Scotland Citrine 74ct Handcrafted Medieval Cairn Stone Merchant Money Amulet

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Seller: ancientgifts ✉️ (5,288) 100%, Location: Lummi Island, Washington, US, Ships to: WORLDWIDE, Item: 382662119264 Scotland Citrine 74ct Handcrafted Medieval Cairn Stone Merchant Money Amulet. Handcrafted Genuine Natural Russian Seventy-Four and One-Half Carat Checkerboard Faceted Old-Fashioned (“Cushion”) Cut Madeira Orange Citrine Semi-Precious Gemstone. ORIGIN: The Ural Mountains, Siberia, Russia. CLASSIFICATION: Madeira Orange (Cognac) Checkerboard Faceted “Old-Fashioned”/”Cushion” Cut Citrine Semi-Precious Gemstone.SIZE: Length: 30 1/4mm. Width: 27mm. Depth: 15mm. All measurements approximate.WEIGHT: 74.44 carats.NOTES: Upon request we can set your gemstones as a ring, pendant, or as earrings (click here for more information).DETAIL: The Romans, Greeks and Celts believed citrine to be the crystallized essence of sunshine, and believed it would aid in digestion and cleanse toxins from the body, and it was even carried as protection against snake venom. Here’s a magnificent, sparkling “madeira orange” citrine from the Ural Mountains of Russia. Gorgeous, vibrant, and vividly hued, this striking semi-precious gemstone is of very high quality and possesses breathtaking luster. It has been hand cut into a sparkling, brilliant, checkerboard faceted “old-fashioned” cut gemstone with lots of flash and depth. The cut is also known within the trade as a “cushion”. As you can see, this is an exceptionally good quality gemstone. Certainly to the eye it is nothing less than perfect, it is truly a beautiful, sumptuous, and regal-sized semi-precious gemstone.The gemstone was hand crafted and faceted by a Russian artisan, part of a centuries-long heritage renown for the production of the elaborate gemstones and jewelry of the Czars of Medieval, Renaissance, and Victorian Russia. Under magnification the gemstone shows the unmistakable characteristics of having been hand crafted. The coarseness of the handcrafted finish is considered appealing to most gemstone collectors, and is not considered a detriment, or to detract from the value of a gemstone. These characteristics are not only expected of hand-finished gemstones, most serious collectors consider such gemstones more desirable, possessed of greater character and uniqueness when compared to today's cookie-cutter mass-produced machine-faceted gemstones. Unlike today’s computer controlled machine produced gemstones that approach flawlessness in a perfect finish, the cut and finish of a handcrafted gemstone such as this is the cultural legacy passed onwards by artisans who lived centuries ago.This gemstone has great luster and sparkle, and to the eye is completely transparent, but one cannot say with absolute certainty that it is absolutely flawless. True, any blemishes it possesses are not visible to the naked eye, and even at 600% as in these photo enlargements here (or under a 5x jeweler’s loupe) there are no discernible flaws. However we hesitate to use the word “flawless”, as sooner or later blemishes will show up at higher levels of magnification with almost every natural gemstone. An absolutely flawless gemstone is very rare in nature (and usually turns out to be synthetic). However the gemstone can be characterized at a minimum, to use trade jargon, as "loupe clean". To the eye it is indeed flawless; even to a jeweler’s loupe it is clean. Close examination with a jeweler’s loupe will however reveal occasional slight irregularities in the faceting and finish. Naturally these characteristics are expected of hand-finished gemstones. However for most, the unique nature and character of handcrafted gemstones such as this more than makes up for imperfect finishes which by and large, are only noticed under high magnification.HISTORY OF CITRINE: Citrine, like Amethyst, is part of the quartz family. Citrine is the rarest of the quartz gemstones, and is colored by trace amounts of iron. Citrine takes its name from the Latin "citrus" for citrus tree. The first description of citrine in the ancient sources comes from the fourth century B.C. Greeks. The Greeks and Romans used citrine for intaglios (signet rings) and in jewelry as cabochon (polished) gemstones during the first and second centuries A.D. Since trade in the first few centuries A.D. was brisk between the Romans and India, it's very likely that the Romans got their stones from southern India, an area not only rich in gems but also a major bead making and lapidary center.The gemstones would reached Rome either via the Silk Route (if overland) or if by sea, they would have crossed the Arabian and Red Sea by ship, then overland to Alexandria in Egypt, before being distributed by trade across and around the Mediterranean. Citrine was also worn in the classical world as a protective talisman and used for medicinal purposes. The Romans and Greeks believed it to be the crystallized essence of sunshine, and believed it would aid in digestion and cleanse toxins from the body. Citrine was carried as protection against snake venom, and was believed to be sacred to the healing deities Apollo and Aesclepius. Many biblical scholars believe that citrine was the tenth of the twelve gemstone varieties