Seller: highrating_lowprice (21,261) 100%, Location: Rego Park, New York, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 230976931644 Item: i32004 Authentic Ancient Coin of: Greek Seleucid Kingdom Seleukos II, Kallinikos - King: 246-226 B.C. Bronze 20mm (7.22 grams) Struck circa: 246-226 B.C. Reference: Sear 6910 Head of Athena right, in crested Corinthian helmet. ÃƒÅ½Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ÃƒÅ½Ã¢â‚¬ËœÃƒÅ½Ã‚Â£ÃƒÅ½Ã¢â€žÂ¢ÃƒÅ½Ã¢â‚¬ÂºÃƒÅ½Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ÃƒÅ½Ã‚Â©ÃƒÅ½Ã‚Â£ / ÃƒÅ½Ã‚Â£ÃƒÅ½Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ÃƒÅ½Ã¢â‚¬ÂºÃƒÅ½Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ÃƒÅ½Ã‚Â¥ÃƒÅ½Ã…Â¡ÃƒÅ½Ã…Â¸ÃƒÅ½Ã‚Â¥ either side of Nike standing left, holding palm and crowning large anchor before her; EY in field to left, monogram to right. The elder son of Antiochos II and Laodike, Seleukos spent much much of his reign in conflict with his younger brother, Antiochos Hierax, who ruled independently in Asia Minor. Seleukos was killed by a fall from his horse after a troubled reign of twenty years. You are bidding on the exact item pictured, provided with a Certificate of Authenticity and Lifetime Guarantee of Authenticity. Helmeted Athena with the cista and Erichthonius in his serpent form. Roman, first century (Louvre Museum) In Greek religion and mythology , Athena or Athene, also referred to as Pallas Athena/Athene , is the goddess of wisdom, courage, inspiration, civilization, law and justice, just warfare, mathematics, strength, strategy, the arts, crafts, and skill. Minerva is the Roman goddess identified with Athena. Marble Greek copy signed "Antiokhos", a first century BC variant of Phidias ' fifth-century Athena Promachos that stood on the Acropolis Athena is also a shrewd companion of heroes and is the goddess of heroic endeavour. She is the virgin patroness of Athens . The Athenians founded the Parthenon on the Acropolis of her namesake city, Athens (Athena Parthenos), in her honour. Athena's veneration as the patron of Athens seems to have existed from the earliest times, and was so persistent that archaic myths about her were recast to adapt to cultural changes. In her role as a protector of the city (polis), many people throughout the Greek world worshiped Athena as Athena Polias (Ã¡Â¼Ë†ÃŽÂ¸ÃŽÂ·ÃŽÂ½Ã¡Â¾Â¶ ÃŽ ÃŽÂ¿ÃŽÂ»ÃŽÂ¹ÃŽÂ¬Ã�â€š "Athena of the city"). The city of Athens and the goddess Athena essentially bear the same name, "Athenai" meaning "[many] Athenas". Origin traditions The Greek philosopher Plato (429Ã¢â‚¬â€œ347 BC) identified her with the Libyan deity Neith , the war goddess and huntress deity of the Egyptians since the ancient Pre-Dynastic period, who was also identified with weaving . This is sensible, as some Greeks identified Athena's birthplace, in certain mythological renditions, as being beside Libya's Triton River in North Africa. Scholar Martin Bernal created the controversial Black Athena Theory to explain this associated origin by claiming that the conception of Neith was brought to Greece from Egypt, along with "an enormous number of features of civilization and culture in the third and second millennia." Patroness Athenian tetradrachm representing the goddess Athena Athena as the goddess of philosophy became an aspect of the cult in Classical Greece during the late 5th century BC. She is the patroness of various crafts, especially of weaving , as Athena Ergane, and was honored as such at festivals such as Chalceia . The metalwork of weapons also fell under her patronage. She led battles (Athena Promachos or the warrior maiden Athena Parthenos) as the disciplined, strategic side of war, in contrast to her brother Ares, the patron of violence, bloodlust and slaughterÃ¢â‚¬â€�"the raw force of war". Athena's wisdom includes the cunning intelligence (metis) of such figures as Odysseus . Not only was this version of Athena the opposite of Ares in combat, it was also the polar opposite of the serene earth goddess version of the deity, Athena Polias. Athena appears in Greek mythology as the patron and helper of many heroes, including Odysseus , Jason , and Heracles . In Classical Greek myths, she never consorts with a lover, nor does she ever marry, earning the title Athena Parthenos. A remnant of archaic myth depicts her as the adoptive mother of Erechtheus /Erichthonius through the foiled rape by Hephaestus . Other variants relate that Erichthonius, the serpent that accompanied Athena, was born to Gaia : when the rape failed, the semen landed on Gaia and impregnated her. After Erechthonius was born, Gaia gave him to Athena. Though Athena is a goddess of war strategy, she disliked fighting without purpose and preferred to use wisdom to settle predicaments. The goddess only encouraged fighting for a reasonable cause or to resolve conflict. As patron of Athens she fought in the Trojan war on the side of the Achaeans. Mythology Birth Olympian version After he swallowed her pregnant mother, Metis , Athena is "born" from Zeus' forehead as he grasps the clothing of Eileithyia on the right Ã¢â‚¬â€�black-figured amphora , 550Ã¢â‚¬â€œ525 BC, Louvre. Although Athena appears before Zeus at Knossos Ã¢â‚¬â€�in Linear B , as a-ta-na po-ti-ni-ja, "Mistress Athena"Ã¢â‚¬â€�in the Classical Olympian pantheon , Athena was remade as the favorite daughter of Zeus, born fully armed from his forehead. The story of her birth comes in several versions. In the one most commonly cited, Zeus lay with Metis, the goddess of crafty thought and wisdom, but he immediately feared the consequences. It had been prophesied that Metis would bear children more powerful than the sire, even Zeus himself. In order to forestall these dire consequences, after lying with Metis, Zeus "put her away inside his own belly;" he "swallowed her down all of a sudden." He was too late: Metis had already conceived. Eventually Zeus experienced an enormous headache; Prometheus , Hephaestus , Hermes , Ares, or Palaemon (depending on the sources examined) cleaved Zeus's head with the double-headed Minoan axe, the labrys . Athena leaped from Zeus's head, fully grown and armed, with a shoutÃ¢â‚¬â€� "and pealed to the broad sky her clarion cry of war. And Ouranos trembled to hear, and Mother Gaia..." (Pindar, Seventh Olympian Ode). Plato, in the Laws , attributes the cult of Athena to the culture of Crete , introduced, he thought, from Libya during the dawn of Greek culture. Classical myths thereafter note that Hera was so annoyed at Zeus for having produced a child that she conceived and bore Hephaestus by herself . Plato, in Cratylus (407B) gave the etymology of her name as signifying "the mind of god", theou noesis. The Christian apologist of the 2nd century Justin Martyr takes issue with those pagans who erect at springs images of Kore , whom he interprets as Athena: "They said that Athena was the daughter of Zeus not from intercourse, but when the god had in mind the making of a world through a word (logos) his first thought was Athena". Other origin tales Some origin stories tell of Athena having been born outside of Olympus and raised by the god Triton. Fragments attributed by the Christian Eusebius of Caesarea to the semi-legendary Phoenician historian Sanchuniathon , which Eusebius thought had been written before the Trojan war , make Athena instead the daughter of Cronus , a king of Byblos who visited 'the inhabitable world' and bequeathed Attica to Athena. Sanchuniathon's account would make Athena the sister of Zeus and Hera, not Zeus' daughter. Pallas Athena The major competing tradition regarding Athena's parentage involves some of her more mysterious epithets : Pallas, as in the ancient-Greek ÃŽ ÃŽÂ±ÃŽÂ»ÃŽÂ»ÃŽÂ¬Ã�â€š ÃŽâ€ ÃŽÂ¸ÃŽÂ®ÃŽÂ½ÃŽÂ· (also Pallantias) and Tritogeneia (also Trito, Tritonis, Tritoneia, Tritogenes). A distant archaic separate entity named Pallas is invoked as Athena's father, sister, foster sister, companion, or opponent in battle. Pallas is often a nymph, a daughter of Triton (a sea god), and a childhood friend of Athena. In every case, Athena kills Pallas, accidentally, and thereby gains the name for herself. In one telling, they practice the arts of war together until one day they have a falling out. As Pallas is about to strike Athena, Zeus intervenes. With Pallas stunned by a blow from Zeus, Athena takes advantage and kills her. Distraught over what she has done, Athena takes the name Pallas for herself. When Pallas is Athena's father the events, including her birth, are located near a body of water named Triton or Tritonis . When Pallas is Athena's sister or foster-sister, Athena's father or foster-father is Triton , the son and herald of Poseidon . But Athena may be called the daughter of Poseidon and a nymph named Tritonis, without involving Pallas. Likewise, Pallas may be Athena's father or opponent, without involving Triton. On this topic, Walter Burkert says "she is the Pallas of Athens, Pallas Athenaie, just as Hera of Argos is Here Argeie. For the Athenians, Burkert notes, Athena was simply "the Goddess", hÃ„â€œ theÃƒÂ³s, certainly an ancient title. Athena Parthenos: Virgin Athena Athena never had a consort or lover and is thus known as Athena Parthenos , "Virgin Athena". Her most famous temple, the Parthenon , on the Acropolis in Athens takes its name from this title. It is not merely an observation of her virginity, but a recognition of her role as enforcer of rules of sexual modesty and ritual mystery. Even beyond recognition, the Athenians allotted the goddess value based on this pureness of virginity as it upheld a rudiment of female behavior in the patriarchal society. Kerenyi's study and theory of Athena accredits her virginal toponym to be a result of the relationship to her father Zeus and a vital, cohesive piece of her character throughout the ages. This role is expressed in a number of stories about Athena. Marinus of Neapolis reports that when Christians removed the statue of the Goddess from the Parthenon , a beautiful woman appeared in a dream to Proclus , a devotee of Athena, and announced that the "Athenian Lady" wished to dwell with him. Erichthonius Hephaestus attempted to rape Athena, but she eluded him. His semen fell to the earth and impregnated the soil, and Erichthonius was born from the Earth, Gaia . Athena then raised the baby as a foster mother. Athena puts the infant Erichthonius into a small box (cista) which she entrusts to the care of three sisters, Herse , Pandrosus , and Aglaulus of Athens. The goddess does not tell them what the box contains, but warns them not to open it until