VALENS "Last True Roman" w labarum 367AD Ancient Roman Coin Christ monog i50706

$66.53 Buy It Now or Best Offer 19d 4h, $18.63 Shipping, 30-Day Returns, eBay Money Back Guarantee

Seller: Top-Rated Seller highrating_lowprice (20,786) 100%, Location: Rego Park, New York, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 351447984283 Item: i50706 Authentic Ancient Coin of: Valens - Roman Emperor : 364-378 A.D. - "Last True Roman" Bronze AE3 16mm (1.59 grams) Struck at the mint of Thessalonica 367-375 A.D. Reference: RIC 26b.30 (Thessalonica), LRBC 1781 DNVALENSPFAVG - Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right. GLORIAROMANORVM Exe: .TES - Valens advancing right, dragging captive and holding labarum tipped with the Chi-Rho (the MONOGRAM of CHRIST). You are bidding on the exact item pictured, provided with a Certificate of Authenticity and Lifetime Guarantee of Authenticity. Labarum of Constantine I, displaying the "Chi-Rho" symbol above. The labarum was a vexillum (military standard) that displayed the "Chi-Rho" symbol ☧ , formed from the first two Greek letters of the word "Christ" — Chi and Rho . It was first used by the Roman emperor Constantine I . Since the vexillum consisted of a flag suspended from the crossbar of a cross, it was ideally suited to symbolize the crucifixion of Christ . Later usage has sometimes regarded the terms "labarum" and "Chi-Rho" as synonyms. Ancient sources, however, draw an unambiguous distinction between the two. Etymology Beyond its derivation from Latin labarum, the etymology of the word is unclear. Some derive it from Latin /labāre/ 'to totter, to waver' (in the sense of the "waving" of a flag in the breeze) or laureum [vexillum] ("laurel standard"). According to the Real Academia Española , the related lábaro is also derived from Latin labărum but offers no further derivation from within Latin, as does the Oxford English Dictionary.[5] An origin as a loan into Latin from a Celtic language or Basque has also been postulated. There is a traditional Basque symbol called the lauburu ; though the name is only attested from the 19th century onwards the motif occurs in engravings dating as early as the 2nd century AD. Vision of Constantine A coin of Constantine (c.337) showing a depiction of his labarum spearing a serpent. On the evening of October 27, 312, with his army preparing for the Battle of the Milvian Bridge , the emperor Constantine I claimed to have had a vision which led him to believe he was fighting under the protection of the Christian God . Lactantius states that, in the night before the battle, Constantine was commanded in a dream to "delineate the heavenly sign on the shields of his soldiers". He obeyed and marked the shields with a sign "denoting Christ". Lactantius describes that sign as a "staurogram", or a Latin cross with its upper end rounded in a P-like fashion, rather than the better known Chi-Rho sign described by Eusebius of Caesarea . Thus, it had both the form of a cross and the monogram of Christ's name from the formed letters "X" and "P", the first letters of Christ's name in Greek. From Eusebius, two accounts of a battle survive. The first, shorter one in the Ecclesiastical History leaves no doubt that God helped Constantine but doesn't mention any vision. In his later Life of Constantine, Eusebius gives a detailed account of a vision and stresses that he had heard the story from the emperor himself. According to this version, Constantine with his army was marching somewhere (Eusebius doesn't specify the actual location of the event, but it clearly isn't in the camp at Rome) when he looked up to the sun and saw a cross of light above it, and with it the Greek words Ἐν Τούτῳ Νίκα . The traditionally employed Latin translation of the Greek is in hoc signo vinces — literally "In this sign, you will conquer." However, a direct translation from the original Greek text of Eusebius into English gives the phrase "By this, conquer!" At first he was unsure of the meaning of the apparition, but the following night he had a dream in which Christ explained to him that he should use the sign against his enemies. Eusebius then continues to describe the labarum, the military standard used by Constantine in his later wars against Licinius , showing the Chi-Rho sign. Those two accounts can hardly be reconciled with each other, though they have been merged in popular notion into Constantine seeing the Chi-Rho sign on the evening before the battle. Both authors agree that the sign was not readily understandable as denoting Christ, which corresponds with the fact that there is no certain evidence of the use of the letters chi and rho as a Christian sign before Constantine. Its first appearance is on a Constantinian silver coin from c. 317, which proves that Constantine did use the sign at that time, though not very prominently. He made extensive use of the Chi-Rho and the labarum only later in the conflict with Licinius. The vision has been interpreted in a solar context (e.g. as a solar halo phenomenon), which would have been reshaped to fit with the Christian beliefs of the later Constantine. An alternate explanation of the intersecting celestial symbol has been advanced by George Latura, which claims that Plato's visible god in Timaeus is in fact the intersection of the Milky Way and the Zodiacal Light, a rare apparition important to pagan beliefs that Christian bishops reinvented as a Christian symbol. Eusebius' description of the labarum "A Description of the Standard of the Cross, which the Romans now call the Labarum." "Now it was made in the following manner. A long spear, overlaid with gold, formed the figure of the cross by means of a transverse bar laid over it. On the top of the whole was fixed a wreath of gold and precious stones; and within this, the symbol of the Saviour’s name, two letters indicating the name of Christ by means of its initial characters, the letter P being intersected by X in its centre: and these letters the emperor was in the habit of wearing on his helmet at a later period. From the cross-bar of the spear was suspended a cloth, a royal piece, covered with a profuse embroidery of most brilliant