Roman Britainnia Province Lost Emperor Carausius Coins AD286 Frome Hoard RareOOP

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Seller: ancientgifts ✉️ (5,288) 100%, Location: Lummi Island, Washington, US, Ships to: WORLDWIDE, Item: 124229976757 Roman Britainnia Province Lost Emperor Carausius Coins AD286 Frome Hoard RareOOP. The Frome Hoard by Sam Moorhead, Anna Booth, and Roger Bland. NOTE: We have 75,000 books in our library, almost 10,000 different titles. Odds are we have other copies of this same title in varying conditions, some less expensive, some better condition. We might also have different editions as well (some paperback, some hardcover, oftentimes international editions). If you don’t see what you want, please contact us and ask. We’re happy to send you a summary of the differing conditions and prices we may have for the same title. WE DO HAVE NEW COPIES OF THIS TITLE LISTED ELSEWHERE ON OUR STORE!DESCRIPTION: Softcover. Publisher: British Museum (2010). Pages: 48. Size: 7½ x 7¼ inches, ½ pound. Summary: On 9 April 2010, Dave Crisp found 21 coins while metal detecting on farmland near Frome. Two days later, he returned to the site and discovered a huge pot filled with more coins. Archaeologists believe the hoard will rewrite the history books. One of the most important aspects of the hoard is that it contains a large group of coins of Carausius, who ruled Britain independently from AD 286 to AD 293 and who was the first Roman emperor ever to strike coins in Britain. The hoard contains more than 760 of his coins, making it the largest group ever found. Among these coins are five rare examples of his silver denarii, the only coins of their type being struck anywhere in the Roman Empire at the time. This accessible book is written by experts from the British Museum and the Portable Antiquities Scheme. Packed with photography of the coins as well as images of the hoard in situ, this book will shed new light on 3rd-century Roman Britain. "This find presents us with an opportunity to put Carausius on the map. School children across the country have been studying Roman Britain for decades, but are never taught about Carausius - our lost British emperor." CONDITION: VERY GOOD. Seemingly unread (but blemished) oversized softcover. British Museum (2010) 48 pages. Inside the book is pristine; the pages are clean, crisp, unmarked, unmutilated, tightly bound, and with no signs the book has been read. From the outside the book is likewise unblemished in every respect EXCEPT that there is a very prominent crease in the back cover which runs from top to bottom. If you hold the book up to the light you can also see a few faint subsidiary creases to the back cover. Looks like it got caught pretty badly between two books as someone was reshelving it, and the back cover got bent backwards to a significant degree. Inside the book is entirely unaffected. We're really nitpicking of course, but we do believe in full disclosure. Condition is entirely consistent with new stock from an open-shelf bookstore environment (such as Barnes & Noble, or B. Dalton, for example) wherein new books might show signs of shelfwear/shopwear/cosmetic blemishes consequence of the ordeal of being handled and repeatedly shelved and re-shelved. Satisfaction unconditionally guaranteed. In stock, ready to ship. No disappointments, no excuses. PROMPT SHIPPING! HEAVILY PADDED, DAMAGE-FREE PACKAGING! Meticulous and accurate descriptions! Selling rare and out-of-print ancient history books on-line since 1997. We accept returns for any reason within 14 days! #8873e. PLEASE SEE DESCRIPTIONS AND IMAGES BELOW FOR DETAILED REVIEWS AND FOR PAGES OF PICTURES FROM INSIDE OF BOOK. PLEASE SEE PUBLISHER, PROFESSIONAL, AND READER REVIEWS BELOW. PUBLISHER REVIEWS: REVIEW: On 9 April Dave Crisp found 21 coins while metal detecting on farmland near Frome. Two days later her returned to the site (the precise location and identity of the landowner are being kept secret), and discovered a huge pot filled with more coins. “I knew the find was important and I needed archaeological help, so I contacted my local Finds Officer. I have made many finds over the years, but this is my first coin hoard.” (Dave Crisp) Archaeologists believe the hoard will rewrite the history books. One of the most important aspects of the hoard is that it contains a large group of coins of Carausius, who ruled Britain independently from AD286 to AD293, and was the first Roman emperor ever to strike coins in Britain.The hoard contains more than 760 of his coins, making it the largest group of his coins ever found. Among these coins are five rare examples of his silver denarii, the only coins of their type being struck anywhere in the Roman Empire at the time. The late third century AD was a time when Britain suffered barbarian invasions, economic crises and civil wars. Roman rule was finally stabilized when the emperor Diocletian formed a coalition with the Emperor Maximian, which lasted 20 years. This defeated the breakaway regime which Carausius had established in Britain. “This find presents us with an opportunity to put Carausius on the map. School children across the country have been studying Roman Britain for decades, but are never taught about Carausius – our lost British emperor.” REVIEW: Sam Moorhead is National Finds Adviser for Iron Age and Roman coins in the department of Portable Antiquities and Treasure at the British Museum. Anna Booth is Somerset County Council's Finds Liaison Officer, and worked on the excavation of the hoard. Roger Bland is Head of Portable Antiquities and Treasure at the British Museum. He is the co-author of “The Staffordshire Hoard” (British Museum Press). REVIEW: TABLE OF CONTENTS: 1 Discovery and Excavation. 2 Conservation and Study. 3 Circumstances of the Burial. 4 Content of the Hoard. 5 Carausius. 6 Other Coin Hoards in Britain. 7 The Siliqua Hoard. 8 The Wider Area. 9 What Happens Next? Timeline.REVIEW: In April 2010, Dave Crisp started to find some late Roman silver coins scattered across a field near Frome. The 62 coins he eventually found represent a scattered hoard, probably from the same find as 111 similar coins found on the farm in 1867. However, in a continuing pursuit of these coins he had an unusual signal on his metal detector. He dug down 18 inches to find some pottery and coins; he realized that this was the top of a coin hoard so he stopped and filled the hole in. This was incredibly responsible behavior that cannot be praised enough.Dave immediately contacted his Finds Liaison Officer in Wiltshire, Katie Hinds, who then contacted her opposite number in Somerset, Anna Booth. Somerset County Heritage Service quickly organized for a local archaeologist, Alan Graham, to lead on the excavation of the hoard. Between April 23rd and 25th, Alan, the FLOs, Dave Crisp and members of the landowner’s family excavated the hoard. I first heard about the hoard during the excavation, when Katie Hinds informed me that the pot was about 25 inches in diameter – it was then that we realised that this hoard was comparable with the Cunetio hoard of 54,951 coins (found in Wiltshire in 1978).There was a major debate over the phone on how to remove the hoard. The pot was already broken and it would have been extremely expensive and time-consuming to extract the hoard intact. Instead, Alan had the pot excavated in layers, enabling us to reconstruct the spatial composition of the hoard – 66 labelled bags of coins were collected. On April 26th, Roger and I drove down to collect the coins. There was certainly a tear in the eyes of the Somerset team as they watched my car leave. We still had no idea how large the hoard was, but when we reached the British Museum I realized how down on the rear axle my car was. Next morning we weighed the coins – there was about 160kg of metal, the weight of two average-sized people!It was quickly decided that the coins should be washed and dried so as to stabilise them. This work was carried out by the Dept of Conservation under the direction of Metals Conservator Pippa Pearce – she completed the task in six weeks, surely a record. However, the coins will still need full conservation, for which we are raising extra funds. As the coins came from Pippa, Roger and I started to sort each bag, creating an overall listing by emperor. This took us just over two months. The listing is as follows.The coins range from circa 253AD to 293AD, and except for five silver coins are all base-silver or bronze ‘radiate’ coins. There were struck at a time of high inflation when the empire was being torn apart by barbarian invasions and civil wars. Over 760 of the coins belong to the emperor Carausius, a general in the Roman army who usurped against the Central Empire – he set up his own empire in northern Gaul and Britain, striking coins at Rouen, London and an unidentified mint we call ‘C Mint’. This group of coins represents the largest ever known group of Carausian coins found anywhere. Amongst them are five of the finest silver denarii ever seen and other rare coins; I eagerly await seeing all of his coins after conservation. What is certain is that the hoard will shed new light on Britain’s ‘forgotten emperor’.Because the coins were excavated by layer, we know that most of the latest coins (those of Carausius) were positioned over half-way down the pot. This tells us that the hoard was almost certainly buried in one event. The pot could not have held 160kg of metal without breaking, so it had to be buried in the ground before the coins were tipped in from smaller containers. The top of the pot was sealed with a small pottery dish before the whole hoard