The Barry Brogan Story Book Horse Racing Jockey Race Grand National Cheltenham

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Seller: notinashyway (16,831) 99.7%, Location: Manchester, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 303185281207 The Barry Brogan Story This is a Book written by Jockey Barry Brogan Barry Brogan, a leading amateur rider in his native Ireland, he made his name in Britain with trainer Ken Oliver in Scotland, riding prolific winners Billy Bow, Even Keel, and Drumikill, the last-named finishing runner- up to the great Persian War in the Champion Hurdle in 1969. The previous year, Brogan had ridden Moidore's Token to finish second to Red Alligator in the Grand National. He also won the 1970 Scottish Grand National riding the stable's The Spaniard. Brogan was runner-up to Graham Thorner in the 1970-71 jockeys' championship; the following season, riding as stable jockey for Lambourn-based Fulke Walwyn, he rode 70 winners. He enjoyed a notable success on The Dikler in the King George Vl Chase at Kempton and was also placed twice on the sme horse in the Cheltenham Gold Cup. Success was short-lived: by 1973 Brogan had became a chronic alcoholic and returned to Ireland to dry out in a Dublin clinic. He surrendered his licence to ride and, despite returning midway through the following season, struggled to rebuild his career. His final winner came in the spring of 1977. His racing days behind him, Brogan returned to the bottle. In his autobiography he admitted to begging on the streets, compulsive gambling and taking money to help fix races. In 1978, at Gloucester Crown Court, he was given an 18-month jail sentence, suspended for two years, after admitting dishonestly obtaining more than £5,000 from the Weatherbys accounts of leading jump jockeys Tommy Stack and Jimmy Bourke. The court was told that, though Brogan was staying with Terry Biddlecombe, he was unemployed and homeless, and that his career had failed due to his drinking. Later, because the offences were racing-related, he was warned off by the Jockey Club for three years. Worse was to come. His suspended jail sentence was activated when he got into further trouble in Edinburgh. On that occasion he was sent to prison for three months after admitting taking £2,000 from a car he later reported stolen. He lost the money in a Ladbrokes betting shop. Incredibly, after three more jail sentences, Barry Brogan miraculously turned his life around. In 1984, with his riding career in tatters, Brogan set off for Australia. He recalls: "I walked into Harrods, bought a return ticket to Sydney and never went back to Britain." He visited the racetracks of Sydney and found a job with fellow Irishman and trainer Paul Cave as a track rider and breaking-in horses. "I worked very hard and in 1989 applied for a licence to train. I told the Australian Jockey Club my life story. The chairman seemed to like me but someone else in the hierarchy didn't, which sparked a move from Sydney to Kembla Grange, a provincial track, where I trained under somebody else's name. "That person was Des Lake, the former jockey who'd ridden Prince Tenderfoot and Bold Lad, champion two-year-olds for PJ Prendergast. They called him 'Dashing Des' and he was as mad as a hatter. I was registered with the AJC as a supervisor and had 35 horses, but after eight years that door closed and I was back to square one." The gambling side of his complicated mind surfaced to assist his next move. For this, Brogan spun a coin to decide where he went. He says: "It was either heads Melbourne or tails Brisbane, and it came down heads. So I was off to Melbourne with three horses and three cats. "I resumed the trackwork there and met an Irishman called Michael Walsh, whose father owned a restaurant near the Curragh called The Red House. Michael managed to get me a meeting with Bruce Gadsen, chairman of the Victoria Racing Club, and that way I got a 'B' licence that enabled me to run horses at picnic meetings, which consist of regulated amateur Flat races. That was a leg inside the door. I trained half a dozen winners, applied for my full licence and got it straight away. I'm pleased to say that I've never been inside the stewards' room since." Brogan's next move, to Malaysia in 2001, saw him quickly establish himself as a leading light among the local trainers, and the following year he was the top money-earner. He continued riding trackwork, only for disaster to strike. "One morning at Ipoh racecourse I was on an old horse called Narcissus, who I loved," he says. "We'd cantered one lap on the sand when he suddenly had a massive heart attack and died. I went out over his neck and fractured my spinal cord in two places. I could feel my head, but not my body, and I couldn't talk. I spent the next year - six months in intensive care - flat on my back in hospital looking at the ceiling. It was the same accident as the actor Christopher Reeve suffered. "I could move one toe, and the Chinese doctor said I could take a chance on an operation to move my voice box. What could I do? I was paralysed and I said go ahead. The doctor slit my throat and moved the voice box, and when I came round, the first thing I remember was that I could talk. I underwent physio every day to stimulate feeling back into my body, and through it all my wife Robyn was a rock, spending each night with me but going back to supervise the horses in the day. The training operation therefore continued unabated and gradually I regained feeling in 50 per cent of my body." Brogan is happier than ever in his new life and has no thoughts of moving on. When attending his mother's funeral it was his first visit to Ireland for a quarter of a century. Of his Malaysian set-up, he says: "I have 84 boxes at Selangor and employ 40 people, while we also use two other tracks, Ipoh and Penang. "I've trained more than 250 winners here. I enjoy the quality of life and can say I came here with a small amount of finance but now have a big stable, and own 60 of the 80 in it myself. We have one race worth 1.5m ringit pounds 300,000 and another six worth 1m pounds 200,000. "There are different values in my life now, and I feel lucky to be alive. How I came out of what happened to me I'll never know." Barry rode his first winner, High Priest, when just 15 years old. It was owned by Colonel Hill-Dillon and trained by his father Jimmy Brogan, who finished second in the 1948 Grand National on First Of The Dandies. Barry had his first ride in public when he was 15 and at Mungret College, Limerick. This was on Felspar in a Bumper race at Leopardstown in 1962. Barry left college when he was 17 and, at 18, was the leading amateur in Ireland with 15 victories. In the same year, 1965, he took over the family stable on the death of his father, and trained 9 winners. Even Keel was Barry's first winner in England. When not racing, Barry hunted with the Buccleugh, enjoyed shooting and played a great game of tennis. I have more books like this on Ebay so Please.... .....CLICK HERE TO VISIT MY SHOP Buy with Confidence please read my feedback from over 12,000 satisfied customerRead how quickly they receive their items - I post all my items within 24 hours of receiving payment International customers are welcome. I have shipped items to over 120 countries International orders may require longer handling time if held up at customs If there is a problem I always give a full refund Returns are acceptedIf your unhappy with your item please return it for a full refund I am a UK Seller with 10 Years of eBay Selling Experience Why not treat yourself? I always combine multiple items and send an invoice with discounted postage I leave instant feedback upon receiving yours All payment methods accepted from all countries in all currencies Are you looking for a Interesting conversation piece? 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You now know where to look for a bargain!Please Take a Moment Click Here to Check Out My Other items *** Please Do Not Click Here *** Click Here to Add me to Your List of Favorite SellersThe Countries I Send to Include Afghanistan * Albania * Algeria * American Samoa (US) * Andorra * Angola * Anguilla (GB) * Antigua and Barbuda * Argentina * Armenia * Aruba (NL) * Australia * Austria * Azerbaijan * Bahamas * Bahrain * Bangladesh * Barbados * Belarus * Belgium * Belize * Benin * Bermuda (GB) * Bhutan * Bolivia * Bonaire (NL) * Bosnia and Herzegovina * Botswana * Bouvet Island (NO) * Brazil * British Indian Ocean Territory (GB) * British Virgin Islands (GB) * Brunei * Bulgaria * Burkina Faso * Burundi * Cambodia * Cameroon * Canada * Cape Verde * Cayman Islands (GB) * Central African Republic * Chad * Chile * China * Christmas Island (AU) * Cocos Islands (AU) * Colombia * Comoros * Congo * Democratic Republic of the Congo * Cook Islands (NZ) * Coral Sea Islands Territory (AU) * Costa Rica * Croatia * Cuba * Curaçao (NL) * Cyprus * Czech Republic * Denmark * Djibouti * Dominica * Dominican Republic * East Timor * Ecuador * Egypt * El Salvador * Equatorial Guinea * Eritrea * Estonia * Ethiopia * Falkland Islands (GB) * Faroe Islands (DK) * Fiji Islands * Finland * France * French Guiana (FR) * French Polynesia (FR) * French Southern Lands (FR) * Gabon * Gambia * Georgia * Germany * Ghana * Gibraltar (GB) * Greece * Greenland (DK) * Grenada * Guadeloupe (FR) * Guam (US) * Guatemala * Guernsey (GB) * Guinea * Guinea-Bissau * Guyana * Haiti * Heard and McDonald Islands (AU) * Honduras * Hong Kong (CN) * Hungary * Iceland * India * Indonesia * Iran * Iraq * Ireland * Isle of Man (GB) * Israel * Italy * Ivory Coast * Jamaica * Jan Mayen (NO) * Japan * Jersey (GB) * Jordan * Kazakhstan * Kenya * Kiribati * Kosovo * Kuwait * Kyrgyzstan * Laos * Latvia * Lebanon * Lesotho * Liberia * Libya * Liechtenstein * Lithuania * Luxembourg * Macau (CN) * Macedonia * Madagascar * Malawi * Malaysia * Maldives * Mali * Malta * Marshall Islands * Martinique (FR) * Mauritania * Mauritius * Mayotte (FR) * Mexico * Micronesia * Moldova * Monaco * Mongolia * Montenegro * Montserrat (GB) * Morocco * Mozambique * Myanmar * Namibia * Nauru * Navassa (US) * Nepal * Netherlands * New Caledonia (FR) * New Zealand * Nicaragua * Niger * Nigeria * Niue (NZ) * Norfolk Island (AU) * North Korea * Northern Cyprus * Northern Mariana Islands (US) * Norway * Oman * Pakistan * Palau * Palestinian Authority * Panama * Papua New Guinea * Paraguay * Peru * Philippines * Pitcairn Island (GB) * Poland * Portugal * Puerto Rico (US) * Qatar * Reunion (FR) * Romania * Russia * Rwanda * Saba (NL) * Saint Barthelemy (FR) * Saint Helena (GB) * Saint Kitts and Nevis * Saint Lucia * Saint Martin (FR) * Saint Pierre and Miquelon (FR) * Saint Vincent and the Grenadines * Samoa * San Marino * Sao Tome and Principe * Saudi Arabia * Senegal * Serbia * Seychelles * Sierra Leone * Singapore * Sint Eustatius (NL) * Sint Maarten (NL) * Slovakia * Slovenia * Solomon Islands * Somalia * South Africa * South Georgia (GB) * South Korea * South Sudan * Spain * Sri Lanka * Sudan * Suriname * Svalbard (NO) * Swaziland * Sweden * Switzerland * Syria * Taiwan * Tajikistan * Tanzania * Thailand * Togo * Tokelau (NZ) * Tonga * Trinidad and Tobago * Tunisia * Turkey * Turkmenistan * Turks and Caicos Islands (GB) * Tuvalu * U.S. Minor Pacific Islands (US) * U.S. Virgin Islands (US) * Uganda * Ukraine * United Arab Emirates * United Kingdom * United States * Uruguay * Uzbekistan * Vanuatu * Vatican City * Venezuela * Vietnam * Wallis and Futuna (FR) * Yemen * Zambia * Zimbabwe A jockey is someone who rides horses in horse racing or steeplechase racing, primarily as a profession. The word also applies to camel riders in camel racing. The word is by origin a diminutive of jock, the Northern English or Scots colloquial equivalent of the first name John, which is also used generically for "boy" or "fellow" (compare Jack, Dick), at least since 1529. A familiar instance of the use of the word as a name is in "Jockey of Norfolk" in Shakespeare's Richard III. v. 3, 304. In the 16th and 17th centuries the word was applied to horse-dealers, postilions, itinerant minstrels and vagabonds, and thus frequently bore the meaning of a cunning trickster, a "sharp", whence the verb to jockey, "to outwit", or "to do" a person out of something. The current meaning of a person who rides a horse in races was first seen in 1670.[1] Another possible origin is the Gaelic word eachaidhe, a "horseman", (pronounced YACH-ee-yuh in late medieval times, with the ch pronounced as in German).[2] The Irish name Eochaid (YO-ked) is related to each (yek) "horse" and is usually translated as "horse rider". This is phonetically very similar to jockey. Physical characteristics Jockey being weighed post-race, holding equipment Jockeys must be light to ride at the weights which are assigned to their mounts. There are horse carrying weight limits, that are set by racing authorities. The Kentucky Derby, for example, has a weight limit of 126 lb (57 kg) including the jockey's equipment. The weight of a jockey usually ranges from 108 to 118 lb (49 to 54 kg).[3] Despite their light weight, they must be able to control a horse that is moving at 40 mph (64 km/h) and weighs 1,200 lb (540 kg).[citation needed] Though there is no height limit for jockeys, they are usually fairly short due to the weight limits. Jockeys typically stand around 4 ft 10 in (147 cm) to 5 ft 6 in (168 cm).