precious stones; and which, being also richly interlaced with gold, presented an indescribable degree of beauty to the beholder. This banner was of a square form, and the upright staff, whose lower section was of great length, of the pious emperor and his children on its upper part, beneath the trophy of the cross, and immediately above the embroidered banner." "The emperor constantly made use of this sign of salvation as a safeguard against every adverse and hostile power, and commanded that others similar to it should be carried at the head of all his armies." Iconographic career under Constantine Coin of Vetranio , a soldier is holding two labara. Interestingly they differ from the labarum of Constantine in having the Chi-Rho depicted on the cloth rather than above it, and in having their staves decorated with phalerae as were earlier Roman military unit standards. The emperor Honorius holding a variant of the labarum - the Latin phrase on the cloth means "In the name of Christ [rendered by the Greek letters XPI] be ever victorious." Among a number of standards depicted on the Arch of Constantine , which was erected, largely with fragments from older monuments, just three years after the battle, the labarum does not appear. A grand opportunity for just the kind of political propaganda that the Arch otherwise was expressly built to present was missed. That is if Eusebius' oath-confirmed account of Constantine's sudden, vision-induced, conversion can be trusted. Many historians have argued that in the early years after the battle the emperor had not yet decided to give clear public support to Christianity, whether from a lack of personal faith or because of fear of religious friction. The arch's inscription does say that the Emperor had saved the res publica INSTINCTV DIVINITATIS MENTIS MAGNITVDINE ("by greatness of mind and by instinct [or impulse] of divinity"). As with his predecessors, sun symbolism – interpreted as representing Sol Invictus (the Unconquered Sun) or Helios , Apollo or Mithras – is inscribed on his coinage, but in 325 and thereafter the coinage ceases to be explicitly pagan, and Sol Invictus disappears. In his Historia Ecclesiae Eusebius further reports that, after his victorious entry into Rome, Constantine had a statue of himself erected, "holding the sign of the Savior [the cross] in his right hand." There are no other reports to confirm such a monument. Whether Constantine was the first Christian emperor supporting a peaceful transition to Christianity during his rule, or an undecided pagan believer until middle age, strongly influenced in his political-religious decisions by his Christian mother St. Helena , is still in dispute among historians. As for the labarum itself, there is little evidence for its use before 317.In the course of Constantine's second war against Licinius in 324, the latter developed a superstitious dread of Constantine's standard. During the attack of Constantine's troops at the Battle of Adrianople the guard of the labarum standard were directed to move it to any part of the field where his soldiers seemed to be faltering. The appearance of this talismanic object appeared to embolden Constantine's troops and dismay those of Licinius.At the final battle of the war, the Battle of Chrysopolis , Licinius, though prominently displaying the images of Rome's pagan pantheon on his own battle line, forbade his troops from actively attacking the labarum, or even looking at it directly.[16] Constantine felt that both Licinius and Arius were agents of Satan, and associated them with the serpent described in the Book of Revelation (12:9). Constantine represented Licinius as a snake on his coins. Eusebius stated that in addition to the singular labarum of Constantine, other similar standards (labara) were issued to the Roman army. This is confirmed by the two labara depicted being held by a soldier on a coin of Vetranio (illustrated) dating from 350. Later usage Modern ecclesiastical labara (Southern Germany). The emperor Constantine Monomachos (centre panel of a Byzantine enamelled crown) holding a miniature labarum The Chi Rho is one of the earliest christograms used by Christians. It is formed by superimposing the first two letters in the Greek spelling of the word Christ ( Greek : "Χριστός" ), chi = ch and rho = r, in such a way to produce the monogram . The Chi-Rho symbol was also used by pagan Greek scribes to mark, in the margin, a particularly valuable or relevant passage; the combined letters Chi and Rho standing for chrēston, meaning "good." Although not technically a cross, the Chi Rho invokes the crucifixion of Jesus as well as symbolizing his status as the Christ. There is early evidence of the Chi Rho symbol on Christian Rings of the third century. The labarum (Greek: λάβαρον) was a vexillum (military standard) that displayed the "Chi-Rho" symbol, formed from the first two Greek letters of the word "Christ" (Greek: ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ, or Χριστός) — Chi (χ) and Rho (ρ). It was first used by the Roman emperor Constantine I . Since the vexillum consisted of a flag suspended from the crossbar of a cross, it was ideally suited to symbolize crucifixion . The Chi-Rho symbol was also used by Greek scribes to mark, in the margin, a particularly valuable or relevant passage; the combined letters Chi and Rho standing for chrēston, meaning "good."Flavius Julius Valens (Latin: FLAVIUS IVLIVS VALENS AVGVSTVS; 328 – 9 August 378) was Roman Emperor (364-378), after he was given the Eastern part of the empire by his brother Valentinian I . Valens, sometimes known as the Last True Roman , was defeated and killed in the Battle of Adrianople , which marked the beginning of the fall of the Western Roman Empire . // Life Appointment to emperor Valens and his brother Flavius Valentinianus (Valentinian) were both born 48 miles west of Sirmium (modern Sremska Mitrovica , Serbia ), in the town of Cibalae (Vinkovci, Croatia ) in 328 and 321, respectively. They had grown up on estates purchased by their father, Gratian the Elder , in Africa and Britain. While Valentinian had enjoyed a successful military career prior to