was buried. To recover the coins would have been a lengthy and difficult process. These factors lead us to suggest that the hoard represents a ritual deposit to the gods, possibly to help the local farming community. The hoard was buried on the edge of a ridge and it is probable that the ground was waterlogged in antiquity – both factors consistent with religious sites in ancient Britain.The hoard was declared ‘Treasure’ at a Coroner’s Inquest in From on July 22nd. News of the hoard was published in the press and broadcast worldwide on radio and TV. Dan Pett produced a micro-site for the hoard on the Portable Antiquities Scheme website ( and this has been the source for numerous other web articles. An event in Frome Library on July 22nd attracted over 2,000 people and two schools; further events are planned for the autumn.In July, Anna Booth, Roger and I started to write a book on the hoard which is being published on September 30th by the British Museum Press with wonderful support from Butler Tanner and Dennis in Frome. Proceeds from the book will go towards funding conservation of the hoard, and acquisition by Somerset County Heritage Service for display their new museum in Taunton. Roger and I are meanwhile preparing to use the Frome Hoard as a core element for a major British Museum research project on Roman coin hoarding, work which will continue for several years to come. It is a real privilege to be involved in work with such a major discovery, a find which will undoubtedly provide much new information about Roman coins and Roman Britain. [British Museum Online]. REVIEW: [Sam Moorhead, Finds Adviser, Portable Antiquities Scheme, British Museum 21 May 2017].When working with the Portable Antiquities Scheme (PAS), the concept of a ‘forward job plan’ is somewhat laughable – your work patterns are largely dictated by finds made by detectorists. Some discoveries can completely change your career as the Frome Hoard did for me when it was found by Dave Crisp in April 2010. Dave had dug down a foot into the ground when he started to pull out pottery and coins from the clay soil. When he realised that he had found a coin hoard, he made one of the most important decisions of his life – he filled the hole in, walked away, and contacted his local PAS Finds Liaison Officer for Wiltshire, Katie Hinds. Katie contacted her opposite number in Somerset, Anna Booth, and a professional excavation of the site took place under the direction of local archaeologist Alan Graham.I first heard about the hoard when Katie rang me up in London. When she gave me the diameter of the pot (45cm) I immediately knew that we had a ‘monster’ hoard of tens of thousands of coins. We agreed that the pot should be excavated in layers – this took two days and resulted in 60 separate bags from specific parts of the pot. Roger Bland (then Head of the PAS) and I collected the coins the day afterwards and drove them back to the British Museum where they were immediately entrusted to Pippa Pearce, Senior Metals Conservator, who gave them all a ‘wash and dry’ to stabilise them. We quickly ascertained that the coins weighed 160kg, and six weeks later Pippa pronounced a total of 52,503, making the find the second largest Roman hoard in Britain. Roger and I, with assistance from colleagues, then took twelve weeks to sort the coins by emperors. The coins spanned from c. AD 250 to 290 and covered about 30 rulers, terminating with Carausius, a renegade emperor who ruled in Britain from 286 to 293.At the same time we were working with Steve Minnitt at the Museum of Somerset in Taunton to plan a campaign for his museum to acquire the coins. With the BBC we mounted a major publicity campaign, numerous media outlets subsequently covering the story, we put on a display of some of the coins in the British Museum, we were filmed for TV series "Digging for Britain", we wrote a short introductory book (in ten days flat) and started to negotiate with the Art Fund in Somerset. After numerous events in Frome and elsewhere, £320,000 was raised to acquire the hoard, the Headley Trust and National Heritage Memorial Fund (NHMF) and the Art Fund making enormous contributions. Dave Crisp and the landowner, following the statutory requirements of the Treasure Act, shared the money.We also received £105,000 from the NHMF for conservation, and for the next four years Pippa and her team worked their way through over 30,000 coins – a legacy of the Frome Hoard in the Conservation Department is ‘Coin Wednesday’ when all metal conservators work on Roman coin hoards (of which we now receive over 50 a year). A wide range of numismatists have helped to catalogue the hoard, notably Richard Abdy, Eleanor Ghey, Vincent Drost, Andrew Brown and Fernando Lopez-Sanchez, and we are now down to a few thousand coins of Claudius II.I have catalogued, with the assistance of Graham Barker, the 850 plus coins of Carausius which contain a host of new types and varieties – fortuitous because I had just been tasked to write a new edition of the Roman Imperial Coinage for Carausius and his successor Allectus. The Frome coins also suggest to me that enigmatic coins of Carausius marked with a ‘C’ were struck at his court, wherever it happened to be – the location of this mint has exercised scholars since the days of antiquarian and archaeology pioneer William Stukeley (1687–1765).The hoard was buried on high ground which could be quite boggy after rain, suggesting a spring in the vicinity. This led me to believe from the outset that this hoard was probably a ritual deposit rather than a cache buried for recovery. When we discovered that the latest coins in the hoard were in fact halfway down the pot, it was clear that the pot was placed in the ground and then filled from a selection of smaller containers – I had visions of a local community making a communal offering. A reconstruction painting by Victor Ambrus, of Time Team fame, showed the possible scenario. However, my suggestions led to a number of quite aggressive emails from across the globe which did not subscribe to my ritual theory.Because of the debate generated about the reason for the burial of the hoard, Roger Bland and I thought that a deeper study of Romano-British coin hoards might attract research funding. Partnering with Professors Colin Haselgrove and David Mattingly at Leicester University we were able to secure funding for a three-year project from the Arts and Humanities Research Council. The monograph for this project is in preparation, but I can tell you that the Frome Hoard was indeed buried by an ancient watercourse. Furthermore, it does seem that a number of other hoards were buried for ritual reasons. The project has resulted in all Iron Age and Roman coin hoards ever found in Britain being entered on the PAS database and these records will soon be made available to the public.Dave Crisp’s decision to leave the hoard in the ground has had an enormous impact on other metal detectorists’ practices. Several coin hoards have been excavated professionally since 2010 and many have been retained in their pot for us to excavate at the British Museum. It will be probably the most important legacy of Dave’s discovery and one for which he deserves enormous credit. Finally, the hoard was the catalyst for a schools’ activity run from the Samsung Digital Discovery Centre. Children are able to take the roles of finders, curators, marketing staff and other people involved in the Frome Hoard story, and it has proven very popular.The Frome Hoard has had an enormous impact on the life of Dave Crisp, but also on the lives of archaeologists, curators, university academics, conservators, schoolchildren and the general public. We hope that many of these experiences can be encapsulated in the final publication which we will start to work on when the cataloguing is finally completed. PROFESSIONAL REVIEWS: REVIEW: I have the privilege of reviewing this short but delightfully informative book, The Frome Hoard. The Frome coin hoard was found by detectorist Dave Crisp in a field near Frome in Somerset, England in April 2010. Two days before finding the Frome Hoard, Crisp had discovered some scattered fourth century silver coins (silaquae) in the same field. Returning to the field two days later, Crisp received an unusual signal on his metal detector only 100 meters from the site of the earlier scattered hoard and he began digging. He got down to about 35 cm (14 in) when he found some pottery pieces and some coins. Realizing that this was probably a different intact coin hoard, he immediately covered the site and contacted the authorities.This spectacular find, known as the Frome Hoard, has been the subject of great interest and research. The Frome Hoard is currently located at the British museum, London. Plans are in the works for the hoard to be on display at the new Museum of Somerset. The book, The Frome Hoard, has been published by the British Museum Press and was written by three authors. This book is a short (48 pages), inexpensive, but well-illustrated paperback. The book was originally written as part of the appeal towards purchase of the horde but with additional 50 [pence] from the sale of every book" going towards ongoing conservation and study of the horde.After reading this book, one learns that the Frome Hoard is notable for several things. First, it was extremely large, consisting of 52,503 coins found in a single large ceramic jar 60 cm (24 in) tall and 45 cm (18 in) in diameter. The coins weighed around 160 kg (more than 350 lbs). This is the second largest hoard ever found in Great Britain. Second, it consisted of at least 766 rare coins from Carausius (ruled AD 286-293), a poorly documented usurper of the late third century. (Only 44,245 of the coins (84%) have been identified so far.) These coins span 40 years (AD 253-293), potentially giving researchers a unique perspective of life in Britain in late third century Rome. Interestingly, more than 50% of the coins were from the earlier Romano-Gallic Empire (AD 260-274), including coins from Postumus, Victorinus, Tetricus I, and Tetricus II.No coin of Carausius's assassin and successor, Allectus, was found. This possibly dates the hoard to before AD 293. Third, Dave Crisp quickly contacted authorities after he found the hoard, allowing for a more comprehensive archaeological assessment of the site. The coins were systematically removed in layers. A large group of Carausius coins were found in a middle layer, for example. This gives some suggestion of how the coins were placed in the jar. Because the hoard was undisturbed before careful excavation, it was determined that the pot had been buried with some sort of plant material on the sides. This sort of analysis could only have been done since the hoard had been undisturbed since burial and was later carefully examined by professionals. Thanks to Crisp, archaeologists have a better opportunity to analyze the evidence from an intact hoard.The size of the pottery jar and the orderly placement of coins in the jar have led researchers to some interesting theories. The book states, We suggest that it was most likely that the person or persons who buried this hoard put it in the ground without intending to come back and recover it. The hoard was found in an important agricultural area and is possible that it was a sacrifice made to bring a good harvest, a successful breeding season or even clement weather.According to the book, ritual burial and deposition of metal was common in the Bronze and Iron Age, prior to the Roman presence in Britain. The book suggests that this trend may have continued into the Roman period. The book states that Britain has more coin hoards in proportion to its area than anywhere else in the Roman Empire. The book also briefly examines other coin hoards in Britain. According to the book, the Frome Hoard is the largest hoard found in a single pottery container. The largest hoard was the Cunetio Hoard found near Marlborough in Wiltshire in 1978. It contained 54,951 coins, slightly more than was found in the single jar of the Frome Hoard, but was found in two pots.Finally, the book briefly touches on Dave Crisp's initial discovery of scattered silver coins from a different hoard found two days earlier within 100 meters of the Frome Hoard. This hoard, deposited a century later than the Frome Hoard, consisted of 62 silver coins (siliquae) of the fourth century spread over an area of 30 to 40 meters. It included coins from Constantius II, Julian, Magnus Maximus, Valens and Gratian. The latest dated coin from this hoard is of the Emperor Eugenius (AD 392-4). The book states that "the discovery of two hoards, deposited a hundred years apart, in close proximity to each other is unusual, but not unprecedented."Although the book is small, it is filled with many interesting facts and observations. Here is one of the remarkable facts from the book: "According to one estimate, it is possible that under Victorinus and Tetricus, the [Romano-Gallic] Empire was making around five to six million coins a week." Although this number seems high, Roger Bland has supported this number (in private correspondence) with very compelling soon-to-be-published research based on coin studies.In summary, the book is a nice introduction to the Frome Hoard. It is relatively and 50 pence of every book sold goes to the research project. The illustrations in the book are informative with 50 high-quality color photographs. I would recommend The Frome Hoard to anyone with a basic interest in Romano-British history, Roman numismatics, or ancient archaeology. Hopefully, a more scholarly and complete study of Frome Hoard will be planned for the future. (I want to thank Doug Smith, Chris Freeman, and others from the excellent numismatic site for their sharing their knowledge about Roman numismatics and their help in writing this review.) REVIEW: The first book to tell the story of the Frome hoard, one of the largest Roman coin hoards ever found in Britain, is to be published in November. This will be the first book on the hoard which was discovered in a field near Frome. ‘The Frome Hoard’ has been printed with the generous support of local Frome-based printers, Butler, Tanner & Dennis. The book has been written by Sam Moorhead, Anna Booth and Roger Bland.‘The Frome Hoard’ tells the story of the discovery, describes the fascinating collection of coins which were uncovered and offers an initial interpretation of the treasure, and its significance. Close-up photographs show intricate details of the coins. Dave Crisp found 21 coins while metal detecting on farmland near Frome in April. Two days later he returned to the site and discovered a huge pot filled with over 52,000 coins.Archaeologists now believe that these coins will re-write the history books. One of the largest Roman coin hoards ever to be found in Britain, the Frome hoard contains a group of coins of Carausius, the first Roman emperor ever to strike coins in Britain. Among the discovery are more than 760 of Carausius’ coins and five rare examples of his silver denarii, the only coins of their type being struck anywhere in the Roman Empire at the time.2,000 people took the opportunity to view some of the haul at Frome Library and meet Dave Crisp in July. 50p from the sale of every book will go to the Frome Hoard appeal fund. It is hoped that the Museum of Somerset will be able to eventually acquire the hoard and a fundraising drive has been launched. The three authors all bring together fields of expertise. Sam Moorhead is National Finds Adviser for Iron Age and Roman coins in the department of Portable Antiquities and Treasure at the British Museum.Anna Booth is Somerset County Council’s finds liaison officer, and worked on the excavation of the hoard. Roger Bland is head of portable antiquities and treasure at the British Museum. He is the co-author of The Staffordshire Hoard (British Museum Press). REVIEW: Well illustrated and informative, it concisely describes and catalogues the discovery of the hoard…This fascinating story will no doubt continue well into the next decade. [BBC History Magazine]. REVIEW: The outstanding pictures alone make this book a must for anyone with an interest in English history and Roman coinage. [Coin News]. REVIEW: Please, please buy this book (it makes an ideal gift...A good read, and a good buy...excellent value for a very worthwhile cause. [The Searcher].READER REVIEWS: REVIEW: The Frome Hoard, containing 52,503 coins (all of them struck in the third century A.D.), is one of the biggest Roman coin hoards ever discovered. Dave Crisp – he discovered the hoard with his metal detector in 2010 – immediately reported his find, which is why it was possible to be excavated professionally, revealing lots of information that would otherwise have been lost.The coins themselves had been stored in a big storage jar, which has been filled up to the top with nothing but coins – it’s truly fascinating! One of the most striking features of the Frome Hoard is the amount of Carausian coins. While they are usually very seldomly found, the hoard contains hundreds of them.Carausius, emperor of the British Empire from 286 to 293, was more ‘Roman’ than many Romans. Not only did he start to strike denarii again (five of them have been found in the Frome Hoard), but also was he the only Roman Emperor to quote classical Roman authors on his coins and medallions. However, apart from the coin evidence, hardly anything is known of this interesting emperor.The booklet is a first analysis, kind of a teaser for the definite assessment which is to follow. I can only recommend it though. There are lots of pictures, the hoard is presented, and even the wider context is briefly discussed. REVIEW: Not too many times does a hoard of coins like this one shows up intact. Really good production and overview. Just the basics, but good enough for the money. Nice photos, worth the price. REVIEW: Excellent coverage of the find, the related events, and the unique coinage. REVIEW: Really fascinating little pamphlet, raising some unanswerable questions about the long gone folk of Somerset. REVIEW: Five stars! It looks like they found it as they where about to start detecting. Great photography, compelling text. REVIEW: Five Stars! Just waiting for my first hoard then I'll write a book. Fascinating book. REVIEW: Five stars! Excellent booklet. Great pictures of the coins. Interesting narrative.ADDITIONAL BACKGROUND: REVIEW: Hats off to Dave Crisp, a hospital chef who just discovered a hoard of some 52,500 3rd century A.D. Roman coins. Crisp found them in a field in southwestern England using his metal detector. By all accounts, Crisp realized that he had found something exceptional and did the right thing–and under the United kingdom’s “Portable Antiquities Scheme” all went as well as possible. Reports on BBC and CNN emphasize the fact that he quickly contacted authorities and Somerset County Council archaeologists came out and excavated the large pot in which the coins had been placed. The coins were then sent on to the British Museum. Crisp told CNN: “At the time I actually found the pot I didn’t know what size it was but when the archaeologists came and started to uncover it, I was gobsmacked, I thought ‘hell, this is massive.'”REVIEW: In April 2010 