she returns. One or two sisters opens the cista to reveal Erichthonius, in the form (or embrace) of a serpent . The serpent, or insanity induced by the sight, drives Herse and Aglaulus to throw themselves off the Acropolis . Jane Harrison (Prolegomena) finds this to be a simple cautionary tale directed at young girls carrying the cista in the Thesmophoria rituals, to discourage them from opening it outside the proper context. Another version of the myth of the Athenian maidens is told in Metamorphoses by the Roman poet Ovid (43 BC Ã¢â‚¬â€œ 17 AD); in this late variant Hermes falls in love with Herse. Herse, Aglaulus, and Pandrosus go to the temple to offer sacrifices to Athena. Hermes demands help from Aglaulus to seduce Herse. Aglaulus demands money in exchange. Hermes gives her the money the sisters have already offered to Athena. As punishment for Aglaulus's greed, Athena asks the goddess Envy to make Aglaulus jealous of Herse. When Hermes arrives to seduce Herse, Aglaulus stands in his way instead of helping him as she had agreed. He turns her to stone. With this mythic origin, Erichthonius became the founder-king of Athens, and many beneficial changes to Athenian culture were ascribed to him. During this time, Athena frequently protected him. Medusa and Tiresias In a late myth, Medusa , unlike her sister Gorgons, came to be viewed by the Greeks of the 5th century as a beautiful mortal that served as priestess in Athena's temple. Poseidon liked Medusa, and decided to rape her in the temple of Athena, refusing to allow her vow of chastity to stand in his way. Upon discovering the desecration of her temple, Athena changed Medusa's form to match that of her sister Gorgons as punishment. Medusa's hair turned into snakes, her lower body was transformed also, and meeting her gaze would turn any living man to stone. In the earliest myths, there is only one Gorgon , but there are two snakes that form a belt around her waist. In one version of the Tiresias myth, Tiresias stumbled upon Athena bathing, and he was struck blind by her to ensure he would never again see what man was not intended to see. But having lost his eyesight, he was given a special giftÃ¢â‚¬â€�to be able to understand the language of the birds (and thus to foretell the future). Lady of Athens Athena competed with Poseidon to be the patron deity of Athens, which was yet unnamed, in a version of one founding myth . They agreed that each would give the Athenians one gift and that the Athenians would choose the gift they preferred. Poseidon struck the ground with his trident and a salt water spring sprang up; this gave them a means of trade and waterÃ¢â‚¬â€�Athens at its height was a significant sea power, defeating the Persian fleet at the Battle of Salamis Ã¢â‚¬â€�but the water was salty and not very good for drinking. Athena, however, offered them the first domesticated olive tree . The Athenians (or their king, Cecrops ) accepted the olive tree and with it the patronage of Athena, for the olive tree brought wood, oil, and food. Robert Graves was of the opinion that "Poseidon's attempts to take possession of certain cities are political myths" which reflect the conflict between matriarchal and patriarchal religions. Other sites of cult Athena also was the patron goddess of several other Greek cities, notably Sparta, where the archaic cult of Athena Alea had its sanctuaries in the surrounding villages of Mantineia and, notably, Tegea . In Sparta itself, the temple of Athena KhalkÃƒÂ oikos (Athena "of the Brazen House", often latinized as Chalcioecus) was the grandest and located on the Spartan acropolis; presumably it had a roof of bronze. The forecourt of the Brazen House was the place where the most solemn religious functions in Sparta took place. Tegea was an important religious center of ancient Greece, containing the Temple of Athena Alea . The temenos was founded by Aleus , Pausanias was informed. Votive bronzes at the site from the Geometric and Archaic periods take the forms of horses and deer; there are sealstone and fibulae . In the Archaic period the nine villages that underlie Tegea banded together in a synoecism to form one city. Tegea was listed in Homer 's Catalogue of Ships as one of the cities that contributed ships and men for the Achaean assault on Troy . Athena and Herakles on an Attic red-figure kylix , 480Ã¢â‚¬â€œ470 BC. Counselor Later myths of the Classical Greeks relate that Athena guided Perseus in his quest to behead Medusa . She instructed Heracles to skin the Nemean Lion by using its own claws to cut through its thick hide. She also helped Heracles to defeat the Stymphalian Birds , and to navigate the underworld so as to capture Cerberus . In The Odyssey , Odysseus ' cunning and shrewd nature quickly won Athena's favour. In the realistic epic mode, however, she largely is confined to aiding him only from afar, as by implanting thoughts in his head during his journey home from Troy. Her guiding actions reinforce her role as the "protectress of heroes" or as mythologian Walter Friedrich Otto dubbed her the "goddess of nearness" due to her mentoring and motherly probing. It is not until he washes up on the shore of an island where Nausicaa is washing her clothes that Athena arrives personally to provide more tangible