[3] Role Toulouse-Lautrec - The Jockey (1899) Jockeys are normally self employed, nominated by horse trainers to ride their horses in races, for a fee (which is paid regardless of the prize money the horse earns for a race) and a percentage of the purse winnings. In Australia, employment of apprentice jockeys is in terms of indenture to a master (a trainer); and there is a clear employee-employer relationship. When an apprentice jockey finishes their apprenticeship and becomes a "fully fledged jockey", the nature of their employment and insurance requirements change because they are regarded as "freelance", like contractors. Jockeys often cease their riding careers to take up other employment in racing, usually as trainers. In this way the apprenticeship system serves to induct young people into racing employment. Six jockeys and their horses taking a curve Jockeys usually start out when they are young, riding work in the morning for trainers, and entering the riding profession as apprentice jockeys. It is normally necessary for an apprentice jockey to ride a minimum of about 20 barrier trials successfully before being permitted to ride in races.[clarification needed] An apprentice jockey is known as a "bug boy" because the asterisk that follows the name in the program looks like a bug.[4] All jockeys must be licensed and usually are not permitted to bet on a race. An apprentice jockey has a master, who is a horse trainer, and the apprentice is also allowed to "claim" weight off the horse's back: in handicapped races, more experienced riders will have their horses given an extra amount of weight to carry, whereas a jockey in their apprenticeship will have less weight on their horse, giving trainers an incentive to hire these less-experienced jockeys. This weight allowance is adjusted according to the number of winners that the apprentice has ridden. After a four-year indentured apprenticeship, the apprentice becomes a senior jockey[5] and usually develops relationships with trainers and individual horses. Sometimes senior jockeys are paid a retainer by an owner which gives the owner the right to insist the jockey ride their horses in races. Racing modeled on the English Jockey Club spread throughout the world with colonial expansion. Racing colors The colors worn by jockeys in races are the registered "colors" of the owner or trainer who employs them. The practice of riders wearing colors probably stems from medieval times when jousts were held between knights. However, the origins of racing colors of various patterns may have been influenced by racing held in Italian city communities since medieval times.[citation needed] Such traditional events are still held on town streets and are known for furious riding and the colorful spectacle they offer.[6] While the term "silks" is used in the United States to refer to racing colors, technically "silks" are the white breeches and bib, stock or cravat. Obtaining them is a rite of passage when a jockey is first able to don silken pants and colors in their first race ride.[citation needed] At one time silks were invariably made of silk chosen for being a lightweight fabric, though now synthetics are used instead. Silks and their colors are important symbols of loyalty and festivity. Awards Various awards are given annually by organizations affiliated with the sport of thoroughbred racing in countries throughout the world. They include: Australia Scobie Breasley Medal Canada Avelino Gomez Memorial Award United Kingdom Lester Award Champion Flat Jockey Award Champion Jump Jockey Award United States George Woolf Memorial Jockey Award Isaac Murphy Award Risk factors A race fall. Horse racing is a sport where jockeys may incur permanent, debilitating, and even life-threatening injuries. Chief among them include concussion, bone fractures, arthritis, trampling, and paralysis. Jockey insurance premiums remain among the highest of all professional sports.[7] Between 1993 and 1996, 6,545 injuries occurred during official races for an injury rate of 606 per 1,000 jockey years.[8] In Australia race riding is regarded as being the second most deadly job, after offshore fishing. From 2002 to 2006 five deaths and 861 serious injuries were recorded.[6] Eating disorders (such as anorexia) are also very common among jockeys, as they face extreme pressure to maintain unusually low (and specific) weights for men, sometimes within a five-pound (2.3 kg) margin.[9] The bestselling historical novel Seabiscuit: An American Legend chronicled the eating disorders of jockeys living in the first half of the twentieth century. As in the cases of champion jockey Kieren Fallon and Robert Winston, the pressure to stay light has been blamed in part for jockeys suffering agonies of thirst from dehydration while racing.[10] Sports Dietitians Australia warns:"Dehydration and energy depletion may compromise concentration and coordination."[11] Indeed, recent research carried out in association with the Irish Turf Club measured the effects of rapid weight loss to make weight in professional and apprentice jockeys and found significant levels of dehydration; however, cognitive function was maintained, suggesting jockeys had become accustomed to performing in a dehydrated state and had potentially developed a preventative mechanism to enable them to perform under these conditions.[12] In January 2016 it was announced that the International Concussion and Head Injury Research Foundation (ICHIRF) will run a new study. Named 'Concussion in Sport' it will be the first study to take a detailed look at the effects of concussion on sports people, including around 200 retired jockeys.[13] Women jockeys Women jockeys Based on American statistics, women comprise only 14 percent of working jockeys and ride only 10 percent of all race starts. Only two percent ride at the elite level of Triple Crown races. Australia and New Zealand During the 1850s amateur "ladies only" events held in Victoria, Australia, women were not permitted to ride as professional jockeys or on professional tracks. Although women jockeys were barred from riding at registered race meetings, in the mid-1900s Wilhemena Smith rode as Bill Smith at north Queensland racecourses. She was nicknamed Bill Girlie Smith because she arrived on course with her riding gear on under her clothes and did not shower on course. It was only at the time of her death in 1975 that the racing world was officially told that Bill was really Wilhemena. Subsequent inquiries proved that William Smith was actually a woman who had been born Wilhemena Smith in a Sydney hospital in 1886.[14] In an era when women were clearly denied equality, she had become known as a successful jockey in Queensland country districts as 'Bill Smith'. During the late 1960s restrictions against woman trainers were lifted in Australia, but women jockeys were still confined to "ladies only" events, which were held on non-professional tracks. The Victoria Racing Club in 1974 permitted women jockeys to be registered for professional "ladies only" events. In 1978 racing rules in New Zealand were amended to permit women jockeys. In Australia Pam O'Neill and Linda Jones, in 1979, were the pioneers that forced jockey club officials to grant women the right to compete on an equal footing in registered races against men. They were unquestionably the first women jockeys to be licensed to ride in the metropolitan areas of Australia. Previously women had been riding against men in Australia at the unregistered "all-height" meetings. Pam created a world record for any jockey, male or female, when she rode a treble at Southport on her first day's riding.[15] Australia's top woman jockey, Bev Buckingham, became the first woman in the Southern Hemisphere to win 1,000 races. In 1998, in a fall at the Elwick Racecourse (Hobart), she broke her neck. She used a wheelchair for some time afterward, but regained her strength and mobility and was able to walk again without assistance.[16] In 2004-05 Clare Lindop won the Adelaide jockeys' premiership and became the first woman to win a metropolitan jockeys' premiership in mainland Australia. Lisa Cropp won the 2006 New Zealand jockeys' premiership for the second consecutive season.[17] In 2005, Andrea Leek became the first woman to ride the winner of the Grand National Hurdle (4,300 m) at Flemington when she won aboard Team Heritage.[18] In New Zealand women are over 40% of jockeys. [19] Women today account for 17% of jockeys in Victoria. But, they receive only 10% of the rides, and are often overlooked in favour of male jockeys, especially in the cities.[20] In some regions of Australia about half of the apprentice jockey intakes are women.[18] Michelle Payne became the first female jockey to win the Melbourne Cup on 3 November 2015.[21] Great Britain and Ireland Women were banned from racing under Jockey Club rules in Britain until 1972, when after many years arguing, a series of a dozen races was approved for female jockeys. Meriel Patricia Tufnell overcame childhood disability to ride the novice Scorched Earth to victory in the first race, the Goya Stakes at Kempton Park on 6 May 1972.[22] The first decade of the 21st century saw the profile of women jockeys rise considerably in British Flat racing. In 2005 Hayley Turner became Champion Apprentice rider, before becoming the first woman to ride 100 winners in a British season in 2008. Also in 2008, Kirsty Milczarek became the first woman to ride three winners at a single British race meeting, at Kempton in February. Milczarek rode 71 winners that year. This period saw the total number of female jockeys in British Flat racing rise significantly. Two further female jockeys have won the apprentice championship since Turner - Amy Ryan in 2012 and Josephine Gordon in 2016.[23] This change has not applied in National Hunt racing, though amateur riders Nina Carberry and Katie Walsh (sister of Ruby Walsh) have gained success in Ireland and ridden winners at the Cheltenham Festival.[24][25] In the 2010 National Hunt Chase at the Cheltenham Festival the winner and runner-up were both ridden by female jockeys. Katie Walsh was on board Poker de Sivola finishing ahead of Becauseicouldntsee which was ridden by Nina Carberry.[26] On Boxing Day 2015 Lizzie Kelly became the first female jockey to win a grade one race in Britain, on Tea For Two in the Kauto Star Novices' Chase at Kempton Park.[27] Lizzie Kelly won another grade 1 in 2017. It was the Betway Bowl at the Grand National Festival, on Tea For Two. In the 2016/17 season Rachael Blackmore became the first female jockey to win the Irish Conditional Jockeys title.[28] In 2018 Lizzie Kelly became the first female professional jockey to ride a winner at the Cheltenham Festival. She rode Coo Star Sivola in the Ultima handicap chase. In 2019 Bryony Frost became the first female jockey to ride a grade 1 winner at the Cheltenham Festival. She rode Frodon in the Ryanair Chase. United States and Canada Eliza Carpenter (1851 – 1924) was an early African-American race horse owner. In Ponca City, Oklahoma, she trained horses for racing, becoming one of the few African-American stable owners in the West.[29] When dissatisfied with the way a race was going, she sometimes would ride her own horses as a jockey, winning some races. Recorded names of her horses include "Irish Maid", "Blue Bird", "Jimmy Rain", "Sam Carpenter", and "Little Brown Jug", the last of which she reportedly raced at Tijuana, Baja California.[29] Anna Lee Aldred[30] (1921 – 2006) was given a license at age 18 in 1939 at Agua Caliente Racetrack in Tijuana, Mexico when officials were unable to find a rule that would bar women jockeys and she finished second by a nose in her first professional race. Hollywood stuntwoman Alice Van-Springsteen (1918 - 2008) also rode as a jockey and was one of the first women ever to receive a trainer's license for Thoroughbred horses. Wantha Davis[31] (1918 – 2012) was known to have won over 1,000 races in the 1930s, 40s and 50s, including a famous 1949, six furlong match-race against Johnny Longden at Agua Caliente.[32] She rode at some state-sanctioned pari-mutuel tracks, but without a license, most events were of the dusty county fair and half-mile variety of the western circuit. Even though she was always in demand as a training jockey, her applications for a license were turned down in state after state. Twelve years after Davis retired, the "modern era of female jockeys" began when Olympic equestrian and show jumping competitor Kathy Kusner, who had also ridden as a jockey, successfully sued the Maryland Racing Commission for a jockey's license in 1968 under the Civil Rights Act.[33] In late 1968, Penny Ann Early became the first licensed female Thoroughbred jockey in the U.S., and entered three races at Churchill Downs in November, but the male jockeys announced that they would boycott those races. On February 7, 1969, Diane Crump was the first licensed woman rider to ride in a parimutuel Thoroughbred race in the United States at the Hialeah Park Race Track in Florida.[34] Two weeks later, on February 22 at Charles Town in West Virginia, Barbara Jo Rubin became the first woman to win a race,[34] and went on to win 11 of her first 22.[35] Others soon followed suit and over the years American women jockeys have proven their ability. Julie Krone's 3,704 victories is the most by an American woman and As of June 2012, at least nineteen others have each ridden more than 1,000 winners.[36] For the most part Canada has generally followed the lead of the U.S. in opportunities for women riders. Canada has far fewer tracks than the U.S. and to date Canada has only two female jockeys with 1,000 wins. However, in both actual and relative numbers as well as overall success rate, Canada has surpassed its southern neighbor in opportunities for women at the highest level; their respective Triple Crown series: Starting with Joan Phipps in the 1973 Breeders' Stakes, 10 different women have competed in 30 Canadian Triple Crown races, with a combined 2 wins, 3 places, 4 shows.