critics.[525] Grant portrayed himself in the persona of the honorable Western hero, whose strength lies in his honesty and straightforwardness. He candidly depicted his battles against both the Confederates and internal army foes.[526] Twain called the Memoirs a "literary masterpiece." Given over a century of favorable literary analysis, reviewer Mark Perry states that the Memoirs are "the most significant work" of American non-fiction.[527] After a year-long struggle with throat cancer, surrounded by his family, Grant died at 8 o'clock in the morning in the Mount McGregor cottage on July 23, 1885, at the age of 63.[528] Sheridan, then Commanding General of the Army, ordered a day-long tribute to Grant on all military posts, and President Grover Cleveland ordered a thirty-day nationwide period of mourning. After private services, the honor guard placed Grant's body on a special funeral train, which traveled to West Point and New York City. A quarter of a million people viewed it in the two days before the funeral. Tens of thousands of men, many of them veterans from the Grand Army of the Republic, marched with Grant's casket drawn by two dozen black stallions[529] to Riverside Park in the Morningside Heights neighborhood of Upper Manhattan. His pallbearers included Union generals Sherman and Sheridan, Confederate generals Simon Bolivar Buckner and Joseph E. Johnston, Admiral David Dixon Porter, and Senator John A. Logan, the head of the GAR.[530] Following the casket in the seven-mile-long (11 km) procession were President Cleveland, the two living former presidents Hayes and Arthur, all of the President's Cabinet, as well as the justices of the Supreme Court.[531] Attendance at the New York funeral topped 1.5 million.[530] Ceremonies were held in other major cities around the country, while Grant was eulogized in the press and likened to George Washington and Abraham Lincoln.[532] Grant's body was laid to rest in Riverside Park, first in a temporary tomb, and then—twelve years later, on April 17, 1897—in the General Grant National Memorial, also known as "Grant's Tomb", the largest mausoleum in North America.[530] Historical reputation Further information: Historical reputation of Ulysses S. Grant and Historical rankings of presidents of the United States Commanding General Grant Constant Mayer's portrait of 1866 Many historians and biographers have been intrigued and challenged by contradictions in Grant's life, and few presidential reputations have shifted as dramatically as his.[533] At his death, Grant was seen as "a symbol of the American national identity and memory".[534] Soon afterward, Grant's reputation fell as post-war efforts in late-19th-century national reconciliation took hold among whites.[533] Later accounts portrayed his administration as deeply corrupt; as the popularity of the pro-Confederate Lost Cause theory and the Dunning School movement grew early in the 20th century, a more negative view of Grant became common.[535] In 1917, historian Louis Arthur Coolidge bucked the trend of negativity and said Grant's "success as President" was "hardly less significant than his success at war."[536] In 1931, historians Paxson and Bach noted that Grant's presidency "had some achievements, after all."[537] In 1934, historian Robert R. McCormick said Grant's military triumphs were neglected due in part to the "malicious and deliberate design" of Lost Cause veterans and writers.[538] In the 1950s, historians Bruce Catton and T. Harry Williams began a reassessment of Grant's military career, shifting the analysis of Grant as victor by brute force to that of successful, skillful, modern strategist and commander.[539] Historian Jonathan D. Sarna said Grant's 1862 General Order No. 11 was "the most notorious anti-Jewish official order in American history."[540] William S. McFeely won the Pulitzer Prize for his critical 1981 biography that credited Grant's initial presidential efforts on civil rights, but lamented his failure to carry out lasting progress.[541] However, historians debate how effective Grant was at halting corruption.[542] In the 21st century, Grant's reputation among historians has improved markedly.[543] Opinions of Grant's presidency demonstrate a better appreciation of Grant's personal integrity, Reconstruction efforts, and peace policy towards Indians, even when they fell short.[534][544] In 2016, Ronald C. White continued this trend with a biography that historian T. J. Stiles said, "solidifies the positive image amassed in recent decades, blotting out the caricature of a military butcher and political incompetent, promoted by Lost Cause and Jim Crow era historians."[545][ar] Like White's book, Ron Chernow's 2017 biography (Grant) continued the elevation of Grant's historical reputation.[547] In a review of Chernow's book, former U.S. President Bill Clinton offered praise for "Grant's significant achievements at the end of the war and after."[548] While historian Charles W. Calhoun noted Grant's presidential successes, and his steps to modernize the presidency, he questioned whether Grant's revived reputation among scholars has been found in the "popular consciousness."