assistance. She appears in Nausicaa's dreams to ensure that the princess rescues Odysseus and plays a role in his eventual escort to Ithaca. Athena appears in disguise to Odysseus upon his arrival, initially lying and telling him that Penelope, his wife, has remarried and that he is believed to be dead; but Odysseus lies back to her, employing skillful prevarications to protect himself. Impressed by his resolve and shrewdness, she reveals herself and tells him what he needs to know in order to win back his kingdom. She disguises him as an elderly man or beggar so that he cannot be noticed by the suitors or Penelope, and helps him to defeat the suitors. She also plays a role in ending the resultant feud against the suitors' relatives. She instructs Laertes to throw his spear and to kill the father of Antinous, Eupeithes. Judgment of Paris Aphrodite is being surveyed by Paris, while Athena (the leftmost figure) and Hera stand nearby. El Juicio de Paris by Enrique Simonet , ca. 1904 All the gods and goddesses as well as various mortals were invited to the marriage of Peleus and Thetis (the eventual parents of Achilles ). Only Eris , goddess of discord, was not invited. She was annoyed at this, so she arrived with a golden apple inscribed with the word ÃŽÂºÃŽÂ±ÃŽÂ»ÃŽÂ»ÃŽÂ¯Ã�Æ’Ã�â€žÃ¡Â¿Æ’ (kallistÃ„â€œi, "for the fairest"), which she threw among the goddesses. Aphrodite, Hera, and Athena all claimed to be the fairest, and thus the rightful owner of the apple. The goddesses chose to place the matter before Zeus, who, not wanting to favor one of the goddesses, put the choice into the hands of Paris, a Trojan prince. After bathing in the spring of Mount Ida (where Troy was situated), the goddesses appeared before Paris. The goddesses undressed and presented themselves to Paris naked, either at his request or for the sake of winning. Paris is awarding the apple to Aphrodite, while Athena makes a face. Urteil des Paris by Anton Raphael Mengs , ca. 1757 Still, Paris could not decide, as all three were ideally beautiful, so they resorted to bribes. Hera tried to bribe Paris with control over all Asia and Europe , while Athena offered wisdom, fame and glory in battle, but Aphrodite came forth and whispered to Paris that if he were to choose her as the fairest he would have the most beautiful mortal woman in the world as a wife, and he accordingly chose her. This woman was Helen , who was, unfortunately for Paris, already married to King Menelaus of Sparta . The other two goddesses were enraged by this and through Helen's abduction by Paris they brought about the Trojan War . Roman fable of Arachne The fable of Arachne is a late Roman addition to Classical Greek mythology  but does not appear in the myth repertoire of the Attic vase-painters. Arachne's name simply means spider (ÃŽÂ±Ã�ï¿½ÃŽÂ¬Ã�â€¡ÃŽÂ½ÃŽÂ·). Arachne was the daughter of a famous dyer in Tyrian purple in Hypaipa of Lydia , and a weaving student of Athena. She became so conceited of her skill as a weaver that she began claiming that her skill was greater than that of Athena herself. Athena gave Arachne a chance to redeem herself by assuming the form of an old woman and warning Arachne not to offend the deities. Arachne scoffed and wished for a weaving contest, so she could prove her skill. Athena wove the scene of her victory over Poseidon that had inspired her patronage of Athens. According to Ovid's Latin narrative, Arachne's tapestry featured twenty-one episodes of the infidelity of the deities, including Zeus being unfaithful with Leda , with Europa , and with DanaÃƒÂ« . Athena admitted that Arachne's work was flawless, but was outraged at Arachne's offensive choice of subjects that displayed the failings and transgressions of the deities. Finally, losing her temper, Athena destroyed Arachne's tapestry and loom, striking it with her shuttle. Athena then struck Arachne with her staff, which changed her into a spider. In some versions, the destruction of her loom leads Arachne to hang herself in despair; Athena takes pity on her, and transforms her into a spider. In the aforementioned version, Arachne weaved scenes of joy while Athena weaved scenes of horror. The fable suggests that the origin of weaving lay in imitation of spiders and that it was considered to have been perfected first in Asia Minor . Cult and attributes Athena's epithets include ÃŽâ€ Ã�â€žÃ�ï¿½Ã�â€¦Ã�â€žÃ�Å½ÃŽÂ½ÃŽÂ·, Atrytone (= the unwearying), ÃŽ ÃŽÂ±Ã�ï¿½ÃŽÂ¸ÃŽÂ ÃŽÂ½ÃŽÂ¿Ã�â€š, ParthÃƒÂ©nos (= virgin), and ÃŽâ€° ÃŽ Ã�ï¿½Ã�Å’ÃŽÂ¼ÃŽÂ±Ã�â€¡ÃŽÂ¿Ã�â€š, Promachos (the First Fighter, i.e. she who fights in front). In poetry from Homer, an oral tradition of the eighth or seventh century BC, onward, Athena's most common epithet is glaukopis (ÃŽÂ³ÃŽÂ»ÃŽÂ±Ã�â€¦ÃŽÂºÃ�Å½Ã�â‚¬ÃŽÂ¹Ã�â€š), which usually is translated as, bright-eyed or with gleaming eyes. The word is a combination of glaukos (ÃŽÂ³ÃŽÂ»ÃŽÂ±Ã�ï¿½ÃŽÂºÃŽÂ¿Ã�â€š, meaning gleaming, silvery, and later, bluish-green or gray) and ops (Ã�Å½Ã�Ë†, eye, or sometimes, face). It is interesting to note that glaux (ÃŽÂ³ÃŽÂ»ÃŽÂ±Ã�ï¿½ÃŽÂ¾, "owl") is from the same root, presumably because of the bird's own distinctive eyes. The bird which sees well in the night is closely associated with the goddess of wisdom : in archaic images, Athena is frequently depicted