[37][38][39] Moreover, while no US Triple Crown race has ever featured more than one female rider, that feat has occurred on 10 occasions in Canada, and 3 different women—Francine Villeneuve, Chantal Sutherland and Emma-Jayne Wilson—have raced in all three Canadian races. Sutherland has done it twice over and Wilson thrice over. By comparison, since Diane Crump rode in the 1970 Kentucky Derby, six different women have competed in U.S. Triple Crown events, some multiple times: 10 times in the Derby, four times in the Preakness[40] and nine times in the Belmont.[41] with a combined record of one win,[41] one place,[41] one show.[42] Julie Krone is the only woman to have won a US Triple Crown race, on Colonial Affair in the 1993 Belmont.[41] With appearances in the 2011 Kentucky Derby, the 2012 Belmont Stakes and the 2013 Preakness Stakes, Rosie Napravnik became the first woman to ride in all three of the U.S. Triple Crown races.[43][44][45] In 2013, Napravnik also became the first woman to ride in all three US Triple Crown races in the same year, and is the only woman to have won the Kentucky Oaks, which she has won twice.[42] Robot jockeys Main article: Robot jockey To replace child jockeys whose use had been deplored by human rights organizations, a camel race in Doha, Qatar for the first time featured robots at the reins. On July 13, 2005, workers fixed robotic jockeys on the backs of seven camels and raced the machine-mounted animals around a track. Operators controlled the jockeys remotely, signalling them to pull their reins and prod the camels with whips.[46] Grand National Randox Health Grand National Grade 3 race 2011 Grand National cropped.jpg The Grand National in 2011 Location Aintree Racecourse Aintree, Liverpool, England Inaugurated 1839 Race type Steeplechase Sponsor Randox Health Website Race information Distance 4 miles 514 yards (6.907 km) Surface Turf Track Left-handed Qualification Seven-years-old and up Rated 120 or more by BHA Previously placed in a recognised chase of 3 miles or more Weight Handicap Maximum: 11 st 10 lb Purse £1,000,000 (2017) Winner: £561,300[1] The Grand National is a National Hunt horse race held annually at Aintree Racecourse in Liverpool, England. First run in 1839, it is a handicap steeplechase over 4 miles 514 yards (6.907 km) with horses jumping 30 fences over two laps.[2] It is the most valuable jump race in Europe, with a prize fund of £1 million in 2017.[3] An event that is prominent in British culture, the race is popular amongst many people who do not normally watch or bet on horse racing at other times of the year.[4] The course over which the race is run features much larger fences than those found on conventional National Hunt tracks. Many of these, particularly Becher's Brook, The Chair and the Canal Turn, have become famous in their own right and, combined with the distance of the event, create what has been called "the ultimate test of horse and rider".[5][6] The Grand National has been broadcast live on free-to-air terrestrial television in the United Kingdom since 1960. From then until 2012 it was broadcast by the BBC. Between 2013 and 2016 it was shown by Channel 4; the UK broadcasting rights transferred to ITV from 2017.[7] An estimated 500 to 600 million people watch the Grand National in over 140 countries.[7][8][9] It has also been broadcast on radio since 1927; BBC Radio held exclusive rights until 2013, however, Talksport also now holds radio commentary rights.[10] The most recent running of the race, in 2017, was won by One For Arthur, ridden by jockey Derek Fox for trainer Lucinda Russell. The next Grand National will start on 12 April 2018 and finish on 14 April 2018. As of 2017, the race and accompanying festival are sponsored by Randox Health. History Founding and early Nationals (1829–1850) 1890 engraving of horses jumping the famous Becher's Brook fence in the Grand National. External video A television item on the history of the Grand National, broadcast in 1969 (British Pathé) The Grand National was founded by William Lynn, a syndicate head and proprietor of the Waterloo Hotel, on land he leased in Aintree from William Molyneux, 2nd Earl of Sefton.[11][12][13] Lynn set out a course, built a grandstand, and Lord Sefton laid the foundation stone on 7 February 1829.[13] There is much debate regarding the first official Grand National; most leading published historians, including John Pinfold, now prefer the idea that the first running was in 1836 and was won by The Duke.[14] This same horse won again in 1837,[15] while Sir William was the winner in 1838.[16] These races have long been disregarded because of the belief that they took place at Maghull and not Aintree. However, some historians have unearthed evidence in recent years that suggest those three races were run over the same course at Aintree and were regarded as having been Grand Nationals up until the mid-1860s.[14] Contemporary newspaper reports place all the 1836-38 races at Aintree although the 1839 race is the first described as "national".[17] To date, though, calls for the Nationals of 1836–1838 to be restored to the record books have been unsuccessful. The Duke was ridden by Martin Becher. The fence Becher's Brook is named after him and is where he fell in the next year’s race.[18] In 1838 and 1839 three significant events occurred to transform the Liverpool race from a small local affair to a national event. Firstly, the Great St. Albans Chase, which had clashed with the steeplechase at Aintree, was not renewed after 1838,[19] leaving a major hole in the chasing calendar. Secondly, the railway arrived in Liverpool, enabling transport to the course by rail for the first time. Finally, a committee was formed to better organise the event.[20] These factors led to a more highly publicised race in 1839 which attracted a larger field of top quality horses and riders, greater press coverage and an increased attendance on race day. Over time the first three runnings of the event were quickly forgotten to secure the 1839 race its place in history as the first official Grand National. It was won by rider Jem Mason on the aptly named, Lottery[16][21][22] By the 1840s, Lynn's ill-health blunted his enthusiasm for Aintree. Edward Topham, a respected handicapper and prominent member of Lynn's syndicate, began to exert greater influence over the National. He turned the chase into a handicap in 1843[21] after it had been a weight-for-age race for the first four years, and took over the land lease in 1848. One century later, the Topham family bought the course outright.[13] Later in the century the race was the setting of a thriller by the popular novelist Henry Hawley Smart.[23] War National Steeplechase (1916–1918) For three years during the First World War, while Aintree Racecourse was taken over by the War Office, an alternative race was run at Gatwick Racecourse, a disused course on land now occupied by Gatwick Airport. The first of these races, in 1916, was called the Racecourse Association Steeplechase, and in 1917 and 1918 the race was called the War National Steeplechase. The races at Gatwick are not always recognised as "Grand Nationals" and their results are often omitted from winners' lists.[24] Tipperary Tim (1928) On the day of the 1928 Grand National, before the race had begun, Tipperary Tim's jockey William Dutton heard a friend call out to him: "Billy boy, you'll only win if all the others fall down!"[25] These words turned out to be true, as 41 of the 42 starters fell during the race.[25] This year's National was run during misty weather conditions with the going very heavy.[26] As the field approached the Canal Turn on the first circuit, Easter Hero fell, causing a pile-up from which only seven horses emerged with seated jockeys. By the penultimate fence this number had reduced to three, with Great Span looking most likely to win ahead of Billy Barton and Tipperary Tim. Great Span's saddle then slipped, leaving Billy Barton in the lead until he too then fell. Although Billy Barton's jockey Tommy Cullinan[27] managed to remount and complete the race, it was Tipperary Tim who came in first at outside odds of 100/1. With only two riders completing the course, this remains a record for the lowest number of finishers.[28] Second World War and the 1950s Although the Grand National was run as normal in 1940 and most other major horse races around the world were able to be held throughout the war, the commandeering of Aintree Racecourse for defence use in 1941 meant no Grand National could be held from 1941 to 1945.[29] During the 1950s the Grand National was dominated by Vincent O'Brien, who trained different winners of the race for three consecutive years between 1953 and 1955. Early Mist secured O'Brien's first victory in 1953; Royal Tan won in 1954, and Quare Times completed the Irish trainer's hat-trick in 1955.[30] Oh, that's racing! “ ” The Queen Mother on Devon Loch's collapse moments from certain victory The running of the 1956 Grand National witnessed one of the chase's most bizarre incidents. Devon Loch, owned by Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, had cleared the final fence in leading position, five lengths clear of E.S.B. Forty yards from what seemed like certain victory, Devon Loch suddenly, and inexplicably, half-jumped into the air and collapsed in a belly-flop on the turf. Despite efforts by jockey Dick Francis, Devon Loch was unable to complete the race, leaving E.S.B. to cross the finishing line first. Responding to the commiserations of E.S.B.’s owner, the Queen Mother famously commented: "Oh, that's racing!"[31] Had Devon Loch completed the race he might have set a new record for the fastest finishing time, which E.S.B. missed by only four-fifths of a second. Many explanations have been offered for Devon Loch's behaviour on the run-in, but the incident remains inexplicable.[32] In modern language, the phrase "to do a Devon Loch" is sometimes used to describe a last-minute failure to achieve an expected victory.[33] Foinavon (1967) Rutherfords has been hampered, and so has Castle Falls; Rondetto has fallen, Princeful has fallen, Norther has fallen, Kirtle Lad has fallen, The Fossa has fallen, there's a right pile-up... And now, with all this mayhem, Foinavon has gone off on his own! He's about 50, 100 yards in front of everything else! “ ” Commentator Michael O'Hehir describes the chaotic scene at the 23rd fence in 1967 In the 1967 Grand National, most of the field were hampered or dismounted in a mêlée at the 23rd fence, allowing a rank-outsider, Foinavon, to become a surprise winner at odds of 100/1. A loose horse named Popham Down, who had unseated his rider at the first jump, suddenly veered across the leading group at the 23rd, causing them to either stop, refuse or unseat their riders. Racing journalist Lord Oaksey described the resulting pile-up by saying that Popham Down had "cut down the leaders like a row of thistles".[34] Some horses even started running in the wrong direction, back the way they had come. Foinavon, whose owner had such little faith in him that he had travelled to Worcester that day instead,[35] had been lagging some 100 yards behind the leading pack, giving his jockey, John Buckingham, time to steer his mount wide of the havoc and make a clean jump of the fence on the outside. Although 17 jockeys remounted and some made up considerable ground, particularly Josh Gifford on 15/2 favourite Honey End, none had time to catch Foinavon before he crossed the finishing line. The 7th/23rd fence was officially named the 'Foinavon fence' in 1984.[31][36] 1970s and Red Rum The 1970s were mixed years for the Grand National. In 1973, eight years after Mrs. Mirabel Topham announced she was seeking a buyer, the racecourse was finally sold to property developer Bill Davies. Davies tripled the admission prices, and consequently, the attendance at the 1975 race, won by L'Escargot, was the smallest in living memory. It was after this that bookmaker Ladbrokes made an offer, signing an agreement with Davies allowing them to manage the Grand National.[37] The crowd are willing him home now. The 12-year-old Red Rum, being preceded only by loose horses, being chased by Churchtown Boy... They're coming to the elbow, just a furlong now between Red Rum and his third Grand National triumph! It's hats off and a tremendous reception, you've never heard one like it at Liverpool... and Red Rum wins the National! “ ” Commentator Peter O'Sullevan describes Red Rum's record third Grand National win in 1977 During this period, Red Rum was breaking all records to become the most successful racehorse in Grand National history. Originally bought as a yearling in 1966 for 400 guineas (£420),[38] he passed through various training yards before being bought for 6,000 guineas (£6,300) by Ginger McCain on behalf of Noel le Mare.[38] Two days after the purchase while trotting the horse on Southport beach, McCain noticed that Red Rum appeared lame.[39] The horse was suffering from pedal osteitis, an inflammatory bone disorder.[40] McCain had witnessed many lame carthorses reconditioned by being galloped in sea-water.[41] He successfully used this treatment on his newly acquired racehorse.[38] Red Rum became, and remains as of 2018, the only horse to have won the Grand National three times, in 1973, 1974, and 1977. He also finished second in the two intervening years, 1975 and 1976. In 1973, he was in second place at the last fence, 15 lengths behind champion horse Crisp, who was carrying 23 lbs more. Red Rum made up the ground on the run-in and, two strides from the finishing post, he pipped the tiring Crisp to win by three-quarters of a length in what is arguably the most memorable Grand National of all time. Red Rum finished in 9 minutes 1.9 seconds, taking 18.3 seconds off the previous record for the National which had been set in 1935 by Reynoldstown.[31] His record was to stand for the next seventeen years.