his appointment as emperor, Valens apparently had not. He had spent much of his youth on the family's estate and only joined the army in the 360s, participating with his brother in the Persian campaign of Emperor Julian . He restored some religious persecution, and was Arian . In February 364, reigning Emperor Jovian , while hastening to Constantinople to secure his claim to the throne, was asphyxiated during a stop at Dadastana, 100 miles east of Ankara . Among Jovian's agents was Valentinian, a tribunus scutariorum. He was proclaimed Augustus on 26 February, 364. Valentinian felt that he needed help to govern the large and troublesome empire, and, on 28 March of the same year, appointed his brother Valens as co-emperor in the palace of Hebdomon . The two Augusti travelled together through Adrianople and Naissus to Sirmium , where they divided their personnel, and Valentinian went on to the West. Valens obtained the eastern half of the Balkan Peninsula ,Greece, Egypt , Syria and Anatolia as far east as Persia. Valens was back in his capital of Constantinople by December 364. Revolt of Procopius Valens inherited the eastern portion of an empire that had recently retreated from most of its holdings in Mesopotamia and Armenia because of a treaty that his predecessor Jovian had made with Shapur II of the Sassanid Empire . Valens's first priority after the winter of 365 was to move east in hopes of shoring up the situation. By the autumn of 365 he had reached Cappadocian Caesarea when he learned that a usurper had proclaimed himself in Constantinople. When he died, Julian had left behind one surviving relative, a maternal cousin named Procopius . Procopius had been charged with overseeing a northern division of Julian's army during the Persian expedition and had not been present with the imperial elections when Julian's successor was named. Though Jovian made accommodations to appease this potential claimant, Procopius fell increasingly under suspicion in the first year of Valens' reign. After narrowly escaping arrest, he went into hiding and reemerged at Constantinople where he was able to convince two military units passing through the capital to proclaim him emperor on 28 September 365. Though his early reception in the city seems to have been lukewarm, Procopius won favor quickly by using propaganda to his advantage: he sealed off the city to outside reports and began spreading rumors that Valentinian had died; he began minting coinage flaunting his connections to the Constantinian dynasty; and he further exploited dynastic claims by using the widow and daughter of Constantius II to act as showpieces for his regime. This program met with some success, particularly among soldiers loyal to the Constantinians and eastern intellectuals who had already begun to feel persecuted by the Valentinians. Valens, meanwhile, faltered. When news arrived that Procopius had revolted, Valens considered abdication and perhaps even suicide . Even after he steadied his resolve to fight, Valens's efforts to forestall Procopius were hampered by the fact that most of his troops had already crossed the Cilician gates into Syria when he learned of the revolt. Even so, Valens sent two legions to march on Procopius, who easily persuaded them to desert to him. Later that year, Valens himself was nearly captured in a scramble near Chalcedon . Troubles were exacerbated by the refusal of Valentinian to do any more than protect his own territory from encroachment. The failure of imperial resistance in 365 allowed Procopius to gain control of the dioceses of Thrace and Asiana by year's end. Only in the spring of 366 had Valens assembled enough troops to deal with Procopius effectively. Marching out from Ancyra through Pessinus , Valens proceeded into Phrygia where he defeated Procopius's general Gomoarius at the Battle of Thyatira . He then met Procopius himself at Nacoleia and convinced his troops to desert him. Procopius was executed on 27 May and his head sent to Valentinian in Trier for inspection. War against the Goths The Gothic people in the northern region had supported Procopius in his revolt against Valens, and Valens had learned the Goths were planning an uprising of their own. These Goths, more specifically the Tervingi, were at the time under the leadership of Athanaric and had apparently remained peaceful since their defeat under Constantine in 332. In the spring of 367, Valens crossed the Danube and marched on Athanaric's Goths. These fled into the Carpathian Mountains , and eluded Valens' advance, forcing him to return later that summer. The following spring, a Danube flood prevented Valens from crossing; instead the emperor occupied his troops with the construction of fortifications. In 369, Valens crossed again, from Noviodunum , and attacked the north-easterly Gothic tribe of Greuthungi before facing Athanaric's Tervingi and defeating them. Athanaric pled for treaty terms and Valens gladly obliged. The treaty seems to have largely cut off relations between Goths and Romans, including free trade and the exchange of troops for tribute. Valens would feel this loss of military manpower in the following years. Conflict with the Sassanids Among Valens' reasons for contracting a hasty and not entirely favorable peace in 369 was the deteriorating state of affairs in the East. Jovian had surrendered Rome's much disputed claim to control over Armenia in 363, and Shapur II was eager to make good on this new opportunity. The Sassanid ruler began enticing Armenian lords over to his camp and eventually forced the defection of the Arsacid Armenian king, Arsakes II , whom he quickly arrested and incarcerated. Shapur then sent an invasion force to seize Caucasian Iberia and a second to besiege Arsaces' son, Pap , in the fortress of Artogerassa, probably in 367. By the following spring, Pap had engineered his escape from the fortress and flight to Valens, whom he seems to have met at Marcianople while campaigning against the Goths. Already in the summer following his Gothic settlement, Valens sent his general Arinthaeus to re-impose Pap on the Armenian throne. This provoked Shapur himself to invade and lay waste to