with an owl named the Glaucus (or "owl of Athena" and later under the Roman Empire , "owl of Minerva ") perched on her hand. This pairing evolved in tangent so that even in present day the owl is upheld as a symbol of perspicacity and erudition. Unsurprisingly, the owl became a sort of Athenian mascot. The olive tree is likewise sacred to her. In earlier times, Athena may well have been a bird goddess , similar to the unknown goddess depicted with owls, wings, and bird talons on the Burney relief , a Mesopotamian terracotta relief of the early second millennium BC. Other epithets include: Aethyta under which she was worshiped in Megara . The word aithyia (ÃŽÂ±Ã¡Â¼Â´ÃŽÂ¸Ã�â€¦ÃŽÂ¹ÃŽÂ±) signifies a diver, and figuratively, a ship, so the name must reference Athena teaching the art of shipbuilding or navigation. In a temple at Phrixa in Elis, which was reportedly built by Clymenus, she was known as Cydonia. The various Athena subgroups, or cults, all branching from the central goddess herself often proctored various initiation rites of Grecian youth, for example, the passage into citizenship by young men and for women the elevation to the status of citizen wife. Her various cults were portals of a uniform socialization, even beyond mainland Greece. Epithets In the Iliad (4.514), the Homeric Hymns , and in Hesiod 's Theogony , Athena is given the curious epithet Tritogeneia. The meaning of this term is unclear. It seems to mean "Triton-born", perhaps indicating that the sea-deity was her parent according to some early myths. In Ovid's Metamorphoses Athena is occasionally referred to as "Tritonia". Another possible meaning may be triple-born or third-born, which may refer to a triad or to her status as the third daughter of Zeus or the fact she was born from Metis, Zeus, and herself; various legends list her as being the first child after Artemis and Apollo, though other legends identify her as Zeus' first child. The latter would have to be drawn from Classical myths, however, rather than earlier ones. In her role as judge at Orestes' trial on the murder of his mother, Clytemnestra (which he won), Athena won the epithet Athena Areia. Other epithets were Ageleia and Itonia . The Parthenon , Temple of Athena Parthenos Athena was given many other cult titles. She has the epithet Athena Ergane as the patron of craftsmen and artisans. With the epithet Athena Parthenos ("virgin") she was especially worshipped in the festivals of the Panathenaea and Pamboeotia where both militaristic and athletic displays took place. With the epithet Athena Promachos she led in battle (see Promachos ). With the epithet Athena Polias ("of the city"), Athena was the protector of not only Athens but also of many other cities, including Argos , Sparta , Gortyn , Lindos , and Larisa . She was given the epithet Athena Hippeia or Athena Hippia ("horse"), as the inventor of the chariot , and was worshiped under this title at Athens, Tegea and Olympia . As Athena Hippeia she was given an alternative parentage: Poseidon and Polyphe , daughter of Oceanus . In each of these cities her temple frequently was the major temple on the acropolis. Athena often was equated with Aphaea , a local goddess of the island of Aegina , located near Athens , once Aegina was under Athenian's power. The Greek historian Plutarch (46Ã¢â‚¬â€œ120 AD) also refers to an instance during the Parthenon's construction of her being called Athena Hygieia ("healer"): A strange accident happened in the course of building, which showed that the goddess was not averse to the work, but was aiding and co-operating to bring it to perfection. One of the artificers, the quickest and the handiest workman among them all, with a slip of his foot fell down from a great height, and lay in a miserable condition, the physicians having no hope of his recovery. When Pericles was in distress about this, the goddess [Athena] appeared to him at night in a dream, and ordered a course of treatment, which he applied, and in a short time and with great ease cured the man. And upon this occasion it was that he set up a brass statue of Athena Hygeia, in the citadel near the altar, which they say was there before. But it was Phidias who wrought the goddess's image in gold, and he has his name inscribed on the pedestal as the workman of it. In classical times the Plynteria , or Ã¢â‚¬Å“Feast of AdorningÃ¢â‚¬ï¿½, was observed every May, it was a festival lasting five days. During this period the Priestesses of Athena, or Ã¢â‚¬Å“PlyntridesÃ¢â‚¬ï¿½, performed a cleansing ritual within Ã¢â‚¬Å“the ErecththeumÃ¢â‚¬ï¿½, the personal sanctuary of the goddess. Here Athena's statue was undressed, her clothes washed, and body purified. In Arcadia , she was assimilated with the ancient goddess Alea and worshiped as Athena Alea . In Classical art The Athena Giustiniani , a Roman copy of a Greek statue of Pallas Athena with her serpent, Erichthonius Classically, Athena is portrayed wearing a full- length chiton , and sometimes in armor, with her helmet raised high on the forehead to reveal the image of Nike . Her shield bears at its centre the aegis with the head of the gorgon (gorgoneion) in the center and snakes around the edge. It is in this standing posture that she was depicted in Phidias 's famous lost gold and