described in the Bible as adorning the breastplate (hoshen) of the high priests of Yahweh. In ancient India citrine was used to protect children from evil spirits, and as an aid finding a suitable match for marriage. In the Middle Ages citrine was associated with wealth and prosperity (perhaps because of its gold color) and was often referred to as the “Merchant Stone”. Many shopkeepers kept this gem as a talisman believing that it would enhance their business fortune. It was believed that if one kept a piece of citrine in a drawer, one's wealth would accumulate.As a talisman, it was also believed in the Middle Ages to be useful in eliminating sleep disorders such as insomnia, bad dreams and nightmares. Medieval Arab scholars and scientists believed that citrine was one of the components of gold. Citrine was also very popular during the Middle Ages with the Celts and Scots. Citrine served as a protective talisman against the plague, bad skin and evil thoughts. Citrine was also employed as a charm against the poisonous bite of Scotland's one venomous snake, the vipera berus, an adder found in the Scottish Highlands. The use of Citrine as a talisman to protect against the plague was also common to all of Medieval Europe.Beginning in the seventeenth century, craftsmen of Scottish weapons began to incorporate citrine or smoky quartz from the Cairngorm Mountains into shoulder brooches, kilt pins and dirk pommels. Both gemstones were oftentimes set into the pommel of the Scottish dirk, or “black dagger” (“sgian dubh”), a long dagger with a straight blade that is a prerequisite of Highland costume. Citrine enjoyed a surge of popularity in the late Victorian era and was often set with other semiprecious stones such as bloodstones, carnelian and garnets.During the Art Deco period between World Wars I and II, large citrines were set in many prized pieces, including the massive and elaborate Art Deco inspired jewelry pieces made for big Hollywood stars such as Greta Garbo and Joan Crawford. Most citrine today comes from mines in Brazil, but it is actually treated amethyst, converted to citrine by the application of high heat. Natural citrine is actually fairly rare, and typically comes from deposits in Scotland, France, Madagascar, and the Ural Mountains in Russia. Throughout the history of the ancient world, gemstones were believed capable of curing illness and providing protection. Found in Egypt dated 1500 B. C., the "Papyrus Ebers" offered one of most complete therapeutic manuscripts containing prescriptions using gemstones and minerals. Gemstones were not only valued for their medicinal and protective properties, but also for educational and spiritual enhancement. In these as well as other ancient cultures, it was believed that citrine would ward off evil thoughts, dispel nightmares, and would bring out lightheartedness and joy of spirit. There were many medicinal applications for citrine. It was believed that soaking a citrine in pure water rendered an elixir which would release toxins from the body. This elixir was also believed helpful for women and their menstrual problems, and for relieving menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes, by balancing the hormones and alleviating fatigue. It was also very popular with women as wearing the gemstone was believed to be helpful in eliminating cellulite. Citrine was also believed useful in the treatment of urinary, bladder, kidney, liver and digestive diseases, and was also used to treat imbalances in the thyroid gland. Citrine was also believed to be a tonic for the circulatory system, helping cleanse the blood and useful in treating high blood pressure and diabetes.It was also believed to enhance the passage of electrical impulses within the nervous system and improve the functionality of the endocrine system. Citrine was also believed effective in reversing degenerative diseases, and was believed useful in treating gangrene. It was used to stimulate the digestive system, the spleen, and the pancreas. It was also used to help treat eye problems, to increases blood circulation, and to activate the thymus. It was also used to treat lethargy and obesity. On the metaphysical plane, citrine was believed to be a powerful cleanser and regenerator helpful in the areas of self-healing, inspiration and self-improvement.Carrying the power of the sun, it was also considered to aid in overcoming depression, irrational mood swings, low self-esteem, self-destructive behavior, fears and phobias. Citrine was also believed to heighten sensuality and sexuality. One’s sense of self, it was believed, became more radiant with a citrine and was believed to assist one in optimistically looking forward to the future rather than hanging on to the past. Mentally it was believed to awaken the higher mind, expand conscious awareness and improve clarity of thought, and to promote inner calm so that wisdom could emerge.It was also believed to stimulate intellect and mental activity, improve memory, overcome difficulty verbalizing thoughts and feelings, and helping to find solutions to problems. Citrine was also believed to encourage the acceptance of constructive criticism. Holding a citrine was believed to assist one in remaining calm in the most challenging of situations. Along this