[31] Bob Champion's National (1981) Main article: 1981 Grand National Two years before the 1981 Grand National, jockey Bob Champion had been diagnosed with testicular cancer and given only months to live by doctors. But by 1981 he had recovered and was passed fit to ride in the Grand National. He rode Aldaniti, a horse deprived in its youth and which had only recently recovered from chronic leg problems.[42] Despite a poor start, the pair went on to win four-and-a-half lengths ahead of the much-fancied Spartan Missile, ridden by amateur jockey and 54-year-old grandfather John Thorne.[43] Champion and Aldaniti were instantly propelled to celebrity status, and within two years, their story had been re-created in the film Champions, starring John Hurt.[44] Seagram's sponsorship (1984–1991) From 1984 to 1991, Seagram sponsored the Grand National. The Canadian distiller provided a solid foundation on which the race's revival could be built, firstly enabling the course to be bought from Davies and to be run and managed by the Jockey Club. It is said that Ivan Straker, Seagram's UK chairman, became interested in the potential opportunity after reading a passionate newspaper article written by journalist Lord Oaksey, who, in his riding days, had come within three-quarters of a length of winning the 1963 National.[13] The last Seagram-sponsored Grand National was in 1991. Coincidentally, the race was won by a horse named Seagram. Martell, then a Seagram subsidiary, took over sponsorship of the Aintree meeting for an initial seven years from 1992, in a £4 million deal.[13] The race that never was (1993) Main article: 1993 Grand National The result of the 1993 Grand National was declared void after an series of incidents commentator Peter O'Sullevan later called "the greatest disaster in the history of the Grand National." While under starter's orders, one jockey was tangled in the starting tape which had failed to rise correctly. A false start was declared, but due to a lack of communication between course officials, 30 of the 39 jockeys did not realise this and began the race. Course officials tried to stop the runners by waving red flags, but many jockeys continued to race, believing that they were protesters (a group of whom had invaded the course earlier), while Peter Scudamore only stopped because he saw his trainer, Martin Pipe, waving frantically at him. Seven horses completed the course, meaning the result was void. The first past the post was Esha Ness (in the second-fastest time ever), ridden by John White and trained by Jenny Pitman.[45][46][47][48] The Monday National (1997) Main article: 1997 Grand National The 1997 Grand National was postponed after two coded bomb threats were received from the Provisional Irish Republican Army. The course was secured by police who then evacuated jockeys, race personnel, and local residents along with 60,000 spectators. Cars and coaches were locked in the course grounds, leaving some 20,000 people without their vehicles over the weekend. With limited accommodation available in the city, local residents opened their doors and took in many of those stranded. This prompted tabloid headlines such as "We'll fight them on the Becher's", in reference to Winston Churchill's war-time speech.[49] The race was run 48 hours later on the Monday, with the meeting organisers offering 20,000 tickets with free admission.[50][51] Recent history (2004–present) Ballabriggs, the winner of the 2011 Grand National. Red Rum's trainer Ginger McCain returned to the Grand National in 2004, 31 years after Red Rum's epic run-in defeat of Crisp to secure his first of three wins. McCain's Amberleigh House came home first, ridden by Graham Lee, overtaking Clan Royal on the final straight. Hedgehunter, who would go on to win in 2005, fell at the last while leading. McCain had equalled George Dockeray and Fred Rimell's record feat of training four Grand National winners.[52] In 2005 John Smith's took over from Martell as main sponsors of the Grand National and many of the other races at the three-day Aintree meeting for the first time.[13] In 2006 John Smith's launched the John Smith's People's Race which gave ten members of the public the chance to ride in a flat race at Aintree on Grand National day.[53] In total, thirty members of the public took part in the event before it was discontinued in 2010. In 2009, Mon Mome became the longest-priced winner of the National for 42 years when he defied outside odds of 100/1 to win by 12 lengths. The victory was also the first for trainer Venetia Williams, the first female trainer to triumph since Jenny Pitman in 1995. The race was also the first National ride for Liam Treadwell.[54] In 2010 the National became the first horse race to be televised in high-definition in the UK.[55] In August 2013 Crabbie's was announced as the new sponsor of the Grand National. The three-year deal between the alcoholic ginger beer producer and Aintree saw the race run for a record purse of £1 million in 2014.[56] In March 2016 it was announced that Randox Health would take over from Crabbie's as official partners of the Grand National festival from 2017, for at least five years. [57] The sponsorship is controversial as Aintree's chairperson, Rose Paterson, is married to a Member of Parliament who also earns a £50,000 annual fee as a consultant for Randox.[58] The course The Grand National is run over the National Course at Aintree and consists of two laps of 16 fences, the first 14 of which are jumped twice. Horses completing the race cover a distance of 4 miles 514 yards (6.907 km), the longest of any National Hunt race in Britain. As part of a review of safety following the 2012 running of the event, from 2013 to 2015 the start was moved 90 yards (82 m) forward away from the crowds and grandstands, reducing the race distance by 110 yards (100 m) from the historical 4 miles 856 yards (7.220 km).[59] The course is also notable for having one of the longest run-ins from the final fence of any steeplechase, at 494 yards (452 m). A map of the National Course at Aintree The Grand National was designed as a cross-country steeplechase when it was first officially run in 1839. The runners started at a lane on the edge of the racecourse and raced away from the course out over open countryside towards the Leeds and Liverpool Canal. The gates, hedges and ditches that they met along the way were flagged to provide them with the obstacles to be jumped along the way with posts and rails erected at the two points where the runners jumped a brook. The runners returned towards the racecourse by running along the edge of the canal before re-entering the course at the opposite end. The runners then ran the length of the racecourse before embarking on a second circuit before finishing in front of the stands. The majority of the race therefore took place not on the actual Aintree Racecourse but instead in the adjoining countryside. That countryside was incorporated into the modern course but commentators still often refer to it as "the country".[citation needed] Fences There are 16 fences on the National Course topped with spruce from the Lake District. The cores of 12 fences were rebuilt in 2012 and they are now made of a flexible plastic material which is more forgiving compared to the traditional wooden core fences. They are still topped with at least 14 inches (36 cm) of spruce for the horses to knock off. Some of the jumps carry names from the history of the race. All 16 are jumped on the first lap, but on the final lap the runners bear to the right onto the run-in for home, avoiding The Chair and the Water Jump. The following is a summary of all 16 fences on the course:[60][61][62][63] Fence 1 & 17 Height: 4 feet 6 inches (1.37 m) Often met at great speed, which can lead to several falls, the highest being 12 runners in 1951. The drop on the landing side was reduced after the 2011 Grand National. Fence 2 & 18 Height: 4 feet 7 inches (1.40 m) Prior to 1888 the first two fences were located approximately halfway between the first to second and second to third jumps. The second became known as The Fan, after a mare who refused the obstacle three years in succession. The name fell out of favour with the relocation of the fences. Fence 3 & 19 – open ditch Height: 4 feet 10 inches (1.47 m); fronted by a 6 feet (1.83 m) ditch The first big test in the race as horses are still adapting to the obstacles. Fence 4 & 20 Height: 4 feet 10 inches (1.47 m) A testing obstacle that often leads to falls and unseated riders. In 2011 the 20th became the first fence in Grand National history to be bypassed on the final lap, following an equine fatality. Fence 5 & 21 Height: 5 feet (1.52 m) A plain obstacle which precedes the most famous fence on the course. It was bypassed on the final lap for the first time in 2012 so that medics could treat a jockey who fell from his mount on the first lap and had broken a leg. Fence 6 & 22 – Becher's Brook Height: 5 feet (1.52 m), with the landing side 6 inches (15 cm) to 10 inches (25 cm) lower than the takeoff side[64] The drop at this fence often catches runners by surprise. Becher's has always been a popular vantage point as it can present one of the most spectacular displays of jumping when the horse and rider meet the fence right. Jockeys must sit back in their saddles and use their body weight as ballast to counter the steep drop. It takes its name from Captain Martin Becher who fell there in the first Grand National and took shelter in the small brook running along the landing side of the fence while the remainder of the field thundered over. It is said that Becher later reflected: "Water tastes disgusting without the benefits of whisky." It was bypassed in 2011 along with fence 20 on the final lap, after an equine casualty. Fence 7 & 23 – Foinavon Height: 4 feet 6 inches (1.37 m) One of the smallest on the course, it was named in 1984 after the 1967 winner who avoided a mêlée at the fence to go on and win the race at outside odds of 100/1. Fence 8 & 24 – Canal Turn Height: 5 ft (1.52 m) Noted for its sharp 90-degree left turn immediately after landing. Before the First World War it was not uncommon for loose horses to continue straight ahead after the jump and end up in the Leeds and Liverpool Canal itself. There was once a ditch before the fence but this was filled in after a mêlée in the 1928 race. It was bypassed for the first time in 2015 on the final lap as vets arrived to treat a horse who fell on the first lap. Fence 9 & 25 – Valentine's Height: 5 feet (1.52 m) with a 5 feet 6 inches (1.68 m) brook The fence was originally known as the Second Brook but was renamed after a horse named Valentine was reputed to have jumped the fence hind legs first in 1840. A grandstand was erected alongside the fence in the early part of the 20th century but fell into decline after the Second World War and was torn down in the 1970s. Fence 10 & 26 Height: 5 feet (1.52 m) A plain obstacle that leads the runners alongside the canal towards two ditches. Fence 11 & 27 – open ditch Height: 5 feet (1.52 m), with a 6 feet (1.83 m) ditch on the takeoff side Fence 12 & 28 – ditch Height: 5 feet (1.52 m), with a 5 feet 6 inches (1.68 m) ditch on the landing side The runners then cross the Melling Road near to the Anchor Bridge, a popular vantage point since the earliest days of the race. This also marks the point where the runners are said to be re-entering the "racecourse proper". In the early days of the race it is thought there was an obstacle near this point known as the Table Jump, which may have resembled a bank similar to those still seen at Punchestown in Ireland. In the 1840s the Melling Road was also flanked by hedges and the runners had to jump into the road and then back out of it. Fence 13 & 29 Height: 4 feet 7 inches (1.40 m) A plain obstacle that comes at a point when the runners are usually in a good rhythm and thus rarely causes problems. Fence 14 & 30 Height: 4 feet 6 inches (1.37 m) The last fence on the final lap and which has often seen very tired horses fall. Despite some tired runners falling at the 30th and appearing injured, no horse deaths have occurred at the 30th fence to date. On the first lap of the race, runners continue around the course to negotiate two fences which are only jumped once: Fence 15 – The Chair Height: 5 feet 2 inches (1.57 m), preceded by a 6 ft (1.83 m) wide ditch This fence is the site of the accident that claimed the only human life in the National's history: in 1862, Joe Wynne fell here and died from his injuries, although a coroner's inquest revealed that the rider was in a gravely weakened condition through consumption.