Katie Hinds, the Portable Antiquities Scheme’s Finds Liaison Officer from Wiltshire, received a call from a local metal detectorist, Dave Crisp, to let her know that he had found what he thought might be a hoard of Roman coins near Frome, a town that lies just over the border in Somerset. Katie called the FLO for that county, Anna Booth (now a research student in the department of Archaeology and Ancient History at Leicester), who, together with her colleagues in Somerset County Council’s Historic Environment Service, organized for an excavation of the site to be carried out a few days later.The services of a local independent archaeologist, were called upon to direct the excavation. Alan, Katie and Anna were joined on site by Dave and his grandson, who led them to the carefully disguised findspot. The team were unsure about what they were dealing with at this stage, so opened up a small 1m square trench over the site. Once the topsoil had been removed the top of a cracked, but complete Roman greyware storage vessel emerged, with a small black burnished ware dish on the top acting as a lid and organic material carefully packed around the outside surface. The lid was taken away to reveal that the vessel was in fact filled to the brim with Roman bronze and base silver third century coins, commonly known as radiates.Consultations with Roman coin experts at the British Museum, Sam Moorhead and Roger Bland, took place regarding the best way to proceed with the excavation. It was finally decided that the time and expense that would be involved in an attempt to block lift the vessel intact would be unlikely to proportionately increase the amount that could be learnt about it and so the decision was made to excavate it in situ; the first time that such a large hoard had been excavated in this way.The tightly packed coins inside were therefore removed in twelve numbered layers in the hope that these might later shed light on the way in which they were originally deposited. When the excavation was complete the coins were taken to the British Museum for initial sorting which revealed that there were a total of 52,503 altogether making it the biggest hoard ever discovered in a single vessel in Britain. They could all be provisionally dated to circa 253AD to 293AD and also included the largest group of coins of the British emperor Carausius that had been found together and a very rare group of five of his silver denarii. In February 2011 the excavation was named ‘Rescue dig of the year’ by Current Archaeology magazine. REVIEW: "The Frome Hoard", the largest collection of Roman coins ever unearthed in a single container, will go to the Museum of Somerset thanks to a grant of almost £300,000 from the National Heritage Memorial Fund. An intensive fundraising campaign for the hoard, which contains 52,503 coins dating between 253AD and 293AD, also benefited from a grant of more than £50,000 from the Art Fund, donations from various organisations and money raised by the public. The hoard of silver and bronze coins found last year by metal detector user Dave Crisp contains 760 pieces which belong to the reign of Britain's "pirate emperor" Marcus Aurelius Mauseus Valerius Carausius, who rebelled against the Roman Empire and declared himself Emperor of Britain and northern Gaul. Funding from the National Heritage Memorial Fund and the Art Fund has also helped save the Iron Age gold hoard discovered near Stirling in Scotland for the nation. The four gold neck ornaments known as torcs, which date from between the 3rd and 1st century B.C., will go on display at the National Museum of Scotland. The treasure consists of two pieces of jewellery made from twisted ribbons of gold, an ornate torc from southern France - the only one of its kind found in Britain - and a unique braided gold wire neck ornament. It has been saved thanks to a £154,000 grant from the National Heritage Memorial Fund (NHMF) which exists to save outstanding parts of the country's heritage in memory of people who gave their lives for the UK, and £100,000 from the Art Fund. The National Museums Scotland contributed £123,000 and the Scottish government put in £85,000 to purchase the hoard for the nation. Dame Jenny Abramsky, chairwoman of the NHMF, said: "These stunning hoards, which provide true insight into Britain's rich and diverse history, now join a magnificent collection of heritage treasures the National Heritage Memorial Fund has safeguarded for the nation over the last 31 years." Stephen Deuchar, director of the Art Fund, said: "Both the Roman coins in Somerset and torcs in Scotland are going to absolutely the right places where generations can learn, enjoy and be inspired by them, and experts can carry out vital research." [The Telegraph (UK)]. REVIEW: I was invited down to the British Museum yesterday by Sam Moorhead for lunch and to discuss the work he’s currently doing on Carausius, both with the recent Frome hoard and the older Elveden hoard. As well as seeing the small public display I got to have a quick look at the rest of the hoard, bagged and in boxes and most of it awaiting conservation, as well as the two denarii and a handful of already conserved coins not on public display. The denarii are as impressive as the pictures, if not more so and far exceed the quality of the remaining Carausian denarii in the BM's collection.What is interesting is that the hoard has been carefully excavated down through the pot and seems to have been assembled from smaller pots. The reason for this hypothesis is that it seemingly terminates with London B/E coins (circa 290AD) yet the greatest concentration of Carausius coins by far, including these terminal coins, was in the middle layer. The denarii, struck early in the reign, were found in the upper layers. Hopefully a small booklet will be out shortly, within a week or two, to summarize the hoard (similar to what was produced for the West Midlands Saxon gold finds) with a full academic publication in due course. REVIEW: The Frome Hoard is a cache of 52,503 silver and copper alloy Roman coins, found in April 2010 by chef and metal detector enthusiast Dave Crisp, near Frome in Somerset, England. The Frome Hoard is the most extensive coin stash uncovered in Britain so far. It dates back to the reign of Carausius, a Roman military commander in the 3rd century who declared himself emperor of Britain. He reigned from 286 to 293 and was the first Roman to issue coins there. The Frome Hoard is the largest remaining group of the coins issued during the reign.The hoard was discovered on April 11, 2010, while metal detectorist Dave Crisp was exploring a field near Frome where he had once before found Roman silver coins. The 62 late Roman period coins were most likely the remnants of a scattered hoard, 111 of which were discovered on the same farm in 1867. While searching for more coins, he detected an odd signal on his metal detector. As he dug the earth away, about 35 cm (14 inches) down, he discovered an ancient pot with a small coin resting on the lid. He realized his discovery could be an intact hoard and replaced the dirt in the small hole he had dug.On April 15, 2010, Crisp notified Katie Hinds, Portable Antiquities Scheme Finds Liaison Officer for Wiltshire, of what he had found. On April 22, Hinds, Anna Booth, the Finds Liaison Officer for Somerset, and Alan Graham, an independent archaeologist contracted by Somerset County Council, returned to the field to complete an emergency excavation. The excavation took over three days, from April 23rd to the 25th, with Crisp showing the location of his discovery and Graham leading the dig. Hinds, Booth, and the landowner’s family helped with the project. Graham initially excavated a 1.5 meters (4.9 ft) trench around the small hole that Crisp had dug and identified the burial pit of the pot.A small black-burnished bowl was inverted over the mouth of the pot, creating a lid. He excavated the earth around the exterior of the pot and spotted organic matter that may have been packing material. He determined that the pot had been broken long before its discovery in 2010. The preferred archaeological method, which was usually moving the container to controlled conditions so that the contents could be correctly identified, would not work in this situation.Because of the weight of the coins, the need to not draw general attention to the find, and the fragility of the pot and the coins inside it, the archaeologists decided to excavate the coins in the field. The coins were removed in 12 layers to determine if there was any chronological pattern in their positioning. Graham excavated and recorded the finds while the others packed the coins into 66 plastic bags with a total weight of about 160 kg (350 lb).On April 26, the British Museum’s National Finds Advisor for Iron Age and Roman coins, Sam Moorhead, and the museum’s head of the Department of Portable Antiquities and Treasure, Roger Bland, collected the excavated coins and brought them back to London’s British Museum. It was Metals Conservator Pippa Pearce’s job over the next six weeks to wash and dry all the coins to stabilize them, but she did not complete a full conservation due to the additional £35,000 in costs.There were 52,503 coins found, but not all of these have been identified. 