vein, citrine was believed effective in drawing off stress and negativity, and conducive to bringing a quiet, refreshing peace. It was believed to stop anger and destructive tendencies, and to impart flexibility and openness to new experiences.SHIPPING & RETURNS/REFUNDS: Your purchase will ordinarily be shipped within 48 hours of payment. We package as well as anyone in the business, with lots of protective padding and containers. All of our shipments are fully insured against loss, and our shipping rates include the cost of this coverage (through stamps.com, Shipsaver.com, the USPS, UPS, or Fed-Ex). International tracking is provided free by the USPS for certain countries, other countries are at additional cost. ADDITIONAL PURCHASES do receive a VERY LARGE discount, typically about $5 per item so as to reward you for the economies of combined shipping/insurance costs. We do offer U.S. Postal Service Priority Mail, Registered Mail, and Express Mail for both international and domestic shipments, as well United Parcel Service (UPS) and Federal Express (Fed-Ex). Please ask for a rate quotation. We will accept whatever payment method you are most comfortable with. Please note for international purchasers we will do everything we can to minimize your liability for VAT and/or duties. But we cannot assume any responsibility or liability for whatever taxes or duties may be levied on your purchase by the country of your residence. If you don’t like the tax and duty schemes your government imposes, please complain to them. We have no ability to influence or moderate your country’s tax/duty schemes. If upon receipt of the item you are disappointed for any reason whatever, I offer a no questions asked 30-day return policy. Send it back, I will give you a complete refund of the purchase price; 1) less our original shipping/insurance costs, 2) less non-refundable eBay payment processing fees. Please note that eBay does NOT refund payment processing fees. Even if you “accidentally” purchase something and then cancel the purchase before it is shipped, eBay will not refund their processing fees. So all refunds for any reason, without exception, do not include eBay payment processing fees (typically between 5% and 15%) and shipping/insurance costs (if any). If you’re unhappy with eBay’s “no fee refund” policy, and we are EXTREMELY unhappy, please voice your displeasure by contacting eBay. We have no ability to influence, modify or waive eBay policies. ABOUT US: Prior to our retirement we used to travel to Eastern Europe and Central Asia several times a year seeking antique gemstones and jewelry from the globe’s most prolific gemstone producing and cutting centers. Most of the items we offer came from acquisitions we made in Eastern Europe, India, and from the Levant (Eastern Mediterranean/Near East) during these years from various institutions and dealers. Much of what we generate on Etsy, Amazon and Ebay goes to support worthy institutions in Europe and Asia connected with Anthropology and Archaeology. Though we have a collection of ancient coins numbering in the tens of thousands, our primary interests are ancient/antique jewelry and gemstones, a reflection of our academic backgrounds. Though perhaps difficult to find in the USA, in Eastern Europe and Central Asia antique gemstones are commonly dismounted from old, broken settings – the gold reused – the gemstones recut and reset. Before these gorgeous antique gemstones are recut, we try to acquire the best of them in their original, antique, hand-finished state – most of them originally crafted a century or more ago. We believe that the work created by these long-gone master artisans is worth protecting and preserving rather than destroying this heritage of antique gemstones by recutting the original work out of existence. That by preserving their work, in a sense, we are preserving their lives and the legacy they left for modern times. Far better to appreciate their craft than to destroy it with modern cutting. Not everyone agrees – fully 95% or more of the antique gemstones which come into these marketplaces are recut, and the heritage of the past lost. But if you agree with us that the past is worth protecting, and that past lives and the produce of those lives still matters today, consider buying an antique, hand cut, natural gemstone rather than one of the mass-produced machine cut (often synthetic or “lab produced”) gemstones which dominate the market today. We can set most any antique gemstone you purchase from us in your choice of styles and metals ranging from rings to pendants to earrings and bracelets; in sterling silver, 14kt solid gold, and 14kt gold fill. When you purchase from us, you can count on quick shipping and careful, secure packaging. We would be happy to provide you with a certificate/guarantee of authenticity for any item you purchase from us. There is a $3 fee for mailing under separate cover. I will always respond to every inquiry whether via email or eBay message, so please feel free to write. Condition: Please see detailed condition description below (click "additional details" button on your cell phone or tablet)., Gemstone: Citrine, Material: Gemstone, Color: Yellow, Cut: Checkerboard Old Fashioned

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