Armenia. Pap, however, once again escaped and was restored a second time under escort of a much larger force in 370. The following spring, larger forces were sent under Terentius to regain Iberia and to garrison Armenia near Mount Npat. When Shapur counterattacked into Armenia in 371, his forces were bested by Valens' generals Traianus and Vadomarius at Bagavan. Valens had overstepped the 363 treaty and then successfully defended his transgression. A truce settled after the 371 victory held as a quasi-peace for the next five years while Shapur was forced to deal with a Kushan invasion on his eastern frontier. Meanwhile, troubles broke out with the boy-king Pap, who began acting in high-handed fashion, even executing the Armenian bishop Narses and demanding control of a number of Roman cities, including Edessa . Pressed by his generals and fearing that Pap would defect to the Persians, Valens made an unsuccessful attempt to capture the prince and later had him executed inside Armenia. In his stead, Valens imposed another Arsacid, Varazdat , who ruled under the regency of the sparapet Musel Mamikonean , a friend of Rome. None of this sat well with the Persians, who began agitating again for compliance with the 363 treaty. As the eastern frontier heated up in 375, Valens began preparations for a major expedition. Meanwhile, trouble was brewing elsewhere. In Isauria , the mountainous region of western Cilicia , a major revolt had broken out in 375 which diverted troops formerly stationed in the east. Furthermore, by 377, the Saracens under Queen Mavia had broken into revolt and devastated a swath of territory stretching from Phoenicia and Palestine as far as the Sinai . Though Valens successfully brought both uprisings under control, the opportunities for action on the eastern frontier were limited by these skirmishes closer to home. In 375, Valens' older brother Valentinian, while in Pannonia had suffered a burst blood vessel in his skull, which resulted in his death on 17 November, 375. Gratian , Valentinian's son and Valens' nephew, had already been associated with his father in the imperial dignity and was joined by his half-brother Valentinian II who was elevated, on their father's death, to Augustus by the imperial troops in Pannonia . Gothic War Main article: Gothic War (376-382) Valens' plans for an eastern campaign were never realized. A transfer of troops to the western empire in 374 had left gaps in Valens' mobile forces. In preparation for an eastern war, Valens initiated an ambitious recruitment program designed to fill those gaps. It was thus not unwelcome news when Valens learned that the Gothic tribes had been displaced from their homeland by an invasion of Huns in 375 and were seeking asylum from him. In 376, the Visigoths advanced to the far shores of the lower Danube and sent an ambassador to Valens who had set up his capitol in Antioch . The Goths requested shelter and land in the Balkan peninsula . An estimated 200,000 Gothic Warriors and altogether 1,000,000 Gothic persons were along the Danube in Moesia and the ancient land of Dacia . As Valens' advisers were quick to point out, these Goths could supply troops who would at once swell Valens' ranks and decrease his dependence on provincial troop levies — thereby increasing revenues from the recruitment tax. Among the Goths seeking asylum was a group led by the chieftain Fritigern . Fritigern had enjoyed contact with Valens in the 370s when Valens supported him in a struggle against Athanaric stemming from Athanaric's persecution of Gothic Christians . Though a number of Gothic groups apparently requested entry, Valens granted admission only to Fritigern and his followers. This did not, however, prevent others from following. When Fritigern and his Goths undertook the crossing, Valens's mobile forces were tied down in the east, on the Persian frontier and in Isauria. This meant that only riparian units were present to oversee the Goths' settlement. The small number of imperial troops present prevented the Romans from stopping a Danube crossing by a group of Goths and later by Huns and Alans . What started out as a controlled resettlement mushroomed into a massive influx. And the situation grew worse. When the riparian commanders began abusing the Visigoths under their charge, they revolted in early 377 and defeated the Roman units in Thrace outside of Marcianople. After joining forces with the Ostrogoths and eventually the Huns and Alans, the combined barbarian group marched widely before facing an advance force of imperial soldiers sent from both east and west. In a Ad Salices battle at , the Goths were once again victorious, winning free run of Thrace south of the Haemus . By 378, Valens himself was able to march west from his eastern base in Antioch. He withdrew all but a skeletal force — some of them Goths — from the east and moved west, reaching Constantinople by 30 May, 378. Meanwhile, Valens' councilors, Comes Richomeres , and his generals Frigerid, Sebastian, and Victor cautioned Valens and tried to persuade him to wait for Gratian's arrival with his victorious legionaries from Gaul, something that Gratian himself strenuously advocated. What happened next is an example of hubris , the impact of which was to be felt for years to come. Valens, jealous of his nephew Gratian's success, decided he wanted this victory for himself. Battle of Adrianople and death of Valens Main article: Battle of Adrianople After a brief stay aimed at building his troop strength and gaining a toehold in Thrace, Valens moved out to Adrianople . From there, he marched against the confederated barbarian army on 9 August 378 in what would become known as the Battle of Adrianople . Although negotiations were attempted, these broke down when a Roman unit sallied forth and carried both sides into battle. The Romans held their own early on but were crushed by the surprise arrival of Visigoth cavalry which split their ranks. The primary source for the battle is Ammianus Marcellinus . Valens had left a sizeable guard with his baggage and treasures depleting his force. His right wing, cavalry, arrived at the Gothic camp sometime before the left