Seller: ukr10 (727) 96.6%, Location: Clearwater Beach, Florida, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 172167693272 Condition: Exceptional! Entirely intact and unrepaired. Unblemished notwithstanding the assorted bumps, warts, dimples, pits, bruises, and scratches consistent with hand construction and wear due to ancient usage and then burial since ancient times. Impressed vertical design distinguishable., Material: Terracota, Provenance: Ownership History Available, Details: Exceptionally Well Preserved Genuine Ancient Neolithic Earthenware Vase/Jar BC2000 With Impressed Design CLASSIFICATION: Impressed Design Earthenware Jar/Vase. ATTRIBUTION: In the Style of Pre-Dynastic Ancient China, about 2,000 B.C. SIZE/MEASUREMENTS: Height: 124 millimeters (5 inches) Diameter: 90 millimeters (3 2/3 inches) at belly; 81 millimeters (3 1/4 inches) at top lip; 61 millimeters (2 1/2 inches) at base. CONDITION: Exceptional! Entirely intact and unrepaired. Unblemished notwithstanding the assorted bumps, warts, dimples, pits, bruises, and scratches consistent with hand construction and wear due to ancient usage and then burial since ancient times. Impressed vertical design distinguishable. DETAIL: A splendid, well preserved medium sized impressed earthenware jar seemingly attributable to the late third or early second millennium B.C. It’s a nice-sized piece, it would hold about one litre (quart) of fluid. The term “impressed” means that a design was impressed into the still wet vessel before it was fired. More often than not this involved rolling the vase over a fibre mat, impressing a design into the clay. In this case it is rather faint, it seems as if worn down by use, but the impressed design is in the form of vertical lines. What’s really remarkable is that despite its age, it remains entirely intact and unrepaired. Consider the fact that these jars are generally not recovered intact, typically they are found shattered into fragments (shards). There’s some assorted insignificant blemishes from ancient use – the typical blemishes one would expect to find of a household artifact which was used in ancient times and then buried. And there are the normal potting blemishes (warts, dimples, pimples and pits) one expects with earthenware crudely fashioned by hand. There are some light soil accretions which could be gently brushed or washed off with a little patience. Notwithstanding these blemishes (entirely normal for such an artifact), it has emerged from the soil in wonderful condition! Although it is probable that this specimen is much older, it is also possible that this piece might be a revivalist imitative produced for the European market of the 18th or 19th century. It is widely known that Chinese porcelain and other ceramic artwork was quite popular in Victorian Europe. Carrying Chinese porcelain from China to Europe was an industry for the seafaring mariners of the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries. Entire fleets of sailing ships plied the trade, especially the Dutch and English. However in addition to porcelain, ancient Chinese ceramics were also extremely popular in Victorian Europe, where Chinese ceramic artwork was highly appreciated and in great demand. Although the style of this specimen is very convincing and suggests it might indeed be of pre-dynastic origin, a large portion of the antique/ancient Chinese ceramics in Europe date to the 18th or 19th century, so it is quite possible that this is an imitative revival piece. Judging by the style it is likely considerably older, but only a $600 thermo luminescence test would establish this conclusively (and even then the reliability and accuracy of such testing is still debated). So we’ll simply err on the side of being conservative and suggest that you consider it a revival piece, and if it is indeed older, so much the better. However whether an antique several centuries old, or an antiquity several millennia old, this is a valuable and collectible piece of art. The jar/vase is not flawless or perfect, but it is entirely intact, and that is the exception for such ancient earthenware artifacts, certainly not the norm. One would expect some blemishes evidence of the trial of burial, such little “battle scars” are virtually obligatory. And this piece does not disappoint in that respect. However on the other hand, there are no significant blemishes worthy of singling out – just the evidence of being buried. Overall it is a very attractive piece, a nicely preserved intact specimen of the ancient Chinese art of pottery. If you’d like an authentic ancient/antique earthenware vase to proudly display, you could not go wrong with this one. It is solidly shaped, nicely featured, and nicely proportioned. Filled with dried flowers for display, it would be a very handsome piece. You could showcase this with great pride either at work on your desk or at home. Either way, it will certainly generate curiosity and perhaps even a little envy! HISTORY OF THE XIA DYNASTY: The Xia (Hsia) Dynasty was the first recorded dynasty, and is dated roughly from 2200 B.C. to 1700 B.C. Until scientific excavations were made at early bronze-age sites at Anyang in Henan Province, in 1928, it was difficult to separate myth from reality in regard to the Xia. In fact conventional wisdom at the time held that the Xia Dynasty was imaginary. But since then, and especially in the 1960s and 1970s, archaeologists have uncovered urban sites, bronze implements, and tombs that point to the existence of Xia civilization in the same locations cited in ancient Chinese historical texts. The Xia period marked an evolutionary stage between the late