[65] This brought about the ditch on the take-off side of the fence in an effort to slow the horses on approach. The fence was the location where a distance judge sat in the earliest days of the race. On the second circuit he would record the finishing order from his position and declare any horse that had not passed him before the previous runner passed the finishing post as "distanced", meaning a non-finisher. The practise was done away with in the 1850s but the monument where the chair stood is still there. The ground on the landing side is six inches higher than on the takeoff side, creating the opposite effect of the drop at Becher's. The fence was originally known as the Monument Jump but The Chair came into more regular use in the 1930s. Today it is one of the most popular jumps on the course for spectators. Fence 16 – Water Jump Height: 2 feet 6 inches (0.76 m) Originally a stone wall in the very early Nationals. The Water Jump was one of the most popular jumps on the course, presenting a great jumping spectacle for those in the stands and was always a major feature in the newsreels' coverage of the race. As the newsreels made way for television in the 1960s, so in turn did the Water Jump fall under the shadow of its neighbour, The Chair, in popularity as an obstacle. On the final lap, after the 30th fence the remaining runners bear right, avoiding The Chair and Water Jump, to head onto a "run-in" to the finishing post. The run-in is not perfectly straight: an "elbow" requires jockeys to make a slight right before finding themselves truly on the home straight. It is on this run-in — one of the longest in the United Kingdom at 494 yards (452 m)— that many potential winners have had victory snatched away, such as Devon Loch in 1956, Crisp in 1973, What's Up Boys in 2002 and Sunnyhillboy in 2012. Records Leading horse: Red Rum – 3 wins (1973, 1974, 1977)[21] Leading jockey: George Stevens – 5 wins (Freetrader, 1856; Emblem 1863; Emblematic, 1864; The Colonel, 1869, 1870)[21] Leading trainers: George Dockeray – 4 wins (Lottery, 1839; Jerry, 1840; Gaylad, 1842; Miss Mowbray, 1852) Fred Rimell – 4 wins (E.S.B., 1956; Nicolaus Silver, 1961; Gay Trip, 1970; Rag Trade, 1976)[21] Ginger McCain – 4 wins (Red Rum, 1973, 1974, 1977; Amberleigh House, 2004)[21] Leading owners: James Octavius Machell – 3 wins (Disturbance, 1873; Reugny, 1874; Regal, 1876) Noel Le Mare – 3 wins (Red Rum, 1973, 1974, 1977) Trevor Hemmings - 3 wins (Hedgehunter, 2005; Ballabriggs, 2011, Many Clouds, 2015) Fastest winning time: Mr. Frisk (1990); 8:47.80[66] Oldest winning horse: Peter Simple (1853); aged 15[21] Youngest winning horse: Alcibiade (1865), Regal (1876), Austerlitz (1877), Empress (1880), Lutteur III (1909); all aged five[21] Oldest winning jockey: Dick Saunders (1982); aged 48 Youngest winning jockey: Bruce Hobbs (1938); aged 17[21] Longest odds winner: Tipperary Tim (1928), Gregalach (1929), Caughoo (1947), Foinavon (1967), Mon Mome (2009); all 100/1[21] Shortest odds winner: Poethlyn (1919); 11/4[67] Largest field: 66 runners (1929)[21] Smallest field: 10 runners (1883)[21] Most horses to finish: 23 (1984)[21] Fewest horses to finish: 2 (1928)[21] Most rides in the race: 20 (A. P. McCoy, 1995-2015), (Richard Johnson, 1997-2016) Most rides without winning: 20 (Richard Johnson, 1997-2016) Winners Main article: List of Grand National winners The following table lists the winners of the last ten Grand Nationals: Year Horse Age Handicap (st-lb) Jockey Trainer Owner(s) SP 2017 One For Arthur[68] 8 10-11 Derek Fox Lucinda Russell Two Golf Widows 14/1 2016 Rule The World[69] 9 10-07 David Mullins Mouse Morris Gigginstown House Stud 33/1 2015 Many Clouds[70] 8 11-09 Leighton Aspell Oliver Sherwood Trevor Hemmings 25/1 2014 Pineau de Re[71] 11 10-06 Leighton Aspell Richard Newland John Proven 25/1 2013 Auroras Encore[72] 11 10-03 Ryan Mania Sue Smith Douglas Pryde, Jim Beaumont & David P van der Hoeven 66/1 2012 Neptune Collonges[73] 11 11-06 Daryl Jacob Paul Nicholls John Hales 33/1 2011 Ballabriggs[74] 10 11-00 Jason Maguire Donald McCain, Jr. Trevor Hemmings 14/1 2010 Don't Push It[75] 10 11–05 Tony McCoy Jonjo O'Neill J. P. McManus 10/1 JF 2009 Mon Mome[76] 9 11-00 Liam Treadwell Venetia Williams Vida Bingham 100/1 2008 Comply or Die[77] 9 10-09 Timmy Murphy David Pipe David Johnson 7/1 JF Jockeys When the concept of the Grand National was first envisaged it was designed as a race for gentlemen riders,[78] meaning men who were not paid to compete, and while this was written into the conditions of the early races many of the riders who weighed out for the 1839 race were professionals for hire. Throughout the Victorian era the line between the amateur and professional sportsman existed only in terms of the rider's status, and the engagement of an amateur to ride in the race was rarely considered a handicap to a contender's chances of winning. Many gentleman riders won the race prior to the First World War.[79] Although the number of amateurs remained high between the wars their ability to match their professional counterparts gradually receded. After the Second World War it became rare for any more than four or five amateurs to take part in any given year. The last amateur rider to win the race is Marcus Armytage, who (as of now) set the still-standing course record of 8:47.80, when winning on Mr Frisk in 1990. By the 21st century however, openings for amateur riders had become very rare with some years passing with no amateur riders at all taking part. Those that do in the modern era are most usually talented young riders who are often close to turning professional. In the past, such amateur riders would have been joined by army officers, such as David Campbell who won in 1896, and sporting aristocrats, farmers or local huntsmen and point to point riders, who usually opted to ride their own mounts. But all these genres of rider have faded out in the last quarter of a century with no riders of military rank or aristocratic title having taken a mount since 1982. The Sex Discrimination Act 1975 made it possible for female jockeys to enter the race. The first female jockey to enter the race was Charlotte Brew on the 200/1 outsider Barony Fort in the 1977 race.[80] The first female jockey to complete the race was Geraldine Rees on Cheers in 1982. The 21st century has not seen a significant increase in female riders but it has seen them gain rides on mounts considered to have a genuine chance of winning. In 2005, Carrie Ford finished fifth on the 8/1 second-favourite Forest Gunner. In 2012, Katie Walsh achieved the best result yet for a female jockey, finishing third on the 8/1 joint-favourite Seabass. In 2015, Nina Carberry became the first female jockey to take a fifth ride in the Grand National, her best placing being seventh in 2010.[81] Professionals now hold dominance in the Grand National and better training, dietary habits and protective clothing has ensured that riders' careers last much longer and offer more opportunities to ride in the race. Of the 34 riders who have enjoyed 13 or more rides in the race, 19 had their first ride in the 20th century and 11 had careers that continued into or started in the 21st century.[citation needed] Despite that, the record of 19 rides in the race was set by Tom Olliver back in 1859 and was not equalled until 2014 by A. P. McCoy.[82] Longevity is no guarantee of success, however, as 13 of the 34 never tasted the glory of winning the race. McCoy is the only rider to successfully remove himself from the list after winning at the 15th attempt in 2010. Richard Johnson set a record of 20 failed attempts to win the race from 1997–2016, having finished second twice, but is still competing. The other 14 riders who never won or have not as yet won, having had more than 12 rides in the race are: Tom Scudamore (2001–2017): never in first three in 16 attempts Noel Fehily (2001–2017): never in first three in 15 attempts David Casey (1997–2015): finished third once in 15 attempts Jeff King (1964–1980): finished third once in 15 attempts[83] Graham Bradley (1983–1999): finished second once in 14 attempts Bill Parvin (1926–1939): finished second once in 14 attempts Robert Thornton (1997–2011): never in first three in 14 attempts Andrew Thornton (1996–2016): never in first three in 14 attempts Chris Grant (1980–1994): finished second thrice in 13 attempts Stan Mellor (1956–1971): finished second once in 13 attempts George Waddington (1861–1882): finished second once in 13 attempts Walter White (1854–1869): finished second once in 13 attempts David Nicholson (1957–1973): never in first three in 13 attempts Davy Russell (2003–2017): finished third once in 13 attempts Peter Scudamore technically lined up for thirteen Grand Nationals without winning but the last of those was the void race of 1993, which meant that he officially competed in twelve Nationals.[84] Many other well-known jockeys have failed to win the Grand National. These include champion jockeys such as Terry Biddlecombe, John Francome, Josh Gifford, Stan Mellor, Jonjo O'Neill (who never finished the race) and Fred Rimell.[85] Three jockeys who led over the last fence in the National but lost the race on the run-in ended up as television commentators: Lord Oaksey (on Carrickbeg in 1963), Norman Williamson (on Mely Moss in 2000), and Richard Pitman (on Crisp in 1973). Dick Francis also never won the Grand National in 8 attempts although he did lead over the last fence on Devon Loch in the 1956 race, only for the horse to collapse under him when well in front only 40 yards from the winning post. Pitman's son Mark also led over the last fence, only to be pipped at the post when riding Garrison Savannah in 1991. David Dick luckily won the 1956 Grand National on E.S.B. when Devon Loch collapsed and he also holds the record for the number of clear rounds – nine times. Since 1986, any jockey making five or more clear rounds has been awarded the Aintree Clear Rounds Award.[86] Horse welfare See also: List of equine fatalities in the Grand National For every 1,000 horses taking part in modern steeplechase races, the number of fatalities is just over four, according to the British Horseracing Authority; research by Anglia Ruskin University states the rate is six per 1,000 horses.[87] However, deaths in the Grand National are higher than the average steeplechase, with six deaths per 439 horses between 2000 and 2010.[88] Due to the high number of injuries and deaths suffered by participating horses, animal rights groups have campaigned to have the race modified or abolished.[89] Over the years, Aintree officials have worked in conjunction with animal welfare organisations to reduce the severity of some fences and to improve veterinary facilities. In 2008, a new veterinary surgery was constructed in the stable yard which has two large treatment boxes, an X-ray unit, video endoscopy, equine solarium, and sandpit facilities. Further changes in set-up and procedure allow vets to treat horses more rapidly and in better surroundings. Those requiring more specialist care can be transported by specialist horse ambulances, under police escort, to the nearby Philip Leverhulme Equine Hospital at the University of Liverpool at Leahurst. A mobile on-course X-ray machine assists in the prompt diagnosis of leg injuries when horses are pulled up, and oxygen and water are available by the final fence and finishing post.[90][91][92] Five vets remain mobile on the course during the running of the race and can initiate treatment of injured fallers at the fence. Additional vets are stationed at the pull-up area, finishing post, and in the surgery.[92] Some of the National's most challenging fences have also been modified, while still preserving them as formidable obstacles. After the 1989 Grand National, in which two horses died in incidents at Becher's Brook, Aintree began the most significant of its modifications to the course. The brook on the landing side of Becher's was filled in and, after the 2011 race which also saw an equine fatality at the obstacle, the incline on the landing side was levelled out and the drop on was reduced by between 4 and 5 inches (10–13 cm) to slow the runners. Other fences have also been reduced in height over the years, and the entry requirements for the race have been made stricter. Screening at the Canal Turn now prevents horses being able to see the sharp left turn and encourages jockeys to spread out along the fence, rather than take the tight left-side route. Additionally, work has been carried out to smooth the core post infrastructure of the fences with protective padding to reduce impact upon contact,[90] and the height of the toe-boards on all fences has been increased to 14 inches (36 cm). These orange-coloured boards are positioned at the base of each fence and provide a clear ground line to assist horses in determining the base of the fence. Parts of the course were widened in 2009 to allow runners to bypass fences if required. This was utilised for the first time during the 2011 race as casualties at fences 4 and 6 (Becher's Brook) resulted in marshals diverting the remaining contenders around those fences on the final lap. Welfare groups have suggested a reduction in the size of the field (currently limited to a maximum of 40 horses) should be implemented. Opponents point to previous unhappy experience with smaller fields such as only 29 runners at the 1954 Grand National, only 31 runners in 1975, and a fatality each at the 1996 and 1999 Nationals despite smaller fields, and the possible ramifications in relation to the speed of such races in addition to recent course modifications (part of the "speed kills" argument). Some within the horseracing community, including those with notable achievements in the Grand National such as Ginger McCain and Bob Champion,[93][94][95] have argued that the lowering of fences and the narrowing of ditches, primarily designed to increase horse safety, has had the adverse effect by encouraging the runners to race faster. During the 1970s and 1980s, the Grand National saw a total of 12 horses die (half of which were at Becher's Brook); in the next 20-year period from 1990 to 2010, when modifications to the course were most significant, there were 17 equine fatalities. The 2011 and 2012 races each yielded two deaths, including one each at Becher's Brook. In 2013, when further changes were made to introduce a more flexible fence structure, there were no fatalities in the race itself although two horses died in run-up races over the same course.[96][97][98][99] There have been no equine fatalities in the main Grand National race since 2012,[100] however the animal welfare charity League Against Cruel Sports counts the number of horse deaths over the three-day meeting from the year 2000 to 2013 at 40.[98] Grand National Legends In 2009, the race sponsors John Smith's launched a poll to determine five personalities to be inducted into the inaugural Grand National Legends initiative.