wing arrived. It was a very hot day and the Roman cavalry was engaged without strategic support, wasting its efforts while they suffered in the heat. Meanwhile Fritigern once again sent an emissary of peace in his continued manipulation of the situation. The resultant delay meant that the Romans present on the field began to succumb to the heat. The army's resources were further diminished when an ill timed attack by the Roman archers made it necessary to recall Valens' emissary, Comes Richomeres. The archers were beaten and retreated in humiliation. Gothic cavalry under the command of Althaeus and Saphrax then struck and, with what was probably the most decisive event of the battle, the Roman cavalry fled. From here, Ammianus gives two accounts of Valen's demise. In the first account, Ammianus states that Valens was "mortally wounded by an arrow, and presently breathed his last breath," (XXXI.12) His body was never found or given a proper burial. In the second account, Ammianus states the Roman infantry was abandoned, surrounded and cut to pieces. Valens was wounded and carried to a small wooden hut. The hut was surrounded by the Goths who put it to the torch, evidently unaware of the prize within. According to Ammianus, this is how Valens perished (XXXI.13.14-6). The church historian Socrates likewise gives two accounts for the death of Valens. Some have asserted that he was burnt to death in a village whither he had retired, which the barbarians assaulted and set on fire. But others affirm that having put off his imperial robe he ran into the midst of the main body of infantry; and that when the cavalry revolted and refused to engage, the infantry were surrounded by the barbarians, and completely destroyed in a body. Among these it is said the emperor fell, but could not be distinguished, in consequence of his not having on his imperial habit. When the battle was over, two-thirds of the eastern army lay dead. Many of their best officers had also perished. What was left of the army of Valens was led from the field under the cover of night by Comes Richomer and General Victor. J.B. Bury , a noted historian of the period, provides specific interpretation on the significance the battle: it was "a disaster and disgrace that need not have occurred." For Rome, the battle incapacitated the government. Emperor Gratian, nineteen years old, was overcome by the debacle, and until he appointed Theodosius I , unable to deal with the catastrophe which spread out of control. Legacy Aqueduct of Valens in Istanbul (old Constantinople ), capital of the Eastern Roman Empire . Adrianople was the most significant event in Valens' career. The battle of Adrianople was significant for yet another reason: the evolution of warfare. Until that time, the Roman infantry was considered invincible, and the evidence for this was considerable. However, the Gothic cavalry completely changed all that. Although J.B. Bury states that records are incomplete for the 5th century, all during the 4th and 6th centuries, history shows that the cavalry took over as the principal Roman weapon of war on land. "Valens was utterly undistinguished, still only a protector, and possessed no military ability: he betrayed his consciousness of inferiority by his nervous suspicion of plots and savage punishment of alleged traitors," writes A.H.M. Jones . But Jones admits that "he was a conscientious administrator, careful of the interests of the humble. Like his brother, he was an ernest Christian." To have died in so inglorious a battle has thus come to be regarded as the nadir of an unfortunate career. This is especially true because of the profound consequences of Valens' defeat. Adrianople spelled the beginning of the end for Roman territorial integrity in the late empire and this fact was recognized even by contemporaries. Ammianus understood that it was the worst defeat in Roman history since the Battle of Cannae (31.13.19), and Rufinus called it "the beginning of evils for the Roman empire then and thereafter." Valens is also credited with the commission of a short history of the Roman State. This work, produced by Valens' secretary Eutropius , and known with the name Breviarium ab Urbe condita, tells the story of Rome from its founding. According to some historians, Valens was motivated by the necessity of learning Roman history, that he, the royal family and their appointees might better mix with the Roman Senatorial class. Struggles with the religious nature of the empire During his reign, Valens had to confront the theological diversity that was beginning to create division in the Empire. Julian (361–363), had tried to revive the pagan religions. His reactionary attempt took advantage of the dissensions between the different factions among the Christians and a largely Pagan rank and file military . However, in spite of broad support, his actions were often viewed as excessive, and before he died in a campaign against the Persians, he was often treated with disdain. His death was considered a sign from God . Like the brothers Constantius II and Constans , Valens and Valentinian I held divergent theological views. Valens was an Arian and Valentinian I upheld the Nicene Creed . When Valens died however, the cause of Arianism in the Roman East was to come to an end. His successor Theodosius I would endorse the Nicene Creed. The Principate Julio-Claudian dynasty Reign Incumbent Notes 16 January 27 BC to 19 August AD 14 Augustus 19 August 14 to 16 March 37 Tiberius 18 March 37 to 24 January 41 Caligula Murdered by Praetorian Guard 24 January 41 to 13 October 54 Claudius Poisoned by his wife Agrippina, mother of Nero 13 October 54 to 11 June 68 Nero Made a slave kill him Year of the Four Emperors (Civil War) Reign Incumbent Notes 8 June 68 to 15 January 69 Galba Murdered in favour of Otho 15 January 69 to 16 April 69 Otho Committed suicide 2 January 69 to 20 December 69 Vitellius Murdered in favour of Vespasian Flavian dynasty Reign Incumbent Notes 1 July 69 to 24 June 79 Vespasian 24 June 79 to 13 September 81 Titus Possibly assassinated by Domitian 14 September 81 to 18 September 96 Domitian Assassinated Nervan-Antonian dynasty