44,245 have been thoroughly examined, but the remaining coins are classified as illegible until cleaning and conservation are completed. Some of these will remain in their excavated state. Of the identifiable copper coins, 14,788 were minted by the central Roman Empire, 28,377 under the breakaway Gallic Empire, and 766, including five very rare silver denarii, under the Empire of Carausius.Romans usually buried coins for security with the intention of eventually recovering them, but Sam Moorhead of the Portable Antiquities Scheme suggests that because the pot was large, fragile, and not recoverable without damage, the hoard may represent communal offerings to the gods.A selection of the coins was placed on display at the British Museum on July 8, 2010 at a press conference. The complete hoard was displayed in Gallery 68 of the British Museum between July 15 and August 31, 2010. REVIEW: Dave Crisp found treasure on a soggy ridge outside the Somerset town of Frome last April, and helped rewrite history. On a bitter winter afternoon, as he walks the frosty field again, he recalls one of the most heart-stoppingly exciting moments of his life. The 63-year-old ex-army man had discovered a scattering of Roman silver coins in the field. He came back a few days later with his detector, bought secondhand on eBay, to round up any remaining broken pieces. The signals were faint and confusing."I picked out a piece of Roman pottery, and when I turned it over there was a coin, a bronze radiate, stuck in it. When I turned over the next handful of clay, it was stuffed with coins — 20 at least. I just sat back on my heels and shouted: 'I've done it!'. I knew at once I'd found a Roman coin hoard in its undisturbed container — I knew the archaeologists would wet themselves."He filled in the hole, chucking in an old horseshoe on the wild off chance that somebody else with a detector might happen on the site. Three days later, he returned with the professionals. His grandson came along for the fun of it, expecting to be clear by teatime: the two ended up sleeping in a tent to protect the deep pit, the find still only half exposed.Crisp hated history at school, and left at 15 to join the services, where he became a cook. He now works as a hospital chef in Chippenham, and took up metal detecting as a hobby. The farm where he made his find, in a hamlet about a mile from Frome, is just an hour from his home in Devizes, and handy for a quick mooch about after an early shift. He talks easily of Roman emperors and Saxon kings, of gray ware pottery and silver siliquae coins, of the buckles and belt tags and strap ends which can light up this subject that now fascinates him.What he found that afternoon is now stacked in a waist-high pile of shoe box-sized cardboard boxes, in a corner of an office in the coins department of the British Museum – a Diagon Alley place of mysteries, on two floors, protected by a three-inch-thick strongroom door.The boxes hold the contents of a giant potbellied jar which lay in the clay of that sloping Somerset field for almost 2,000 years, filled to overflowing with the largest coin hoard ever found in a single container in Britain. "You can see what a job it's going to be to clean the horrors," Sam Moorhead, a Roman coins specialist, says fondly, running through his fingers a handful of disgusting bits of metal, green with corrosion, ragged with welded-on bits of other broken coins. Studying the 52,503 of them that are legible will occupy the experts for the rest of their careers.Moorhead, and Roger Bland, another numismatist at the British Museum, scratch their heads over how to fund the work. Just washing and drying all the coins to prevent further corrosion, after they arrived in the museum, took two months. Their best guess is the full job will take three years and cost around £120,000 — but it could light up an obscure corner of Roman Britain. The Somerset farm where Crisp made his find is clipped by a Roman road, but there is no record of a camp, villa, village, temple or cemetery anywhere in the area. But the Romans were clearly there.When the amateur treasure hunter decided on that spring day to call in the professionals, he knew exactly what to do. Treasure finds must by law be reported — 806 in the just released figures for 2008. However, such discoveries are dwarfed by the torrent of objects, lower in value but priceless in history, reported in the 13 years of the voluntary Portable Antiquities Scheme, which has gradually built up a country-wide network of finds officers who record amateur discoveries. Both schemes are run from the British Museum, and headed by Roger Bland.Before making his big find, Dave Crisp had reported scores of small finds from the same area of farmland. This time, the finds officer for Somerset quickly called in experts from the county heritage service; local archaeologist Alan Graham led the excavation joined by museum staff, Crips and his excited grandson, plus several members of the Sheppard family, the farm owners.When Bland first got there and saw the deep pit, the broken empty pot and the mass of bagged coins, he admits his first reaction was, "Cripes, how are we going to deal with this?" The 16 kilos of coins were moved to the British Museum for safekeeping and study, almost wrecking the suspension of Sam Moorhead's ageing VW. In July, as with all treasure finds, a coroner's inquest was held in Somerset, formally declaring the coins treasure. Then an expert committee met at the British Museum, and after hours of debate and three widely varying outside opinions on the value of the hoard, finally set a price of £320,250 on the coins, to be shared between Crisp and the landowners, Geoff and Anne Sheppard.In the old days the British Museum would have wanted to keep the hoard. Instead, Bland and Moorhead are committed to finding the money in London for the conservation work and research, but are backing the Somerset museum in Taunton in its determination to acquire the hoard for its native county. The museum hopes to have done this by the time it reopens after a major redevelopment next summer; meanwhile, Crisp and the Sheppards have yet to receive a penny. Britain for its size has more coin and other hoards than anywhere else in the Roman empire. The Staffordshire hoard, the largest hoard of Anglo-Saxon gold and silver metalwork yet found, made world headlines last year when it too was found by a metal detector in a nondescript field. The Winchester hoard – again found scattered across a field, 10 years ago – was several kilos of pure gold iron age jewellery. The Hoxne hoard, found in 1992 by a Suffolk farmer looking for a dropped hammer, held more than 400 pieces of gold and silver buried in the fourth century AD.The conventional explanation is that these hoards are either underground piggy banks, or stashed in times of danger to be recovered when normal life resumes – or never, if the feared catastrophe overwhelms the owner. This fits some finds, such as the recent discovery in Somerset of English civil war-era silver, buried when the royalists were walled up in a nearby mansion with the parliamentarians on the march. But the Frome hoard doesn't match that picture at all.When Moorhead and Bland sorted the coins they could identify, they turned out to have been minted for 25 different emperors, but from oldest to newest, they spanned just four decades. So these were not the accumulated savings of generations of local people. The third century AD was not a time of trauma either. The Vikings were centuries away, the Irish behaving themselves, the Roman towns and cities growing a bit ragged at the edges, but the long rolling Somerset valleys were full of prosperous Roman villas and flourishing agricultural communities.Nor will the piggy bank explanation work. The pot could never have been carried to or from the site full – the thin pottery would have collapsed under the weight. Within a few months, as damp and dirt seeped into the jar, if the people wanted their money back, they would have had to do just what the archaeologists did: smash the container.The most recent coins in the hoard were minted for the near-forgotten Carausius, a bull-necked bruiser from Flanders, who was proclaimed by his soldiers emperor of Britain and Gaul when the Romans sacked him for looting the grain ships he was supposed to be protecting. Many of these coins were in superb condition, better – Moorhead says enviously – than those in the British Museum. They date the hoard to not earlier than AD293 when Carausius was murdered by his treasurer, but because they were in the middle layer, with older coins over them, they also suggest the pot was set into the ground and then filled in one load, not over a period of years.And so, Moorhead is convinced, the only plausible explanation for how they ended up in the field is that the hoard was a ritual offering to the gods. When civilians hear the word "ritual deposit" it may conjure romantic images of druids in procession, skin drums thumping and snake-shaped trumpets tootling. To many archaeologists, it suggests a despairing absence of other explanations. Yet Roman Britain abounded in gods. Every spring, rock, forest and valley, every season, every climate, was sacred.Some of the names would have been familiar in Rome, but the Romans were also adept at incorporating much older beliefs: Sulis, the goddess of the hot springs at Bath, was a Celtic goddess who became Romanised as Sulis Minerva. When they were excavated, archaeologists found that the springs that fed the baths and the drains were full of coins, pieces of jewellery, even little prayers and curses inscribed on pieces of lead, addressed to the gods and thrown into the water."Nobody questions that before the Romans came, the people of Britain offered lavish gifts in metal to their gods," Moorhead says. "Why do we think that suddenly ended when the Romans came? If crops failed or dangers threatened, you made an offering for better times to come. If times were good – as