[101] The winners were announced on the day of the 2010 Grand National and inscribed on commemorative plaques at Aintree. They were:[101] Ginger McCain and his record three-time winning horse Red Rum; John Buckingham and Foinavon, the unlikely winners in 1967; Manifesto, who holds the record for most runs in the race, eight including two victories; Jenny Pitman, the first woman to train the winner of the race in 1983; and Sir Peter O'Sullevan, the commentator who called home the winners of fifty Grand Nationals on radio and television from 1947 to 1997. A panel of experts also selected three additional legends:[101] George Stevens, the record five-time winning rider between 1856–1870; Captain Martin Becher, who played a major part in bringing the National to Liverpool, rode the winner of the first precursor to the National in 1836 and was the first rider to fall into the brook at the sixth fence, which forever took his name after 1839; and Edward Topham, who was assigned the task of framing the weights for the handicap from 1847 and whose descendants played a major role in the race for the next 125 years. In 2011, nine additional legends were added:[101] Bob Champion and Aldaniti, the winners of the 1981 Grand National; West Tip, who ran in six consecutive Nationals and won once in 1986; Richard Dunwoody, the jockey who rode West Tip and Miinnehoma to victory and who competed in 14 Grand Nationals, being placed in eight; Brian Fletcher, a jockey who won the race three times (including Red Rum's first victory in 1973, and finished second once and third three times); Vincent O'Brien, who trained three consecutive winners of the race in the 1950s; Tom Olliver, who rode in nineteen Nationals, including seventeen consecutively, and won three times, as well as finishing second three times and third once; Count Karl Kinsky, the first international winner of the race, and at his first attempt, on board the mare Zoedone in 1883; Jack Anthony, three-time winning jockey in 1911, 1915 and 1920; and Peter Bromley, the BBC radio commentator who covered 42 Nationals until his retirement. John Smith's also added five "people's legends" who were introduced on Liverpool Day, the first day of the Grand National meeting. The five were:[102] Arthur Ferrie, who worked as a groundsman during the 1970s and 1980s; Edie Roche, a Melling Road resident, who opened her home to jockeys, spectators and members of the media when the course was evacuated following a bomb threat in 1997; Ian Stewart, a fan who had travelled from Coventry every year to watch the race and was attending his fiftieth National in 2010; Police Constable Ken Lawson, who was celebrating thirty-one years of service in the mounted section of Merseyside Police and was set to escort his third National winner in 2010; and Tony Roberts, whose first visit to the National had been in 1948 and who had steadily spread the word to family and friends about the race, regularly bringing a party of up to thirty people to the course. A public vote announced at the 2012 Grand National saw five more additions to the Legends hall: Fred Winter, who rode two National winners and trained two more; Carl Llewellyn, jockey who won two Nationals including on Party Politics in 1992, and Earth Summit in 1998, the latter being the only horse to have won the Grand National and the Scottish and Welsh Nationals; Fred Rimell, the trainer of four different National winning horses, including Nicolaus Silver, one of only three greys to have ever won the race; Michael Scudamore, rider in sixteen consecutive Grand Nationals from 1951, finishing first in 1959 and also achieving a second and a third place; Tommy Carberry, the jockey who stopped Red Rum's attempt at a third success in 1975 by winning on L'Escargot, also finished second and third before going on to train the winner in 1999. The selection panel also inducted three more competitors: Tommy Pickernell, who rode in seventeen Grand Nationals in the 19th century and won three. He allegedly turned down a substantial bribe during the 1860 race from the second-placed jockey and instead rode on to win; Battleship, the only horse to have won both the Grand National and the American Grand National, and his jockey Bruce Hobbs, who remains the youngest jockey to win the Aintree race; George Dockeray, who alongside Ginger McCain and Fred Rimell trained four National winners, starting with Lottery in the first official Grand National in 1839.[103] Notes Favourites In the 70 races of the post-war era (excluding the void race in 1993), the favourite or joint-favourite have only won the race nine times (in 1950, 1960, 1973, 1982, 1996, 1998, 2005, 2008 and 2010), and have failed to complete the course in 37 Nationals.[104] Mares Since its inception, 13 mares have won the race:[21][105][106] Charity (1841) Miss Mowbray (1852) Anatis (1860) Jealousy (1861) Emblem (1863) Emblematic (1864) Casse Tete (1872) Empress (1880) Zoedone (1883) Frigate (1889) Shannon Lass (1902) Sheila's Cottage (1948) Nickel Coin (1951) Greys Three greys have won: The Lamb (1868, 1871)[21][106] Nicolaus Silver (1961)[21][106] Neptune Collonges (2012)[21][106] Female jockeys Since 1977, women have ridden in 20 Grand Nationals. Geraldine Rees became the first to complete the course, in 1982. In 2012 Katie Walsh became the first female jockey to earn a placed finish in the race, finishing third. Year Jockey Horse SP Result 1977 Charlotte Brew Barony Fort 200/1 Refused, 26th fence 1979 Jenny Hembrow Sandwilan 100/1 Fell, 1st fence 1980 Jenny Hembrow Sandwilan 100/1 Pulled up, 19th fence 1981 Linda Sheedy Deiopea 100/1 Refused, 19th fence 1982 Geraldine Rees Cheers 66/1 Completed, 8th and last place 1982 Charlotte Brew Martinstown 100/1 Unseated, 3rd fence 1983 Geraldine Rees Midday Welcome 500/1 Fell, 1st fence 1983 Joy Carrier King Spruce 28/1 Unseated, 6th fence 1984 Valerie Alder Bush Guide 33/1 Fell, 8th fence 1987 Jacqui Oliver Eamons Owen 200/1 Unseated, 15th fence 1988 Gee Armytage Gee-A 33/1 Pulled up, 26th fence 1988 Venetia Williams Marcolo 200/1 Fell, 6th fence 1988 Penny Ffitch-Heyes Hettinger 200/1 Fell, 1st fence 1989 Tarnya Davis Numerate 100/1 Pulled up, 21st fence 1994 Rosemary Henderson Fiddlers Pike 100/1 Completed, 5th place 2005 Carrie Ford Forest Gunner 8/1 Completed, 5th place 2006 Nina Carberry Forest Gunner 33/1 Completed, 9th and last place 2010 Nina Carberry Character Building 16/1 Completed, 7th place 2011 Nina Carberry Character Building 25/1 Completed, 15th place 2012 Katie Walsh Seabass 8/1 JF Completed, 3rd place 2012 Nina Carberry Organisedconfusion 25/1 Unseated, 8th fence 2013 Katie Walsh Seabass 11/2 F Completed, 13th place 2014 Katie Walsh Vesper Bell 40/1 Completed, 13th place 2015 Nina Carberry First Lieutenant 14/1 Completed, 16th place 2016 Katie Walsh Ballycasey 50/1 Unseated, 29th fence 2016 Nina Carberry Sir Des Champs 20/1 Unseated, 15th fence 2017 Katie Walsh Wonderful Charm 28/1 Completed, 19th and last place International winners Battleship is the only horse to win both the American Grand National and the English Grand National steeplechase races France Two French-trained horses have won the Grand National: Huntsman (1862) and Cortolvin (1867). Six other winners were bred in France — Alcibiade (1865), Reugny (1874), Lutteur III (1909), Mon Mome (2009), Neptune Collonges (2012), and Pineau De Re (2014).[105] United States In 1923, Sergeant Murphy became the first U.S.-bred horse to win the race. He is also the joint-second oldest horse to win, at age 13, alongside Why Not (1884).[21] The U.S.-bred Battleship, son of the famous Man o' War, became the first (and so far only) horse to have won both the Grand National (in 1938) and the American Grand National (which he won four years earlier).[106] Both Jay Trump (1965) and Ben Nevis II (1980) won the Maryland Hunt Cup before winning the Grand National. Australia Jockey William Watkinson recorded the first riding success for Australia in 1926. He was killed at Bogside, Scotland, less than three weeks after winning the National.[106] New Zealand 1991 was the seventh and final year that the Grand National was sponsored by Seagram. Aptly, the race was won by a horse named Seagram, bred in New Zealand. 1997 saw another New Zealand-bred winner in Lord Gyllene. Other British winners Wales The only Welsh-trained horse to win was Kirkland in 1905.[21][106] Scotland Rubstic, trained by John Leadbetter in Roxburghshire, became the first Scottish-trained winner, with victory in 1979.[21][106] The only other Scottish winner was One For Arthur in 2017. Irish winners Republic of Ireland Irish-trained horses have enjoyed by far the most success of international participants, with 16 winners since 1900, including six since 1999:[105] Year Horse Jockey SP 1900 Ambush II Algy Anthony 4/1 1920 Troytown Mr. Jack Anthony 6/1 1939 Workman Tim Hyde 100/8 1947 Caughoo Eddie Dempsey 100/1 1953 Early Mist Bryan Marshall 20/1 1954 Royal Tan Bryan Marshall 8/1 1955 Quare Times Pat Taaffe 100/9 1975 L'Escargot Tommy Carberry 13/2 1999 Bobbyjo Paul Carberry 10/1 2000 Papillon Ruby Walsh 10/1 2003 Monty's Pass Barry Geraghty 16/1 2005 Hedgehunter Ruby Walsh 7/1 F 2006 Numbersixvalverde Niall Madden 11/1 2007 Silver Birch Robbie Power 33/1 2016 Rule The World David Mullins 33/1 Famous owners The 1900 winner Ambush II was owned by HRH Prince of Wales, later to become King Edward VII.[21] In 1950 Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother had her first runner in the race in Monaveen, who finished fifth.[21] Six years later she would witness her Devon Loch collapse on the run-in, just yards from a certain victory.[106] The favourite for the 1968 race, Different Class, was owned by actor Gregory Peck. The 1963 winner Ayala and the 1976 winner Rag Trade were both part-owned by celebrity hairdresser Raymond Bessone.[106] 1994 winner Miinnehoma was owned by comedian Freddie Starr.[106] What A Friend ran in 2011 and 2013 when part-owned by Alex Ferguson, the former manager of Manchester United. See also Horseracing in Great Britain List of British National Hunt races References Racing Post: 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 Timeform: 2017 Notes "Grand National to be sponsored by Crabbie's ginger beer". BBC Sport. 28 August 2013. Retrieved 5 April 2014. British Racing and Racecourses (ISBN 978-0950139722) by Marion Rose Halpenny – Page 167 Grand National Weights | 2011 Grand National | Aintree Racecourse. Retrieved on 11 March 2011. Grand National Betting Archived 27 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved on 11 March 2011. "Official Grand National fences guide". Aintree Racecourse. Retrieved 8 April 2013. Powell, Nick (6 April 2013). "Grand National comes home without casualties". Sky News. Retrieved 8 April 2013. "Broadcasting of the Grand National". Retrieved 11 March 2011. Armytage, Marcus (3 April 2006). "Evolution can't stop National interest". London: The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 13 June 2009. "The BBC Story – Great Moments". BBC. Retrieved 11 March 2011. "Talksport to cover Grand National". Retrieved 14 April 2014. Grand National History. Retrieved on 11 March 2011. The history of the Grand National. Retrieved on 11 March 2011. History of the Grand National – The Worlds Greatest Jump Race. Retrieved on 11 March 2011.[dead link] Mutlow, Mick (15 June 2009). "The Birth of The Grand National: The Real Story". Thoroughbred Heritage. Retrieved 8 April 2010. "From first to last – Race history". icLiverpool. 17 June 2009. Retrieved 8 April 2010. Grand National History 1839 – 1836. Retrieved on 11 March 2011. The Grand National Anomaly 1836-1838. 28 March 2015. History of Victorian Liverpool Volans, Ian. "BBC SPOTY 2010 – the nominees". Retrieved 11 March 2011. Steeplechasing Notes. Retrieved on 11 March 2011. Haywood, Linda. (4 April 2008) A Big Long History of the Grand National. Popular Nostalgia. Retrieved on 11 March 2011. Facts & Figures. Retrieved on 11 March 2011. Cleverly Won. A Romance of the Grand National. A Novelette (London: F. V. White, 1887) Grand National History 1919 – 1910. Retrieved on 11 March 2011. "The most memorable Grand National moments". The Independent. London. 8 April 2011.[dead link][dead link] Grand National Chronicle Vincent O'Brien ~ Grand National Winning Trainer. (9 April 1917). Retrieved on 11 March 2011. "Devon Loch joins the great failures". The Guardian. London. 1 April 2005. Foinavon ~ The 1967 Grand National Winner. (22 February 1999). Retrieved on 11 March 2011. Wood, Greg. (3 April 2009) The Joy of Six: great Grand National moments | Sport | Guardian. Retrieved on 11 March 2011. Foinavon – Grand National Tales. Retrieved on 11 March 2011. Grand National Videos ~ Watch The Greatest Nationals Online. Retrieved on 11 March 2011. 1981 A day when the National seems scripted in the stars. Bob Champion, given. (9 April 2010). Retrieved on 11 March 2011. Aldaniti Grand National Legends | Aintree Grand National. Retrieved on 11 March 2011. BBC ON THIS DAY | 3 | 1993: Grand National ends in 'shambles'. BBC News (3 April 1996). Retrieved on 11 March 2011. 3 April 1993: Esha Ness 'wins' the Grand National that never was | Sport. The Guardian. Retrieved on 11 March 2011. 