Main article: Five Good Emperors Reign Incumbent Notes 18 September 96 to 27 January 98 Nerva Proclaimed emperor by senate 28 January 98 to 7 August 117 Trajan 11 August 117 to 10 July 138 Hadrian 10 July 138 to 7 March 161 Antoninus Pius 7 March 161 to 17 March 180 Marcus Aurelius 7 March 161 to March 169 Lucius Verus Co-emperor with Marcus Aurelius 175 Avidius Cassius Usurper; ruled in Egypt and Syria; murdered by his own army 177 to 31 December 192 Commodus Assassinated Year of the Five Emperors & Severan dynasty Reign Incumbent Notes 1 January 193 to 28 March 193 Pertinax Proclaimed emperor by senate; murdered by Praetorian Guard 28 March 193 to 1 June 193 Didius Julianus Proclaimed emperor by Praetorian Guard; executed on orders of the Senate 9 April 193 to 4 February 211 Septimius Severus Proclaimed emperor by Pannonian troops; accepted by senate 193 to 194/195 Pescennius Niger Proclaimed emperor by Syrian troops, defeated in battle by Septimius Severus 193/195 to 197 Clodius Albinus Proclaimed emperor by British troops, defeated in battle by Septimius Severus 198 to 8 April 217 Caracalla Assassinated at the behest of Macrinus 209 to 4 February 211 Geta Co-emperor with Caracalla ; assassinated on orders of Caracalla 11 April 217 to June 218 Macrinus Proclaimed himself emperor; executed on orders of Elagabalus May 217 to June 218 Diadumenian Junior co-emperor under Macrinus ; executed June 218 to 222 Elagabalus Proclaimed emperor by army; murdered by his own troops 13 March 222 to ?March 235 Alexander Severus Murdered by his own troops Rulers during the Crisis of the Third Century Reign Incumbent Notes February/March 235 to March/April 238 Maximinus Thrax Proclaimed emperor by the army; murdered by Praetorian Guard earlyJanuary/March 238 to lateJanuary/April 238 Gordian I Proclaimed emperor in Africa; committed suicide after Gordian II 's death earlyJanuary March 238 to lateJanuary/April 238 Gordian II Proclaimed emperor with Gordian I , killed in battle earlyFebruary 238 to earlyMay 238 Pupienus Proclaimed joint emperor by senate; murdered by Praetorian Guard earlyFebruary 238 to earlyMay 238 Balbinus Proclaimed joint emperor by senate; murdered by Praetorian Guard May 238 to February 244 Gordian III Nephew of Gordian II ; death unclear, probably murdered 240 Sabinianus Usurper; proclaimed himself emperor; defeated in battle February 244 to September/October 249 Philip the Arab Proclaimed emperor after death of Gordian III ; killed in battle by Decius 248 Pacatianus Usurper; proclaimed himself emperor; murdered by his own soldiers 248 to 249 Iotapianus Usurper; proclaimed himself emperor in the east; murdered by his own soldiers 248? or 253? Silbannacus Usurper; details essentially unknown 249 to June 251 Decius Killed in battle 249 to 252 Priscus Proclaimed himself emperor in the east in opposition to Decius 250 to 250 Licinianus Usurper; proclaimed emperor in Rome; rebellion suppressed early251 to June 251 Herennius Etruscus Junior co-emperor under Decius ; killed in battle 251 Hostilian Son of Decius ; died of plague June 251 to August 253 Gallus Proclaimed emperor by his troops after Decius's death; murdered by them in favour of Aemilianus July 251 to August 253 Volusianus Junior co-emperor under Gallus ; murdered by army August 253 to October 253 Aemilian Proclaimed emperor by his troops; murdered by them in favour of Valerian 253 to June 260 Valerian Proclaimed emperor by his troops; captured in battle by the Persians ; died in captivity 253 to September 268 Gallienus Junior co-emperor under Valerian to 260; probably murdered by his generals 260 Saloninus Son of Gallienus ; proclaimed emperor by army; murdered shortly after by troops of Postumus June 260 (or 258) Ingenuus Usurper; proclaimed himself emperor after Valerian 's capture; defeated in battle 260 Regalianus Usurper; proclaimed emperor after Ingenuus 's defeat; fate unclear 260 to 261 Macrianus Major Usurper; proclaimed emperor by eastern army; defeated and killed in battle 260 to 261 Macrianus Minor Usurper; son of Macrianus Major ; defeated and killed in battle 260 to 261 Quietus Usurper; son of Macrianus Major ; defeated and killed in battle 261 to 261 or 262 Mussius Aemilianus Usurper; proclaimed himself emperor after the defeat of the Macriani; defeated and executed 268 to 268 Aureolus Usurper; proclaimed himself emperor after Gallienus 's death; surrendered to Claudius II Gothicus ; murdered by Praetorian Guard 268 to August 270 Claudius II Gothicus Proclaimed emperor by the army August 270 to September 270 Quintillus Proclaimed himself emperor; cause of death unclear August 270 to 275 Aurelian Proclaimed emperor by army; murdered by the Praetorian Guard 271 to 271 Septimius Usurper; proclaimed emperor in Dalmatia ; killed by his own soldiers November/December 275 to July 276 Tacitus Appointed emperor by the Senate; possibly assassinated July 276 to September 276 Florianus Brother of Tacitus , proclaimed emperor by the western army; murdered by his troops July 276 to lateSeptember 282 Probus Proclaimed emperor by the eastern army; murdered by his own soldiers in favour of Carus 280 Julius Saturninus Usurper; proclaimed emperor by his troops; then killed by them 280 Proculus Usurper; proclaimed himself emperor at the request of the people of Lugdunum ; executed by Probus 280 Bonosus Usurper; proclaimed himself emperor; defeated by Probus and committed suicide September 282 to July/August 283 Carus Proclaimed emperor by Praetorian guard spring 283 to summer 285 Carinus Son of Carus; co-emperor with Numerian ; fate unclear July/August 283 to November 284 Numerian Son of Carus; co-emperor with Carinus ; probably murdered Gallic Empire 260 to 274 Reign Incumbent Notes 260 to 268 Postumus Declared himself emperor after Valerian 's death; killed by his own troops 268 to 268 Laelianus Proclaimed himself emperor in opposition to Postumus; defeated and killed by Postumus 269 to 269 Marius Proclaimed himself emperor after Postumus's death 269 to 271 Victorinus Proclaimed emperor after Marius's death 270 to 271 Domitianus Proclaimed himself emperor of the Gallic Empire 271 to 274 Tetricus I Nominated heir to Victorinus