ivory statue of her, 36 m tall, the Athena Parthenos in the Parthenon . Athena also often is depicted with an owl sitting on one of her shoulders. The Mourning Athena is a relief sculpture that dates around 460 BC and portrays a weary Athena resting on a staff. In earlier, archaic portraits of Athena in Black-figure pottery , the goddess retains some of her Minoan-Mycenaean character, such as great bird wings although this is not true of archaic sculpture such as those of Aphaean Athena , where Athena has subsumed an earlier, invisibly numinousÃ¢â‚¬â€�AphaeaÃ¢â‚¬â€�goddess with Cretan connections in her mythos. Other commonly received and repeated types of Athena in sculpture may be found in this list . Apart from her attributes, there seems to be a relative consensus in late sculpture from the Classical period, the 5th century onward, as to what Athena looked like. Most noticeable in the face is perhaps the full round strong, masculine chin with a high nose that has a high bridge as a natural extension of the forehead. The eyes typically are somewhat deeply set. The unsmiling lips are usually full, but the mouth is depicted fairly narrow, usually just slightly wider than the nose. The neck is somewhat long. The net result is a serene, serious, somewhat aloof, and very masculine beauty. Name, etymology, and origin Athena had a special relationship with Athens , as is shown by the etymological connection of the names of the goddess and the city. The citizens of Athens built a statue of Athena as a temple to the goddess, which had piercing eyes, a helmet on her head, attired with an aegis or cuirass , and an extremely long spear. It also had a crystal shield with the head of the Gorgon on it. A large snake accompanied her and she held the goddess of victory in her hand. Bust of Athena in the Glyptothek Athena is associated with Athens , a plural name because it was the place where she presided over her sisterhood, the Athenai, in earliest times: Mycenae was the city where the Goddess was called Mykene, and Mycenae is named in the plural for the sisterhood of females who tended her there. At Thebes she was called Thebe, and the city again a plural, Thebae (or Thebes, where the "s" is the plural formation). Similarly, at Athens she was called Athena, and the city Athenae (or Athens, again a plural)." Whether her name is attested in Eteocretan or not will have to wait for decipherment of Linear A . GÃƒÂ¼nther Neumann has suggested that Athena's name is possibly of Lydian origin; it may be a compound word derived in part from Tyrrhenian "ati", meaning mother and the name of the Hurrian goddess "Hannahannah" shortened in various places to "Ana". In Mycenaean Greek , at Knossos a single inscription A-ta-na po-ti-ni-ja /Athana potniya/ appears in the Linear B tablets from the Late Minoan II-era "Room of the Chariot Tablets"; these comprise the earliest Linear B archive anywhere. Although Athana potniya often is translated Mistress Athena, it literally means "the potnia of At(h)ana", which perhaps, means the Lady of Athens; Any connection to the city of Athens in the Knossos inscription is uncertain. We also find A-ta-no-dju-wa-ja /Athana diwya/, the final part being the Linear B spelling of what we know from Ancient Greek as Diwia (Mycenaean di-u-ja or di-wi-ja): divine Athena also was a weaver and the deity of crafts (see dyeus ). In his dialogue Cratylus , the Greek philosopher Plato , 428/427 BC Ã¢â‚¬â€œ 348/347 BC, gives the etymology of Athena's name, based on the view of the ancient Athenians: That is a graver matter, and there, my friend, the modern interpreters of Homer may, I think, assist in explaining the view of the ancients. For most of these in their explanations of the poet, assert that he meant by Athena "mind" [nous] and "intelligence" [dianoia], and the maker of names appears to have had a singular notion about her; and indeed calls her by a still higher title, "divine intelligence" [Theian noesis], as though he would say: This is she who has the mind better than others. Nor shall we be far wrong in supposing that the author of it wished to identify this Goddess with moral intelligence [en ethei noesin], and therefore gave her the name etheonoe; which, however, either he or his successors have altered into what they thought a nicer form, and called her Athena. Ã¢â‚¬â€�Plato, Cratylus, 407b Thus for Plato her name was to be derived from Greek Ã¡Â¼Ë†ÃŽÂ¸ÃŽÂµÃŽÂ¿ÃŽÂ½Ã�Å’ÃŽÂ±, AtheonÃƒÂ³aÃ¢â‚¬â€�which the later Greeks rationalised as from the deity's (theos) mind (nous). Plato noted that the Egyptian citizens of Sais in Egypt worshipped a goddess whose Egyptian name was Neith ; and they identified her with Athena. (Timaeus 21e), (Histories 2:170Ã¢â‚¬â€œ175). Some authors believe that, in early times, Athena was either an owl herself or a bird goddess in general: in Book 3 of the Odyssey , she takes the form of a sea-eagle . These authors argue that she dropped her prophylactic owl-mask before she lost her wings. "Athena, by the time she appears in art," Jane Ellen Harrison had remarked, "has completely shed her animal form, has reduced the shapes she once wore of snake and bird to attributes, but occasionally in black-figure vase-paintings she still appears with wings." Some Greek authors[who?] have derived