[549] The scandals of the Grant administration were used to stigmatize his political reputation.[550] Memorials and presidential library See also: Ulysses S. Grant cultural depictions The monument to U.S. Grant at the national military park in Vicksburg, MS, unveiled in 1919. Neoclassical structure with dome Grant National Memorial, known as "Grant's Tomb", largest mausoleum in North America Several memorials honor Grant. In addition to his mausoleum – Grant's Tomb in New York City – there is the Ulysses S. Grant Memorial at the foot of Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C.[551] Created by sculptor Henry Merwin Shrady and architect Edward Pearce Casey, and dedicated in 1922, it overlooks the Capitol Reflecting Pool.[552] In 2015, restoration work began, which is expected to be completed before the bicentennial of Grant's birth in 2022.[553] The Ulysses S. Grant National Historic Site near St. Louis, and several other sites in Ohio and Illinois memorialize Grant's life.[554] The U.S. Grant Cottage State Historic Site in Moreau, New York, preserves the house in which he completed his memoirs and died.[555][556] There are smaller memorials in Chicago's Lincoln Park and Philadelphia's Fairmount Park. Named in his honor are Grant Park, as well as several counties in western and midwestern states. On June 3, 1891, a bronze statue of Grant by Danish sculptor Johannes Gelert was dedicated at Grant Park in Galena, Illinois.[557][558] From 1890 to 1940, part of what is now Kings Canyon National Park was called General Grant National Park, named for the General Grant sequoia.[559] In May 2012, the Ulysses S. Grant Foundation, on the institute's fiftieth anniversary, selected Mississippi State University as the permanent location for Ulysses S. Grant's presidential library.[560][561] Historian John Y. Simon edited Grant's letters into a 32-volume scholarly edition published by Southern Illinois University Press.[562] Grant's image has appeared on the front of the United States fifty-dollar bill since 1913. In 1921, the Ulysses S. Grant Centenary Association was founded with the goal of coordinating special observances and erecting monuments in recognition of Grant's historical role. The venture was financed by the minting of 10,000 gold dollars (depicted below) and 250,000 half dollars. The coins were minted and issued in 1922, commemorating the 100th anniversary of Grant's birth.[563][564] Grant has also appeared on several U.S. postage stamps, the first one issued in 1890, five years after his death.[565] Paper currency, double image of obverse (with Grants image) and reverse (with Capitol building image) Grant has appeared on the United States fifty-dollar bill since 1913. Image of Grant on the One dollar gold piece, depicting date of mintage, 1922 Grant on the one-dollar gold piece, issued on the 100th anniversary of his birth. See also: Grant half-dollar. Image of first Grant U.S. postage stamp, issued in 1890, brown, five cents. The first U.S. postage stamp honoring Grant, issued 1890 Ulysses S. Grant honored on currency and postage See also Ulysses S. Grant portal Gallery of images of Ulysses S. Grant List of American Civil War battles List of American Civil War generals (Union) Grant's Farm Nearby towns in Monroe County : CityRochester (county seat)TownsBrightonChiliClarksonEast RochesterGatesGreeceHamlinHenriettaIrondequoitMendonOgdenParmaPenfieldPerintonPittsfordRigaRushSwedenWebsterWheatlandVillagesVillages in New York State are incorporated municipalities located within Towns. The town in which each village is located is noted in parenthesis. Brockport (Sweden)Churchville (Riga)East Rochester (Coterminous village and town)Fairport (Perinton)Hilton (Parma)Honeoye Falls (Mendon)Pittsford (Pittsford)Scottsville (Wheatland)Spencerport (Ogden)Webster (Webster)Census-designated placesBrightonClarksonGatesGreeceHamlinIrondequoitNorth GatesHamletsIn New York State the term "Hamlet", although not defined in law, is used to describe an unincorporated community and geographic location within a town. The town in which each Hamlet is located is in parenthesis. Genesee Junction (Chili)Egypt (Perinton)Adams Basin (Ogden)Bushnell's Basin (Perinton)Gates Center (Gates)Garbutt (Scottsville)Mumford (Wheatland)Union Hill (Webster)Mendon Center (Mendon)Seabreeze (Irondequoit)Summerville (Irondequoit)Parma Center (Parma)Riga Center (Riga)Sweden Center (Sweden)West Webster (Webster)North Chili (Chili)Clarkson Corners (Clarkson)Gates Center (Gates)North Gates (Gates)Clifton (Chili)Industry (Rush)Belcoda (Wheatland)Coldwater (Gates)Barnard (Greece)Beattie Beach (Greece)Braddock Bay (Greece)Braddock Heights (Greece)Elmgrove (Greece)Grandview Heights (Greece)Grand View Beach (Greece)North Greece (Greece)Ridgemont (Greece)West Greece (Greece) Condition: Used, Condition: Very good. See description for details., Modified Item: No, Country/Region of Manufacture: United States, Material: Paper

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