Britannic Empire 286 to 297 Reign Incumbent Notes 286 to 293 Carausius Declared himself emperor; assassinated by Allectus 293 to 297 Allectus Declared himself emperor after Carausius 's death; defeated by Constantius Chlorus Dominate Tetrarchy and Constantinian dynasty Reign Incumbent Notes 20 November 284 to 1 May 305 Diocletian Declared emperor by the army after Numerian's death; Abdicated 1 April 286 to 1 May 305 Maximian Made co-emperor ('Augustus') with Diocletian ; abdicated 1 May 305 to 25 July 306 Constantius I Chlorus Made junior co-emperor ('Caesar') under Maximian ; became Augustus after his abdication 1 May 305 to May 311 Galerius Made junior co-emperor ('Caesar') under Diocletian ; became Augustus after his abdication August 306 to 16 September 307 Severus II Made junior co-emperor ('Caesar') under Constantius Chlorus ; became Augustus after his death; executed by Maxentius 28 October 306 to 28 October 312 Maxentius Son of Maximian ; proclaimed Augustus by Praetorian Guard ; defeated in battle by Constantine I de jure: 307, de facto 312 to 22 May 337 Constantine I Son of Constantius Chlorus ; proclaimed Augustus by army 308 -309?/311? Domitius Alexander Proclaimed emperor in Africa; defeated in battle by Maxentius 11 November 308 to 18 September 324 Licinius Appointed Augustus by Galerius ; deposed by Constantine I and executed 1 May 311 to July/August 313 Maximinus Daia Made junior co-emperor ('Caesar') under Galerius ; became Augustus after his death; defeated in battle by Licinius and committed suicide December 316 to 1 March 317 Valerius Valens Appointed co-Augustus by Licinius ; executed by Licinius July to 18 September 324 Martinianus Appointed co-Augustus by Licinius ; deposed by Constantine I and executed 337 to 340 Constantine II Son of Constantine I ; co-emperor with his brothers; killed in battle 337 to 361 Constantius II Son of Constantine I ; co-emperor with his brothers 337 to 350 Constans I Son of Constantine I ; co-emperor with his brothers, killed by Magnentius January 350 to 11 August 353 Magnentius Usurper; proclaimed emperor by the army; defeated by Constantius II and committed suicide c. 350 Vetranio Proclaimed himself emperor against Magnentius ; recognized by Constantius II but then deposed c. 350 Nepotianus Proclaimed himself emperor against Magnentius , defeated and executed by Magnentius November 361 to June 363 Julian Cousin of Constantius II ; made Caesar by Constantius, then proclaimed Augustus by the army; killed in battle 363 to 17 February 364 Jovian Proclaimed emperor by the army after Julian 's death Valentinian dynasty Reign Incumbent Notes 26 February 364 to 17 November 375 Valentinian I Valentinian I Coins.htm Proclaimed emperor by the army after Jovian 's death 28 March 365 to 9 August 378 Valens Made co-emperor in the east by his brother Valentinian I ; killed in battle September 365 to 27 May 366 Procopius Usurper; Proclaimed himself emperor; defeated and executed by Valens 24 August 367 to 383 Gratian Gratian Coins.htm Son of Valentinian I ; assassinated 375 to 392 Valentinian II Valentinian II Coins.htm Son of Valentinian I ; deposed by Arbogast and died in suspicious circumstances 383 to 388 Magnus Maximus Magnus Maximus Coins.htm Usurper; proclaimed emperor by troops; at one time recognized by Theodosius I , but then deposed and executed c.386 to 388 Flavius Victor Flavius Victor Coins.htm Son of Magnus Maximus, executed on orders of Theodosius I 392 to 394 Eugenius Eugenius Coins.htm Usurper; proclaimed emperor by army under Arbogast ; defeated in battle by Theodosius I Theodosian dynasty Reign Incumbent Notes 379 to 17 January 395 Theodosius I Theodosius I Coins.htm Made co-emperor for the east by Gratian 383 to 408 EAST Arcadius Arcadius Coins.htm Appointed co-emperor with his father Theodosius I ; sole emperor for the east from January 395 23 January 393 to 15 August 423 WEST Honorius Honorius Coins.htm Appointed Augustus for the west by his father Theodosius I 407 to 411 WEST Constantine III Constantine III Coins.htm Usurper; proclaimed emperor in Britain; defeated by Constantius III 409 to 411 WEST Constans II Constans II Coins.htm Usurper; made emperor by his father Constantine III ; killed in battle 409 and 414 to 415 WEST Priscus Attalus Priscus Attalus Coins.htm Usurper; twice proclaimed emperor by Visigoths under Alaric and twice deposed by Honorius 409 to 411 WEST Maximus Maximus Coins.htm Usurper; proclaimed emperor in Spain; abdicated 411 to 413 WEST Jovinus Jovinus Coins.htm Usurper; proclaimed emperor after Constantine III 's death, executed by Honorius 412 to 413 WEST Sebastianus Sebastianus Coins.htm Usurper; appointed co-emperor by Jovinus , executed by Honorius 408 to 450 EAST Theodosius II Theodosius II Coins.htm Son of Arcadius 421 to 421 WEST Constantius III Constantius III Coins.htm Son-in-law of Theodosius I ; appointed co-emperor by Honorius 423 to 425 WEST Joannes Johannes Coins.htm Proclaimed western emperor, initially undisputed; defeated and executed by Theodosius II in favour of Valentinian III 425 to 16 March 455 WEST Valentinian III Valentinian III Coins.htm Son of Constantius III ; appointed emperor by Theodosius II ; assassinated Western Roman Empire Reign Incumbent Notes 17 March 455 to 31 May 455 Petronius Maximus Petronius Maximus Coins.htm Proclaimed himself emperor after Valentinian III 's death; murdered June 455 to 17 October 456 Avitus Avitus Coins.htm Proclaimed emperor by the Visigoth king Theoderic II ; deposed by Ricimer 457 to 2 August 461 Majorian Majorian Coins.htm Appointed by Ricimer ; deposed and executed by Ricimer 461 to 465 Libius Severus Libius Severus Coins.htm Appointed by Ricimer ; deposed and executed by Ricimer 12 April 467 to 11 July 472 Anthemius Anthemius Coins.htm Appointed by Ricimer ; deposed and executed by Ricimer July 472 to 2 November 472 Olybrius Olybrius Coins.htm Appointed by Ricimer 5 March 473 to June 474 Glycerius Glycerius Coins.htm Appointed by Gundobad ; deposed by Julius Nepos June 474 to 25 April 480 Julius Nepos Julius Nepos Coins.htm Appointed by eastern emperor Leo I ; deposed in Italy by Orestes in 475; continued to be recognised as lawful