Neolithic cultures and the typical Chinese urban civilization of the Shang dynasty. The rulers of the period held power for five centuries before (reportedly) becoming corrupt, and subsequently overthrown by the Shang Dynasty. HISTORY OF CHINESE EARTHENWARE: The first Chinese ceramics archaeologists have found date back more than 10,000 years. These were earthenware, which means they were made from clay and fired at the kind of low temperatures reached by a wood fire or simple oven. In China, most ceramics made before the Tang dynasty (600 A.D.) are earthenware. They may be glazed or unglazed, and are occasionally painted, often brightly colored. Stoneware ceramics are harder and less porous than earthenware and are fired at hotter temperatures—between 2100°F and 2400°F. At these high temperatures, the surface of the clay melts and becomes glassy. Although stoneware is usually waterproof, most stoneware ceramics are glazed for decoration. The glazes often contain ash, which allows the glaze to harden at stoneware temperatures. During the Shang Dynasty (1600-1100 B.C.) bronze metallurgy superseded ceramics as the favored art form of the ruling class. However both the ceramic and the bronze industries evolved into complex systems of production that were supported by the aristocracy. Decorative designs rich in symbolism were created first in bronze were then imitated in clay. Chinese burial customs included the tradition of placing clay replicas of material possessions, animals and people in the tomb to accompany the deceased and serve them in the next life. Although archaeological finds have revealed that glazed pottery was produced as early as 1100 B.C. during the Zhou dynasty, the production of glazed wares was not common until about 200 B.C. during the Han Dynasty. However from about 1000 B.C. onwards during the Shang and Zhou dynasties, primitive porcelain wares emerged. Real porcelain wares appeared in the Han dynasty around 200 A.D. In the process of porcelain development, different styles in different periods blossomed. The production of porcelain became widespread by about 500 A.D. Using a special clay with ground rock containing feldspar, a glassy mineral, the material was fired at very high temperatures above 2400°F. The surface of the clay melts at such high temperatures and becomes smooth as glass. Early porcelains were undecorated and were used by the Imperial court and exported as far as the Middle East. For instance during the Han Dynasty principally celadon (green) and black porcelain were mainly produced. The famous blue and white porcelain was created with blue paint made from cobalt and then covered with a clear glaze, which can withstand the high temperatures of the kiln. The technical and creative innovations of Chinese potters are unique accomplishments in the cultural heritage of the world. Today, archaeological excavation and research in China are revealing new sites and new examples of the genius of the Chinese potter. HISTORY OF THE CHINESE CULTURE: Remains of Homo erectus, found near Beijing, have been dated back 460,000 years. Recent archaeological studies in the Yangtse River area have provided evidence of ancient cultures (and rice cultivation) flourishing more than 11,500 years ago, contrary to the conventional belief that the Yellow River area was the cradle of the Chinese civilization. The Neolithic period flourished with a multiplicity of cultures in different regions dating back to around 5000 B.C. There is strong evidence of two so-called pottery cultures, the Yang-shao culture (3950-1700 B.C.) and the Lung-shan culture (2000-1850 B.C). Written records go back more than 3,500 years, and the written history is (as is the case with Ancient Egypt) divided into dynasties, families of kings or emperors. The voluminous records kept by the ancient Chinese provide us with knowledge into their strong sense of their real and mythological origins – as well as of their neighbors. By about 2500 B.C. the Chinese knew how to cultivate and weave silk and were trading the luxurious fabric with other nations by about 1000 B.C. The production and value of silk tell much about the advanced state of early Chinese civilization. Cultivation of silkworms required mulberry tree orchards, temperature controls and periodic feedings around the clock. More than 2,000 silkworms were required to produce one pound of silk. The Chinese also mastered spinning, dyeing and weaving silk threads into fabric. Bodies were buried with food containers and other possessions, presumably to assist the smooth passage of the dead to the next world. The relative success of ancient China can be attributed to the superiority of their ideographic written language, their technology, and their political institutions; the refinement of their artistic and intellectual creativity; and the sheer weight of their numbers. A recurrent historical theme has been the unceasing struggle of the sedentary Chinese against the threats posed by non-Chinese peoples on the margins of their territory in the north, northeast, and northwest. China saw itself surrounded on all sides by so-called barbarian peoples whose cultures were demonstrably inferior by Chinese standards. This China-centered ("sinocentric") view of the world was still undisturbed in the nineteenth century, at the time of the first serious confrontation with the West. Of course the ancient Chinese showed a remarkable ability to absorb the people of surrounding areas into their own civilization. The process of assimilation continued over the centuries through conquest and colonization until what is now known as China Proper was brought under unified rule.