they were in third-century Britain – you made an offering so that they would continue."Moorhead is convinced the Frome hoard represents a stupendous offering of as much cash as the community could raise. The swords and bronze shields their ancestors threw into rivers and springs were gone, and coins were the easiest way of assembling a massive quantity of metal – and significantly, the Sheppards report that that ridge of their field is still so boggy in wet weather, it may well lie over an ancient spring. Future archaeology in the surrounding area may yet uncover more evidence of who lived there, and what they believed.Dave Crisp is certain the ritual explanation is right. "There was something important to them about this place. Maybe there was an oak tree or a little sacred grove or a spring that's gone now. You can imagine a grandfather saying to the family 'that hill is special, that's where we always go'. Maybe times were bad, maybe times were good and they wanted to say thanks."Since April he has been out with his detector on other farms, but found nothing except a few common coins. He looks forward to many more happy days after he retires next summer, with the new detector that has been his only extravagance since he learned the amount of the reward. "Some archaeologists hate us," he says. "They'd really rather see this stuff left rotting in the soil. But it's our history waiting to be found and told, that's got to be right." REVIEW: The Portable Antiquities Scheme has today released news of the Frome Hoard, a cache of 52,503 Roman coins dating to the 3rd century, found by metal detectorist Dave Crisp near Frome in Somerset in 2010. Tony Williams, Coroner for Somerset, will hold an inquest today to determine whether the coins can be declared treasure, in which case they can be purchased at market value, with the detectorist and the landowner claiming part of the reward, as was the arrangement for Terry Herbert and Fred Johnson after the finding of the Staffordshire Hoard last year.Crisp originally found 21 coins and then came across a ceramic pot filled with more. Recognizing the need for professional archaeological assistance, Crisp then called Katie Hinds, Finds Liaison Officer for Wiltshire. Ms Hinds then contacted Anna Booth, Somerset Finds Liaison Officer, who, with Somerset County Council archaeologists, set about the delicate task of excavating the pot and its contents. Anna Booth, Somerset County Council’s Finds Liaison Officer, said:“Because Mr Crisp resisted the temptation to dig up the coins it has allowed archaeologists from Somerset County Council to carefully excavate the pot and its contents, ensuring important evidence about the circumstances of its burial was preserved”.The coins were contained in a ceramic pot and date to the period AD 253 to 293. Most of the coins are made from debased silver or bronze and weigh around 160kg. The pot containing the coins was broken and the coins were removed from the pot in 12 layers, with each layer containing up to 16 separate bags of coins, a total of 67 separate types. Of the total amount of coins found, 44,245 were identifiable with the remainder classed as illegible. The discovery is the largest coin hoard found in Britain and the second largest treasure hoard.Because of the weight of the coins and the fragility of the pot in which they were buried, the pot must have been buried in the ground before the coins were tipped into them. This suggests that this hoard is unlikely to have been buried because its owner (or owners) were concerned about the threat of invasion and, wishing to find a safe place to store their wealth, intended to come back and recover it later when the times were more peaceful.If that had been their intention, then they would have buried their coins in smaller containers which would have been easier to recover. The only way anyone could have recovered this hoard would have been by breaking the pot and scooping the coins out of it, which would have been awkward. It is thought therefore most likely that the person or persons who buried this hoard entrusted it to the earth without intending to come back and recover it later. Perhaps it was the offering of an agricultural community for a good harvest or favorable weather.If the hoard is declared Treasure by the coroner today, it is hoped it will be acquired by Somerset County Council’s Heritage Service. Stephen Minnitt, Head of Museums at Somerset County Council, said:"This is a find of great national importance and we are determined to raise the sum to acquire the hoard for public benefit. Hopefully it will be able to go on display in the new Museum of Somerset when it re-opens in 2011”.Ed Vaizey, Minister for Culture at the Department for Culture, Media and Sport said:“Once again this demonstrates how important the Treasure Act and the Portable Antiquities Scheme are in helping to preserve our heritage. I congratulate Mr Crisp on his prompt reporting of his find and especially in allowing archaeologists to excavate the hoard. If the hoard is declared Treasure, Somerset County Council Heritage Service will have the opportunity to acquire it at its full market value, as determined by an independent committee and that reward is shared by Mr Crisp and the owner of the land where the find was made. That way everyone is a winner.”In the meantime the coins have been washed and stabilized by a team of conservators at the British Museum, led by Pippa Pearce, and they are being studied by Roger Bland and the Portable Antiquities Scheme’s Roman coins specialist, Sam Moorhead. A selection of coins from the hoard is on display in Gallery 68 at the British Museum until mid-August.Archaeologists believe the hoard will rewrite the history books, by shedding light on the economic crisis and coalition government in the 3rd century. The hoard contains over 760 coins of Carausius, who ruled Britain independently from AD 286 to AD 293, and was the first Roman emperor to strike coins in Britain. This is the largest group of Carausius’ coins ever found, including five rare examples of his silver denarii, the only coins of their type being struck anywhere in the Roman Empire at the time.The coins span 40 years from AD 253 to 293 and the great majority are of the denomination known as ‘radiates’; in total, the hoard is the equivalent of about four years’ pay for a legionary soldier. Each of the 67 groups of coins was washed and sorted separately; as a result it was discovered that the great majority (85 per cent) of the coins of Carausius, the latest coins in the hoard, were contained within a single layer (Context 16). This gives fascinating insight into how the coins were placed in the pot, as a group of coins of Carausius must have been tipped into the pot separately from the rest of the coins.Roger Bland, Head of Portable Antiquities and Treasure at the British Museum said:“This hoard, which is one of the largest ever found in Britain, has a huge amount to tell about the coinage and history of the period as we study over the next two years. The late 3rd century AD was a time when Britain suffered barbarian invasions, economic crises and civil wars. Roman rule was finally stabilized when the Emperor Diocletian formed a coalition with the Emperor Maximian, which lasted 20 years. This defeated the separatist régime which had been established in Britain by Carausius. This find presents us with an opportunity to put Carausius on the map. School children across the country have been studying Roman Britain for decades, but are never taught about Carausius — our lost British emperor”.About 570 coin hoards of this period are known from Britain, a greater concentration than from any other part of the Roman Empire. The largest hoard ever found in Britain contained 54,912 coins dating from AD 180 to 274 and was found in two containers at Cunetio, near Mildenhall in Wiltshire; another hoard of 47,912 coins of AD 251-290 was found at Normanby in Lincolnshire in 1983. REVIEW: People have been placing metalwork and valuable objects in the ground and in water since the Bronze Age (circa 2200–800 BC). These prehistoric hoards are widely accepted as having been deposited as part of ritual practices. Later hoards were traditionally seen as a response to invasion threats and economic upheaval – riches buried in the ground to be retrieved at a later date. The 2010 discovery of a huge Roman coin hoard in Frome in Somerset raised many questions about this traditional interpretation, suggesting that ritual practices also played a part in the burial of Roman hoards.A recent display at the British Museum showcases some recent discoveries of hoards reported through the Treasure Act and studied at the British Museum. It begins with the large metalwork deposits of the Bronze and Iron Ages such as the Salisbury hoard and weapons found in the River Thames at Broadness. The display finishes with objects from the hoards found at Oxborough and Hoxne, buried in the years following the end of Roman Britain (in AD 410).These treasures have varied stories and interpretations – they may have been accidentally lost or stolen, discarded as worthless, saved for recycling, hidden for safekeeping, or even offered up to the gods. Together, they tell a fascinating story – a hidden history of ancient Britain. The display draws on the results of the joint British Museum/Leicester University AHRC-funded research project "Crisis or Continuity? Hoarding in Iron Age and Roman Britain", which is investigating the places hoards were buried and what they can tell us about wider social and economic changes. [British Museum].REVIEW: More than 30,000 silver coins have