emperor in Gaul and Dalmatia until his murder in 480 31 October 475 to 4 September 476 Romulus Augustus (Romulus Augustulus) Romulus Augustus Coins.htm Son of Orestes ; deposed by Odoacer ; fate unknown Further information: Barbarian kings of Italy Eastern Roman Empire For the rulers of the Eastern Roman Empire (also known as the Byzantine Empire ) after Theodosius II , see: List of Byzantine Emperors Theodosian dynasty (395–457) See also: Theodosian dynasty Name Reign Comments Theodosius I "the Great" (Θεοδόσιος Α' ο Μέγας, Flavius Theodosius)Theodosius I Coins.htm 19 January 379 – 17 January 395 Born on 11 January 347. Aristocrat and military leader, brother-in-law of Gratian, who appointed him as emperor of the East. From 392 until his death sole Roman emperor Arcadius (Αρκάδιος, Flavius Arcadius)Arcadius Coins.htm 17 January 395 – 1 May 408 Born in 377/378, the eldest son of Theodosius I. Succeeded upon the death of his father Theodosius II (Θεοδόσιος Β', Flavius Theodosius) Theodosius II Coins.htm 1 May 408 – 28 July 450 Born on 10 April 401, the only son of Arcadius. Succeeded upon the death of his father. As a minor, the praetorian prefect Anthemius was regent in 408–414. He died in a riding accident Marcian (Μαρκιανός, Flavius Valerius Marcianus) Marcian Coins.htm 450 – January 457 Born in 396. A soldier and politician, he became emperor after being wed by the Augusta Pulcheria , Theodosius II's sister, following the latter's death. Died of gangrene Leonid dynasty (457–518) See also: House of Leo Name Reign Comments Leo I "the Thracian" (Λέων Α' ο Θράξ, Flavius Valerius Leo) Leo I Coins.htm 7 February 457 – 18 January 474 Born in Dacia in 401. A common soldier, he was chosen by Aspar , commander-in-chief of the army. Died of dysentery Leo II (Λέων Β', Flavius Leo) Leo II Coins.htm 18 January – 17 November 474 Born in 467, the grandson of Leo I. Succeeded upon the death of Leo I. Died of an unknown disease, possibly poisoned Zeno (Ζήνων, Flavius Zeno) Zeno Coins.htm 17 November 474 – 9 April 491 Born c.425 at Zenonopolis , Isauria , originally named Tarasicodissa. Son-in-law of Leo I, he was bypassed in the succession because of his barbarian origin. Named co-emperor by his son on 9 February 474, he succeeded upon the death of Leo II. Deposed by Basiliscus, brother-in-law of Leo, he fled to his native country and regained the throne in August 476. Basiliscus (Βασιλίσκος, Flavius Basiliscus) Basiliscus Coins.htm 9 January 475 – August 476 General and brother-in-law of Leo I, he seized power from Zeno but was again deposed by him. Died in 476/477 Anastasius I (Αναστάσιος Α', Flavius Anastasius) BYZANTINE - Anastasius Coins.htm 11 April 491 – 9 July 518 Born c. 430 at Dyrrhachium , Epirus nova . A palace official (silentiarius) and son-in-law of Leo I, he was chosen as emperor by empress-dowager Ariadne Justinian Dynasty Main article: Justinian Dynasty Portrait Name Born Reigned Succession Died Justin I FLAVIVS IVSTINVS AVGVSTVS c. 450 AD, Naissus July 9, 518 AD – August 1, 527 AD Commander of the palace guard under Anastasius I) ; elected as emperor with support of army August 1, 527 AD Natural causes Justinian I FLAVIVS PETRVS SABBATIVS IVSTINIANVS AVGVSTVS c. 482 AD, Tauresium , Dardania August 1, 527 AD – 13/14 November 565 AD Nephew and nominated heir of Justin I 13/14 November 565 AD Natural causes Justin II FLAVIVS IVSTINIVS IVNIOR AVGVSTVS c. 520 AD, ? 13/14 November 565 AD – 578 AD Nephew of Justinian I 578 AD Became insane; Tiberius II Constantine ruled as regent from December 574 and became emperor on Justin's death in 578 Roman Late Monogram Coins.htm Roman AE4 Coins.htm Frequently Asked Questions How long until my order is shipped?: Depending on the volume of sales, it may take up to 5 business days for shipment of your order after the receipt of payment. How will I know when the order was shipped?: After your order has shipped, you will be left positive feedback, and that date should be used as a basis of estimating an arrival date. After you shipped the order, how long will the mail take? USPS First Class mail takes about 3-5 business days to arrive in the U.S., international shipping times cannot be estimated as they vary from country to country. I am not responsible for any USPS delivery delays, especially for an international package. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? Each of the items sold here, is provided with a Certificate of Authenticity, and a Lifetime Guarantee of Authenticity, issued by a world-renowned numismatic and antique expert that has identified over 10000 ancient coins and has provided them with the same guarantee. You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Compared to other certification companies, the certificate of authenticity is a $25-50 value. So buy a coin today and own a piece of history, guaranteed. Is there a money back guarantee? I offer a 30 day unconditional money back guarantee. I stand behind my coins and would be willing to exchange your order for either store credit towards other coins, or refund, minus shipping expenses, within 30 days from the receipt of your order. My goal is to have the returning customers for a lifetime, and I am so sure in my coins, their authenticity, numismatic value and beauty, I can offer such a guarantee. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? You can contact me directly via ask seller a question and request my telephone number, or go to my About Me Page to get my contact information only in regards to items purchased on eBay. When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. Please don't leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. Also, if you sent an email, make sure to check for my reply in your messages before claiming that you didn't receive a response. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. Ruler: Valens

PicClick Insights PicClick Exclusive
  •  Popularity - 651 views, 0.4 views per day, 1,504 days on eBay. Super high amount of views. 0 sold, 1 available.
  •  Price -
  •  Seller - 20,786+ items sold. 0% negative feedback. Top-Rated Seller! Ships on time with tracking, 0 problems with past sales.
Similar Items