1993 Grand National. YouTube. Retrieved on 11 March 2011. Grand National Anorak |. Retrieved on 11 March 2011. BBC Sport | Other Sports | Horse Racing | Grand National 2002 | Aintree grabs the headlines. BBC News (28 March 2002). Retrieved on 11 March 2011. Aintree determined to rerun – Sport. The Independent (6 April 1997). Retrieved on 11 March 2011. Business | Bomb Scare Cancels British Horse Race | Seattle Times Newspaper. (6 April 1997). Retrieved on 11 March 2011. BBC Sport | Other Sport | Horse Racing | Amberleigh wins National. BBC News (3 April 2004). Retrieved on 11 March 2011. Lee, Alan (18 June 2009). "Thousands in running for People's Race". London: The Times. Retrieved 8 April 2010. BBC Sport – Horse Racing – Mon Mome seals shock National win. BBC News (4 April 2009). Retrieved on 11 March 2011. Press Office – 2010 Grand National in HD – a first for UK horse racing. BBC (29 March 2010). Retrieved on 11 March 2011. "Grand National to be sponsored by Crabbie's ginger beer". BBC News. 28 August 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2013. "Randox Health to sponsor Grand National". Racing Post. 8 March 2016. Retrieved 8 March 2016. "Revolving doors". Private Eye. London: Pressdram Ltd. 21 April 2017. "Grand National Distance Reduced". Retrieved 8 April 2013. About The Grand National. Retrieved on 11 March 2011. Grand National Fences – Beechers Brook – The Chair. Retrieved on 11 March 2011. Course and Fences. Retrieved on 11 March 2011. Liverpool Daily Post 15 March 1862 Baerlein, Richard (9 April 1990). "Mr Frisk and Mr Armytage". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 7 April 2009. "The Grand National Betting Compendium". Retrieved 7 May 2011. "2017 Grand National Result". Timeform. Archived from the original on 2017-10-20. Retrieved 19 October 2017. "2016 Grand National Result". Timeform. Retrieved 19 October 2017.[dead link] "2015 Grand National Result". Timeform. Retrieved 19 October 2017.[dead link] "2014 Grand National Result". Timeform. Archived from the original on 2017-10-19. Retrieved 19 October 2017. "2013 Grand National Result". Timeform. Archived from the original on 2017-10-20. Retrieved 19 October 2017. "2012 Grand National Result". Timeform. Archived from the original on 2017-10-19. Retrieved 19 October 2017. "2011 Grand National Result". Timeform. Archived from the original on 2017-10-20. Retrieved 19 October 2017. "2010 Grand National Result". Timeform. Archived from the original on 2017-10-19. Retrieved 19 October 2017. "2009 Grand National Result". Timeform. Archived from the original on 2017-10-20. Retrieved 19 October 2017. "2008 Grand National Result". Timeform. Archived from the original on 2017-10-20. Retrieved 19 October 2017. "GRAND NATIONAL WOMEN". Grand National Guide. Retrieved 23 February 2017. White, Jim (11 April 2015). "AP McCoy denied perfect Grand National farewell on his final trip round Aintree". Retrieved 24 March 2018. Wood, Greg (12 April 2012). "Richard Johnson: I've just not had the right horse for Grand National". the Guardian. Retrieved 23 March 2018. combined year by year Grand National returns from Grand National 2011: Fred Rimell Antony Kamm, Claude Poulet. Britain And Her People 1990-0862837863 Page 39 "Jumping a clear round is such an achievement in itself that the Aintree Clear Rounds Award was instituted in 1986 for jockeys who have done this five times. The record is nine times, by David Dick." "Risk of fatalities at Grand National is too high, says academic". Anglia Ruskin University. Archived from the original on 18 July 2012. Retrieved 7 April 2011. "BBC News - Who, what, why: How dangerous is the Grand National?". 11 April 2011. Retrieved 14 April 2012. "Call for ban on Grand National". Scotsman. 10 April 2011. Retrieved 8 April 2018. Horse Welfare. Retrieved on 11 March 2011. Aintree Racecourse – Grand National Fences. Retrieved on 11 March 2011. Liew, Jonathan (9 April 2010). "Grand National 2010: Aintree takes lead in horse welfare". The Daily Telegraph. London. "BBC Sport - Horse Racing - Grand National: Ginger McCain queries smaller fences". BBC News. 10 April 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2012. "Grand National: Neptune Collonge Honoured After Horses Die Following Aintree Race | UK News | Sky News". Archived from the original on 19 April 2012. Retrieved 23 April 2012. "BBC Sport - According to Pete trainer wants bigger Grand National fences". 16 April 2012. Retrieved 23 April 2012. Dawes, Mike (5 April 2013). "Little Josh dies on Grand National meeting day one". Daily Mail. Retrieved 8 April 2014. "Grand National 2013: Little Josh becomes second horse to die over the big Aintree fences". Telegraph. Retrieved 8 April 2014. "Charity warns that until horse welfare is put first, injury and fatalities are inevitable during Grand National meet - League Against Cruel Sports". 3 April 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2014. "BBC Sport - Grand National 2014: Tidal Bay tops Aintree weights". BBC News. 11 February 2014. Retrieved 11 February 2014. "The 2014 Grand National". Animal Aid. Retrieved 8 April 2014. "Grand National Legends through History | GrandNational.Org.UK". Retrieved 24 March 2018. John Smith's Grand National legends John Smith’s Grand National Legends - Age Check Grand National Records archive "History of the Grand National – Timeline". Retrieved 11 March 2011. Sources Winners 1886–present Grand National Media Guide Grand National facts on the BBC website Aintree Grand National on Grand National – Aintree om The Grand National on Grand National Reviews on External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Grand National. Aintree Grand National Stats and Trends BBC history of Grand National Film footage of the 1967 Grand National great pile up [hide] v t e Grand National Races by year 1836 1837 1838 1839 1840 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Course Aintree Racecourse Becher's Brook Canal Turn The Chair Famous horses Aldaniti Battleship Corbiere Crisp Devon Loch The Duke E.S.B. Foinavon Golden Miller L'Escargot Lord Gyllene Lottery Peter Simple Red Rum West Tip Famous jockeys Duke of Alburquerque Jack Anthony Martin Becher Tommy Carberry Bob Champion Richard Dunwoody Brian Fletcher Dick Francis Josh Gifford Bruce Hobbs Count Karl Kinsky Jem Mason Tony McCoy Tom Olliver Ernest Piggott Richard Pitman Ruby Walsh Fred Winter Other people Peter Bromley Ginger McCain Vincent O'Brien Michael O'Hehir Peter O'Sullevan Jenny Pitman Fred Rimell Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother Lord Oaksey Lord Sefton Lists List of Grand National winners List of Grand National first four placings List of equine fatalities in the Grand National List of female Grand National jockeys [hide] v t e Grand National Meeting Aintree Hurdle Alder Hey Children's Charity Handicap Hurdle Anniversary 4-Y-O Novices' Hurdle Betway Bowl Betway Handicap Chase Champion Standard Open NH Flat Race Fox Hunters' Chase Gaskells Waste Management Handicap Hurdle Grand National Liverpool Hurdle Maghull Novices' Chase Manifesto Novices' Chase Melling Chase Mersey Novices' Hurdle Mildmay Novices' Chase Nickel Coin Mares' Standard Open NH Flat Race Red Rum Handicap Chase Sefton Novices' Hurdle Top Novices' Hurdle Topham Chase Aintree Racecourse is a racecourse in Aintree, Merseyside, England. The racecourse is best known for annually holding the world-famous Grand National steeplechase. Horseracing in Great Britain Venues National Hunt Aintree Bangor-on-Dee Cartmel Cheltenham Exeter Fakenham Fontwell Park Hereford Hexham Huntingdon Kelso Ludlow Market Rasen Newton Abbot Perth Plumpton Sedgefield Stratford-on-Avon Taunton Towcester Uttoxeter Warwick Wincanton Worcester Flat Bath Beverley Brighton Chelmsford City Chester Epsom Downs Goodwood Great Yarmouth Hamilton Park Newmarket Nottingham Pontefract Redcar Ripon Salisbury Thirsk Windsor Wolverhampton York Mixed Ascot Ayr Carlisle Catterick Chepstow Doncaster Ffos Las Haydock Park Kempton Park Leicester Lingfield Park Musselburgh Newbury Newcastle Sandown Park Southwell Wetherby Former Stockbridge (1898) Hurst Park (1962) Manchester (1963) Lincoln (1964) Birmingham (1965) Alexandra Park (1970) Wye (1974) Lanark (1977) Stockton (1981) Folkestone (2012) Named races List of British flat horse races (British Classic Races) List of British National Hunt races Regulation British Horseracing Authority Other bodies British Racing School Horserace Betting Levy Board National Association of Stable Staff Racehorse Owners Association Tattersalls The National Stud Weatherbys Course owners Arena Racing Company (15) (Merger of Arena Leisure and Northern Racing by Reuben Brothers) Jockey Club Racecourses (14) Unofficial winners Pre-1839 The first official running of the "Grand National" is now considered to be the 1839 Grand Liverpool Steeplechase. There had been a similar race for several years prior to this, but its status as an official Grand National was revoked some time between 1862 and 1873. Year Winner Age Handicap (st-lb) Jockey Trainer Owner 1836 The Duke 7 Capt. Martin Becher Mr Sirdefield 1837 The Duke 8 Henry Potts Mr Sirdefield 1838 Sir William 7 12-07 Alan McDonough Mr Thompson 1916–18 For three years during World War I, the Grand National could not be run at Aintree, and so a substitute event was held at another racecourse, Gatwick. This venue is now defunct, and it is presently the site of London Gatwick Airport. The course was modified to make it similar to Aintree, and the races were contested over the same distance, with one fence fewer to be jumped. The 1916 running was titled the Racecourse Association Steeplechase and for the next two years it was known as the War National. Year Winner Age Handicap (st-lb) Jockey Trainer Owner 1916 Vermouth 6 11-10 Jack Reardon J. Bell P. F. Heybourne 1917 Ballymacad 10 09-12 Edmund Driscoll Aubrey Hastings Sir George Bullough 1918 Poethlyn 8 11-06 Ernie Piggott Harry Escott Gwladys Peel Winners Year Winner Age Handicap (st-lb) Jockey Trainer Owner SP Winning time 1839 Lottery 9 12-00 Jem Mason George Dockeray John Elmore 5/1 F 14m 53.0s 1840 Jerry 10 12-00 Mr Bartholomew Bretherton George Dockeray Henry Villebois 12/1 12m 30.0s 1841 Charity 11 12-00 Mr A. Powell William Vevers Lord Craven 14/1 13m 25.0s 1842 Gaylad 8 12-00 Tom Olliver George Dockeray John Elmore 7/1 13m 30.0s 1843 Vanguard 8 11-10 Tom Olliver see note below [a] Lord Chesterfield 12/1 Not recorded 1844 Discount 6 10-12 Mr John Crickmere Not recorded Mr Quartermaine 5/1 JF 14m 0.0s 1845 Cure-All 7 11-05 Mr William Loft Kitty Crisp W. S. Crawford 10m 47.0s 1846 Pioneer 6 11-12 William Taylor Not trained [1] Mr Adams 10m 46.0s 1847 Mathew 9 10-06 Denny Wynne John Murphy John Courtenay 10/1 10m 39.0s 1848 Chandler 12 11-12 Capt. Josey Little [2] Tom Eskrett Josey Little 12/1 11m 21.0s 1849 Peter Simple 11 11-00 Tom Cunningham T. Cunningham Finch Mason, Jr. 20/1 10m 56.0s 1850 Abd-El-Kader 8 09-12 Chris Green Joseph Osborne Joseph Osborne 9m 57.5s 1851 Abd-El-Kader 9 10-04 T. Abbott Joseph Osborne Joseph Osborne 7/1 9m 59.0s 1852 Miss Mowbray 7 10-04 Mr Alec Goodman George Dockeray T. F. Mason 9m 58.5s 1853 Peter Simple 15 10-10 Tom Olliver Tom Olliver Josey Little 9/1 10m 37.5s 1854 Bourton 11 11-12 John Tasker Henry Wadlow William Moseley 4/1 F 9m 59.0s 1855 Wanderer 10 09-08 John Hanlon Not known Mr Dunn 25/1 10m 25.0s 1856 Freetrader 7 09-06 George Stevens William Holman W. Barnett 25/1 10m 9.5s 1857 Emigrant 11 09-10 Charlie Boyce Charlie Boyce George Hodgman 10/1 10m 6.0s 1858 Little Charley 10 10-07 William Archer William Holman Christopher Capel 100/6 11m 5.0s 1859 Half Caste 6 09-07 Chris Green Chris Green Mr Willoughby 7/1 10m 2.0s 1860 Anatis 10 09-10 Mr Tommy Pickernell H. E. May Christopher Capel 7/2 F Not recorded 1861 Jealousy 7 09-12 Joseph Kendall Charles Balchin J. Bennett 5/1 10m 14.0s 1862 The Huntsman 9 11-00 Harry Lamplugh Harry Lamplugh Viscount de Namur 3/1 F 9m 30.0s 1863 Emblem 7 10-10 George Stevens Edwin Weever Lord Coventry 4/1 11m 20.0s 1864 Emblematic 6 10-06 George Stevens Edwin Weever Lord Coventry 10/1 11m 50.0s 1865 Alcibiade 5 11-04 Capt. Henry Coventry Cornell Cherry Angell 100/7 11m 16.0s 1866 Salamander 7 10-07 Mr Alec Goodman J. Walters Edward Studd 40/1 11m 5.0s 1867 Cortolvin 8 11-13 John Page Harry Lamplugh Duke of Hamilton 16/1 10m 42.0s 1868 The Lamb 6 10-07 Mr George Ede Ben Land Lord Poulett 9/1 Not recorded 1869 The Colonel 6 10-07 George Stevens R. Roberts John Weyman 100/7 11m 0.0s 1870 The Colonel 7 11-12 George Stevens R. Roberts Matthew Evans 7/2 F 10m 10.0s 1871 The Lamb 9 11-05 Mr Tommy Pickernell Chris Green Lord Poulett 11/2 9m 35.7s 1872 Casse Tete 7 10-00 John Page A. Cowley Teddy Brayley 20/1 10m 14.5s 1873 Disturbance 6 11-11 Mr J. M. Richardson James Machell James Machell 20/1 Watch stopped 1874 Reugny 6 10-12 Mr J. M. Richardson James Machell James Machell 5/1 F 10m 4.0s 1875 Pathfinder 8 10-11 Mr Tommy Pickernell W. Reeves Hubert Bird 100/6 10m 22.0s 1876 Regal 5 11-03 Joe Cannon James Jewitt James Machell 25/1 11m 14.0s 1877 Austerlitz 5 10-08 Mr Fred Hobson Robert I'Anson Fred Hobson 15/1 10m 10.0s 1878 Shifnal 9 10-12 J. Jones John Nightingall John Nightingall 7/1 10m 23.0s 1879 The Liberator 10 11-04 Mr Garrett Moore J. Moore Garrett Moore 5/1 10m 12.0s 1880 Empress 5 10-07 Mr Tommy Beasley Henry Linde Pierre Ducrot 8/1 10m 20.0s 1881 Woodbrook 7 11-03 Mr Tommy Beasley Henry Linde T. Kirkwood 11/2 JF 11m 50.0s 1882 Seaman 6 11-06 Lord Manners James Machell/James Jewitt Lord Manners 10/1 10m 42.4s 1883 Zoedone 6 11-00 Count Karel Kinsky W. Jenkins Count Karel Kinsky 100/7 11m 39.0s 1884 Voluptuary 6 10-05 Mr Ted Wilson William Wilson H. F. Boyd 10/1 10m 5.0s 1885 Roquefort 6 11-00 Mr Ted Wilson Arthur Yates Arthur Cooper 10/3 F 10m 10.0s 1886 Old Joe 7 10-09 Tommy Skelton George Mulcaster A. J. Douglas 25/1 10m 14.6s 1887 Gamecock 8 11-00 Bill Daniels James Gordon E. Jay 20/1 10m 10.2s 1888 Playfair 7 10-07 George Mawson Tom Cannon, Sr. Ned Baird 40/1 10m 12.0s 1889 Frigate 11 11-04 Mr Tommy Beasley M. A. Maher Mat Maher 8/1 10m 1.2s 1890 Ilex 6 10-05 Arthur Nightingall John Nightingall George Masterman 4/1 F 10m 41.8s 1891 Come Away 7 11-12 Mr Harry Beasley Harry Beasley Willie Jameson 4/1 F 9m 58.0s 1892 Father O'Flynn 7 10-05 Capt. Roddy Owen Gordon Wilson Gordon Wilson 20/1 9m 48.2s 1893 Cloister 9 12-07 Bill Dollery Arthur Yates Charles Duff 9/2 F 9m 32.4s 1894 Why Not 13 11-13 Arthur