Seller: cameleoncoins (16,807) 99%, Location: Winnetka, California, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 292354832870 Rare genuine ancient Roman bronze Fibula Brooch artifact Superb olive-green patina. Remains of earthen encrustation. Authenticity guaranteed. Item is in good condition and a Very Rare Inclusion to the very finest Antiquity Collection. Normal 0 Repaired pin!! As pictured. A fibula is a brooch or pin for fastening garments. The fibula developed in a variety of shapes, but all were based on the safety-pin principle. Technically, the Latin term, fibulae, refers to Roman brooches; however, the term is widely used to refer to brooches from the entire ancient and early medieval world that continue Roman forms. Nevertheless, its use in English is more restricted than in other languages, and in particular post-Roman brooches from the British Isles are just called brooches (for example, the penannular brooches), where in German they would probably be fibulae. Unlike most modern brooches, fibulae were not only decorative; they originally served a practical function: to fasten clothing, such as cloaks. Fibulae replaced straight pins that were used to fasten clothing in the Neolithic period and the Bronze Age. In turn, fibulae were replaced as clothing fasteners by buttons in the Middle Ages. Their descendant, the modern safety pin, remains in use today. In ancient Rome and other places where Latin was used, the same word denoted both a brooch and the fibula bone because a popular form for brooches and the shape of the bone were thought to resemble one another. There are hundreds of different types of fibulae. They are usually divided into families that are based upon historical periods, geography, and/or cultures. Fibulae are also divided into classes that are based upon their general forms. Lost fibulae, usually fragments, are frequently dug up by amateur coin and relic hunters using metal detectors. The Iron Age saw an expansion in the use of fibulae. The rounded bow fibula underwent several variations and were usually highly decorated with incised or moulded geometric designs. In one variation, the foot of the fibula that had previously terminated at the end of the arch with a simple catch plate, lengthened significantly. These extended foot fibulae, such as the Kahn type and the Pauken type, were found in the 7th to 5th centuries BC. The first long, bilateral springs appeared on some of these variants in the Hallstatt D2 era (5th century BC). These fibulae, such as the Doublezier type, looked similar to the Roman-era crossbow fibulae but were not the latter’s direct precursor. In another variation of the rounded bow fibula, the bow became fat and swollen-looking. In many of these Leech Bow, or Sanguisaga, fibulae the catch plate became large and triangular. Another variant, the Certossa type, had a small square or ribbon cross-section bow and a short bilateral spring (possibly the first use of a bilateral spring). Certossa fibulae are almost always very small. In the La Tene I, or La Tene A to B2, era (4th to 3rd centuries BC), fibula design became relatively standardised over a large geographic area, although minor stylistic variations and differences in decoration remained. The La Tene I fibula usually had a narrow bow. The spring that could be either unilateral or bilateral, was wound in a fairly large diameter circle. The foot was turned up and usually ended in a decorated knob or with an applied bead or stone. In some cases the raised foot was bent back towards the bow, although it did not touch the bow. The Thraco-Getic fibula is a variant found in the eastern Balkans and used by the Getae. The fibula's foot is vertical and ends in a small knob, though later models had a sinuous, s-shaped profile. The La Tene I era also saw the introduction of the first animal, or zoomorphic, designs. These included birds and horses and could either be flat, with a short bilateral spring on the back, or three-dimensional ("in the round") with a long bilateral spring at the head. In the La Tene II, or La Tene C era (2nd century BC), the foot of the fibula actually bent back to touch the bow and was wrapped around it. Many La Tene II fibulae had long bilateral springs. It is important to be aware that this type of construction was in use several centuries later in the tied-foot and returned-foot types of fibulae. These latter types are sometimes known as pseudo-La Tene fibulae. In the La Tene III, or La Tene D era (1st century BC), the raised foot was no longer wrapped around the bow but was attached directly to it by casting or welding creating a loop above the foot. In one variant, the Nauheim type, the bow widened into a flat triangle or diamond. In another variant, the Schussel type, the ribbon-like bow widened at the head into a rounded arrowhead shape that covered the spring Please make your payments on time. Payment methods for USA buyers:< PAYPALPayment methods for International buyers - including Canada: PAYPAL. contact us for more info. Payments must be received within 7 days from the end of auction (14 days for international). Please be sure to include item # & address with your payment. IF REQUESTING A CERTIFICATE PLEASE DO SO AT THE TIME OF PAYMENT. Pay me securely with any major credit card through PayPal! Items will be shipped within 1 to 3 business days of purchase completion. FREE DOMESTIC FIRST CLASS MAIL. INTERNATIONAL $7 (REGISTERED-$21.00) WE COMBINE SHIPPING. ($1 for each additional item) If you would like to have special shipping, please contact us. All items will be sent out in protected envelope and boxed if necessary. YOU ARE BIDDING ON AN ANCIENT ITEM(S) AS DESCRIBED AND PICTURED ABOVE!!! Every item offered by cameleoncoins is unconditionally guaranteed to be genuine & authentic. We can provide a certificate of authenticity or extended return policy by request only!!! Please include 5 dollars and a short request with your payment if you would like a COA!!! If in the unlikely event that an item is found to be reproduction, full return privileges are within 14 days of receiving the coins. We will promptly offer a full refund without hesitation or hassle. Do You Love Ancients? Curious to Know More? The ACM! Learn About the Hobby, Join Our Free Email List! Please read the auction page prior to contacting US. Froo www.froo.com | Froo Cross Sell, Free Cross Sell, Cross promote, eBay Marketing, eBay listing Apps, eBay Apps, eBay Application Condition: Original ancient!! Repaired pin.