natural symbols from the etymological roots of Athena's names to be aether, air, earth, and moon. This was one of the primary developments of scholarly exploration in the ancient world. Post-classical culture A neoclassical variant of Athena Promachos stands in front of the Austrian Parliament Building in Vienna. A brief summary of Athena's evolution of myriad motifs after her dominance in Greece may be seen as follows: The rise of Christianity in Greece largely ended the worship of Greek deities and polytheism in general, but she resurfaced in the Middle Ages as a defender of sagacity and virtue so that her masculine warrior status was still intact. (She may be found on some family crests of nobility.) During the Renaissance she donned the mantle of patron of the arts and human endeavor and finally although not ultimately, Athena personified the miracles of freedom and republic during the French Revolution. (A statue of the goddess was centered on the Place de la Revolution in Paris.) For over a century a full-scale replica of the Parthenon has stood in Nashville, Tennessee , which is known as the Athens of the South. In 1990, a gilded 41 feet (12.5 m) tall replica of Phidias' statue of Athena Parthenos was added. The state seal of California features an image of Athena (or Minerva) kneeling next to a brown grizzly bear. Athena is a natural patron of universities: she is the symbol of the Darmstadt University of Technology , in Germany, and the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro , in Brazil. Her image can be found in the shields of the Faculty of Philosophy and Letters and the Faculty of Sciences of the National Autonomous University of Mexico , where her owl is the symbol of the Faculty of Chemistry. At Bryn Mawr College in Pennsylvania a statue of Athena (a replica of the original bronze one in the arts and archaeology library) resides in the Great Hall. It is traditional at exam time for students to leave offerings to the goddess with a note asking for good luck, or to repent for accidentally breaking any of the college's numerous other traditions. Athena's owl also serves as the mascot of the college, and one of the college hymns is "Pallas Athena". Pallas Athena is the tutelary goddess of the international social fraternity Phi Delta Theta . Her owl is also a symbol of the fraternity. The title character in Edgar Allan Poe 's The Raven famously sits upon "a Bust of Pallas". Athena's Helmet is the central feature on the United States Military Academy crest . Athena is reported as a source of influence for feminist theologians such as Carol P. Christ . Jean Boucher 's statue of the seated skeptical thinker Ernest Renan , shown to the left, caused great controversy when it was installed in TrÃƒÂ©guier, Brittany in 1902. Renan's 1862 biography of Jesus had denied his divinity, and he had written the "Prayer on the Acropolis" addressed to the goddess Athena. The statue was placed in the square fronted by the cathedral. Renan's head was turned away from the building, while Athena, beside him, was depicted raising her arm, which was interpreted as indicating a challenge to the church during an anti-clerical phase in French official culture. The installation was accompanied by a mass protest from local Roman Catholics and a religious service against the growth of skepticism and secularism . Athena has been used numerous times as a symbol of a republic by different countries and appears on currency as she did on the ancient drachma of Athens. Athena (Minerva) is the subject of the $50 1915-S Panama-Pacific commemorative coin . At 2.5 troy oz (78 g) gold, this is the largest (by weight ) coin ever produced by the U.S. Mint . This was the first $50 coin issued by the U.S. Mint and no higher was produced until the production of the $100 platinum coins in 1997. Of course, in terms of face-value in adjusted dollars, the 1915 is the highest denomination ever issued by the U.S. Mint. Athena was depicted on the obverse of the Greek 100 drachmas banknote of 1978-2001. Another recent example is the 60 Years of the Second Republic commemorative coin issued by Austria in 2005. Athena is depicted in the obverse of the coin, representing the Austrian Republic. She appears briefly in Disney's Hercules , but has a more dominant role in the television series. Athena is an active character in Marvel Comics ' main continuity, the Marvel Universe , most recently in the Incredible Hercules series. She acts as a guide to Hercules and his sidekick, boy genius Amadeus Cho . Athena appears in Rick Riordan 's Percy Jackson & the Olympians book series. Her daughter, born from her head as she was from Zeus's, demigod Annabeth Chase is one of the principal characters. Annabeth's father found her (Annabeth) lying in a golden cradle at the doorstep. The Roman name for Athena is Minerva. In the video game Assassin's Creed II, Minerva appears in an ancient vault underneath the Vatican at the end of the game. She explains the origin of mankind within the story to the game's main protagonist, Desmond Miles, through his ancestor, Ezio Auditore. Athena appears in the television series Stargate SG-1 when she kidnaps Vala Mal Doran to gain information on the Clava Thessara Infinitas (The Key to Infinite Treasure). Masculinity