Nightingall Willie Moore C. H. Fenwick 5/1 JF 9m 45.4s 1895 Wild Man From Borneo 7 10-11 Mr Joe Widger James Gatland John Widger 10/1 10m 32.0 1896 The Soarer 7 09-13 Lt. David Campbell Willie Moore William Hall Walker 40/1 10m 11.2s 1897 Manifesto 9 11-03 Terry Kavanagh Willie McAuliffe Harry Dyas 6/1 F 9m 49s 1898 Drogheda 6 10-12 John Gourley Dick Dawson C. G. M. Adams 25/1 9m 43.6s 1899 Manifesto 11 12-07 George Williamson Willie Moore John Bulteel 5/1 9m 49.8s 1900 Ambush II 6 11-03 Algy Anthony Algy Anthony Prince Edward VII 4/1 10m 1.4s 1901 Grudon 11 10-00 Arthur Nightingall Bernard Bletsoe Bernard Bletsoe 9/1 9m 47.8s 1902 Shannon Lass 7 10-01 David Read James Hackett Ambrose Gorham 20/1 10m 3.6s 1903 Drumcree 9 11-03 Percy Woodland Sir Charles Nugent John Morrison 13/2 F 10m 9.4s 1904 Moifaa 8 10-07 Arthur Birch W. Hickey Spencer Gollan 25/1 9m 58.6s 1905 Kirkland 9 11-05 Frank Mason E. Thomas Frank Bibby 6/1 9m 48.8s 1906 Ascetic's Silver 9 10-09 Mr Aubrey Hastings Aubrey Hastings Prince F. Hatzfeldt 20/1 9m 34.4s 1907 Eremon 7 10-01 Alf Newey Tom Coulthwaite Stanley Howard 8/1 9m 47.5s 1908 Rubio 10 10-05 Henry Bletsoe Fred Withington F. Douglas-Pennant 66/1 10m 33.2s 1909 Lutteur III 5 10-11 Georges Parfrement Harry Escott James Hennessy 100/9 9m 53.8s 1910 Jenkinstown 9 10-05 Robert Chadwick Tom Coulthwaite Stanley Howard 100/8 10m 44.2s 1911 Glenside 9 10-03 Mr Jack Anthony R. H. Collis Frank Bibby 20/1 10m 35.0s 1912 Jerry M 9 12-07 Ernie Piggott Robert Gore Sir C. Assheton-Smith 4/1 JF 10m 13.4s 1913 Covertcoat 7 11-06 Percy Woodland Robert Gore Sir C. Assheton-Smith 100/9 10m 19.0s 1914 Sunloch 8 09-07 Bill Smith Tom Tyler Tom Tyler 100/6 9m 58.8s 1915 Ally Sloper 6 10-06 Mr Jack Anthony Aubrey Hastings Lady Margaret Nelson 100/8 9m 47.8s 1916–18 see above 1919 Poethlyn 9 12-07 Ernie Piggott Harry Escott Gwladys Peel 11/4 F 10m 8.4s 1920 Troytown 7 11-09 Mr Jack Anthony Algy Anthony T. Collins-Gerrard 6/1 10m 20.4s 1921 Shaun Spadah 10 11-07 Fred Rees George Poole Malcolm McAlpine 100/9 10m 26.0s 1922 Music Hall 9 11-08 Lewis Rees Owen Anthony Hugh Kershaw 100/9 9m 55.8s 1923 Sergeant Murphy 13 11-03 Capt. Tuppy Bennett George Blackwell Stephen Sanford 100/6 9m 36.0s 1924 Master Robert 11 10-05 Bob Trudgill Aubrey Hastings Lord Airlie 25/1 9m 40.0s 1925 Double Chance 9 10-09 Maj. John Wilson Fred Archer, Jr. David Goold 100/9 9m 42.6s 1926 Jack Horner 9 10-05 William Watkinson Harvey Leader Charles Schwartz 25/1 9m 36.0s 1927 Sprig 10 12-04 Ted Leader Tom Leader Mary Partridge 8/1 F 10m 20.2s 1928 Tipperary Tim 10 10-00 Mr Bill Dutton Joseph Dodd Harold Kenyon 100/1 10m 23.4s 1929 Gregalach 7 11-04 Robert W H Everett Tom Leader Margaret Gemmell 100/1 9m 47.4s 1930 Shaun Goilin 10 11-07 Tommy Cullinan Frank Hartigan Walter Midwood 100/8 9m 40.6s 1931 Grakle 9 11-07 Bob Lyall Tom Coulthwaite Cecil Taylor 100/6 9m 32.8s 1932 Forbra 7 10-07 Tim Hamey Tom Rimell William Parsonage 50/1 9m 44.6s 1933 Kellsboro' Jack 7 11-09 Dudley Williams Ivor Anthony Mrs F. Ambrose Clark 25/1 9m 28.0s 1934 Golden Miller 7 12-02 Gerry Wilson Basil Briscoe Dorothy Paget 8/1 9m 20.4s 1935 Reynoldstown 8 11-04 Mr Frank Furlong Noel Furlong Noel Furlong 22/1 9m 20.2s 1936 Reynoldstown 9 12-02 Mr Fulke Walwyn Noel Furlong Noel Furlong 10/1 9m 37.8s 1937 Royal Mail 8 11-13 Evan Williams Ivor Anthony Hugh Lloyd Thomas 100/6 9m 59.8s 1938 Battleship 11 11-06 Bruce Hobbs Reg Hobbs Marion Scott 40/1 9m 27.0s 1939 Workman 9 10-06 Tim Hyde Jack Ruttle Sir Alexander Maguire 100/8 9m 42.2s 1940 Bogskar 7 10-04 Mervyn Jones Lord Stalbridge Lord Stalbridge 25/1 9m 20.6s 1941–45 no race [b] 1946 Lovely Cottage 9 10-08 Capt. Bobby Petre Tommy Rayson John Morant 25/1 9m 38.2s 1947 Caughoo 8 10-00 Eddie Dempsey Herbert McDowell John McDowell 100/1 10m 3.8s 1948 Sheila's Cottage 9 10-07 Arthur Thompson Neville Crump John Procter 50/1 9m 25.4s 1949 Russian Hero 9 10-08 Leo McMorrow George Owen Fearnie Williamson 66/1 9m 24.2s 1950 Freebooter 9 11-11 Jimmy Power Bobby Renton Lurline Brotherton 10/1 F 9m 24.2s 1951 Nickel Coin 9 10-01 John Bullock Jack O'Donoghue Jeffrey Royle 40/1 9m 48.8s 1952 Teal 10 10-12 Arthur Thompson Neville Crump Harry Lane 100/7 9m 21.5s 1953 Early Mist 8 11-02 Bryan Marshall Vincent O'Brien Joe Griffin 20/1 9m 22.8s 1954 Royal Tan 10 11-07 Bryan Marshall Vincent O'Brien Joe Griffin 8/1 9m 32.8s 1955 Quare Times 9 11-00 Pat Taaffe Vincent O'Brien Cecily Welman 100/9 10m 19.2s 1956 E.S.B. 10 11-03 David Dick Fred Rimell Mrs Leonard Carver 100/7 9m 21.4s 1957 Sundew 11 11-07 Fred Winter Frank Hudson Mrs Geoffrey Kohn 20/1 9m 42.4s 1958 Mr. What 8 10-06 Arthur Freeman Tom Taaffe, Sr. David J. Coughlan 18/1 9m 59.8s 1959 Oxo 8 10-13 Michael Scudamore Willie Stephenson John Bigg 8/1 9m 37.8s 1960 Merryman II 9 10-12 Gerry Scott Neville Crump Winifred Wallace 13/2 F 9m 26.2s 1961 Nicolaus Silver 9 10-01 Bobby Beasley Fred Rimell Charles Vaughan 28/1 9m 22.6s 1962 Kilmore 12 10-04 Fred Winter Ryan Price Nat Cohen 28/1 9m 50s 1963 Ayala 9 10-00 Pat Buckley Keith Piggott Pierre Raymond 66/1 9m 35.8s 1964 Team Spirit 12 10-03 Willie Robinson Fulke Walwyn John Goodman 18/1 9m 46.8s 1965 Jay Trump 8 11-05 Tommy Smith Fred Winter Mary Stephenson 100/6 9m 30.6s 1966 Anglo 8 10-00 Tim Norman Fred Winter Stuart Levy 50/1 9m 52.8s 1967 Foinavon 9 10-00 John Buckingham John Kempton Cyril Watkins 100/1 9m 49.6s 1968 Red Alligator 9 10-00 Brian Fletcher Denys Smith John Manners 100/7 9m 28.8s 1969 Highland Wedding 12 10-04 Eddie Harty, Sr. Toby Balding Thomas McCoy, Jr. (USA) & Charles Burns (CAN) 100/9 9m 30.8s 1970 Gay Trip 8 11-05 Pat Taaffe Fred Rimell Tony Chambers 15/1 9m 38s 1971 Specify 9 10-13 John Cook John Sutcliffe Fred Pontin 28/1 9m 34.2s 1972 Well to Do 9 10-01 Graham Thorner Tim Forster Tim Forster 14/1 10m 8.4s 1973 Red Rum 8 10-05 Brian Fletcher Ginger McCain Noel Le Mare 9/1 JF 9m 1.9s 1974 Red Rum 9 12-00 Brian Fletcher Ginger McCain Noel Le Mare 11/1 9m 20.3s 1975 L'Escargot 12 11-03 Tommy Carberry Dan Moore Raymond R. Guest (USA) 13/2 9m 31.1s 1976 Rag Trade 10 10-12 John Burke Fred Rimell Pierre Raymond 14/1 9m 20.9s 1977 Red Rum 12 11-08 Tommy Stack Ginger McCain Noel Le Mare 9/1 9m 30.3s 1978 Lucius 9 10-09 Bob Davies Gordon W. Richards Fiona Whitaker 14/1 9m 33.9s 1979 Rubstic 10 10-00 Maurice Barnes John Leadbetter John Douglas 25/1 9m 52.9s 1980 Ben Nevis 12 10-12 Mr Charlie Fenwick (USA) Tim Forster R. C. Stewart, Jr. (USA) 40/1 10m 17.4s 1981 Aldaniti 11 10-13 Bob Champion Josh Gifford Nick Embiricos 10/1 9m 47.2s 1982 Grittar 9 11-05 Mr Dick Saunders Frank Gilman Frank Gilman 7/1 F 9m 12.6s 1983 Corbiere 8 11-04 Ben de Haan Jenny Pitman Bryan Burrough 13/1 9m 47.4s 1984 Hallo Dandy 10 10-02 Neale Doughty Gordon W. Richards Richard Shaw 13/1 9m 21.4s 1985 Last Suspect 11 10-05 Hywel Davies Tim Forster Anne, Duchess of Westminster 50/1 9m 42.7s 1986 West Tip 9 10-11 Richard Dunwoody Michael Oliver Peter Luff 15/2 9m 33.0s 1987 Maori Venture 11 10-13 Steve Knight Andrew Turnell Jim Joel 28/1 9m 19.3s 1988 Rhyme 'n' Reason 9 11-00 Brendan Powell David Elsworth Juliet Reed 10/1 9m 53.5s 1989 Little Polveir 12 10-03 Jimmy Frost Toby Balding Edward Harvey 28/1 10m 6.9s 1990 Mr Frisk 11 10-06 Mr Marcus Armytage Kim Bailey Lois Duffey (USA) 16/1 8m 47.8s (record) 1991 Seagram 11 10-06 Nigel Hawke David Barons Sir Eric Parker 12/1 9m 29.9s 1992 Party Politics 8 10-07 Carl Llewellyn Nick Gaselee Patricia Thompson 14/1 9m 6.4s 1993 race void [c] 1994 Miinnehoma 11 10-08 Richard Dunwoody Martin Pipe Freddie Starr 16/1 10m 18.8s 1995 Royal Athlete 12 10-06 Jason Titley Jenny Pitman G. & L. Johnson 40/1 9m 4.1s 1996 Rough Quest 10 10-07 Mick Fitzgerald Terry Casey Andrew Wates 7/1 F 9m 0.8s 1997 Lord Gyllene 9 10-00 Tony Dobbin Steve Brookshaw Stan Clarke 14/1 9m 5.9s 1998 Earth Summit 10 10-05 Carl Llewellyn Nigel Twiston-Davies Summit Partnership 7/1 F 10m 51.5s 1999 Bobbyjo 9 10-00 Paul Carberry Tommy Carberry Bobby Burke 10/1 9m 14.1s 2000 Papillon 9 10-12 Ruby Walsh Ted Walsh Mrs J. Maxwell Moran (USA) 10/1 9m 9.7s 2001 Red Marauder 11 10-11 Richard Guest Norman Mason Norman Mason 33/1 11m 0.1s 2002 Bindaree 8 10-04 Jim Culloty Nigel Twiston-Davies Raymond Mould 20/1 9m 8.6s 2003 Monty's Pass 10 10-07 Barry Geraghty Jimmy Mangan Dee Racing Syndicate 16/1 9m 21.7s 2004 Amberleigh House 12 10-10 Graham Lee Ginger McCain Halewood Int. Ltd 16/1 9m 20.3s 2005 Hedgehunter 9 11-01 Ruby Walsh Willie Mullins Trevor Hemmings 7/1 F 9m 20.8s 2006 Numbersixvalverde 10 10-08 Niall Madden Martin Brassil Bernard Carroll 11/1 9m 41.0s 2007 Silver Birch 10 10-06 Robbie Power Gordon Elliott Brian Walsh 33/1 9m 13.6s 2008 Comply or Die 9 10-09 Timmy Murphy David Pipe David Johnson 7/1 JF 9m 16.6s 2009 Mon Mome 9 11-00 Liam Treadwell Venetia Williams Vida Bingham 100/1 9m 32.9s 2010 Don't Push It 10 11-05 Tony McCoy Jonjo O'Neill J. P. McManus 10/1 JF 9m 4.6s 2011 Ballabriggs 10 11-00 Jason Maguire Donald McCain, Jr. Trevor Hemmings 14/1 9m 1.2s 2012 Neptune Collonges 11 11-06 Daryl Jacob Paul Nicholls John Hales 33/1 9m 5.1s 2013 Auroras Encore 11 10-03 Ryan Mania Sue Smith Douglas Pryde, Jim Beaumont and David P van der Hoeven 66/1 9m 12.0s 2014 Pineau De Re 11 10-06 Leighton Aspell Richard Newland John Provan 25/1 9m 9.9s 2015 Many Clouds 8 11-09 Leighton Aspell Oliver Sherwood Trevor Hemmings 25/1 8m 56.8s 2016 Rule The World 9 10-07 David Mullins Mouse Morris Gigginstown House Stud 33/1 9m 29.0s 2017 One For Arthur 8 10-11 Derek Fox Lucinda Russell Deborah Thomson Belinda McClung 14/1 9m 3.5s Horse racing is an equestrian performance sport, typically involving two or more horses ridden by jockeys or driven over a set distance for competition. It is one of the most ancient of all sports and its basic premise – to identify which of two or more horses is the fastest over a set course or distance – has remained unchanged since the earliest times.[1] Horse races vary widely in format. Often, countries have developed their own particular horse racing traditions. Variations include restricting races to particular breeds, running over obstacles, running over different distances, running on different track surfaces and running in different gaits. While horses are sometimes raced purely for sport, a major part of horse racing's interest and economic importance lies in the gambling associated with it,[2] an activity that in 2008 generated a worldwide market worth around US$115 billion Equestrian activities Main articles: Equestrianism Equitation FEI disciplines, Olympic Dressage Eventing Show jumping FEI disciplines, non-Olympic Combined driving Endurance Horseball Reining Tent pegging Vaulting Para-equestrian Horse racing Flat racing Harness racing Point-to-point Steeplechase Thoroughbred horse racing Team sports Buzkashi Cowboy polo Equestrian drill team Jereed (cirit) Pato Polo Polocrosse Team chasing Games with horses Barrel racing Carrera de cintas Corrida de sortija Dzhigitovka Equine agility Er Enish Gymkhana (equestrian) Keyhole race Kyz kuu Mounted games O-Mok-See Pole bending Sinjska alka Skijoring Driving sports Ban'ei racing Carriage driving Chuckwagon racing Draft horse showing Fine harness Horse pulling Pleasure driving Roadster Scurry driving Working stock sports Acoso y derribo Australian rodeo Breakaway roping Calf roping Campdrafting Charreada Chilean rodeo Coleo Cutting Deporte de lazo Goat tying Jineteada gaucha Ranch sorting Rodeo Saddle bronc and bareback riding Steer wrestling Team penning Team roping Working cow horse Weaponry Cowboy mounted shooting Jousting Mounted archery Yabusame Pig sticking Horse show and exhibition disciplines Classical dressage English pleasure Halter (horse show) Horse showmanship Hunt seat Saddle seat Show hack Show hunter Show hunter (British) Sidesaddle Stunt riding Trail (horse show) Western dressage Western pleasure Western riding (horse show) Regional and breed-specific disciplines Camargue equitation Doma menorquina Doma vaquera Icelandic equitation Working equitation Field sports Competitive trail riding Cross-country Field hunter Fox hunting Hunter pacing Mounted orienteering Pleasure riding Trail riding TREC [hide] v t e Racing Running Track running Sprinting Middle-distance running Long-distance running Relay race Hurdling Steeplechase Commgames 2006 Mens Marathon.jpg Road running Half marathon Marathon Ultramarathon Ekiden Off-road running Adventure running Cross country running Fell running Trail running Other Tower running Racewalking Orienteering Foot orienteering Mountain bike orienteering Ski orienteering Trail orienteering Radio orienteering Canoe orienteering Rogaining Mountain marathon Car orienteering Bicycle racing Road bicycle racing Cyclo-cross Mountain bike racing Track cycling BMX racing Cycle speedway Keirin Animal racing Camel racing Greyhound racing Horse racing Pigeon racing Sled dog racing Swimming Open water swimming Marathon swimming Paralympic swimming Motor racing Auto racing Formula racing Sports car racing Touring car racing Stock car racing Rallying Drag racing Off-road racing David Coulthard 2008 Canada.jpg Motorcycle racing Beach racing Motocross Rally raid Track racing Motorboat racing Drag boat racing Hydroplane racing Jet sprint boat racing Inshore powerboat racing Offshore powerboat racing Other Kart racing Radio-controlled car racing Slot car racing Multi-sport racing Adventure racing Duathlon Triathlon Condition: Very Good, Condition: In Very Good Condition, Modified Item: No, Country/Region of Manufacture: United Kingdom, Topic: 20th Century, Region: England, Series: Barry Brogan, Country: United Kingdom, Title: The Barry Brogan Story, Type: Memoirs, Subjects: Sports, Author: Barry Brogan, Publication Year: 1981, Age Level: Adults, City: Cheltenham, Era: 1980s, Special Attributes: 1st Edition, Format: Hardback

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