been found by archaeologists working at the site of a new city-centre hotel. The hoard, believed to date from the third-century, was unearthed about 450 feet from the historic Roman Baths. Experts believe the “treasure trove” is the fifth largest hoard ever discovered in Britain and the largest from a Roman settlement. The coins, which have now been sent to the British Museum for further analysis, are fused together in a large block. This makes identification and counting difficult and conservators at central London Museum expect the task of analyzing the coins to take up to 12 months. The Roman Baths has launched an appeal to raise about £150,000 to acquire, conserve and display the coins, believed to date from about 270AD. The dig, known as the “Beau Street Hoard”, began in 2008 at the site of work on the Gainsborough Hotel in Beau Street. On Thursday night, Stephen Clews, manager of the Roman Baths and Pump Room, said the find had been declared a “treasure trove”. "We've put in a request for a formal valuation and then hope to buy the coins to display them at the baths,” he said. "At the time there was a lot of unrest in the Roman Empire so there may be some explanation for why the coins were hidden away. The find is also unusual as it was discovered by professional archaeologists as opposed to an amateur using a metal detector.” The largest collection of Roman coins ever unearthed in a single container was found in April 2010 by Dave Crisp, a hospital chef, with the help of a metal detector at the edge of a field near a Roman road near Frome, in Somerset. The stash of 52,503 coins, known as the "Frome hoard" and dating between 253AD and 293AD, was valued at £320,250. The haul is now at the Museum of Somerset thanks to a grant of almost £300,000 from the National Heritage Memorial Fund. REVIEW: An East Devon metal detector enthusiast has stumbled upon one of the largest hoards of Roman coins ever found in Britain, prompting a local museum to launch a campaign to buy the “remarkable” collection for the nation. The British Museum announced the discovery of the Seaton Down Hoard today. Comprising of about 22,000 coins dating back more than 1,700 years, it is the fifth largest find of Roman coins in Britain. Laurence Egerton, 51, a semi-retired builder from East Devon, discovered two ancient coins “the size of a thumbnail” buried near the surface of a field with his metal detector in November last year.After digging deeper, his shovel came up full of the copper-alloy coins. “They just spilled out all over the field,” he said. “It was an exciting moment. I had found one or two Roman coins before but never so many together.” The metal detectorist called in the experts and watched amazed as archaeologists discovered thousands more coins buried about a foot deep. To ensure the site was not tampered with Mr Egerton slept in his car nearby “for three cold nights” until the dig was finished. “It’s by far the biggest find I’ve ever had. It really doesn’t get any better. It is so important to record all of these finds properly because it is so easy to lose important insights into our history,” Mr Egerton said. He found the coins near the Honeyditches site in Devon where a Roman villa had previously been excavated. Bill Horner, county archaeologist at Devon County Council, said: “We realized the significance and mobilized a team as fast as we could.” He continued: “The coins were in remarkably good condition. Coming out of the ground you could see the portrait faces; a family tree of the House of Constantine.”Over the past 10 months the coins have been lightly cleaned, identified and catalogued at the British Museum, although there is still more work to do. They range from late AD 260 to almost AD 350. Mr Horner said the coins bore a range of portraits, describing it as a “family tree of the House of Constantine”. The British Museum called the scale of the find “remarkable", adding that it was "one of the largest hoards ever found within the whole Roman Empire”. The largest find in Britain was the Cunetio Hoard of almost 55,000 coins discovered near Mildenhall, Wiltshire in 1978.The coins would not have been particularly valuable at the time; with experts estimated they would then have been worth about four gold coins, equivalent to a worker’s pay for two years. The Royal Albert Memorial Museum & Art Gallery in Exeter hopes to raise money to buy the collection and appealed to the public to donate. The hoard is yet to be fully valued, but one expert said it would be worth less than £100,000. The proceeds will be split between Mr Egerton and the landowner, Clinton Devon Estates.One of the coins is particularly special. It marks the one millionth find of the Portable Antiquities Scheme, set up in 1997 to provide a record of all the finds brought in by members of the public. The scheme is managed by the British Museum and funded by the Department for Culture, Media, and Sport’s grant-in-aid to the institution. Neil MacGregor, director of the British Museum said: “You know what it’s like; you sit waiting for the millionth object to come along and 22,000 come along at once.” The special coin, called a nummus, was struck by Constantine the Great to celebrate the inauguration of the new city of Constantinople, now Istanbul.The scheme was set up to keep track of all the finds by metal detectorists and enthusiasts and provide a resource for scholars to study historical objects. Since 1997 a total of 500 Roman coin hoards have been discovered across the country. Major finds since the PAS scheme was set up include the Staffordshire Hoard, dating to the 7th century, the largest Anglo-Saxon hoard of gold and silver ever found. There have also been significant Viking and Bronze Age finds. The British Museum said recording the finds has helped revolutionise the understanding of battlefields including Naseby in 1645 and the Battle of Bosworth in 1485. There, the find of a silver-gilt boar badge helped pinpoint where Richard III met his death.Other remarkable finds by metal detectorists include:The Staffordshire Hoard:Terry Herbert found the largest ever Anglo-Saxon hoard of gold and silver with his metal detector in 2009. It consisted of over 3,500 items, almost exclusively “war-gear”.The Frome Hoard:A collection of 52,500 silver and copper alloy coins were discovered in a round clay pot by hospital chef Dave Crisp in 2010. They dated to the reign of Carausius. The Vale of York Hoard:David Whelan and his son Andrew used metal detectors to discover the treasure in 2007 in an empty field. The 10th century Viking hoard included 617 silver coins and other items.Boughton Malherbe Hoard:One of the largest Bronze Age hoards was discovered in Kent in 2011. The 346 artifacts, which date to 800BC were discovered by friends Wayne Coomber and Nick Hales. REVIEW: There was been much excitement in Jersey during the summer of 2012 over the discovery of a hoard containing tens of thousands of coins by two metal detecting enthusiasts. The find has been widely reported as consisting of Roman coins, but although they date from the period when Rome was conquering the nearby French coast, the coins were minted by Celtic tribes who are believed to have fled from Julius Caesar's advancing army and buried their treasure in a Jersey field. This is not the first hoard of coins of this nature to be discovered in Jersey (11,000 coins were unearthed at La Marquanderie in 1935) but it is by far the largest. If the upper end of the current estimate of between 30,000 and 60,000 coints proves correct, this will be the largest find yet in the whole of Europe. The value of the one-ton mass of coins, which appears to include items of gold and silver jewellery, has been provisionally estimated at £10 million. This was no chance discovery. Reg Mead and Richard Miles have been searching for over 30 years in a field in the east of the island (the location is being kept secret to deter others from hunting there) after hearing rumors that a farmer had found some silver pieces on his land. After many fruitless searches they unearthed a stash of 120 coins in February. Far from satisfying them, this encouraged a further search using a powerful metal detector known as a deepseeker, and in late June they struck lucky. Jersey Heritage and La Société Jersiaise were informed and a decision was taken to carry out a proper archaeological excavation of the location before news of the find could leak out. Both Jersey Heritage and the Societe Jersiase have said "this is a significant find". Phillip De Jersey, a former Celtic coin expert from Oxford, who helped in the unearthing of the hoard, said: "It is extremely exciting and very significant. It will add a huge amount of new information, not just about the coins themselves but the people who were using them. Neil Mahrer, conservator with Jersey Heritage, who is in charge of separating and conserving the coins said: 'As we unravel the story behind the hoard we are beginning to make some very exciting discoveries.' These discoveries appear to include a silver ring and a flattened gold torque, which could add considerably to the value of the find. The coins are thought to date from the year 50BC while the armies of Julius Caesar were advancing north-westwards through France, driving the tribal communities towards the coast. Some of them would have crossed the sea to Jersey, finding a safe place of refuge away from Caesar's campaigns. The only place to store their wealth was to bury it in a secret place, where it has lain hidden for over two millennia. It is impossible to put a firm figure on the number of coins but the mass lifted from its burial place is