and feminism Athena had an "androgynous compromise" that allowed her traits and what she stood for to be attributed to male and female rulers alike over the course of history (such as Marie de' Medici, Anne of Austria, Christina of Sweden, and Catherine the Great) J.J. Bachofen advocated that Athena was originally a maternal figure stable in her security and poise but was caught up and perverted by a patriarchal society; this was especially the case in Athens. The goddess adapted but could very easily be seen as a god. He viewed it as "motherless paternity in the place of fatherless maternity" where once altered, Athena's character was to be crystallized as that of a patriarch. Whereas Bachofen saw the switch to paternity on Athena's behalf as an increase of power, Freud on the contrary perceived Athena as an "original mother goddess divested of her power". In this interpretation, Athena was demoted to be only Zeus's daughter, never allowed the expression of motherhood. Still more different from Bachofen's perspective is the lack of role permanency in Freud's view: Freud held that time and differing cultures would mold Athena to stand for what was necessary to them. In Greek mythology , Nike was a goddess who personified victory , also known as the Winged Goddess of Victory. The Roman equivalent was Victoria . Depending upon the time of various myths, she was described as the daughter of Pallas (Titan) and Styx (Water) and the sister of Kratos (Strength), Bia (Force), and Zelus (Zeal). Nike and her siblings were close companions of Zeus , the dominant deity of the Greek pantheon . According to classical (later) myth, Styx brought them to Zeus when the god was assembling allies for the Titan War against the older deities. Nike assumed the role of the divine charioteer , a role in which she often is portrayed in Classical Greek art. Nike flew around battlefields rewarding the victors with glory and fame. Nike is seen with wings in most statues and paintings. Most other winged deities in the Greek pantheon had shed their wings by Classical times. Nike is the goddess of strength, speed, and victory. Nike was a very close acquaintance of Athena , and is thought to have stood in Athena's outstretched hand in the statue of Athena located in the Parthenon. Nike is one of the most commonly portrayed figures on Greek coins. Names stemming from Nike include amongst others: Nicholas , Nicola, Nick, Nikolai, Nils, Klaas, Nicole, Ike, Niki, Nikita, Nika, Niketas, and Nico. Seleucus II Callinicus or Pogon, the epithets meaning "beautiful victor" and "bearded", respectively), was a ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire , who reigned from 246 to 225 BC. After the death of this father, Antiochus , he was proclaimed king by his mother, Laodice in Ephesos , while her partisans at Antioch murdered Berenice and her son, another Antiochus. This dynastic feud began the Third Syrian War . Ptolemy III , who was Berenice's brother and the ruler of Egypt, invaded the Seleucid Empire and marched victoriously to the Tigris or beyond. He received the submission of the Seleucid Empire's eastern provinces, while Egyptian fleets swept the coast of Asia Minor . Seleucus managed to maintain himself in the interior of Asia Minor. When Ptolemy returned to Egypt, Seleucus recovered Northern Syria and the nearer provinces of Iran . However, Antiochus Hierax , a younger brother of Seleucus, was set up as a rival in Asia Minor against Seleucus by a party to which Laodice herself adhered. At Ancyra (about 235 BC) Seleucus sustained a crushing defeat and left the country beyond the Taurus to his brother and the other powers of the peninsula. Seleucus then undertook an anabasis to regain Parthia , the results of which came to nothing. According to some sources, he was even taken prisoner for several years by the Parthian king. Other sources mention that he established a peace with Arsaces I , who recognized his sovereignty. In Asia Minor, Pergamon now rose to greatness under Attalus I . Antiochus Hierax, after a failed attempt to seize his brother's dominions when his own were vanishing, perished as a fugitive in Thrace in 228 or 227 BC. About a year later, Seleucus was killed by a fall from his horse. Seleucus II married his cousin Laodice II , by whom he had five children and among them were: Antiochis , Seleucus III Ceraunus and Antiochus III the Great . He was succeeded by his elder son, Seleucus III Ceraunus , and later by his younger son Antiochus III the Great . External links This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). EncyclopÃƒÆ’Ã‚Â¦dia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. Seleucus II Callinicus Seleucid dynasty Born: ? Died: 225 BC Preceded by Antiochus II Theos Seleucid King 246ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å“225 BC Succeeded by Seleucus III Ceraunus Frequently Asked Questions How long until my order is shipped? Depending on the volume of sales, it may take up to 5 business days for shipment of your order after the receipt of payment. How will I know when the order was shipped?: After your order has shipped, you will be left positivefeedback, and that date should be used as a basis of estimating an arrival date. 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