estimated to contain between 30,000 and 60,000 coins. If the upper estimate is correct the find could push the Frome Hoard of 52,000 Roman coins into second place as the biggest coin hoard ever discovered. Weighing three-quarters of a tonne, the cache is the largest collection of Celtic coins found in Jersey, an island known for its Iron Age coin hoards. Careful excavation and recording by Société Jersiaise archaeologist Robert Waterhouse and Philip de Jersey showed that the coins had been deposited at the bottom of a roughly dug pit, a metre below current ground surface (though the Iron Age ground surface has been lost to ploughing). The hoard formed a tear-drop shaped solid mass, measuring 143cm x 80cm x 20cm, and the coins which have been identified to date are all of Armorican origin (modern day Brittany and Normandy) from a tribe called the Coriosolitae, who were based around the Rance valley in the area of modern-day St Malo and Dinan. They appear to be of 'billon' – an alloy of copper and silver. REVIEW: A new collection of Roman coins has been found in a Swiss orchard, one of the largest among archeological findings of this type. The ancient coins were found in mid-2015 by a Swiss farmer in Ueken, a small town in northwestern Switzerland. He excavated them by accident while inspecting his cherry trees. He then contacted local archaeological experts, who confirmed the presence of a collection of more than 4,000 bronze and silver Roman coins.Large troves of Roman coins are often found in Britain. In 2009, a collection of nearly 60,000 rust-worn coins, known as the Frome Hoard, were found in a field in Somerset in 2009. This Swiss collection is also one of the largest ever found outside of the UK, which makes it very special. The discovery also coincides with a renewed global interest in Rome and Roman history, prompted by the discovery of an intact tomb at the archaeological site of Pompeii in October.Archaeologists explain that the reason why Roman coins are typically found buried in large quantities may be because they were offered as a ritual gift to the Roman gods. This was the case for the Frome Hoard, but although the majority of the Swiss coins have been excavated, no definite answers for their original purpose have yet been hypothesized.Archaeologists have determined that their owner systematically buried them between 270 and 294 AD, and never came back to recover them. The coins were taken out of circulation shortly after they were issued, but the archaeologists estimate that they have been worth between one to two years’ wages at the time. The coins, made of bronze and silver components, have been remarkably well-preserved in the soil.“The owner must have deliberately chosen these coins in order to hoard them,” Swiss coin expert Hugo Doppler explained to the Swiss Broadcasting Corporation. “Their silver content would have guaranteed a certain value conservation in a time of economic uncertainty.” Swiss archaeologist Georg Matter was thrilled by the discovery. “As an archaeologist, one hardly experiences something like this more than once in one’s career,” he told Spiegel Online. As exciting as the discovery is, though, the Swiss farmer who first discovered the coins won’t be able to keep his find."He will likely get a [finder’s] fee," he told Agence France-Presse, "but the objects found belong to the public, in accordance with Swiss law." The coins will be displayed at the Vindonissa de Brugg Museum, which specializes in Roman history, in the Swiss canton of Aargau . SHIPPING & RETURNS/REFUNDS: We always ship books domestically (within the USA) via USPS INSURED media mail (“book rate”). Most international orders cost an additional $17.99 to $48.99 for an insured shipment in a heavily padded mailer. There is also a discount program which can cut postage costs by 50% to 75% if you’re buying about half-a-dozen books or more (5 kilos+). Our postage charges are as reasonable as USPS rates allow. ADDITIONAL PURCHASES do receive a VERY LARGE discount, typically about $5 per book (for each additional book after the first) so as to reward you for the economies of combined shipping/insurance costs. Your purchase will ordinarily be shipped within 48 hours of payment. We package as well as anyone in the business, with lots of protective padding and containers. All of our shipments are fully insured against loss, and our shipping rates include the cost of this coverage (through,, the USPS, UPS, or Fed-Ex). International tracking is provided free by the USPS for certain countries, other countries are at additional cost. We do offer U.S. Postal Service Priority Mail, Registered Mail, and Express Mail for both international and domestic shipments, as well United Parcel Service (UPS) and Federal Express (Fed-Ex). Please ask for a rate quotation. Please note for international purchasers we will do everything we can to minimize your liability for VAT and/or duties. But we cannot assume any responsibility or liability for whatever taxes or duties may be levied on your purchase by the country of your residence. If you don’t like the tax and duty schemes your government imposes, please complain to them. We have no ability to influence or moderate your country’s tax/duty schemes. If upon receipt of the item you are disappointed for any reason whatever, I offer a no questions asked 30-day return policy. Send it back, I will give you a complete refund of the purchase price; 1) less our original shipping/insurance costs, 2) less non-refundable eBay payment processing fees. Please note that eBay does NOT refund payment processing fees. Even if you “accidentally” purchase something and then cancel the purchase before it is shipped, eBay will not refund their processing fees. So all refunds for any reason, without exception, do not include eBay payment processing fees (typically between 5% and 15%) and shipping/insurance costs (if any). If you’re unhappy with eBay’s “no fee refund” policy, and we are EXTREMELY unhappy, please voice your displeasure by contacting eBay. We have no ability to influence, modify or waive eBay policies. ABOUT US: Prior to our retirement we used to travel to Europe and Central Asia several times a year. Most of the items we offer came from acquisitions we made in Eastern Europe, India, and from the Levant (Eastern Mediterranean/Near East) during these years from various institutions and dealers. Much of what we generate on Etsy, Amazon and Ebay goes to support The Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, as well as some other worthy institutions in Europe and Asia connected with Anthropology and Archaeology. Though we have a collection of ancient coins numbering in the tens of thousands, our primary interests are ancient jewelry and gemstones. Prior to our retirement we traveled to Russia every year seeking antique gemstones and jewelry from one of the globe’s most prolific gemstone producing and cutting centers, the area between Chelyabinsk and Yekaterinburg, Russia. From all corners of Siberia, as well as from India, Ceylon, Burma and Siam, gemstones have for centuries gone to Yekaterinburg where they have been cut and incorporated into the fabulous jewelry for which the Czars and the royal families of Europe were famous for. My wife grew up and received a university education in the Southern Urals of Russia, just a few hours away from the mountains of Siberia, where alexandrite, diamond, emerald, sapphire, chrysoberyl, topaz, demantoid garnet, and many other rare and precious gemstones are produced. Though perhaps difficult to find in the USA, antique gemstones are commonly unmounted from old, broken settings – the gold reused – the gemstones recut and reset. Before these gorgeous antique gemstones are recut, we try to acquire the best of them in their original, antique, hand-finished state – most of them centuries old. We believe that the work created by these long-gone master artisans is worth protecting and preserving rather than destroying this heritage of antique gemstones by recutting the original work out of existence. That by preserving their work, in a sense, we are preserving their lives and the legacy they left for modern times. Far better to appreciate their craft than to destroy it with modern cutting. Not everyone agrees – fully 95% or more of the antique gemstones which come into these marketplaces are recut, and the heritage of the past lost. But if you agree with us that the past is worth protecting, and that past lives and the produce of those lives still matters today, consider buying an antique, hand cut, natural gemstone rather than one of the mass-produced machine cut (often synthetic or “lab produced”) gemstones which dominate the market today. We can set most any antique gemstone you purchase from us in your choice of styles and metals ranging from rings to pendants to earrings and bracelets; in sterling silver, 14kt solid gold, and 14kt gold fill. When you purchase from us, you can count on quick shipping and careful, secure packaging. We would be happy to provide you with a certificate/guarantee of authenticity for any item you purchase from us. There is a $3 fee for mailing under separate cover. I will always respond to every inquiry whether via email or eBay message, so please feel free to write. Condition: VERY GOOD. Unread but with a creased back cover. See detailed description below., Length: 48 pages, Dimensions: 7½ x 7¼ inches, Publisher: British Museum (2010), Format: Oversized softcover

PicClick Insights - Roman Britainnia Province Lost Emperor Carausius Coins AD286 Frome Hoard RareOOP PicClick Exclusive

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